[Docs] [txt|pdf] [Tracker] [WG] [Email] [Diff1] [Diff2] [Nits]

Versions: 00 01 02 03 draft-ietf-sipping-sec-flows

SIP WG                                                       C. Jennings
Internet-Draft                                             Cisco Systems
Expires: January 17, 2006                                         K. Ono
                                                         NTT Corporation
                                                           July 16, 2005


            Example call flows using SIP security mechanisms
                    draft-jennings-sip-sec-flows-03

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
   applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
   have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
   aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
   Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 17, 2006.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005).

Abstract

   This document shows call flows demonstrating the use of SIPS, TLS,
   and S/MIME in SIP.  This draft provides information that helps
   implementers build interoperable SIP software.  It is purely
   informational.  To help facilitate interoperability testing, it
   includes certificates used in the example call flows and a CA
   certificate to create certificates for testing.




Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006                [Page 1]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


   This work is being discussed on the sip@ietf.org mailing list.

Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119 [1].

Table of Contents

   1.   Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.   Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.   Certificates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.1  CA Certificates  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.2  Host Certificate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.3  User Certificates  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   4.   Callflow with Message Over TLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     4.1  TLS with Server Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     4.2  MESSAGE Message Over TLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   5.   Callflow with S/MIME-secured Message . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     5.1  MESSAGE Message with Signed Body . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     5.2  MESSAGE Message with Encrypted Body  . . . . . . . . . . .  21
     5.3  MESSAGE Message with Encrypted and Signed Body . . . . . .  24
   6.   Test Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
   7.   Open Issues  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
   8.   IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
   9.   Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
   10.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     10.1   Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     10.2   Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
        Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
   A.   Making Test Certificates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
     A.1  makeCA script  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
     A.2  makeCert script  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
   B.   Certificates for Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  41
        Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . .  46















Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006                [Page 2]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


1.  Introduction

   Several different groups are starting to implement the S/MIME[7]
   portion of SIP[2].  Over the last several interoperability events, it
   has become clear that it is difficult to write these systems without
   any test vectors or examples of "known good" messages to test
   against.  Furthermore, testing at the events is often hampered by
   trying to get certificates signed by some common test root into the
   appropriate format for various clients.  This document addresses both
   of these issues by providing detailed messages that give detailed
   examples that implementers can use for comparison and that can also
   be used for testing.  In addition, this document provides a common
   certificate that can be used for a CA to reduce the time it takes to
   set up a test at an interoperability event.  The document also
   provides some hints and clarifications for implementers.

   A simple SIP call flow using SIPS and TLS is shown in Section 4.  The
   certificates for the hosts used are shown in Section 3.2 and the CA
   certificates used to sign these are shown in Section 3.1.

   The text from Section 5.1 through Section 5.3 shows some simple SIP
   call flows using S/MIME to sign and encrypt the body of the message.
   The user certificates used in these examples are shown in
   Section 3.3.  These host certificates are signed with the same CA
   certificate.

   Section 6 presents a partial list of things implementers should check
   that they do in order to implement a secure system.

   A way to make certificates that can be used for interoperability
   testing is presented in Appendix A, along with methods for converting
   these to various formats.

   The S/MIME messages shown in this document were made using client
   implementations from the authors' respective companies.  These
   implementations are different code bases and though there may still
   be errors in these flows, the authors feel that the interoperability
   of these two clients bodes well for the correctness of the flows in
   this document.

2.  Security Considerations

   Implementers must never use any of the certificates provided in this
   document in anything but a test environment.  Installing the CA root
   certificates used in this document as a trusted root in operational
   software would completely destroy the security of the system while
   giving the user the impression that the system was operating
   securely.



Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006                [Page 3]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


   This document recommends some things that implementers might test or
   verify to improve the security of their implementations.  It is
   impossible to make a comprehensive list of these, and this document
   only suggests some of the most common mistakes that have been seen at
   the SIPit interoperability events.  Just because an implementation
   does everything this document recommends does not make it secure.

   The S/MIME examples use 3DES, but AES is preferred.

3.  Certificates

3.1  CA Certificates

   The certificate used by the CA to sign the other certificates is
   shown below.  This is a X509v3 certificate.  Note that the basic
   constraints allow it to be used as a CA.



































Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006                [Page 4]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


   Version: 3 (0x2)
   Serial Number: 0 (0x0)
   Signature Algorithm: sha1WithRSAEncryption
   Issuer: C=US, ST=California, L=San Jose, O=sipit,
           OU=Sipit Test Certificate Authority
   Validity
       Not Before: Jul 18 12:21:52 2003 GMT
       Not After : Jul 15 12:21:52 2013 GMT
   Subject: C=US, ST=California, L=San Jose, O=sipit,
           OU=Sipit Test Certificate Authority
   Subject Public Key Info:
       Public Key Algorithm: rsaEncryption
       RSA Public Key: (1024 bit)
           Modulus (1024 bit):
               00:c3:22:1e:83:91:c5:03:2c:3c:8a:f4:11:14:c6:
               4b:9d:fa:72:78:c6:b0:95:18:a7:e0:8c:79:ba:5d:
               a4:ae:1e:21:2d:9d:f1:0b:1c:cf:bd:5b:29:b3:90:
               13:73:66:92:6e:df:4c:b3:b3:1c:1f:2a:82:0a:ba:
               07:4d:52:b0:f8:37:7b:e2:0a:27:30:70:dd:f9:2e:
               03:ff:2a:76:cd:df:87:1a:bd:71:eb:e1:99:6a:c4:
               7f:8e:74:a0:77:85:04:e9:41:ad:fc:03:b6:17:75:
               aa:33:ea:0a:16:d9:fb:79:32:2e:f8:cf:4d:c6:34:
               a3:ff:1b:d0:68:28:e1:9d:e5
           Exponent: 65537 (0x10001)
   X509v3 extensions:
     X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:
       6B:46:17:14:EA:94:76:25:80:54:6E:13:54:DA:A1:E3:54:14:A1:B6
     X509v3 Authority Key Identifier:
       6B:46:17:14:EA:94:76:25:80:54:6E:13:54:DA:A1:E3:54:14:A1:B6
       DirName:/C=US/ST=California/L=San Jose/O=sipit/
                OU=Sipit Test Certificate Authority
       serial:00
     X509v3 Basic Constraints:
       CA:TRUE
   Signature Algorithm: sha1WithRSAEncryption
    96:6d:1b:ef:d5:91:93:45:7c:5b:1f:cf:c4:aa:47:52:0b:34:
    a8:50:fa:ec:fa:b4:2a:47:4c:5d:41:a7:3d:c0:d6:3f:9e:56:
    5b:91:1d:ce:a8:07:b3:1b:a4:9f:9a:49:6f:7f:e0:ce:83:94:
    71:42:af:fe:63:a2:34:dc:b4:5e:a5:ce:ca:79:50:e9:6a:99:
    4c:14:69:e9:7c:ab:22:6c:44:cc:8a:9c:33:6b:23:50:42:05:
    1f:e1:c2:81:88:5f:ba:e5:47:bb:85:9b:83:25:ad:84:32:ff:
    2a:5b:8b:70:12:11:83:61:c9:69:15:4f:58:a3:3c:92:d4:e8:
    6f:52


   The ASN.1 parse of the CA certificate is shown below.





Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006                [Page 5]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


       0:l= 804 cons: SEQUENCE
       4:l= 653 cons:  SEQUENCE
       8:l=   3 cons:   cont [ 0 ]
      10:l=   1 prim:    INTEGER           :02
      13:l=   1 prim:   INTEGER           :00
      16:l=  13 cons:   SEQUENCE
      18:l=   9 prim:    OBJECT            :sha1WithRSAEncryption
      29:l=   0 prim:    NULL
      31:l= 112 cons:   SEQUENCE
      33:l=  11 cons:    SET
      35:l=   9 cons:     SEQUENCE
      37:l=   3 prim:      OBJECT            :countryName
      42:l=   2 prim:      PRINTABLESTRING   :US
      46:l=  19 cons:    SET
      48:l=  17 cons:     SEQUENCE
      50:l=   3 prim:      OBJECT            :stateOrProvinceName
      55:l=  10 prim:      PRINTABLESTRING   :California
      67:l=  17 cons:    SET
      69:l=  15 cons:     SEQUENCE
      71:l=   3 prim:      OBJECT            :localityName
      76:l=   8 prim:      PRINTABLESTRING   :San Jose
      86:l=  14 cons:    SET
      88:l=  12 cons:     SEQUENCE
      90:l=   3 prim:      OBJECT            :organizationName
      95:l=   5 prim:      PRINTABLESTRING   :sipit
     102:l=  41 cons:    SET
     104:l=  39 cons:     SEQUENCE
     106:l=   3 prim:      OBJECT            :organizationalUnitName
     111:l=  32 prim:      PRINTABLESTRING   :
                           Sipit Test Certificate Authority
     145:l=  30 cons:   SEQUENCE
     147:l=  13 prim:    UTCTIME           :030718122152Z
     162:l=  13 prim:    UTCTIME           :130715122152Z
     177:l= 112 cons:   SEQUENCE
     179:l=  11 cons:    SET
     181:l=   9 cons:     SEQUENCE
     183:l=   3 prim:      OBJECT            :countryName
     188:l=   2 prim:      PRINTABLESTRING   :US
     192:l=  19 cons:    SET
     194:l=  17 cons:     SEQUENCE
     196:l=   3 prim:      OBJECT            :stateOrProvinceName
     201:l=  10 prim:      PRINTABLESTRING   :California
     213:l=  17 cons:    SET
     215:l=  15 cons:     SEQUENCE
     217:l=   3 prim:      OBJECT            :localityName
     222:l=   8 prim:      PRINTABLESTRING   :San Jose
     232:l=  14 cons:    SET
     234:l=  12 cons:     SEQUENCE



Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006                [Page 6]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


     236:l=   3 prim:      OBJECT            :organizationName
     241:l=   5 prim:      PRINTABLESTRING   :sipit
     248:l=  41 cons:    SET
     250:l=  39 cons:     SEQUENCE
     252:l=   3 prim:      OBJECT            :organizationalUnitName
     257:l=  32 prim:      PRINTABLESTRING   :
                           Sipit Test Certificate Authority
     291:l= 159 cons:   SEQUENCE
     294:l=  13 cons:    SEQUENCE
     296:l=   9 prim:     OBJECT            :rsaEncryption
     307:l=   0 prim:     NULL
     309:l= 141 prim:    BIT STRING
   00 30 81 89 02 81 81 00-c3 22 1e 83 91 c5 03 2c   .0.......".....,
   3c 8a f4 11 14 c6 4b 9d-fa 72 78 c6 b0 95 18 a7   <.....K..rx.....
   e0 8c 79 ba 5d a4 ae 1e-21 2d 9d f1 0b 1c cf bd   ..y.]...!-......
   5b 29 b3 90 13 73 66 92-6e df 4c b3 b3 1c 1f 2a   [)...sf.n.L....*
   82 0a ba 07 4d 52 b0 f8-37 7b e2 0a 27 30 70 dd   ....MR..7{..'0p.
   f9 2e 03 ff 2a 76 cd df-87 1a bd 71 eb e1 99 6a   ....*v.....q...j
   c4 7f 8e 74 a0 77 85 04-e9 41 ad fc 03 b6 17 75   ...t.w...A.....u
   aa 33 ea 0a 16 d9 fb 79-32 2e f8 cf 4d c6 34 a3   .3.....y2...M.4.
   ff 1b d0 68 28 e1 9d e5-02 03 01 00 01            ...h(........
     453:l= 205 cons:   cont [ 3 ]
     456:l= 202 cons:    SEQUENCE
     459:l=  29 cons:     SEQUENCE
     461:l=   3 prim:      OBJECT    :X509v3 Subject Key Identifier
     466:l=  22 prim:      OCTET STRING
   04 14 6b 46 17 14 ea 94-76 25 80 54 6e 13 54 da   ..kF....v%.Tn.T.
   a1 e3 54 14 a1 b6                                 ..T...
     490:l= 154 cons:     SEQUENCE
     493:l=   3 prim:      OBJECT    :X509v3 Authority Key Identifier
     498:l= 146 prim:      OCTET STRING
   30 81 8f 80 14 6b 46 17-14 ea 94 76 25 80 54 6e   0....kF....v%.Tn
   13 54 da a1 e3 54 14 a1-b6 a1 74 a4 72 30 70 31   .T...T....t.r0p1
   0b 30 09 06 03 55 04 06-13 02 55 53 31 13 30 11   .0...U....US1.0.
   06 03 55 04 08 13 0a 43-61 6c 69 66 6f 72 6e 69   ..U....Californi
   61 31 11 30 0f 06 03 55-04 07 13 08 53 61 6e 20   a1.0...U....San
   4a 6f 73 65 31 0e 30 0c-06 03 55 04 0a 13 05 73   Jose1.0...U....s
   69 70 69 74 31 29 30 27-06 03 55 04 0b 13 20 53   ipit1)0'..U... S
   69 70 69 74 20 54 65 73-74 20 43 65 72 74 69 66   ipit Test Certif
   69 63 61 74 65 20 41 75-74 68 6f 72 69 74 79 82   icate Authority.
   01                                                .
         0092 - <SPACES/NULS>
     647:l=  12 cons:     SEQUENCE
     649:l=   3 prim:      OBJECT            :X509v3 Basic Constraints
     654:l=   5 prim:      OCTET STRING
   30 03 01 01 ff                                    0....
     661:l=  13 cons:  SEQUENCE
     663:l=   9 prim:   OBJECT            :sha1WithRSAEncryption



Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006                [Page 7]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


     674:l=   0 prim:   NULL
     676:l= 129 prim:  BIT STRING
   00 96 6d 1b ef d5 91 93-45 7c 5b 1f cf c4 aa 47   ..m.....E|[....G
   52 0b 34 a8 50 fa ec fa-b4 2a 47 4c 5d 41 a7 3d   R.4.P....*GL]A.=
   c0 d6 3f 9e 56 5b 91 1d-ce a8 07 b3 1b a4 9f 9a   ..?.V[..........
   49 6f 7f e0 ce 83 94 71-42 af fe 63 a2 34 dc b4   Io.....qB..c.4..
   5e a5 ce ca 79 50 e9 6a-99 4c 14 69 e9 7c ab 22   ^...yP.j.L.i.|."
   6c 44 cc 8a 9c 33 6b 23-50 42 05 1f e1 c2 81 88   lD...3k#PB......
   5f ba e5 47 bb 85 9b 83-25 ad 84 32 ff 2a 5b 8b   _..G....%..2.*[.
   70 12 11 83 61 c9 69 15-4f 58 a3 3c 92 d4 e8 6f   p...a.i.OX.<...o
   52                                                R


3.2  Host Certificate

   The certificate for the host example.com is shown below.  Note that
   the Subject Alternative Name is set to example.com and is a DNS type.
   The certificates for the other hosts are shown in Appendix B.

































Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006                [Page 8]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


   Data:
       Version: 3 (0x2)
       Serial Number:
           01:95:00:71:02:33:00:55
       Signature Algorithm: sha1WithRSAEncryption
       Issuer: C=US, ST=California, L=San Jose, O=sipit,
               OU=Sipit Test Certificate Authority
       Validity
           Not Before: Feb  3 18:49:08 2005 GMT
           Not After : Feb  3 18:49:08 2008 GMT
       Subject: C=US, ST=California, L=San Jose, O=sipit,
                CN=example.com
       Subject Public Key Info:
           Public Key Algorithm: rsaEncryption
           RSA Public Key: (1024 bit)
               Modulus (1024 bit):
                   00:e6:31:76:b5:27:cc:8d:32:85:56:70:f7:c2:33:
                   33:32:26:42:5e:3c:68:71:7b:1f:79:50:d0:72:27:
                   3b:4a:af:f2:ce:d1:0c:bc:c0:5f:31:6a:43:e7:7c:
                   ad:64:bd:c7:e6:25:9f:aa:cd:2d:90:aa:68:84:62:
                   7b:05:be:43:a5:af:bb:ea:9d:a9:5b:a4:53:9d:22:
                   8b:da:96:2e:1f:3f:92:46:b8:cc:c8:24:3c:46:cd:
                   5d:2d:64:85:b1:a4:ca:01:f1:8e:c5:7e:0f:ff:00:
                   91:a3:ea:cb:3e:12:02:75:a4:bb:08:c8:d0:2a:ef:
                   b3:bb:72:7a:98:e5:ff:9f:81
               Exponent: 65537 (0x10001)
       X509v3 extensions:
           X509v3 Subject Alternative Name:
               DNS:example.com
           X509v3 Basic Constraints:
               CA:FALSE
           X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:
               22:EA:CB:38:66:1D:F1:96:0C:9A:47:B6:BB:1C:52:
               44:B0:77:65:8D
   Signature Algorithm: sha1WithRSAEncryption
       ae:eb:49:ed:1e:f1:8d:26:a9:6d:03:82:92:d5:df:44:c4:1e:
       1f:07:75:88:37:e4:76:97:35:12:59:98:79:78:16:6e:3b:b1:
       c0:2b:db:85:02:6b:74:c9:5b:19:92:da:7e:f5:41:0b:bc:d2:
       dd:45:aa:6f:be:24:dc:48:57:66:d9:2e:82:df:9e:8d:70:03:
       73:75:ef:8f:7a:56:4c:cc:42:bd:31:45:b0:5e:ff:d1:3b:c4:
       82:ee:fd:a7:c1:10:34:eb:81:49:1a:6b:86:7e:c7:61:1d:b3:
       b9:0a:02:bd:84:f8:47:af:cf:f1:a8:73:a8:31:1d:20:7a:06:
       7f:ac


3.3  User Certificates

   The user certificate for fluffy@example.com is shown below.  Note



Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006                [Page 9]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


   that the Subject Alternative Name has a list of names with different
   URL types such as a sip, im, or pres URL.  This is necessary for
   interoperating with CPIM gateway.  In this example, example.com is
   the domain for fluffy, the message could be coming from a host called
   example.com, and the AOR in the user certificate would still be the
   same.  The others are shown in Appendix B.













































Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 10]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


   Data:
       Version: 3 (0x2)
       Serial Number:
           01:95:00:71:02:33:00:58
       Signature Algorithm: sha1WithRSAEncryption
       Issuer: C=US, ST=California, L=San Jose, O=sipit,
               OU=Sipit Test Certificate Authority
       Validity
           Not Before: Feb  3 18:49:34 2005 GMT
           Not After : Feb  3 18:49:34 2008 GMT
       Subject: C=US, ST=California, L=San Jose, O=sipit,
                CN=fluffy@example.com
       Subject Public Key Info:
           Public Key Algorithm: rsaEncryption
           RSA Public Key: (1024 bit)
               Modulus (1024 bit):
                   00:ca:ab:9b:9b:4e:3c:d5:45:3c:ce:00:a6:36:a8:
                   b9:ec:d2:76:e2:b9:9b:e8:28:aa:ba:86:22:c5:cf:
                   33:3e:4f:6d:56:21:ae:bd:54:84:7c:14:14:f9:7d:
                   99:85:00:4e:93:d6:fd:6b:d4:d1:d4:55:8e:c9:89:
                   b1:af:2b:5f:23:99:4a:95:e5:68:65:64:1d:12:a7:
                   db:d3:d5:97:18:47:35:9c:e6:88:27:9d:a8:6c:ca:
                   2a:84:e6:62:d8:f1:e9:a2:1a:39:7e:0e:0f:90:a5:
                   a6:79:21:bc:2a:67:b4:dd:69:90:82:9a:ae:1f:02:
                   52:8a:58:d3:f5:d0:d4:66:67
               Exponent: 65537 (0x10001)
       X509v3 extensions:
           X509v3 Subject Alternative Name:
               URI:sip:fluffy@example.com, URI:im:fluffy@example.com,
               URI:pres:fluffy@example.com
           X509v3 Basic Constraints:
               CA:FALSE
           X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:
               EC:DA:98:5E:E9:F7:F7:D7:EC:2B:29:4B:DA:25:EE:C7:C7:
               7E:95:70
   Signature Algorithm: sha1WithRSAEncryption
       4c:46:49:6e:01:48:e2:d4:6e:d7:48:a1:f3:7b:c8:a5:98:37:
       a5:44:46:58:9f:4a:37:7d:90:fb:5f:ff:36:bd:67:31:f0:29:
       de:0a:e2:ea:b9:f0:5c:9f:ad:a0:de:e5:4e:42:8f:11:d8:41:
       ea:68:be:db:c2:1e:fa:e5:8a:2d:7f:66:13:29:e9:da:8f:fb:
       80:bf:7e:5e:b6:04:ad:08:5e:58:95:b7:c5:38:85:d5:65:31:
       ad:80:cb:28:a7:4c:ad:11:fd:41:3b:37:77:5a:de:85:96:3d:
       66:eb:5f:9a:f8:60:5f:8e:b1:fc:4a:43:53:b6:11:4d:2e:f4:
       3d:ff







Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 11]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


4.  Callflow with Message Over TLS

4.1  TLS with Server Authentication

   The flow below shows the edited SSLDump output of the host
   example.com forming a TLS connection to example.net.  In this example
   mutual authentication is not used.  Note that the client proposed
   three protocol suites including the required
   TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA.  The certificate returned by the server
   contains a Subject Alternative Name that is set to example.net.  A
   detailed discussion of TLS can be found in [11].


