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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 RFC 5326

Delay Tolerant Networking Research Group                      M. Ramadas
Internet Draft                                           Ohio University
<draft-irtf-dtnrg-ltp-04.txt>                                S. Burleigh
March 2006                                NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Expires September 2006                                        S. Farrell
                                                  Trinity College Dublin


            Licklider Transmission Protocol - Specification


Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
   applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
   have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
   aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 1, 2006.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).

Abstract

   This document describes the Licklider Transmission Protocol (LTP)
   designed to provide retransmission-based reliability over links
   characterized by extremely long message round-trip times (RTTs)
   and/or frequent interruptions in connectivity.  Since communication
   across interplanetary space is the most prominent example of this
   sort of environment, LTP is principally aimed at supporting "long-



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   haul" reliable transmission in interplanetary space, but has
   applications in other environments as well.

   In an Interplanetary Internet setting deploying the Bundling protocol
   being developed by the Delay Tolerant Networking Research Group, LTP
   is intended to serve as a reliable convergence layer over single hop
   deep-space RF links. LTP does ARQ of data transmissions by soliciting
   selective-acknowledgment reception reports.  It is stateful, and has
   no negotiation or handshakes.

   This document is a product of the Delay Tolerant Networking Research
   Group and has been reviewed by that group. No objections to its
   publication as an RFC were raised.

Table of Contents

    1. Introduction .................................................  3
    2. Terminology ..................................................  3
    3. Segment Structure ............................................  8
       3.1 Segment Header ...........................................  9
          3.1.1 Segment Type Flags .................................. 10
          3.1.2 Segment Type Codes .................................. 10
          3.1.3 Segment Class Masks ................................. 11
          3.1.4 Extensions Field .................................... 12
       3.2 Segment Content .......................................... 13
          3.2.1 Data Segment ........................................ 13
          3.2.2 Report Segment ...................................... 14
          3.2.3 Report Acknowledgment Segment ....................... 16
          3.2.4 Session Management Segments ......................... 16
       3.3 Segment Trailer .......................................... 17
    4. Requests from Client Service ................................. 17
       4.1 Transmission Request ..................................... 17
       4.2 Cancellation Request ..................................... 18
    5. Internal Procedures .......................................... 19
       5.1 Start Transmission ....................................... 19
       5.2 Start Checkpoint Timer ................................... 20
       5.3 Start RS Timer ........................................... 20
       5.4 Stop Transmission ........................................ 20
       5.5 Suspend Timers ........................................... 20
       5.6 Resume Timers ............................................ 21
       5.7 Retransmit Checkpoint .................................... 22
       5.8 Retransmit RS ............................................ 22
       5.9 Signify Red-Part Reception ............................... 23
       5.10 Signify Green-Part Segment Arrival ...................... 23
       5.11 Send Reception Report ................................... 23
       5.12 Signify Transmission Completion ......................... 25
       5.13 Retransmit Data ......................................... 25
       5.14 Stop RS Timer ........................................... 26



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       5.15 Start Cancel Timer ...................................... 26
       5.16 Retransmit Cancellation Segment ......................... 26
       5.17 Acknowledge Cancellation ................................ 27
       5.18 Stop Cancel Timer ....................................... 27
       5.19 Cancel Session .......................................... 28
       5.20 Close Session ........................................... 28
       5.21 Handle Miscolored Segment ............................... 28
       5.22 Handling System Error Conditions ........................ 29
   6.  Notices to Client Service .................................... 29
      6.1 Session Start ............................................. 29
      6.2 Green-Part Segment Arrival ................................ 29
      6.3 Red-Part Reception ........................................ 30
      6.4 Transmission Completion ................................... 30
      6.5 Transmission Cancellation ................................. 30
      6.6 Reception Cancellation .................................... 31
   7. State Transition Diagrams ..................................... 31
      7.1 Sender .................................................... 33
      7.2 Receiver .................................................. 38
   8. Requirements from the Operating Environment ................... 42
   9. Security Considerations ....................................... 43
      9.1 Security Mechanisms and Layering Considerations ........... 44
      9.2 Denial of Service Considerations .......................... 45
      9.3 Replay Handling ........................................... 46
      9.4 Implementation Considerations ............................. 47
   10. IANA Considerations .......................................... 47
   11. Acknowledgments .............................................. 48
   12. References ................................................... 48
      12.1 Normative References ..................................... 48
      12.2 Informative References ................................... 48
   13. Author's Addresses ........................................... 49

1. Introduction

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [B97].

   Discussions on this internet-draft are being made in the Delay
   Tolerant Networking Research Group (DTNRG) mailing list. More
   information can be found in the DTNRG web-site at
   http://www.dtnrg.org

   This document serves as the main protocol specification of LTP, and
   is part of a series of documents describing LTP. Other documents in
   this series include the motivation document [LTPMTV]  and the
   protocol extensions document [LTPEXT] respectively. We strongly
   recommend reading the protocol motivation document before reading the
   following document to establish sufficient background and motivation



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   for the contents that follow in this document.

2. Terminology

   (1) Engine ID

   A number that uniquely identifies a given LTP engine, within some
   closed set of communicating LTP engines.  Note that when LTP is
   operating underneath the DTN Bundling protocol [BP][DTN], the
   convergence layer adapter mediating between the two will be
   responsible for translating between DTN endpoint IDs and LTP engine
   IDs in an implementation-specific manner.

   (2) Block

   An array of contiguous octets of application data handed down by the
   upper layer protocol (typically Bundling) to be transmitted via LTP
   from one client service instance to another.

   Any subset of a block comprising contiguous octets that begins at the
   start of the block is termed a "block prefix" and any such subset of
   the block that ends with the end of the block is termed a "block
   suffix".

   (3) Red-Part

   The block prefix that is to be transmitted reliably, i.e., subject to
   acknowledgment and retransmission.

   (4) Green-Part

   The block suffix that is to be transmitted unreliably, i.e., not
   subject to acknowledgments or retransmissions. If present, the green-
   part of a block begins at the octet following the end of the red-
   part.

   (5) Session

   A thread of LTP protocol activity conducted for the purpose of
   transmitting a block.

   (6) Segment

   The unit of LTP data transmission activity.  It is the data structure
   transmitted from one LTP engine to another in the course of a
   session.  An LTP segment is either a data segment, a report segment,
   a report-acknowledgment segment, a cancel segment, or a cancel-
   acknowledgment segment.



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   (7) Reception Claim

   An assertion of reception of some number of contiguous octets of
   application data (a subset of a block) characterized by the offset of
   the first received octet and the number of contiguous octets
   received.

   (8) Scope

   Scope identifies a subset of a block and comprises two numbers -
   upper bound and lower bound.

   For a data segment, lower bound is the offset of the segment's
   application data from the start of the block (in octets), while upper
   bound is the sum of the offset and length of the segment's
   application data (in octets).  For example, a segment with block
   offset 1000 and length 500 would have a lower bound 1000 and upper
   bound 1500.

   For a report segment, upper bound is the end of the block prefix to
   which the reception claims in the report apply, while lower bound is
   the end of the (smaller) interior block prefix to which the reception
   claims in the report do *not* apply.  That is, data at any offset
   equal to or greater than the report's lower bound but less than its
   upper bound and not designated as "received" by any of the report's
   reception claims must be assumed not received and therefore eligible
   for retransmission.  For example, if a report segment carried a lower
   bound of 1000 and an upper bound of 5000, and the reception claims
   indicated reception of data within offsets 1000-1999 and 3000-4999,
   data within the block offsets 2000-2999 can be considered missing and
   eligible for retransmission.

   Reception reports (which may comprise multiple report segments) also
   have scope, as defined in Section 5.11.

   (9) End of Block (EOB)

   The last data segment transmitted as part of the original
   transmission of a block.  This data segment also indicates that the
   segment's upper bound is the total length of the block (in octets).

   (10) End of Red-Part (EORP)

   The segment transmitted as part of the original transmission of a
   block containing the last octet of the block's red-part.  This data
   segment also indicates that the segment's upper bound is the length
   of the block's red-part (in octets).




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   (11) Checkpoint

   A data segment soliciting a reception report from the receiving LTP
   engine.  The EORP segment must be flagged as a checkpoint, as must
   the last segment of any retransmission; these are "mandatory
   checkpoints".  All other checkpoints are "discretionary checkpoints".

   (12) Reception Report

   A sequence of one or more report segments reporting on all block data
   reception within some scope.

   (13) Synchronous Reception Report

   A reception report that is issued in response to a checkpoint.

   (14) Asynchronous Reception Report

   A reception report that is issued in response to some implementation-
   defined event other than the arrival of a checkpoint.

   (15) Primary Reception Report

   A reception report that is issued in response to some event other
   than the arrival of a checkpoint segment that was itself issued in
   response to a reception report.  Primary reception reports include
   all asynchronous reception reports and all synchronous reception
   reports that are sent in response to discretionary checkpoints or to
   the EORP segment for a session.

   (16) Secondary Reception Report

   A reception report that is issued in response to the arrival of a
   checkpoint segment that was itself issued in response to a reception
   report.

   (17) Self-Delimiting Numeric Value (SDNV)

   The design of LTP attempts to reconcile minimal consumption of
   transmission bandwidth with

      (a) extensibility to satisfy requirements not yet identified, and
      (b) scalability across a very wide range of network sizes and
          transmission payload sizes.

   The SDNV encoding scheme is modeled after the Abstract Syntax
   Notation One [ASN1] scheme for encoding Object Identifier Arcs.  In a
   data field encoded as an SDNV, the most significant bit (MSB) of each



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   octet of the SDNV serves to indicate whether the octet is the last
   octet of the SDNV or not. The octet with an MSB of 1 indicates that
   it is either the first or a middle octet of the multi-octet SDNV; the
   octet with an MSB of 0 is the last octet of the SDNV. The value
   encoded in an SDNV is found by concatenating the 7 least significant
   bits out off each octet of the SDNV, first till the last.

   The following examples illustrate the encoding scheme for various
   hexadecimal values.

   0xABC  : 1010 1011 1100
            is encoded as
            {100 1010 1} {0 011 1100}
            = 10010101 00111100

   0x1234 : 0001 0010 0011 0100
            =  1 0010 0011 0100
            is encoded as
            {10 1 0010 0} {0 011 0100}
            = 10100100 00110100

   0x4234 : 0100 0010 0011 0100
            =100 0010 0011 0100
            is encoded as
            {1000000 1} {1 00 0010 0} {0 011 0100}
            = 10000001 10000100 00110100

   0x7F   : 0111 1111
            =111 1111
            is encoded as
            {0 111 1111}
            = 01111111

   Note :

      Care must be taken to make sure that the value to be encoded is
      padded with 0s at the most significant bit end (NOT at the least
      significant bit end) to make its bitwise length a multiple of 7
      before encoding.