   New TCP connection #1: 127.0.0.1(55768) <-> 127.0.0.1(5061)
   1 1  0.0060 (0.0060)  C>SV3.1(49)  Handshake
         ClientHello
           Version 3.1
           random[32]=
             42 16 8c c7 82 cd c5 87 42 ba f5 1c 91 04 fb 7d
             4d 6c 56 f1 db 1d ce 8a b1 25 71 5a 68 01 a2 14
           cipher suites
           TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
           TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
           TLS_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
           compression methods
                     NULL
   1 2  0.0138 (0.0077)  S>CV3.1(74)  Handshake
         ServerHello
           Version 3.1
           random[32]=
             42 16 8c c7 c9 2c 43 42 bb 69 a5 ba f1 2d 69 75
             c3 8d 3a 85 78 19 f2 e4 d9 2b 72 b4 cc dd e4 72
           session_id[32]=
             06 37 e9 22 56 29 e6 b4 3a 6e 53 fe 56 27 ed 1f
             2a 75 34 65 f0 91 fc 79 cf 90 da ac f4 6f 64 b5
           cipherSuite         TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
           compressionMethod                   NULL
   1 3  0.0138 (0.0000)  S>CV3.1(1477)  Handshake
         Certificate
   1 4  0.0138 (0.0000)  S>CV3.1(4)  Handshake
         ServerHelloDone
   1 5  0.0183 (0.0045)  C>SV3.1(134)  Handshake
         ClientKeyExchange
           EncryptedPreMasterSecret[128]=
             a6 bd d9 4b 76 4b 9d 6f 7b 12 8a e4 52 75 9d 74
             4f 06 e4 b0 bc 69 96 d7 42 ba 77 01 b6 9e 64 b0
             ea c5 aa de 59 41 e4 f3 9e 1c 1c a9 48 f5 0a 3f
             5e c3 50 23 15 d7 46 1d 69 79 76 ba 5e c8 ac 39



Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 12]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


             23 71 d0 0c 18 a6 a9 77 0f 7d 49 61 ef 6f 8d 32
             54 f5 a4 1d 19 33 0a 64 ee 56 91 9b f4 f7 50 b1
             11 4b 81 46 4c 36 df 70 98 04 dc 5c 8a 16 a9 2e
             58 67 ae 5e 7a a9 44 2b 0b 7c 9c 2f 16 25 1a e9
   1 6  0.0183 (0.0000)  C>SV3.1(1)  ChangeCipherSpec
   1 7  0.0183 (0.0000)  C>SV3.1(48)  Handshake
   1 8  0.0630 (0.0447)  S>CV3.1(1)  ChangeCipherSpec
   1 9  0.0630 (0.0000)  S>CV3.1(48)  Handshake
   1 10 0.3274 (0.2643)  C>SV3.1(32)  application_data
   1 11 0.3274 (0.0000)  C>SV3.1(720)  application_data
   1 12 0.3324 (0.0050)  S>CV3.1(32)  application_data
   1 13 0.3324 (0.0000)  S>CV3.1(384)  application_data
   1    9.2491 (8.9166)  C>S  TCP FIN
   1    9.4023 (0.1531)  S>C  TCP FIN


4.2  MESSAGE Message Over TLS

   Once the TLS session is set up, the following MESSAGE message is sent
   from fluffy@example.com to kumiko@example.net.  Note that the URI has
   a SIPS URL and that the VIA indicates that TLS was used.  In order to
   format this document, it was necessary to break up some of the lines
   across continuation lines but the original messages have no
   continuations lines and no breaks in the Identity header field value.


   MESSAGE sips:kumiko@example.net SIP/2.0
   To: <sips:kumiko@example.net>
   From: <sips:fluffy@example.com>;tag=03de46e1
   Via: SIP/2.0/TLS 127.0.0.1:5071;
        branch=z9hG4bK-d87543-58c826887160f95f-1--d87543-;rport
   Call-ID: 0dc68373623af98a@Y2ouY2lzY28uc2lwaXQubmV0
   CSeq: 1 MESSAGE
   Contact: <sips:fluffy@127.0.0.1:5071;transport=TLS>
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Transfer-Encoding: binary
   Content-Type: text/plain
   Date: Sat, 19 Feb 2005 00:48:07 GMT
   User-Agent: SIPimp.org/0.2.5 (curses)
   Identity: qKUEWvgss+F0pQHJCyarb8IMbDh1d1gi1Aq51ty61bO+ug5ZQzo31xn
             MAFHUe0tzNVoyOfmGUY2dIEWJ2iZlGI5EW3RF5hGN9f0y39iCRqGEAE
             B4UG5ocU4RzgXfK3Durle/66rkyCaLPJQ/pzgA+qW/nQytSuzewhDrD
             FRrCBQ=
   Content-Length: 6

   Hello!

   The response is sent from example.net to example.com over the same



Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 13]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


   TLS connection.  It is shown below.


   SIP/2.0 200 OK
   To: <sips:kumiko@example.net>;tag=4c53f1b8
   From: <sips:fluffy@example.com>;tag=03de46e1
   Via: SIP/2.0/TLS 127.0.0.1:5071;
        branch=z9hG4bK-d87543-58c826887160f95f-1--d87543-;
        rport=55768;received=127.0.0.1
   Call-ID: 0dc68373623af98a@Y2ouY2lzY28uc2lwaXQubmV0
   CSeq: 1 MESSAGE
   Contact: <sips:kumiko@127.0.0.1:5061;transport=TLS>
   Content-Length: 0




5.  Callflow with S/MIME-secured Message

5.1  MESSAGE Message with Signed Body

   Example Signed Message.  The value on the Content-Type line has been
   broken across lines to fit on the page but it should not broken
   across lines in actual implementations.



























Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 14]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


   MESSAGE sip:kumiko@example.net SIP/2.0
   To: <sip:kumiko@example.net>
   From: <sip:fluffy@example.com>;tag=0c523b42
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 68.122.119.3:5060;
        branch=z9hG4bK-d87543-16a1192b7960f635-1--d87543-;rport
   Call-ID: 27bb7608596d8914@Y2ouY2lzY28uc2lwaXQubmV0
   CSeq: 1 MESSAGE
   Contact: <sip:fluffy@68.122.119.3:5060>
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Transfer-Encoding: binary
   Content-Type: multipart/signed;boundary=151aa2144df0f6bd;\
                 micalg=sha1;protocol=application/pkcs7-signature
   Date: Fri, 04 Feb 2005 20:17:12 GMT
   User-Agent: SIPimp.org/0.2.5 (curses)
   Content-Length: 1544

   --151aa2144df0f6bd
   Content-Type: text/plain
   Content-Transfer-Encoding: binary

   Hello
   --151aa2144df0f6bd
   Content-Type: application/pkcs7-mime;name=smime.p7s
   Content-Disposition: attachment;handling=required;filename=smime.p7s
   Content-Transfer-Encoding: binary

   *******************
   * BINARY BLOB 1   *
   *******************
   --151aa2144df0f6bd--

   It is important to note that the signature is computed across
   includes the header and excludes the boundary.  The value on the
   Message-body line ends with CRLF.  The CRLF is included in the
   boundary and should not be shown.


   Content-Type: text/plain
   Content-Transfer-Encoding: binary

   Hello

   ASN.1 parse of binary Blob 1.  Note that at address 30, the hash for
   the signature is specified as SHA1.  Also note that from address 52
   to 777, the sender's certificate is attached, although it is optional
   [8].

      0: SEQUENCE {



Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 15]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


      4:   OBJECT IDENTIFIER signedData (1 2 840 113549 1 7 2)
     15:   [0] {
     19:     SEQUENCE {
     23:       INTEGER 1
     26:       SET {
     28:         SEQUENCE {
     30:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER sha1 (1 3 14 3 2 26)
     37:           NULL
       :           }
       :         }
     39:       SEQUENCE {
     41:        OBJECT IDENTIFIER data (1 2 840 113549 1 7 1)
       :        }
     52:      [0] {
     56:        SEQUENCE {
     60:          SEQUENCE {
     64:            [0] {
     66:              INTEGER 2
       :              }
     69:            INTEGER 01 95 00 71 02 33 00 58
     79:            SEQUENCE {
     81:              OBJECT IDENTIFIER
       :                sha1withRSAEncryption (1 2 840 113549 1 1 5)
     92:              NULL
       :              }
     94:            SEQUENCE {
     96:              SET {
     98:                SEQUENCE {
    100:                  OBJECT IDENTIFIER countryName (2 5 4 6)
    105:                  PrintableString 'US'
       :                  }
       :                }
    109:              SET {
    111:                SEQUENCE {
    113:                OBJECT IDENTIFIER stateOrProvinceName (2 5 4 8)
    118:                PrintableString 'California'
       :                }
       :                }
    130:              SET {
    132:                SEQUENCE {
    134:                  OBJECT IDENTIFIER localityName (2 5 4 7)
    139:                  PrintableString 'San Jose'
       :                  }
       :                }
    149:              SET {
    151:                SEQUENCE {
    153:                  OBJECT IDENTIFIER organizationName (2 5 4 10)
    158:                  PrintableString 'sipit'



Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 16]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


       :                  }
       :                }
    165:              SET {
    167:               SEQUENCE {
    169:                OBJECT IDENTIFIER
       :                 organizationalUnitName (2 5 4 11)
    174:             PrintableString 'Sipit Test Certificate Authority'
       :                }
       :               }
       :              }
    208:            SEQUENCE {
    210:              UTCTime 03/02/2005 18:49:34 GMT
    225:              UTCTime 03/02/2008 18:49:34 GMT
       :              }
    240:            SEQUENCE {
    242:              SET {
    244:                SEQUENCE {
    246:                  OBJECT IDENTIFIER countryName (2 5 4 6)
    251:                  PrintableString 'US'
       :                  }
       :                }
    255:              SET {
    257:               SEQUENCE {
    259:                OBJECT IDENTIFIER stateOrProvinceName (2 5 4 8)
    264:                  PrintableString 'California'
       :                  }
       :                }
    276:              SET {
    278:                SEQUENCE {
    280:                  OBJECT IDENTIFIER localityName (2 5 4 7)
    285:                  PrintableString 'San Jose'
       :                  }
       :                }
    295:              SET {
    297:                SEQUENCE {
    299:                  OBJECT IDENTIFIER organizationName (2 5 4 10)
    304:                  PrintableString 'sipit'
       :                  }
       :                }
    311:              SET {
    313:                SEQUENCE {
    315:                  OBJECT IDENTIFIER commonName (2 5 4 3)
    320:                  TeletexString 'fluffy@example.com'
       :                  }
       :                }
       :              }
    340:            SEQUENCE {
    343:              SEQUENCE {



Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 17]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


    345:                OBJECT IDENTIFIER
       :                  rsaEncryption (1 2 840 113549 1 1 1)
    356:                NULL
       :                }
    358:              BIT STRING, encapsulates {
    362:                SEQUENCE {
    365:                  INTEGER
       :               00 CA AB 9B 9B 4E 3C D5 45 3C CE 00 A6 36 A8 B9
       :               EC D2 76 E2 B9 9B E8 28 AA BA 86 22 C5 CF 33 3E
       :               4F 6D 56 21 AE BD 54 84 7C 14 14 F9 7D 99 85 00
       :               4E 93 D6 FD 6B D4 D1 D4 55 8E C9 89 B1 AF 2B 5F
       :               23 99 4A 95 E5 68 65 64 1D 12 A7 DB D3 D5 97 18
       :               47 35 9C E6 88 27 9D A8 6C CA 2A 84 E6 62 D8 F1
       :               E9 A2 1A 39 7E 0E 0F 90 A5 A6 79 21 BC 2A 67 B4
       :               DD 69 90 82 9A AE 1F 02 52 8A 58 D3 F5 D0 D4 66
       :                        [ Another 1 bytes skipped ]
    497:                  INTEGER 65537
       :                  }
       :                }
       :              }
    502:            [3] {
    504:              SEQUENCE {
    506:                SEQUENCE {
    508:                  OBJECT IDENTIFIER subjectAltName (2 5 29 17)
    513:                  OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
    515:                    SEQUENCE {
    517:                      [6] 'sip:fluffy@example.com'
    541:                      [6] 'im:fluffy@example.com'
    564:                      [6] 'pres:fluffy@example.com'
       :                      }
       :                    }
       :                  }
    589:                SEQUENCE {
    591:                 OBJECT IDENTIFIER basicConstraints (2 5 29 19)
    596:                 OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
    598:                   SEQUENCE {}
       :                   }
       :                 }
    600:                SEQUENCE {
    602:                  OBJECT IDENTIFIER
                                 subjectKeyIdentifier (2 5 29 14)
    607:                  OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
    609:                    OCTET STRING
       :               EC DA 98 5E E9 F7 F7 D7 EC 2B 29 4B DA 25 EE C7
       :               C7 7E 95 70
       :                    }
       :                  }
       :                }



Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 18]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