      While there is no theoretical limit on the size of an SDNV field,
      note that the overhead of the SDNV scheme is 1/8-th of the bitwise
      length of the value to be encoded. For representing an 8 octet
      quantity, an SDNV field of 9 octet length is required. For larger
      values, such as a 1024-bit RSA encryption key, a relatively large
      overhead of 128 bits would be required to encode directly as an
      SDNV. For adopting the SDNV scheme in other places related to this
      document such as any protocol extensions, we therefore RECOMMEND



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      that if the typical data field length is expected to be larger
      than 8 octets, the data field be specified to be encoded in a
      {Length, Value} vector with the Length encoding the length of the
      data field in octets as an SDNV, followed by the actual data field
      in Value.

      We also note that SDNV is clearly not the best way to represent
      every numeric value. When the maximum possible value of a number
      is known without question, the cost of additional bits may not be
      justified.  For example, an SDNV is a poor way to represent an
      integer whose value typically falls in the range 128 to 255. In
      general, though, we believe that the SDNV representation of
      various protocol data fields in LTP segments yields the smallest
      segment sizes without sacrificing scalability.

   (18) Client Service Instance

   A software entity, such as an application or a higher-layer protocol
   implementation, that is using LTP to transfer data.

3.  Segment Structure

   Each LTP segment comprises

   (a) a "header" in the format defined below.

   (b) zero or more octets of "content".

   (c) zero or more octets of "trailer" as indicated by information in
   the "extensions field" of the header.

   LTP segments are of four general types depending on the nature of the
   content carried:

      Data segments carry client service (application) data, together
      with metadata enabling the receiving client service instance to
      receive and make use of that data.

      A report segment carries data reception claims together with the
      upper and lower bounds of the data block scope to which the claims
      pertain.

      A report-acknowledgment segment carries only the serial number of
      the report being acknowledged.

      Session management segments are of two general subtypes:
      Cancellation and Cancellation-acknowledgment. A Cancellation
      segment carries a single byte reason-code to indicate the reason



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      for the cancellation. Cancellation-acknowledgment segments have no
      content.

   The overall segment structure is illustrated below :















































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       Bit    0     1     2     3     4     5     6     7
     ^     +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
     |     |    Version number     |  Segment Type Flags   |
     |     +-----------------------+-----------------------+
     |     |                                               |
     |     /                 Session ID                    \
     |     \                                               /
   Header  +-----------------------+-----------------------+
     |     | Header Extension Cnt. | Trailer Extension Cnt.|Extensions
     |     +-----------------------+-----------------------+
     |     |                                               |
     |     /              Header Extensions                \
     |     \                                               /
     V     +-----------------------------------------------+
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           |              Segment Content                  |
           /                                               \
           \                                               /
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
     ^     +-----------------------------------------------+
     |     |                                               |
   Trailer /              Trailer Extensions               \
     |     \                                               /
     V     +-----------------------------------------------+

3.1  Segment Header

   An LTP segment header comprises three data items: a single-octet
   control byte, a session ID, and an extensions field.

   Control byte comprises the following:

      Version number (4 bits): MUST be set to the binary value 0000 for
      this version of the protocol.

      Segment type flags (4 bits): described below.

   Session ID uniquely identifies, among all transmissions between the
   segment's sender and receiver, the session of which the segment is
   one token.  It comprises the following:

      Session originator (SDNV): the engine ID of the LTP engine that
      initiated the session.




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      Session number (SDNV) : Typically a random number (for anti-DoS
      reasons), generated by the LTP engine identified as the session
      originator.

      The format and resolution of session number are matters that are
      private to the session-originating engine; the only requirement
      imposed by LTP is that every session initiated by an LTP engine
      MUST be uniquely identified by the session ID.

   The extensions field is described in Section 3.1.4.

3.1.1  Segment Type Flags

   The last four bits of the control byte in the segment header are
   flags that indicate the nature of the segment.  In order (most
   significant bit first), these flags are CTRL, EXC, Flag 1 and Flag 0.

   A value of 0 in the CTRL (Control) flag identifies the segment as a
   data segment while a value of 1 identifies it as a control segment. A
   data segment with the EXC (Exception) flag set to 0 is a red-part
   segment; a data segment with EXC set to 1 is a green-part segment.
   For a control segment, having the EXC flag set to 1 indicates that
   the segment pertains to session cancellation activity.  Any data
   segment (whether red-part or green-part) with both Flag 1 and Flag 0
   set to 1 indicates EOB.  Any data segment (whether red-part or green-
   part) with both Flag 1 and Flag 0 set to 0 indicates data without any
   additional protocol significance.  Any red-part data segment with
   either Flag bit non-zero is a checkpoint.  Any red-part data segment
   with Flag 1 set to 1 indicates the end of the red-part of the block.

3.1.2  Segment Type Codes

   Combinations of the settings of the segment type flags CTRL, EXC,
   Flag 1 and Flag 0 constitute segment type codes which serve as
   concise representations of detailed segment nature.

   CTRL EXC Flag 1 Flag 0 Code  Nature of segment
   ---- --- ------ ------ ----  ---------------------------------------
     0   0     0      0     0   Red data, NOT {Checkpoint, EORP or EOB}
     0   0     0      1     1   Red data, Checkpoint, NOT {EORP or EOB}
     0   0     1      0     2   Red data, Checkpoint, EORP, NOT EOB
     0   0     1      1     3   Red data, Checkpoint, EORP, EOB

     0   1     0      0     4   Green data, NOT EOB
     0   1     0      1     5   Undefined
     0   1     1      0     6   Undefined
     0   1     1      1     7   Green data, EOB




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     1   0     0      0     8   Report segment
     1   0     0      1     9   Report-acknowledgment segment
     1   0     1      0    10   Undefined
     1   0     1      1    11   Undefined

     1   1     0      0    12   Cancel segment from block sender
     1   1     0      1    13   Cancel-acknowledgment segment
                                to block sender

     1   1     1      0    14   Cancel segment from block receiver
     1   1     1      1    15   Cancel-acknowledgment segment
                                to block receiver

3.1.3  Segment Class Masks

   For the purposes of this specification, some bit patterns in the
   segment type flags field correspond to "segment classes" that are
   designated by mnemonics.  The mnemonics are intended to evoke the
   characteristics shared by all types of segments characterized by
   these flag bit patterns.

   CTRL EXC Flag 1 Flag 0  Mnemonic  Description
   ---- --- ------ ------  --------  ---------------------------
     0   0     -      1
        -- or --
     0   0     1      -      CP      Checkpoint

     0   0     1      -      EORP    End of red-part;
                                     red-part size = offset + length

     0   -     1      1      EOB     End of block;
                                     block size = offset + length

     1   0     0      0      RS      Report segment;
                                     carries reception claims

     1   0     0      1      RA      Report-acknowledgment segment

     1   1     0      0      CS      Cancel segment from block sender

     1   1     0      1      CAS     Cancel-acknowledgment segment
                                     to block sender

     1   1     1      0      CR      Cancel segment from block receiver

     1   1     1      1      CAR     Cancel-acknowledgment segment
                                     to block receiver




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     1   1     -      0      Cx      Cancel segment (generic)

     1   1     -      1      CAx     Cancel-acknowledgment segment
                                     (generic)

3.1.4  Extensions field

   The extension field enables the inclusion of zero or more functional
   extensions to the basic LTP segment, each in type-length-value (TLV)
   representation as explained below.

   The first octet of the extensions field indicates the number of
   extensions present in the segment: the high-order 4 bits indicate the
   number of extension TLVs in the header (immediately following the
   extensions count octet and preceding the segment's content) while the
   low-order 4 bits indicate the number of extension TLVs in the trailer
   (immediately following the segment's content).  That is, each segment
   may have from 0 to 15 extension TLVs in its header and from 0 to 15
   extension TLVs in its trailer.  In the absence of any extension TLVs,
   all bits of this extensions count octet MUST be set to zero.

   Note that it is valid to have header extensions be immediately
   followed by trailer extensions; for example, since CAx segments have
   no contents, if both header and trailer extensions were in use in a
   session being cancelled, trailer extensions would immediately follow
   the header extensions.

   Each extension consists of a one-octet tag identifying the type of
   the extension, a length parameter in SDNV, followed by the value of
   the specified length.

   The diagram below illustrates the extension TLVs as they may occur in
   the header or trailer.

               +--------+----///-----///--+
               |ext-tag | length  | value |
               +--------+-------///-------+----------///-------+
               |ext-tag |     length      |       value        |
               +--------+-----///-----///-+---------////-------+
               |ext-tag |   length |   value  |
               +--------+----------+----------+

   The following extension types are defined at this time.

      Extension tag     Meaning
      -------------     -------
      0x00              LTP authentication extension [LTPEXT]
      0x01              LTP cookie extension [LTPEXT]



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      0x02-0xff         Reserved

3.2  Segment Content

3.2.1  Data Segment (DS)

   The content of a data segment includes client service data and the
   metadata enabling the receiving client service instance to receive
   and make use of that data.

   Client service ID [SDNV]

      The client service ID number identifies the upper-level service to
      which the segment is to be delivered by the destination LTP
      engine.  It is functionally analogous to a well-known TCP port
      number.  If multiple instances of the client service are present
      at the destination, multiplexing must be done by the client
      service itself on the basis of information encoded within the
      transmitted block.


   Offset [SDNV]

      Offset indicates the location of the segment's client service data
      within the session's transmitted block.  It is the number of bytes
      in the block prior to the byte from which the first octet of the
      segment's client service data was copied.

   Length [SDNV]

      The length of the ensuing client service data, in octets.

   If the data segment is a checkpoint, the segment MUST additionally
   include the following two serial numbers (Checkpoint serial number
   and Report serial number) to support efficient retransmission. Data
   segments that are not checkpoints MUST NOT have these two fields in
   the header and MUST continue on directly with the client service
   data.

   Checkpoint serial number [SDNV]

      The checkpoint serial number uniquely identifies the checkpoint
      among all checkpoints issued by the block sender in a session.
      The first checkpoint issued by the sender MUST have this serial
      number chosen randomly for security reasons, and it is RECOMMENDED
      that the sender use the guidelines in [ECS94] for this. Any
      subsequent checkpoints issued by the sender MUST have the serial
      number value found by incrementing the prior checkpoint serial



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      number by 1.  When a checkpoint segment is retransmitted, however,
      its serial number MUST be the same as when it was originally
      transmitted.

   Report serial number [SDNV]

      If the checkpoint was queued for transmission in response to the
      reception of an RS [Sec 5.13], then its value MUST be the report
      serial number value of the RS that caused the data segment to be
      queued for transmission.

      Otherwise, the value of report serial number MUST be zero.

   Client service data [array of octets]

      The client service data carried in the segment is a copy of a
      subset of the bytes in the original client service data block,
      starting at the indicated offset.

3.2.2  Report Segment (RS)

   The content of an RS comprises one or more data reception claims,
   together with the upper and lower bounds of the scope within the data
   block to which the claims pertain.  It also includes two serial
   numbers to support efficient retransmission.

   Report serial number [SDNV]

      The report serial number uniquely identifies the report among all
      reports issued by the block receiver in a session.  The first
      report issued by the receiver MUST have this serial number chosen
      randomly for security reasons, and it is RECOMMENDED that the
      receiver use the guidelines in [ECS94] for this. Any subsequent RS
      issued by the receiver MUST have the serial number value found by
      incrementing the last report serial number by 1.  When an RS is
      retransmitted however, its serial number MUST be the same as when
      it was originally transmitted.

   Checkpoint serial number [SDNV]

      The value of checkpoint serial number MUST be zero if the report
      segment is NOT a response to reception of a checkpoint, i.e., the
      reception report is asynchronous; otherwise it is the checkpoint
      serial number of the checkpoint that caused the RS to be issued.

   Upper bound [SDNV]

      The upper bound of a report segment is the size of the block



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      prefix to which the segment's reception claims pertain.

   Lower bound [SDNV]

      The lower bound of a report segment is the size of the (interior)
      block prefix to which the segment's reception claims do NOT
      pertain.

   Reception claim count [SDNV]

      The number of data reception claims in this report segment.

   Reception claims

      Each reception claim comprises two elements: offset and length.

      Offset [SDNV]

         The offset indicates the successful reception of data beginning
         at the indicated offset from the lower bound of the RS. The
         offset within the entire block can be calculated by summing
         this offset with the lower bound of the RS.

      Length [SDNV]

         The length of a reception claim indicates the number of
         contiguous octets of block data starting at the indicated
         offset (within the scope of the report) that have been
         successfully received so far.

      Reception claims MUST conform to the following rules:

         A reception claim's length shall never be less than 1 and shall
         never exceed the difference between the upper and lower bounds
         of the report segment.

         The offset of a reception claim shall always be greater than
         the sum of the offset and length of the prior claim, if any.

         The sum of a reception claim's offset and length and the lower
         bound of the report segment shall never exceed the upper bound
         of the report segment.

   Implied requests for retransmission of client service data can be
   inferred from an RS's data reception claims.  However, *nothing* can
   be inferred regarding reception of block data at any offset equal to
   or greater than the segment's upper bound or at any offset less than
   the segment's lower bound.



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   For example, if the scope of a report segment has lower bound 0 and
   upper bound 6000, and the report contains a single data reception
   claim with offset 0 and length 6000, then the report signifies
   successful reception of the first 6000 bytes of the block.  If the
   total length of the block is 6000, then the report additionally
   signifies successful reception of the entire block.

   If on the other hand, the scope of a report segment has lower bound
   1000 and upper bound 6000, and the report contains two data reception
   claims, one with offset 0 and length 2000 and the other with offset
   3000 and length 500, then the report signifies successful reception
   only of bytes 1000-2999 and  4000-4499 of the block.  From this we
   can infer that bytes 3000-3999 and 4500-5999 of the block need to be
   retransmitted, but we cannot infer anything about reception of the
   first 1000 bytes.

3.2.3  Report Acknowledgment Segment

   The content of an RA is simply the report serial number of the RS in
   response to which the segment was generated.

   Report serial number [SDNV]

      This field returns the report serial number of the RS being
      acknowledged.

3.2.4  Session Management Segments

   Cancel segments (Cx) carry a single byte reason-code with the
   following semantics :

      Reason-Code    Mnemonic    Semantics
      -----------    --------    ---------------------------------------
          00         USR_CNCLD   Client Service canceled session.

          01         UNREACH     Unreachable Client Service.

          02         RLEXC       Retransmission limit exceeded.

          03         MISCOLORED  Received either a red-part data segment
                                 at block offset above any green-part
                                 data segment offset or a green-part
                                 data segment at block offset below any
                                 red-part data segment offset.

          04         SYS_CNCLD   A system error condition caused
                                 unexpected session termination.




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         05-FF       Undefined

   The Cancel-acknowledgments (CAx) have no content.

   Note: the reason we use different cancel segment types for the
   originator and recipient is to allow a loopback mode to work without
   disturbing any replay protection mechanism in use.

3.3  Segment Trailer

   The segment trailer consists of a sequence of from zero to 15
   extension TLVs as described in Section 3.1.4 above.

4.  Requests from Client Service

   In all cases the representation of request parameters is a local
   implementation matter, as are validation of parameter values and
   notification of the client service in the event that a request is
   found to be invalid.

4.1  Transmission Request

   In order to request transmission of a block of client service data,
   the client service MUST provide the following parameters to LTP:

      Client service ID

      Destination LTP engine ID

      Client service data to send, as an array of bytes.

      Length of the data to be sent.

      Length of the red-part of the data.  This value MUST be in the
      range from zero to the total length of data to be sent.

   On reception of a valid transmission request from a client service,
   LTP proceeds as follows.

   First the array of data to be sent is subdivided as necessary, with
   each subdivision serving as the client service data of a single new
   LTP data segment.  The algorithm used for subdividing the data is a
   local implementation matter; it is expected that data size
   constraints imposed by the underlying communication service, if any,
   will be accommodated in this algorithm.

   The last (and only the last) of the resulting data segments must be
   marked as the EOB.



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   Note that segment type indicates that the client service data in a
   given LTP segment either is or is not in the red-part of the block.
   To prevent segment type ambiguity, each data segment MUST contain
   either only red-part data or only green-part data.  Therefore, when
   the length of the block's red-part is N, the total length of the
   block is M, and N is not equal to M, the (N+1)th byte of the block
   SHOULD be the first byte of client service data in a green-part data
   segment. Note that this means that at the red-part boundary, LTP may
   send a segment of size lesser than the link MTU size; For bandwidth
   efficiency reasons, implementations MAY choose to instead mark the
   entire segment (within which the red-part boundary falls) as red-part
   causing green-part data falling within the segment also be treated as
   red-part.

   If the length of the block's red-part is greater than zero, then the
   last data segment containing red-part data must be marked as the EORP
   segment by setting the appropriate segment type flag bits [Sec
   3.1.2]. Zero or more preceding data segments containing red-part data
   (selected according to an algorithm that is a local implementation
   matter) MAY additionally be marked to serve as additional
   discretionary checkpoints [Sec 3.1.2].

   All data segments are appended to the (conceptual) application data
   queue for transmission.

   Finally, a session start notice [Sec 6.1] is sent back to the client
   service that requested the transmission.

4.2  Cancellation Request

   In order to request cancellation of a session, either as the sender
   or as the receiver of the associated data block, the client service
   must provide the session ID identifying the session to be canceled.

   On reception of a valid cancellation request from a client service,
   LTP proceeds as follows.

   First the internal "Cancel session" procedure [Sec 5.19] is invoked.

   Next, if the session is being canceled by the block sender (i.e., the
   session originator part of the session ID supplied in the
   cancellation request is the local LTP engine ID):

      If none of the data segments previously queued for transmission as
      part of this session have yet been de-queued and transmitted -
      i.e., if the destination engine cannot possibly be aware of this
      session - then the session is simply closed; the "Close session"
      procedure [Sec 5.20] is invoked.



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      Otherwise, a CS segment with reason-code USR_CNCLD MUST be queued
      for transmission to the destination LTP engine specified in the
      transmission request that started this session.

   Otherwise (i.e., the session is being canceled by the block
   receiver):

      If there is no transmission queue-set bound for the block sender
      (possibly because the local LTP engine is running on a receive-
      only device), then the session is simply closed; the "Close
      session" procedure [Sec 5.20] is invoked.

      Otherwise, a CR segment with reason-code USR_CNCLD MUST be queued
      for transmission to the block sender.

5.  Internal Procedures

   This section describes the internal procedures that are triggered by
   the occurrence of various events during the life-time of the LTP
   session.

   Whenever the content of any of the fields of the header of any
   received LTP segment does not conform to this specification document,
   the segment is assumed to be corrupt and MUST be discarded
   immediately and processed no further.  This procedure supersedes all
   other procedures described below.

   All internal procedures described below that are triggered by the
   arrival of a data segment are superseded by the following procedure
   in the event that the client service identified by the data segment
   does not exist at the local LTP engine:

      If there is no transmission queue-set bound for the block sender
      (possibly because the local LTP engine is running on a receive-
      only device), then the received data segment is simply discarded.

      Otherwise, if the data segment contains data from the red-part of
      the block, a CR with reason-code UNREACH MUST be enqueued for
      transmission to the block sender.  A CR with reason-code UNREACH
      SHOULD be similarly enqueued for transmission to the data sender
      even if the data segment contained data from the green-part of the
      block; note however that (for example) in the case where the block
      receiver knows that the sender of this green-part data is
      functioning in a "beacon" (transmit-only) fashion, a CR need not
      be sent.  In either case the received data segment is discarded.

5.1  Start Transmission




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   This procedure is triggered by the arrival of a link state cue
   indicating the start of transmission to a specified remote LTP
   engine.

   Response: the de-queuing and delivery of segments to the LTP engine
   specified in the link state cue begins.

5.2  Start Checkpoint Timer

   This procedure is triggered by the arrival of a link state cue
   indicating the de-queuing (for transmission) of a CP segment.

   Response: the expected arrival time of the RS segment that will be
   produced on reception of this CP segment is computed, and a countdown
   timer is started for this arrival time.  However, if it is known that
   the remote LTP engine has ceased transmission [Sec 5.5], then this
   timer is immediately suspended, because the computed expected arrival
   time may require an adjustment that cannot yet be computed.

5.3  Start RS Timer

   This procedure is triggered by the arrival of a link state cue
   indicating the de-queuing (for transmission) of an RS segment.