       :              }
       :            }
    631:          SEQUENCE {
    633:            OBJECT IDENTIFIER
       :              sha1withRSAEncryption (1 2 840 113549 1 1 5)
    644:            NULL
       :            }
    646:          BIT STRING
       :            4C 46 49 6E 01 48 E2 D4 6E D7 48 A1 F3 7B C8 A5
       :            98 37 A5 44 46 58 9F 4A 37 7D 90 FB 5F FF 36 BD
       :            67 31 F0 29 DE 0A E2 EA B9 F0 5C 9F AD A0 DE E5
       :            4E 42 8F 11 D8 41 EA 68 BE DB C2 1E FA E5 8A 2D
       :            7F 66 13 29 E9 DA 8F FB 80 BF 7E 5E B6 04 AD 08
       :            5E 58 95 B7 C5 38 85 D5 65 31 AD 80 CB 28 A7 4C
       :            AD 11 FD 41 3B 37 77 5A DE 85 96 3D 66 EB 5F 9A
       :            F8 60 5F 8E B1 FC 4A 43 53 B6 11 4D 2E F4 3D FF
       :          }
       :        }
    778:      SET {
    782:        SEQUENCE {
    786:          INTEGER 1
    789:          SEQUENCE {
    791:            SEQUENCE {
    793:              SET {
    795:                SEQUENCE {
    797:                  OBJECT IDENTIFIER countryName (2 5 4 6)
    802:                  PrintableString 'US'
       :                  }
       :                }
    806:              SET {
    808:                SEQUENCE {
    810:                  OBJECT IDENTIFIER
                                 stateOrProvinceName (2 5 4 8)
    815:                  PrintableString 'California'
       :                  }
       :                }
    827:              SET {
    829:                SEQUENCE {
    831:                  OBJECT IDENTIFIER localityName (2 5 4 7)
    836:                  PrintableString 'San Jose'
       :                  }
       :                }
    846:              SET {
    848:                SEQUENCE {
    850:                  OBJECT IDENTIFIER organizationName (2 5 4 10)
    855:                  PrintableString 'sipit'
       :                  }
       :                }



Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 19]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


    862:              SET {
    864:                SEQUENCE {
    866:                  OBJECT IDENTIFIER
       :                    organizationalUnitName (2 5 4 11)
    871:                  PrintableString
                            'Sipit Test Certificate Authority'
       :                  }
       :                }
       :              }
    905:            INTEGER 01 95 00 71 02 33 00 58
       :            }
    915:          SEQUENCE {
    917:            OBJECT IDENTIFIER sha1 (1 3 14 3 2 26)
    924:            NULL
       :            }
    926:          [0] {
    929:            SEQUENCE {
    931:              OBJECT IDENTIFIER
                             contentType (1 2 840 113549 1 9 3)
    942:              SET {
    944:                OBJECT IDENTIFIER data (1 2 840 113549 1 7 1)
       :                }
       :              }
    955:            SEQUENCE {
    957:              OBJECT IDENTIFIER
                             signingTime (1 2 840 113549 1 9 5)
    968:              SET {
    970:                UTCTime 04/02/2005 20:17:12 GMT
       :                }
       :              }
    985:            SEQUENCE {
    987:              OBJECT IDENTIFIER
                             messageDigest (1 2 840 113549 1 9 4)
    998:              SET {
   1000:                OCTET STRING
       :                DA 23 80 0F 1E B9 E1 95 CC 7E 55 3D 49 AE C1 7A
       :                D5 99 DA 2B
       :                }
       :              }
   1022:            SEQUENCE {
   1024:              OBJECT IDENTIFIER
       :                sMIMECapabilities (1 2 840 113549 1 9 15)
   1035:              SET {
   1037:                SEQUENCE {
   1039:                  SEQUENCE {
   1041:                    OBJECT IDENTIFIER
       :                      des-EDE3-CBC (1 2 840 113549 3 7)
       :                    }



Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 20]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


   1051:                  SEQUENCE {
   1053:                    OBJECT IDENTIFIER
                                   rc2CBC (1 2 840 113549 3 2)
   1063:                    INTEGER 128
       :                    }
   1067:                  SEQUENCE {
   1069:                    OBJECT IDENTIFIER
                                   rc2CBC (1 2 840 113549 3 2)
   1079:                    INTEGER 64
       :                    }
   1082:                  SEQUENCE {
   1084:                    OBJECT IDENTIFIER
                                   desCBC (1 3 14 3 2 7)
       :                    }
   1091:                  SEQUENCE {
   1093:                    OBJECT IDENTIFIER
                                   rc2CBC (1 2 840 113549 3 2)
   1103:                    INTEGER 40
       :                    }
       :                  }
       :                }
       :              }
       :            }
   1106:          SEQUENCE {
   1108:            OBJECT IDENTIFIER
                           rsaEncryption (1 2 840 113549 1 1 1)
   1119:            NULL
       :            }
   1121:          OCTET STRING
       :            66 F0 C9 C0 78 69 27 F9 81 05 05 F1 E1 54 B9 5C
       :            3A 2B 34 68 0E 31 19 06 DD 00 34 40 66 DF D8 2F
       :            0C BC 6C 80 A2 0B 45 5B 68 36 81 C1 F2 8C AF CA
       :            0E 9B 9E A0 BD BC 4E 47 2D 99 B6 76 3E F5 9E B7
       :            77 78 BB A4 40 35 DE 2E 26 CE AB DA 70 A7 65 BA
       :            89 51 E9 AB F1 26 CA 54 1C 05 4D 01 B0 AE 75 6A
       :            3F A3 2C 5D 4F A0 46 77 45 6D 11 DE 7C F1 0D C4
       :            61 10 67 D2 3D 56 B2 3E A5 C1 2F 6E 0D 5C 4D FC
       :          }
       :        }
       :      }
       :    }
       :  }


5.2  MESSAGE Message with Encrypted Body

   Example encrypted message:




Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 21]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


   MESSAGE sip:kumiko@example.net SIP/2.0
   To: <sip:kumiko@example.net>
   From: <sip:fluffy@example.com>;tag=6d2a39e4
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 68.122.119.3:5060;
        branch=z9hG4bK-d87543-44ddc0a217a51788-1--d87543-;rport
   Call-ID: 031be67669ea9799@Y2ouY2lzY28uc2lwaXQubmV0
   CSeq: 1 MESSAGE
   Contact: <sip:fluffy@68.122.119.3:5060>
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Disposition: attachment;handling=required;filename=smime.p7
   Content-Transfer-Encoding: binary
   Content-Type: application/pkcs7-mime;\
                 smime-type=enveloped-data;name=smime.p7m
   Date: Fri, 04 Feb 2005 20:04:10 GMT
   User-Agent: SIPimp.org/0.2.5 (curses)
   Content-Length: 418

   *****************
   * BINARY BLOB 2 *
   *****************

   ASN.1 parse of binary Blob 2.  Note that at address 324, the
   encryption is set to des-ebe3-cbc.