   Response: the expected arrival time of the RA segment in response to
   the reception of this RS segment is computed, and a countdown timer
   is started for this arrival time.  However, as in Sec 5.2, if it is
   known that the remote LTP engine has ceased transmission [Sec 5.5],
   then this timer is immediately suspended, because the computed
   expected arrival time may require an adjustment that cannot yet be
   computed.

5.4  Stop Transmission

   This procedure is triggered by the arrival of a link state cue
   indicating the cessation of transmission to a specified remote LTP
   engine.

   Response: the de-queuing and delivery to the underlying communication
   system of segments from traffic queues bound for the LTP engine
   specified in the link state cue ceases.

5.5  Suspend Timers

   This procedure is triggered by the arrival of a link state cue
   indicating the cessation of transmission from a specified remote LTP
   engine to the local LTP engine.  Normally, this event is inferred
   from advance knowledge of the remote engine's planned transmission



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   schedule.

   Response: countdown timers for the acknowledging segments that the
   remote engine is expected to return are suspended as necessary based
   on the following procedure.

   The nominal remote engine acknowledge transmission time is computed
   as the sum of the transmission time of the original segment (to which
   the acknowledging segment will respond) and the one-way light time to
   the remote engine, plus N seconds of "additional anticipated latency"
   (AAL) encompassing anticipated transmission delays other than signal
   propagation time.  N is determined in an implementation-specific
   manner.  For example, when LTP is deployed in deep space vehicles,
   the one-way light time to the remote engine may be very large while N
   normally need only reflect processing and queuing delay margin; it
   can be a network management parameter, for which 2 seconds seems to
   be a reasonable default value.  As another example, when LTP is
   deployed in a terrestrial "data mule" environment, one-way light time
   latency is effectively zero while N may need to be some dynamically
   computed function of the data mule circulation schedule.

   If the nominal remote engine acknowledge transmission time is greater
   than or equal to the current time (i.e., the acknowledging segment
   may be presented for transmission during the time that transmission
   at the remote engine is suspended), then the countdown timer for this
   acknowledging segment is suspended.

5.6  Resume Timers

   This procedure is triggered by the arrival of a link state cue
   indicating the start of transmission from a specified remote LTP
   engine to the local LTP engine.  Normally, this event is inferred
   from advance knowledge of the remote engine's planned transmission
   schedule.

   Response: expected arrival time is adjusted for every acknowledging
   segment that the remote engine is expected to return, for which the
   countdown timer has been suspended.  First, the transmission delay
   interval is calculated as follows :

      The nominal remote engine acknowledge transmission time is
      computed as the sum of the transmission time of the original
      segment (to which the acknowledging segment will respond) and the
      one-way light time to the remote engine, plus N seconds of AAL
      [Sec 5.5].

      If the nominal remote engine acknowledge transmission time is
      greater than the current time i.e., the remote engine resumed



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      transmission prior to presentation of the acknowledging segment
      for transmission, then the transmission delay interval is zero.

      Otherwise, the transmission delay interval is computed as the
      current time less the nominal remote engine acknowledge
      transmission time.

   The expected arrival time is increased by the respective transmission
   delay interval for each of the suspended countdown timers, and the
   timers are resumed.

5.7  Retransmit Checkpoint

   This procedure is triggered by the expiration of a countdown timer
   associated with a CP segment.

   Response: if the number of times this CP segment has been queued for
   transmission exceeds the checkpoint retransmission limit established
   for the local LTP engine by network management, then the session of
   which the segment is one token is canceled: the "Cancel session"
   procedure [Sec 5.19] is invoked, a CS with reason-code RLEXC is
   appended to the (conceptual) application data queue, and a
   transmission cancellation notice [Sec 6.5] is sent back to the client
   service that requested the transmission.

   Otherwise, a new copy of the CP segment is appended to the
   (conceptual) application data queue.

5.8  Retransmit RS

   This procedure is triggered by either (a) the expiration of a
   countdown timer associated with an RS segment or (b) the reception of
   a CP segment whose checkpoint serial number is equal to that of one
   or more previously issued RS segments for the same session -- an
   unnecessarily retransmitted checkpoint.

   Response: if the number of times any affected RS segment has been
   queued for transmission exceeds the report retransmission limit
   established for the local LTP engine by network management, then the
   session of which the segment is one token is canceled: the "Cancel
   session" procedure [Sec 5.19] is invoked, a CR segment with reason-
   code RLEXC is queued for transmission to the LTP engine that
   originated the session, and a reception cancellation notice [Sec 6.6]
   is sent to the client service identified in each of the data segments
   received in this session.

   Otherwise, a new copy of each affected RS segment is queued for
   transmission to the LTP engine that originated the session.



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5.9  Signify Red-Part Reception

   This procedure is triggered by the arrival of a CP segment when the
   EORP for this session has been received (ensuring that the size of
   the data block's red-part is known; this includes the case where the
   CP segment itself is the EORP segment) and all data in the red-part
   of the block being transmitted in this session have been received.

   Response: a red-part reception notice [Sec 6.3] is sent to the
   specified client service.

5.10  Signify Green-Part Segment Arrival

   This procedure is triggered by the arrival of a data segment whose
   content is a portion of the green-part of a block.

   Response: a green-part segment arrival notice [Sec 6.2] is sent to
   the specified client service.

5.11  Send Reception Report

   This procedure is triggered by either (a) the reception of a CP
   segment whose checkpoint serial number is not equal to that of any
   previously issued RS or (b) an implementation-specific circumstance
   pertaining to a particular block reception session for which no EORP
   has yet been received ("asynchronous" reception reporting).

   Response: if the number of reception problems detected for this
   session exceeds a limit established for the local LTP engine by
   network management, then the affected session is canceled: the
   "Cancel session" procedure [Sec 5.19] is invoked, a CR segment with
   reason-code RLEXC is issued and is, in concept, appended to the queue
   of internal operations traffic bound for the LTP engine that
   originated the session, and a reception cancellation notice [Sec 6.6]
   is sent to the client service identified in each of the data segments
   received in this session.  One possible limit on reception problems
   would be the maximum number of reception reports which can be issued
   for any single session.

   If such limit is not reached, a reception report is issued as
   follows.

   If production of the reception report was triggered by reception of a
   checkpoint:

      The upper bound of the report SHOULD be the upper bound (the sum
      of the offset and length) of the checkpoint data segment, to
      minimize unnecessary retransmission.  Note: If a discretionary



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      checkpoint is lost but subsequent segments are received, by the
      time the retransmission of the lost checkpoint is received, the
      receiver would have segments at block offsets beyond the upper
      bound of the checkpoint. For deployments where bandwidth economy
      is not critical, the upper bound of a synchronous reception report
      MAY be the maximum upper bound value among all red-part data
      segments received so far in the affected session.

      If the checkpoint was itself issued in response to a report
      segment, then this report is a "secondary" reception report.  In
      that case the lower bound of the report SHOULD be the lower bound
      of the report segment to which the triggering checkpoint was
      itself a response, to minimize unnecessary retransmission.  Note:
      For deployments where bandwidth economy is not critical, the lower
      bound of the report MAY instead be zero.

      If the checkpoint was not issued in response to a report segment,
      this report is a "primary" reception report.  The lower bound of
      the first primary reception report issued for any session MUST be
      zero.  The lower bound of each subsequent primary reception report
      issued for the same session SHOULD be the upper bound of the prior
      primary reception report issued for the session, to minimize
      unnecessary retransmission.  Note: For deployments where bandwidth
      economy is not critical, the lower bound of every primary
      reception report MAY be zero.

   If production of the reception report is "asynchronous" as noted
   above:

      The upper bound of the report MUST be the maximum upper bound
      among all red-part data segments received so far for this session.

      The lower bound of the first asynchronous reception report issued
      for any session for which no other primary reception reports have
      yet been issued MUST be zero.  The lower bound of each subsequent
      asynchronous reception report SHOULD be the upper bound of the
      prior primary reception report issued for the session, to minimize
      unnecessary retransmission.  Note: For deployments where bandwidth
      economy is not critical, the lower bound of every asynchronous
      reception report MAY be zero.

   In all cases, if the applicable lower bound of the scope of a report
   is determined to be greater than or equal to the applicable upper
   bound (for example, due to out-of-order arrival of discretionary
   checkpoints) then the reception report MUST NOT be issued. Otherwise:

   As many RS segments must be produced as are needed in order to report
   on all data reception within the scope of the report, given whatever



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   data size constraints are imposed by the underlying communication
   service.  The RS segments are, in concept, appended to the queue of
   internal operations traffic bound for the LTP engine that originated
   the indicated session.  The lower bound of the first RS segment of
   the report MUST be the reception report's lower bound.  The upper
   bound of the last RS segment of the report MUST be the reception
   report's upper bound.

5.12  Signify Transmission Completion

   This procedure is triggered at the earliest time at which (a) all
   data in the block are known to have been transmitted *and* (b) the
   entire red-part of the block - if of non-zero length - is known to
   have been successfully received.  Condition (a) is signaled by
   arrival of a link state cue indicating the de-queuing (for
   transmission) of the EOB segment for the block.  Condition (b) is
   signaled by reception of an RS segment whose reception claims, taken
   together with the reception claims of all other RS segments
   previously received in the course of this session, indicate complete
   reception of the red-part of the block.

   Response: a transmission completion notice [Sec 6.4] is sent to the
   client service that requested the transmission identified in the
   segment header and the session is closed: the "Close session"
   procedure [Sec 5.20] is invoked.

5.13  Retransmit Data

   This procedure is triggered by the reception of an RS segment.

   Response: first, an RA segment with the same report serial number as
   the RS segment is issued and is, in concept, appended to the queue of
   internal operations traffic bound for the LTP engine that originated
   the indicated session.  If the RS segment is redundant -- i.e.,
   either the indicated session is unknown (for example, the RS segment
   is received after the session has been completed or canceled), or the
   RS segment's report serial number is equal to that of a previously
   received report segment for this session -- then no further action is
   taken.  Otherwise the procedure below is followed.

   If the report's checkpoint serial number is not zero, then the
   countdown timer associated with the indicated checkpoint segment is
   deleted.

   Note: All retransmission buffer space occupied by data whose
   reception is claimed in the report segment can (in concept) be
   released.




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   If the segment's reception claims indicate incomplete data reception
   within the scope of the report segment:

      If the number of transmission problems for this session exceeds a
      limit established for the local LTP engine by network management,
      then the session of which the segment is one token is canceled:
      the "Cancel session" procedure [Sec 5.19] is invoked, a CS with
      reason-code RLEXC is appended to the transmission queue specified
      in the transmission request that started this session, and a
      transmission cancellation notice [Sec 6.5] is sent back to the
      client service that requested the transmission.  One possible
      limit on transmission problems would be the maximum number of
      retransmission CP segments which may be issued for any single
      session.

      If the number of transmission problems for this session has not
      exceeded any limit, new data segments encapsulating all block data
      whose non-reception is implied by the reception claims are
      appended to the transmission queue specified in the transmission
      request that started this session.  The last - and only the last -
      such segment must be marked as a CP segment and must contain the
      report serial number of the received RS segment.

5.14  Stop RS Timer

      This procedure is triggered by the reception of an RA.

      Response: the countdown timer associated with the original RS
      segment (identified by the report serial number of the RA segment)
      is deleted.  If no other countdown timers associated with RS
      segments exist for this session, then the session is closed: the
      "Close session" procedure [Sec 5.20] is invoked.

5.15  Start Cancel Timer

      This procedure is triggered by arrival of a link state cue
      indicating the de-queuing (for transmission) of a Cx segment.

      Response: the expected arrival time of the CAx segment that will
      be produced on reception of this Cx segment is computed and a
      countdown timer for this arrival time is started.  However, if it
      is known that the remote LTP engine has ceased transmission [Sec
      5.5] then this timer is immediately suspended, because the
      computed expected arrival time may require an adjustment that
      cannot yet be computed.

5.16  Retransmit Cancellation Segment




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      This procedure is triggered by the expiration of a countdown timer
      associated with a Cx segment.

      Response: if the number of times this Cx segment has been queued
      for transmission exceeds the cancellation retransmission limit
      established for the local LTP engine by network management, then
      the session of which the segment is one token is simply closed:
      the "Close session" procedure [Sec 5.20] is invoked.

      Otherwise, a copy of the cancellation segment (retaining the same
      reason-code) is queued for transmission to the appropriate LTP
      engine.

5.17  Acknowledge Cancellation

      This procedure is triggered by the reception of a Cx segment.

      Response: in the case of a CS segment where there is no
      transmission queue-set bound for the engine that originated the
      segment's session (possibly because the local LTP engine is
      running on a receive-only device), then no action is taken.
      Otherwise:

         If the received segment is a CS segment, a CAS segment is
         issued and is, in concept, appended to the queue of internal
         operations traffic bound for the LTP engine that sent the CS
         segment.

         If the received segment is a CR segment, a CAR segment is
         issued and is, in concept appended to the queue of internal
         operations traffic bound for the LTP engine that sent the CR
         segment.

      It is possible that the Cx segment has been retransmitted because
      a previous responding acknowledgment CAx segment was lost, in
      which case there will no longer be any record of the session of
      which the segment is one token. If so, no further action is taken.

      Otherwise: the "Cancel session" procedure [Sec 5.19] is invoked
      and a reception cancellation notice [Sec 6.6] is sent to the
      client service identified in each of the data segments received in
      this session.  Finally, the session is closed: the "Close session"
      procedure [Sec 5.20] is invoked.

5.18  Stop Cancel Timer

      This procedure is triggered by reception of a CAx segment.




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      Response: the session of which the segment is one token is closed,
      i.e., the "Close session" procedure [Sec 5.20] is invoked.

5.19  Cancel Session

      This procedure is triggered internally by one of the other
      procedures described above.

      Response: all segments of the affected session that are currently
      queued for transmission can be deleted from the outbound traffic
      queues.  All countdown timers currently associated with the
      session are deleted.  Note: If the local LTP engine is the
      originator of the session, then all remaining data retransmission
      buffer space allocated to the session can be released.

5.20  Close Session

      This procedure is triggered internally by one of the other
      procedures described above.

      Response: any remaining countdown timers associated with the
      session (such as the timer associated with a Cx segment) are
      deleted.  The session state record (SSR|RSR) for the session is
      deleted; existence of the session is no longer recognized.

5.21  Handle Miscolored Segment

      This procedure is triggered by the arrival of either (a) a red-
      part data segment whose block offset begins at an offset higher
      than the offset of any green-part data segment previously received
      for the same session or (b) a green-part data segment whose block
      offset begins at an offset lower than the offset of any red-part
      data segment previously received for the same session.

      Response: the received data segment is simply discarded.

      The Cancel Session procedure [Sec 5.19] is invoked and a CR
      segment with reason-code MISCOLORED SHOULD be enqueued for
      transmission to the data sender.

      Note : If there is no transmission queue-set bound for the block
      sender (possibly because the local LTP engine is running on a
      receive-only device), or if the block receiver knows that the
      sender of this green-part data is functioning in a "beacon"
      (transmit-only) fashion, a CR segment need not be sent.

      A Reception Cancellation Notice [Sec 6.6] is sent to the client
      service.



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5.22  Handling System Error Conditions

      It is possible (especially for long-lived LTP sessions) that an
      unexpected operating-system error condition may occur during the
      lifetime of an LTP session. An example is the case where the
      system faces severe memory crunch forcing LTP sessions into a
      scenario similar to that of TCP SACK [SACK] reneging. But unlike
      TCP SACK reception reports which are advisory, LTP reception
      reports are binding, and reneging is NOT permitted on previously
      made reception claims.

      Under any such irrecoverable system error condition, the following
      response is to be initiated: The Cancel Session procedure [Sec
      5.19] is invoked. If the session is a local sender session, a CS
      segment with reason-code SYS_CNCLD SHOULD be enqueued for
      transmission to the receiver, and a Transmission Cancellation
      Notice [Sec 6.5] is sent to the client service. On the other hand,
      if it is a local receiver session, a CR segment with the same
      reason-code SYS_CNCLD SHOULD be enqueued for transmission to the
      sender, and a Reception Cancellation Notice [Sec 6.6] is sent to
      the client service.

      Note that as in Sec 5.21, if there is no transmission queue-set
      bound for the block sender (possibly because the local LTP engine
      is running on a receive-only device), or if the block receiver
      knows that the sender of this green-part data is functioning in a
      "beacon" (transmit-only) fashion, a CR segment need not be sent.

6.  Notices to Client Service

      In all cases the representation of notice parameters is a local
      implementation matter.

6.1  Session Start

      The LTP engine returns the session ID of the new transmission
      session when a session start notice is delivered.

      A session start notice informs the client service of the
      initiation of a transmission session in response to a transmission
      request from that client service.  On receiving this notice the
      client service may, for example, release resources of its own that
      are allocated to the block being transmitted, or remember the
      session ID so that the session can be canceled in the future if
      necessary.

6.2  Green-Part Segment Arrival




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      The following parameters are provided by the LTP engine when a
      green-part segment arrival notice is delivered:

         Session ID of the transmission session.

         Array of client service data bytes contained in the data
         segment.

         Offset of the data segment's content from the start of the
         block.

         Length of the data segment's content.

         Indication as to whether or not the last byte of this data
         segment's content is also the end of the block.

         Source LTP engine ID.

6.3  Red-Part Reception

      The following parameters are provided by the LTP engine when a
      red-part reception notice is delivered:

         Session ID of the transmission session.

         Array of client service data bytes that constitute the red-part
         of the block.

         Length of the red-part of the block.

         Indication as to whether or not the last byte of the red-part
         is also the end of the block.

         Source LTP engine ID.

6.4  Transmission Completion

      The sole parameter provided by the LTP engine when a transmission
      completion notice is delivered is the session ID of the
      transmission session.

      A transmission completion notice informs the client service that
      all bytes of the indicated data block have been transmitted and
      the destination LTP engine has received the red-part of the block.

6.5  Transmission Cancellation

      The parameters provided by the LTP engine when a transmission



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      cancellation notice is delivered are:

         Session ID of the transmission session.

         The reason-code sent or received in the Cx segment that
         initiated the cancellation sequence.

      A transmission cancellation notice informs the client service that
      the indicated session was terminated, either by decision of the
      destination client service instance or due to violation of a
      retransmission limit in the local LTP engine.  There is no
      assurance that the destination client service instance received
      the critical part of the data block.

6.6  Reception Cancellation

      The parameters provided by the LTP engine when a reception
      cancellation notice is delivered are:

         Session ID of the transmission session.

         The reason-code explaining the cancellation.

      A reception cancellation notice informs the client service that
      the indicated session was terminated, either by decision of the
      source client service instance or due to error conditions at the
      local LTP engine.  No subsequent delivery notices will be issued
      for this session.

7.  State Transition Diagrams

        The following mnemonics have been used in the sender and
      receiver LTP state transition diagrams that follow :

          TE      Timer Expiry
          RDS     Regular Red Data Segment (NOT {CP|EORP|EOB})
          GDS     Regular Green Data Segment (NOT EOB)
          RL EXC  Retransmission Limit Exceeded

      Both the diagrams have been specified in two parts such that
      sequence of state transitions that occur multiple times in the
      main diagram have been presented in the second part. Note that
      blocks represented in rectangles as in

              +---------+
              | FG_XMIT |
              +---------+




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      specify actual states in the state-transition diagrams, while
      blocks represented as in

               /\/\/\/\
              | Cncld  |
               \/\/\/\/

      are not actual states but merely pointers to a state or a sequence
      of state transitions represented elsewhere in the state transition
      diagram (to avoid having multiple copies of a sequence of state
      transitions, thus accommodating space constraints).








































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7.1  Sender
                    LTP Sender State Transition Diagram

                                     /\/\/\/\
                                    | Cncld  |
                                     \/\/\/\/
                          +--------+    |     +------+
                 Rcv CR;  |        V    V     V      | Rcv RS;
                 Snd CAR  |       +-------------+    | Snd RA
                          +-------+   CLOSED    +----+
    +---------------------------->+------+------+
    |                                    | Blk. Trans. Req
    |                       Zero RP      +
    |  Xmit     ________________________/ \  Non-Zero RP
    |  GDS;    /                           \
    | +---+   |       +------------------+  |  +------+
    | |   V   V       |   /\/\   Rcv RS  V  V  V      |
    | |  +---------+  +<-| RX |<---+   +---------+    |
    | +<-+ FG_XMIT |  |   \/\/     +---+         +--->+ Xmit RDS;
    |    +----+----+  |                | RP_XMIT |    |
    |         |       |   /\/\     +---+         +--->+ Xmit {RDS, CP};
    +<--------+       +<-| CP |<---+   +-----+---+      Start CP Tmr
    |    Xmit             \/\/   CP TE       |    \
    | {GDS, EOB};                            |     |
    |                  Xmit {RDS, CP, EORP}; |     +-------+
    |                  Start CP Tmr          |             |
    |                                        |             |
    |                 +------------------+   |  +---+      | Xmit {RDS,
    |                 |   /\/\  Rcv RS   V   V  V   |      | CP, EORP,
    |                 +<-| RX |<---+   +---------+  |      | EOB};
    |                 |   \/\/     +---+         |  |      | Start
    |                 |                | GP_XMIT +->+      | CP Tmr
    |                 |   /\/\     +---+         | Xmit    |
    |                 +<-| CP |<---+   +-----+---+ GDS;    |
    |                     \/\/  CP TE        |             |
    |                                        |             |
    |                       Xmit {GDS, EOB}; |   +---------+
    |                                        |   |
    |                 +------------------+   |   |
    |                 |   /\/\  Rcv RS   V   V   V
    |                 +<-| RX |<---+   +-------------+
    |                 |   \/\/     +---+             |
    |                 |                | WAIT_RP_ACK |
    |                 |   /\/\     +---+             |
    |                 +<-| CP |<---+   +-----+-------+
    |                     \/\/  CP TE        | RP acknowledged fully;
    |                                        V
    +----------------------------------------+



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                LTP Sender State Transition Diagram (contd.)