      0: SEQUENCE {
      4:   OBJECT IDENTIFIER envelopedData (1 2 840 113549 1 7 3)
     15:   [0] {
     19:     SEQUENCE {
     23:       INTEGER 0
     26:       SET {
     30:         SEQUENCE {
     34:           INTEGER 0
     37:           SEQUENCE {
     39:             SEQUENCE {
     41:               SET {
     43:                 SEQUENCE {
     45:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER countryName (2 5 4 6)
     50:                   PrintableString 'US'
       :                   }
       :                 }
     54:               SET {
     56:                 SEQUENCE {
     58:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER
                                  stateOrProvinceName (2 5 4 8)
     63:                   PrintableString 'California'
       :                   }
       :                 }



Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 22]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


     75:               SET {
     77:                 SEQUENCE {
     79:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER localityName (2 5 4 7)
     84:                   PrintableString 'San Jose'
       :                   }
       :                 }
     94:               SET {
     96:                 SEQUENCE {
     98:                  OBJECT IDENTIFIER organizationName (2 5 4 10)
    103:                  PrintableString 'sipit'
       :                  }
       :                 }
    110:               SET {
    112:                 SEQUENCE {
    114:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER
       :                     organizationalUnitName (2 5 4 11)
    119:                   PrintableString
                             'Sipit Test Certificate Authority'
       :                   }
       :                 }
       :               }
    153:             INTEGER 01 95 00 71 02 33 00 57
       :             }
    163:           SEQUENCE {
    165:             OBJECT IDENTIFIER
                            rsaEncryption (1 2 840 113549 1 1 1)
    176:             NULL
       :             }
    178:           OCTET STRING
       :             BC 8A DF 69 69 F9 72 2A 13 32 62 DF FA 83 FE EF
       :             28 6A 3A 63 75 FC 2F 83 93 13 21 A0 62 FC 29 01
       :             35 F7 81 B2 3B 2E FD F8 E4 D3 DD E0 C3 52 32 13
       :             B0 37 31 9D 5C A0 41 3A C5 A5 95 C9 95 08 DA 47
       :             E9 1D 72 F8 75 71 B0 05 E0 0A B3 33 60 F2 9C 0B
       :             CF FB DE 2E BC 1B C5 8F AE 5F BB 9E 73 21 E2 E2
       :             2F 34 B7 2F F0 BB B8 94 76 8F 6D 4B 9A 7F CD 4E
       :             4A 01 0D 12 ED 70 81 00 8C B8 37 9E 6B 80 66 03
       :           }
       :         }
    309:       SEQUENCE {
    311:         OBJECT IDENTIFIER data (1 2 840 113549 1 7 1)
    322:         SEQUENCE {
    324:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER des-EDE3-CBC (1 2 840 113549 3 7)
    334:           OCTET STRING 05 8B C4 DC 50 5E D7 09
       :           }
    344:         [0]
       :           60 23 E0 B9 79 CC 39 5B 86 E9 87 8C C2 C6 A0 EE
       :           7A 15 3F 0A BB D8 F5 6C EF 4D 18 52 C1 25 65 F5



Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 23]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


       :           84 5F C7 1C 78 52 1D 33 37 2B 41 69 52 D0 7C FD
       :           67 A2 2E 96 2E AA 8F 6F 66 F2 9E 2F 74 12 A7 C7
       :           CC 9E 83 D1 D9 C4 57 A3
       :         }
       :       }
       :     }
       :   }


5.3  MESSAGE Message with Encrypted and Signed Body

   In the example below, one of the headers is contained in a box and is
   split across two lines.  This was only done to make it fit in the RFC
   format.  This header should not have the box around it and should be
   on one line with no whitespace between the "mime;" and the "smime-
   type".  Note that Content-Type is split across lines for formatting
   but is not split in the real message.


































Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 24]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


   MESSAGE sip:kumiko@example.net SIP/2.0
   To: <sip:kumiko@example.net>
   From: <sip:fluffy@example.com>;tag=361300da
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 68.122.119.3:5060;
        branch=z9hG4bK-d87543-0710dbfb18ebb8e6-1--d87543-;rport
   Call-ID: 5eda27a67de6283d@Y2ouY2lzY28uc2lwaXQubmV0
   CSeq: 1 MESSAGE
   Contact: <sip:fluffy@68.122.119.3:5060>
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Content-Transfer-Encoding: binary
   Content-Type: multipart/signed;boundary=1af019eb7754ddf7;\
                 micalg=sha1;protocol=application/pkcs7-signature
   Date: Fri, 04 Feb 2005 20:07:14 GMT
   User-Agent: SIPimp.org/0.2.5 (curses)
   Content-Length: 2079

   --1af019eb7754ddf7
   |--See note about stuff in this box --------------------|
   |Content-Type: application/pkcs7-mime;                  |
   |              smime-type=enveloped-data;name=smime.p7m |
   |-------------------------------------------------------|
   Content-Disposition: attachment;handling=required;filename=smime.p7
   Content-Transfer-Encoding: binary

   *****************
   * BINARY BLOB 3 *
   *****************
   --1af019eb7754ddf7
   Content-Type: application/pkcs7-mime;name=smime.p7s
   Content-Disposition: attachment;handling=required;filename=smime.p7s
   Content-Transfer-Encoding: binary

   *****************
   * BINARY BLOB 4 *
   *****************
   --1af019eb7754ddf7--

   Binary blob 3


      0: SEQUENCE {
      4:   OBJECT IDENTIFIER envelopedData (1 2 840 113549 1 7 3)
     15:   [0] {
     19:     SEQUENCE {
     23:       INTEGER 0
     26:       SET {
     30:         SEQUENCE {
     34:           INTEGER 0



Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 25]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


     37:           SEQUENCE {
     39:             SEQUENCE {
     41:               SET {
     43:                 SEQUENCE {
     45:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER countryName (2 5 4 6)
     50:                   PrintableString 'US'
       :                   }
       :                 }
     54:               SET {
     56:                 SEQUENCE {
     58:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER
                                  stateOrProvinceName (2 5 4 8)
     63:                   PrintableString 'California'
       :                   }
       :                 }
     75:               SET {
     77:                 SEQUENCE {
     79:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER localityName (2 5 4 7)
     84:                   PrintableString 'San Jose'
       :                   }
       :                 }
     94:               SET {
     96:                 SEQUENCE {
     98:                  OBJECT IDENTIFIER organizationName (2 5 4 10)
    103:                  PrintableString 'sipit'
       :                  }
       :                 }
    110:               SET {
    112:                 SEQUENCE {
    114:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER
       :                     organizationalUnitName (2 5 4 11)
    119:                   PrintableString
                             'Sipit Test Certificate Authority'
       :                   }
       :                 }
       :               }
    153:             INTEGER 01 95 00 71 02 33 00 57
       :             }
    163:           SEQUENCE {
    165:             OBJECT IDENTIFIER
                            rsaEncryption (1 2 840 113549 1 1 1)
    176:             NULL
       :             }
    178:           OCTET STRING
       :             0D 65 F7 54 9B A6 A5 42 2B 12 0E AC 70 16 20 52
       :             64 22 B8 61 24 DD 88 38 AA 59 B6 55 D9 73 79 B8
       :             7B 10 A9 13 1C A3 A4 00 CE F7 0A 81 80 5B 37 E3
       :             2E A4 16 58 43 DF A1 FF 8A FD 43 1C 52 D5 79 43



Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 26]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