               /\/\                               /\/\
              | CP |                             | CX |
               \/\/                               \/\/
                | |                                 | Snd CS,
                | | RL EXC;                         | Start CS Tmr;
                | |                                 |
                | |        /\/\                     |  +---+
                | +------>| CX |                    V  V   |
                |          \/\/                +---------+ | CS TE,
                |                              | CS_SENT | | RL NOT EXC;
                V  RL NOT EXC;                 +-+--+--+-+ | Rxmt CS,
                   Rxmt CP,                      |  |  |   | Restart
                   Start CP Tmr;         CS TE,  |  |  +---+ CS Tmr
                                         RL EXC; |  |
                                                 |  | Rcv CAS;
                                                 V  V
                                                 /\/\/\/\
                                                | Cncld  |
                                                 \/\/\/\/

                   /\/\
                  | RX |
                   \/\/
                     |  Cncl CP Tmr (if any)
                     V  Snd RA
               +---------+                                +----+
               | CHK_RPT |                                |    |
               +-+--+----+       RP in scope              V    |
                 |  |     \     NOT rcvd. fully   +---------+  | Rxmt
       Redundant |  | RP   +--------------------->| RP_RXMT |  | missing
       RS rcvd;  |  | in scope                    +----+--+-+  | RDS;
                 |  | rcvd. fully                      |  |    |
                 V  V                    Rxmt last     |  +----+
                                         missing RDS   |
                                         (marked CP)   |
                                         Start CP Tmr; |
                                                       V












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      The sender LTP stays in the CLOSED state until receiving a Block
   Transmission Request (Blk. Trans. Req) from the client service
   instance. Upon receiving the request it either moves to the Fully
   Green Transmission State (FG_XMIT) if no portion of the block was
   requested to be transmitted as red, or moves to the Red-Part
   Transmission State (RP_XMIT) state if a non-zero block-prefix was
   requested to be transmitted red.

      In the FG_XMIT state, the block is segmented as multiple green LTP
   data segments respecting the link MTU size and the segments are
   queued for transmission to the remote engine. The last such segment
   is marked as EOB and the sender LTP returns to the CLOSED state after
   queuing it for transmission.

      Similarly, from the RP_XMIT state multiple red data segments are
   queued for transmission. The sender LTP may optionally mark some of
   the red data segments as asynchronous checkpoints; the internal
   procedure Start Checkpoint Timer [Sec 5.2] is followed upon receiving
   a link-state cue indicating the actual beginning of transmission of
   such segments.  The sender LTP marks the last red-data segment of the
   block as both CP and EORP, and after queuing it for transmission
   moves to the Green Part Transmission (GP_XMIT) state. If the block
   transmission was fully red however, the last red-data segment is
   marked as CP, EORP, and EOB and the sender LTP moves to the Wait-for-
   Red-Part-Acknowledgment (WAIT_RP_ACK) state instead. For both the
   above state-transitions, the internal procedure Start Checkpoint
   Timer [Sec 5.2] is followed upon receiving a link-state cue
   indicating the beginning of transmission of the queued CP segments.
   If the sender LTP entered the GP_XMIT state, the remaining green-part
   of the block is segmented as green data segments and queued for
   transmission to the receiver LTP; the last green segment of the block
   is additionally marked as EOB and the sender LTP moves to the
   WAIT_RP_ACK state.

      While the sender LTP is at any of the RP_XMIT, GP_XMIT, or
   WAIT_RP_ACK states, it might be interrupted by the following two
   events asynchronously:

      1. An RS might be received from the receiver LTP (either in
      response to a previously transmitted CP segment or sent
      asynchronously for accelerated retransmission).  The sender LTP
      then moves to perform the sequence of state transitions beginning
      at the RX marker (second-part of the diagram), and retransmits
      data if necessary, illustrating the internal procedure Retransmit
      Data [Sec 5.13]:

      First, if the RS segment had a non-zero CP serial number, the
      corresponding CP timer is canceled. Then, an RA segment



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      acknowledging the received RS segment is queued for transmission
      to the receiver LTP and the sender LTP moves to the Check Report
      state (CHK_RPT). If the RS segment was redundantly transmitted by
      the receiver LTP (possibly because either the last transmitted RA
      segment got lost or the RS segment timer expired prematurely at
      the receiver), the sender LTP does nothing more and returns back
      to the interrupted state. Similarly, if all red-data within the
      scope of the RS segment is reported as received, there is no work
      to be done and the sender LTP returns to the interrupted state.
      However, if the RS segment indicated incomplete reception of data
      within its scope, the sender LTP moves to the Red-part Retransmit
      state (RP_RXMT) where missing red data-segments within scope are
      queued for transmission. The last such segment is marked as a CP,
      and the sender LTP returns to the interrupted state. The internal
      procedure [Sec 5.2] is followed upon receiving a link-state cue
      indicating beginning of transmission of the CP segment.

      2. A previously set CP timer might expire. Now the sender LTP
      follows the states beginning at the CP marker (second-part of the
      diagram), and follows the internal procedure Retransmit Checkpoint
      [Sec 5.7]:

      If the CP Retransmission Limit set by network management for the
      session has been exceeded, the sender LTP proceeds towards
      canceling the session (with reason-code RLEXC) as indicated by the
      sequence of state transitions following the CX marker.  Otherwise
      (if the Retransmission Limit is not exceeded yet), the CP segment
      is queued for retransmission and the sender LTP returns to the
      interrupted state. The Start Checkpoint Timer internal procedure
      [Sec 5.2] is started again upon receiving a link-state cue
      indicating the beginning of transmission of the segment.

     The sender LTP stays at the WAIT_RP_ACK state after reaching it
   until the red-part data is fully acknowledged as received by the
   receiver LTP, and then returns to the CLOSED state following the
   internal procedure Close Session [Sec 5.20].

   Note that while at the CLOSED state, the sender LTP might receive an
   RS segment (if the last transmitted RA segment before session close
   got lost or if the receiver LTP retransmitted the RS segment
   prematurely), in which case it retransmits an acknowledging RA
   segment and stays in the CLOSED state. If the session was canceled by
   the Receiver by issuing a CR segment, the receiver may retransmit the
   CR segment (either prematurely or because the acknowledging CAR
   segment got lost). In this case, the sender LTP retransmits the
   acknowledging CAR segment and stays in the CLOSED state.

   Asynchronous cancel request may be received from the local client



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   service while the sender LTP was in any of the states mentioned. If
   it was not already in the sequence of state transitions beginning at
   the CX marker, the internal procedure Cancel Session [Sec 5.19] is
   followed, and the sender LTP moves from its current state into the
   sequence beginning at the CX marker initiating session cancellation
   with reason-code USR_CNCLD. From the CX marker, the CS segment with
   appropriate reason-code (USR_CNCLD or RLEXC depending on how the CX
   sequence was entered) is queued for transmission to the receiver LTP
   and the sender enters the Cancel-from-Sender Sent(CS_SENT) state. The
   internal procedure Start Cancel Timer [Sec 5.15] is started upon
   receiving a link-state cue indicating the beginning of transmission
   of the CS segment.  Upon receiving the acknowledging CAS segment from
   the receiver, the sender LTP moves to the CLOSED state (via the Cncld
   marker). If the CS Timer expires, the internal procedure Retransmit
   Cancellation Segment [Sec 5.16] is followed:

      If the network management set retransmission limit is exceeded,
      the session is simply closed and the sender LTP follows the Cncld
      marker to the CLOSED state. If the retransmission limit is not
      exceeded however, the CS segment is queued for a retransmission
      and the sender LTP stays in the CS_SENT state. The CS Timer is
      started upon receiving a link-state cue indicating the beginning
      of actual transmission according to the internal procedure Start
      Cancel Timer [Sec 5.15].

   Asynchronous cancel request may also be received from the receiver
   LTP in the form of a CR segment when the sender LTP is in any of the
   states. Upon receiving such a CR segment, the internal procedure
   Acknowledge Cancellation [Sec 5.17] is invoked: The sender LTP sends
   a CAR segment in response and returns to the CLOSED state.





















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7.2  Receiver
                  LTP Receiver State Transition Diagram

                                             /\/\/\/\
                          +----+       +----+ Cncld  |
                  Rcv CS; |    V       V     \/\/\/\/
                  Snd CAS |  +-------------+
                          +--+    CLOSED   +<--------------------------+
                             +------+------+                           |
                            +----+  | Rcv first DS                     |
                 Rcv RA;    |    V  V                                  |
                Cncl RS Tmr |   +--------+                             |
                            +---+ DS_REC |                             |
 +----------------------------->+-+--+-+-+<----------------------+---+ |
 |          Svc. does not exist   |  | | RS TE                   |   | |
 |   /\/\  or Rcv miscolored seg. |  | |               /\/\      |   | |
 |  | CX |<-----------------------+  | +------------->| RX |---->+   | |
 |   \/\/                            |                 \/\/          | |
 |                        Rcv RDS;   |   Rcv GDS;                    | |
 |                       +-----------+------------+                  | |
 |                       V                        V                  | |
 |   /\/\  RS TE +--------------+             +--------+             | |
 +<-| RX |<------+    RCV_RP    |             | RCV_GP |             | |
 |   \/\/        +-+----+--+--+-+             +--+-+-+-+             | |
 |                 |    |  |  |                  | | |               | |
 |    Rcvd RDS;    |    |  |  | Rcvd {RDS, CP,   | | | RS TE  /\/\   | |
 |                 |    |  |  | EORP, EOB};      | | +------>| RX |->+ |
 +<----------------+    |  |  | Snd RS,          | |          \/\/   | |
 |                      |  |  | Start RS Tmr     | | Rcvd GDS;       | |
 | Rcvd {RDS, CP};      |  |  |                  | +---------------->+ |
 | Snd RS, Start RS Tmr |  |  +-------+    +-----+                     |
 +<---------------------+  |          |    | Rcvd {GDS, EOB};          |
 |                         |          |    |                           |
 |                         | +-----+  |    |   +------+                |
 | Rcvd {RDS, CP, EORP};   | |     V  V    V   V      |                |
 | Snd RS, Start RS Tmr    | |   +----------------+   | Rcv RDS;       |
 |                         | |   |                +-->+                |
 |                         | |   |   WAIT_RP_REC  |   | Rcv {RDS, CP}; |
 |                         | |   |                +-->+ Snd RS, Start  |
 +<------------------------+ |   +---+--+-+-+-----+   |        RS Tmr  |
                             | RS TE |  | | | Rcv RA; |                |
                             |       V  | | | Cncl    |                |
                             |    /\/\  | | | RS Tmr  |                |
                             +---| RX | | | +-------->+                |
                                  \/\/  | |                            |
          /\/\                          | |                            |
         | CX |<------------------------+ |  RP rcvd. fully            |
          \/\/      Rcv miscolored seg.   +--------------------------->+



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             LTP Receiver State Transition Diagram (contd.)



                                  /\/\
                                 | RX |
                                  \/\/
                                  |  |
                                  |  | RL EXC;    /\/\
                     RL NOT EXC;  |  +---------->| CX |
                     Rxmt RS,     |               \/\/
                     Start RS Tmr |
                                  V







                                  /\/\
                                 | CX |
                                  \/\/
                                    | Snd CR,
                                    | Start CR Tmr;
                                    |
                                    |  +----+
                                    V  V    |
                                +---------+ | CR TE,
                                | CR_SENT | | RL NOT EXC;
                                +-+--+--+-+ | Rxmt CR,
                                  |  |  |   | Restart
                          CR TE,  |  |  +---+ CR Tmr
                          RL EXC; |  |
                                  |  | Rcv CAR;
                                  V  V
                                  /\/\/\/\
                                 | Cncld  |
                                  \/\/\/\/












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   The receiver LTP begins at the CLOSED state and enters the Data
   Segment Reception (DS_REC) state upon receiving the first data
   segment. If the client service ID referenced in the data segment was
   non-existent, a CX segment with reason-code UNREACH SHOULD be sent to
   the sender LTP with the Cancellation sequence beginning with the CX
   marker (second part of the diagram). If the received segment was
   found to be miscolored (a red-part data segment whose block offset
   begins at an offset higher than the offset of any green-part data
   segment previously received, or a green-part data segment whose block
   offset begins at an offset lower than the offset of any red-part data
   segment previously received), the internal procedure Handle
   Miscolored Segment [Sec 5.21] is followed; a CX segment with reason-
   code MISCOLORED SHOULD be sent to the sender LTP with the
   Cancellation sequence beginning with the CX marker.

   Otherwise, the receiver LTP enters the Receive Red-Part state
   (RCV_RP) or the Receive Green-Part state (RCV_GP) depending on
   whether the segment received was red or green respectively.

   In the RCV_RP state, a check is made of the nature of the received
   red DS.  If the segment was a regular red data segment, the receiver
   LTP just returns to the DS_REC state. For red data segments marked
   also as CP and as CP & EORP, a responding RS segment is queued for
   transmission to the sender following either the internal procedure
   Retransmit RS [Sec 5.8] or Send Reception Report [Sec 5.11] depending
   on whether the CP segment was a retransmission (An RS segment
   corresponding to the Checkpoint Serial Number in the CP segment was
   previously issued)  or not, respectively.  The receiver LTP then
   returns to the DS_REC state.  If the block transmission was fully red
   and the segment was marked as CP, EORP, and EOB, the receiver LTP
   enters the Wait-for-Red-Part-Reception state (WAIT_RP_REC). In all
   cases the internal procedure Start RS Timer [Sec 5.3] is followed
   upon receiving link-state cues indicating beginning of transmission
   of the RS segments.

   In the RCV_GP state, if the received green data segment was not
   marked EOB, the receiver LTP returns to the DS_REC state. Otherwise
   it enters the WAIT_RP_REC state to receive the red-part of the block
   fully.

   A previously set RS timer may expire asynchronously while the
   receiver LTP was in the DS_REC, RCV_RP, RCV_GP, or WAIT_RP_REC
   states. If so, the internal procedure Retransmit RS [Sec 5.8] is
   followed as illustrated in the states beginning at the RX marker
   (shown in the second part of the diagram) before returning to the
   interrupted state:

      A check is made here to see if the retransmission limit set by the



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      network management has been exceeded in the number of RSs sent in
      the session. If so, a CR segment with reason-code RLEXC SHOULD be
      sent to the sender LTP and the sequence following the CX marker is
      followed. Otherwise, the RS segment is queued for retransmission
      and the associated RS timer is started following the internal
      procedure Start RS Timer [Sec 5.3] upon receiving a link-state cue
      indicating the beginning of its transmission.

   The receiver LTP may also receive RA segments from the sender in
   response to the RS segments sent while in the DS_REC state. If so,
   then the RS timer corresponding to the report serial number mentioned
   in the RA segment is canceled following the internal procedure Stop
   RS Timer [Sec 5.14].

   The receiver LTP stays in the WAIT_RP_REC state until the entire red-
   part of the block is received, and moves to the CLOSED state upon
   full red-part reception. In this state, a check is made upon
   reception of every red-part data segment to see if it is at a block
   offset higher than any green-part data segment received. If so, the
   Handle Miscolored Segment internal procedure [Sec 5.21] is invoked
   and the sequence of state transitions beginning with the CX marker is
   followed; a CX segment with reason-code MISCOLORED SHOULD be sent to
   the sender LTP with the Cancellation sequence beginning with the CX
   marker.

   Note that if there were no red data segments received in the session
   yet, including the case where the session was indeed fully green or
   the pathological case where the entire red-part of the block gets
   lost but at least the green data segment marked EOB is received (the
   receiver LTP has no indication of whether the session had a red-part
   transmission), the receiver LTP assumes the "RP rcvd. fully"
   condition to be true and moves to the CLOSED state from the
   WAIT_RP_REC state.

   In the WAIT_RP_REC state, the receiver LTP may receive the
   retransmitted red data segments. Upon receiving red data segments
   marked CP, it queues the responding RS segment for transmission based
   on either internal procedure Retransmit RS [Sec 5.8] or Send
   Reception Report [Sec 5.11] depending on whether the CP was found to
   be a retransmission or not, respectively. The Start RS Timer internal
   procedure is invoked upon receiving a link-state cue indicating the
   beginning of transmission of the RS segment.  If an RA segment is
   received, the RS timer corresponding to the report segment mentioned
   is canceled and the receiver LTP stays in the state until the entire
   red-part is received.

   In the sequence of state transitions beginning at the CX marker, the
   CR segment with the given reason-code (depending on how the sequence



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   is entered) is queued for transmission, and the CR timer is started
   upon reception of the link-state cue indicating actual transmission
   following internal procedure Start Cancel Timer [Sec 5.15].  If the
   CAR segment is received from the sender LTP, the receiver LTP returns
   to the CLOSED state (via the Cncld marker) following the Stop Cancel
   Timer internal procedure [Sec 5.18]. If the CR timer expires
   asynchronously, the internal procedure Retransmit Cancellation
   Segment [Sec 5.16] is followed :
      A check is made to see if the retransmission limit set by the
      network management for the number of CR segments per session has
      been exceeded.  If so, the receiver LTP returns to the CLOSED
      state following the Cncld marker. Otherwise, a CR segment is
      scheduled for retransmission with the CR timer being started
      following the internal procedure Start Cancel Timer [Sec 5.15]
      upon reception of a link-state cue indicating actual transmission.

   The receiver LTP might also receive a retransmitted CS segment at the
   CLOSED state (either if the CAS segment previously transmitted was
   lost or if the CS timer expired prematurely at the sender LTP). In
   such a case the CAS is scheduled for retransmission.

   Asynchronous cancel requests are handled similar to the way they are
   handled in the sender LTP. If the cancel request was made from the
   local client service instance and the receiver LTP was not already in
   the CR_SENT state, a CR segment with reason-code USR_CNCLD SHOULD be
   sent to the sender LTP following the sequence of state transitions
   beginning at the CX marker as described above.  If the asynchronous
   cancel request is received from the sender LTP, a CAS segment is sent
   and the receiver LTP moves to the CLOSED state (independent of the
   state the receiver LTP may be in).

8.  Requirements from the Operating Environment

   LTP requires support from its operating environment (which includes
   network management activities) and link-state cues from the data-link
   layer for its operations.

   The local data-link layer needs to inform LTP whenever the link to a
   specific LTP destination is brought up or torn down.  Similarly, the
   operating environment needs to inform the local LTP engine whenever
   it is known that a remote LTP engine is set to begin or stop
   communication with the local engine based on the operating schedules.
   LTP requires link state cues from the datalink layer upon
   transmission of the CP, RS, EORP, EOB, and Cx segments.  LTP also
   needs to be able to query the current distance (in light seconds) to
   any peer engine in order to calculate timeout intervals in a typical
   deep-space environment.




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   A MIB (Management Information Base), with the above parameters filled
   in by the local data-link layer and the operating environment
   periodically, should be made available to the LTP engine for its
   operations. The exact details of the MIB are, however, beyond the
   scope of this document.

   The underlying data-link layer is required to never deliver
   incompletely received LTP segments to LTP.  In the absence of the use
   of LTP authentication [LTPEXT] LTP also requires the underlying data-
   link layer to perform data integrity check of the segments received.
   Specifically, the data-link layer is expected to detect any corrupted
   segments received and to silently discard them.

9.  Security Considerations

   There is a clear risk that unintended receivers can listen in on LTP
   transmissions over satellite and other radio broadcast datalinks.
   Such unintended recipients of LTP transmissions may also be able to
   manipulate LTP segments at will.

   Hence there is a potential requirement for confidentiality, integrity
   and anti-DoS (Denial of Service) security services and mechanisms.

   In particular, DoS problems are more severe for LTP compared to other
   typical internet protocols because LTP inherently retains state for
   long periods, and has very high time-out values. Further, it could be
   difficult to reset LTP nodes to recover from an attack.  Thus any
   adversary who can actively attack an LTP transmission has the
   potential to create severe DoS conditions for the LTP receiver.

   To give a terrestrial example - were LTP to be used in a sparse
   sensor network, DoS attacks could be mounted resulting in nodes
   missing critical information, for example, communications schedule
   updates.  In such cases, a single successful DoS attack could take a
   node entirely off the network until the node is physically visited
   and reset.

   Even for deep space applications of LTP, we do need to consider
   certain terrestrial attacks, in particular those involving insertion
   of messages into an on-going session (usually without having seen the
   exact bytes of the previous messages in the session). Such attacks
   are likely in the presence of firewall failures at various nodes in
   the network, or due to Trojan software running on an authorized host.

   Many message insertion attacks will depend on the attacker correctly
   "guessing" something about the state of the LTP peers, but experience
   shows that successful guesses are easier than might be thought [DDJ].




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9.1  Security Mechanisms and Layering Considerations

   In this section we consider the appropriate layer(s) at which
   security mechanisms can best be deployed to increase the security
   properties of LTP.

   The Application layer (above-LTP)

      Higher layer security mechanisms clearly protect LTP payload, but
      leave LTP headers open.  Such mechanisms provide little or no
      protection against DoS type attacks against LTP, but may well
      provide sufficient data integrity and ought to be able to provide
      data confidentiality.

   The LTP layer

      An authentication header (similar to IPSEC [AH]) can help protect
      against replay attacks and other bogus packets.  However, an
      adversary may still see the LTP header of segments passing by in
      the ether. This approach also requires some key management
      infrastructure to be in place in order to provide strong
      authentication, which may not always be an acceptable overhead.
      Such an authentication header could mitigate many DoS attacks.

      Similarly, a confidentiality service could be defined for LTP
      payload and (some) header fields. However, this seems less
      attractive since (a) confidentiality is arguably better provided
      either above or below the LTP layer, (b) key management for such a
      service is harder (in a high-delay context) than for an integrity
      service, and (c) forcing LTP engines to attempt decryption of
      incoming segments can in itself provide a DoS opportunity.

      Further, within the LTP layer we can make various design decisions
      to reduce the probability of successful DoS attacks. In
      particular, we can mandate that values for certain fields in the
      header (session numbers, for example) be chosen randomly.

   The Datalink layer (below-LTP)

      The lower layers can clearly provide confidentiality and integrity
      services, although such security may result in unnecessary
      overhead (if a service provided is not required for all LTP
      sessions, for example) and loss of flexibility. However, the lower
      layers may well be the optimal place to do compression and
      encryption.

9.2  Denial of Service Considerations




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   Implementers SHOULD consider the likelihood of the following DoS
   attacks :

      A fake Cx could be inserted, thus bringing down a session.

      Various acknowledgment segments (RA, RS, etc.) could be deleted,
      causing timers to expire, and has the potential to disable
      communication altogether if done with a knowledge of the
      communications schedule.  This could be achieved either by
      mounting a DoS attack on a lower layer service in order to prevent
      it from sending an acknowledgment segment, or by simply jamming
      the transmission (all of which are more likely for terrestrial
      applications of LTP).

      An attacker might also corrupt some bits, which is tantamount to
      deleting that segment.

      An attacker may flood a node with segments for the internal
      operations queue and prevent transmission of legitimate data
      segments.

      An attacker could attempt to fill up the storage in a node by
      sending many large messages to it. In terrestrial LTP applications
      this may be much more serious since spotting the additional
      traffic may not be possible from any network management point.


   LTP includes the following anti-DoS mechanisms:

      Session numbers MUST be partly random making it harder to insert
      valid segments.

      A node which suspects that either it or its peer is under DoS
      attack could frequently checkpoint its data segments (if it were
      the sender) or send asynchronous RSs (if it were the receiver),
      thus eliciting an earlier response from its peer or timing out
      earlier due to the failure of an attacker to respond.

      Serial numbers (checkpoint serial numbers, report serial numbers)
      MUST begin each session anew using random numbers rather than from
      0.

      The authentication header [LTPEXT].

9.3  Replay Handling

   The following algorithm is given as an example of how an LTP
   implementation MAY handle replays.



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   1. On receipt of an LTP segment, check against a cache for replay. If
   this is a replay segment and if a pre-cooked response is available
   (stored from the last time this segment was processed), then send the
   pre-cooked response.  If there is no pre-cooked response then
   silently drop the inbound segment. This can all be done without
   attempting to decode the buffer.

   2. If the inbound segment does not decode correctly, then silently
   drop the segment. If the segment decodes properly, then add its hash
   to the replay cache and return a handle to the entry.

   3. For those cases where a pre-cooked response should be stored,
   store the response using the handle received from the previous step.
   These cases include:

      (a) when the inbound packet is a CP segment the response RS
      segment gets stored as pre-cooked;

      (b) when the incoming packet is an RS segment the RA segment is
      stored as precooked, and,

      (c) when the incoming packet is a Cx segment the CAx segment sent
      in response gets stored precooked.

   4. Occasionally clean out the replay cache - how frequently this
   happens in an implementation issue.

   The downside of this algorithm is that receiving a totally bogus
   segment still results in a replay cache search and attempted LTP
   decode operation.  It is not clear that it is possible to do much
   better though, since all an attacker would have to do to get past the
   replay cache would be to tweak a single bit in the inbound segment
   each time, which is certainly cheaper than the hash+lookup+decode
   combination, though also certainly more expensive than simply sending
   the same octets many times.

   The benefit of doing this is that implementers no longer need to
   analyze many bugs/attacks based on replaying packets, which in
   combination with the use of LTP authentication should defeat many
   attempted DoS attacks.

9.4  Implementation Considerations

   SDNV

      Implementations SHOULD make sanity checks on SDNV length fields
      and SHOULD check that no SDNV field is too long when compared with
      the overall segment length.



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      Implementations SHOULD check that SDNV values are within suitable
      ranges where possible.

   Byte ranges

      Various report and other segments contain offset and length
      fields. Implementations MUST ensure that these are consistent and
      sane.

   Randomness

      Various fields in LTP (e.g. serial numbers) should be initialized
      using random values. Good sources of randomness which are not
      easily guessable SHOULD be used [ECS94].  The collision of random
      values is subject to the birthday paradox, which means that a
      collision is likely after roughly the square-root of the space has
      been seen (e.g. 2^16 in the case of a 32-bit random value).
      Implementers MUST ensure that they use sufficiently long random
      values so that the birthday paradox doesn't cause a problem in
      their environment.

10.  IANA Considerations

   At present there are none known. However if, in future, someone
   wanted to run LTP over IP (or even TCP or UDP), then they would want
   to allocate a port number.

11.  Acknowledgments

   Many thanks to Tim Ray, Vint Cerf, Bob Durst, Kevin Fall, Adrian
   Hooke, Keith Scott, Leigh Torgerson, Eric Travis, and Howie Weiss for
   their thoughts on this protocol and its role in Delay-Tolerant
   Networking architecture.

   Part of the research described in this document was carried out at
   the Jet Propulsion laboratory, California Institute of Technology,
   under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space
   Administration. This work was performed under DOD Contract DAA-B07-
   00-CC201, DARPA AO H912; JPL Task Plan No. 80-5045, DARPA AO H870;
   and NASA Contract NAS7-1407.

   Thanks are also due to Shawn Ostermann, Hans Kruse, and Dovel Myers
   at Ohio University for their suggestions and advice in making various
   design decisions.

   Part of this work was carried out at Trinity College Dublin as part
   of the SeNDT contract funded by Enterprise Ireland's research
   innovation fund.



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12.  References

12.1 Normative References

   [B97] S. Bradner, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
   Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [LTPMTV] Burleigh, S., Ramadas, M., and Farrell, S., "Licklider
   Transmission Protocol - Motivation", draft-irtf-dtnrg-ltp-
   motivation-01.txt (Work in Progress), July 2005.

   [LTPEXT] Farrell, S., Ramadas, M., and Burleigh, S., "Licklider
   Transmission Protocol - Extensions", draft-irtf-dtnrg-ltp-
   extensions-01.txt (Work in Progress), July 2005.

12.2 Informative References

   [AH] Kent, S., and R. Atkinson, "IP Authentication Header", RFC 2402,
   November 1998.

   [ASN1] Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1). Specification of Basic
   Notation. ITU-T Rec. X.680 (2002) | ISO/IEC 8824-1:2002.

   [DDJ]  I. Goldberg and E. Wagner, "Randomness and the Netscape
   Browser", Dr. Dobb's Journal, 1996, (pages 66-70).

   [BP] K. Scott, and S. Burleigh, "Bundle Protocol Specification", Work
   in Progress, October 2003.

   [DTN] K. Fall, "A Delay-Tolerant Network Architecture for Challenged
   Internets", In Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM 2003, Karlsruhe, Germany,
   Aug 2003.

   [IPN] InterPlanetary Internet Special Interest Group web page,
   "http://www.ipnsig.org".

   [ECS94] D. Eastlake, S. Crocker, and J. Schiller, "Randomness
   Recommendations for Security", RFC 1750, December 1994.

   [SACK] M. Mathis, J. Mahdavi, S. Floyd, and A. Romanow, "TCP
   Selective Acknowledgement Options", RFC 2018, October 1996.

13.  Author's Addresses


      Manikantan Ramadas
      Internetworking Research Group
      301 Stocker Center



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      Ohio University
      Athens, OH 45701
      Telephone +1 (740) 593-1562
      Email mramadas@irg.cs.ohiou.edu

      Scott C. Burleigh
      Jet Propulsion Laboratory
      4800 Oak Grove Drive
      M/S: 179-206
      Pasadena, CA 91109-8099
      Telephone +1 (818) 393-3353
      FAX +1 (818) 354-1075
      Email Scott.Burleigh@jpl.nasa.gov

      Stephen Farrell
      Distributed Systems Group
      Computer Science Department
      Trinity College Dublin
      Ireland
      Telephone +353-1-608-3070
      Email stephen.farrell@cs.tcd.ie

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