       :             79 7F 7A FF CB 09 49 0F 2A 49 12 6C EC C5 58 0F
       :             4F 02 75 47 12 8C 8C 8F 84 49 FC 19 F0 24 9F F4
       :             7A 22 53 64 92 40 CA 03 41 3B 22 B7 E2 8A B5 79
       :             22 22 9F BC 10 65 0D 69 02 1C 51 35 6D A2 9D 77
       :           }
       :         }
    309:       SEQUENCE {
    311:         OBJECT IDENTIFIER data (1 2 840 113549 1 7 1)
    322:         SEQUENCE {
    324:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER des-EDE3-CBC (1 2 840 113549 3 7)
    334:           OCTET STRING E2 6A CB 3E F3 BC A2 00
       :           }
    344:         [0]
       :           62 45 2E 76 6F 99 83 F2 C5 0B 9C 87 9E 66 C5 38
       :           F1 57 68 5F CF F1 AF 44 5E 02 84 FF C3 76 94 D4
       :           9C 34 6B AD 2E 4A 1A 57 4B 88 4C A7 55 7C BF AB
       :           BB FD 15 E6 20 ED 22 36 73 2E 61 B5 69 37 A8 0C
       :           43 D1 A1 02 0E B9 B5 69
       :         }
       :       }
       :     }
       :   }

   Binary Blob 4


      0: SEQUENCE {
      4:   OBJECT IDENTIFIER signedData (1 2 840 113549 1 7 2)
     15:   [0] {
     19:     SEQUENCE {
     23:       INTEGER 1
     26:       SET {
     28:         SEQUENCE {
     30:           OBJECT IDENTIFIER sha1 (1 3 14 3 2 26)
     37:           NULL
       :           }
       :         }
     39:       SEQUENCE {
     41:         OBJECT IDENTIFIER data (1 2 840 113549 1 7 1)
       :         }
     52:       [0] {
     56:         SEQUENCE {
     60:           SEQUENCE {
     64:             [0] {
     66:               INTEGER 2
       :               }
     69:             INTEGER 01 95 00 71 02 33 00 58
     79:             SEQUENCE {



Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 27]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


     81:               OBJECT IDENTIFIER
       :                 sha1withRSAEncryption (1 2 840 113549 1 1 5)
     92:               NULL
       :               }
     94:             SEQUENCE {
     96:               SET {
     98:                 SEQUENCE {
    100:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER countryName (2 5 4 6)
    105:                   PrintableString 'US'
       :                   }
       :                 }
    109:               SET {
    111:                SEQUENCE {
    113:                 OBJECT IDENTIFIER stateOrProvinceName (2 5 4 8)
    118:                 PrintableString 'California'
       :                 }
       :                }
    130:               SET {
    132:                 SEQUENCE {
    134:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER localityName (2 5 4 7)
    139:                   PrintableString 'San Jose'
       :                   }
       :                 }
    149:               SET {
    151:                 SEQUENCE {
    153:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER organizationName (2 5 4 10)
    158:                   PrintableString 'sipit'
       :                   }
       :                 }
    165:               SET {
    167:                 SEQUENCE {
    169:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER
       :                     organizationalUnitName (2 5 4 11)
    174:                   PrintableString
                             'Sipit Test Certificate Authority'
       :                   }
       :                 }
       :               }
    208:             SEQUENCE {
    210:               UTCTime 03/02/2005 18:49:34 GMT
    225:               UTCTime 03/02/2008 18:49:34 GMT
       :               }
    240:             SEQUENCE {
    242:               SET {
    244:                 SEQUENCE {
    246:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER countryName (2 5 4 6)
    251:                   PrintableString 'US'
       :                   }



Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 28]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


       :                 }
    255:               SET {
    257:                 SEQUENCE {
    259:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER
                                   stateOrProvinceName (2 5 4 8)
    264:                   PrintableString 'California'
       :                   }
       :                 }
    276:               SET {
    278:                 SEQUENCE {
    280:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER localityName (2 5 4 7)
    285:                   PrintableString 'San Jose'
       :                   }
       :                 }
    295:               SET {
    297:                 SEQUENCE {
    299:                  OBJECT IDENTIFIER organizationName (2 5 4 10)
    304:                  PrintableString 'sipit'
       :                  }
       :                 }
    311:               SET {
    313:                 SEQUENCE {
    315:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER commonName (2 5 4 3)
    320:                   TeletexString 'fluffy@example.com'
       :                   }
       :                 }
       :               }
    340:             SEQUENCE {
    343:               SEQUENCE {
    345:                 OBJECT IDENTIFIER
       :                   rsaEncryption (1 2 840 113549 1 1 1)
    356:                 NULL
       :                 }
    358:               BIT STRING, encapsulates {
    362:                 SEQUENCE {
    365:                   INTEGER
       :                 00 CA AB 9B 9B 4E 3C D5 45 3C CE 00 A6 36 A8 B9
       :                 EC D2 76 E2 B9 9B E8 28 AA BA 86 22 C5 CF 33 3E
       :                 4F 6D 56 21 AE BD 54 84 7C 14 14 F9 7D 99 85 00
       :                 4E 93 D6 FD 6B D4 D1 D4 55 8E C9 89 B1 AF 2B 5F
       :                 23 99 4A 95 E5 68 65 64 1D 12 A7 DB D3 D5 97 18
       :                 47 35 9C E6 88 27 9D A8 6C CA 2A 84 E6 62 D8 F1
       :                 E9 A2 1A 39 7E 0E 0F 90 A5 A6 79 21 BC 2A 67 B4
       :                 DD 69 90 82 9A AE 1F 02 52 8A 58 D3 F5 D0 D4 66
       :                         [ Another 1 bytes skipped ]
    497:                   INTEGER 65537
       :                   }
       :                 }



Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 29]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


       :               }
    502:             [3] {
    504:               SEQUENCE {
    506:                 SEQUENCE {
    508:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER subjectAltName (2 5 29 17)
    513:                   OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
    515:                     SEQUENCE {
    517:                       [6] 'sip:fluffy@example.com'
    541:                       [6] 'im:fluffy@example.com'
    564:                       [6] 'pres:fluffy@example.com'
       :                       }
       :                     }
       :                   }
    589:                 SEQUENCE {
    591:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER
                                  basicConstraints (2 5 29 19)
    596:                   OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
    598:                     SEQUENCE {}
       :                     }
       :                   }
    600:                 SEQUENCE {
    602:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER
                                  subjectKeyIdentifier (2 5 29 14)
    607:                   OCTET STRING, encapsulates {
    609:                     OCTET STRING
       :                 EC DA 98 5E E9 F7 F7 D7 EC 2B 29 4B DA 25 EE C7
       :                 C7 7E 95 70
       :                     }
       :                   }
       :                 }
       :               }
       :             }
    631:           SEQUENCE {
    633:             OBJECT IDENTIFIER
       :               sha1withRSAEncryption (1 2 840 113549 1 1 5)
    644:             NULL
       :             }
    646:           BIT STRING
       :             4C 46 49 6E 01 48 E2 D4 6E D7 48 A1 F3 7B C8 A5
       :             98 37 A5 44 46 58 9F 4A 37 7D 90 FB 5F FF 36 BD
       :             67 31 F0 29 DE 0A E2 EA B9 F0 5C 9F AD A0 DE E5
       :             4E 42 8F 11 D8 41 EA 68 BE DB C2 1E FA E5 8A 2D
       :             7F 66 13 29 E9 DA 8F FB 80 BF 7E 5E B6 04 AD 08
       :             5E 58 95 B7 C5 38 85 D5 65 31 AD 80 CB 28 A7 4C
       :             AD 11 FD 41 3B 37 77 5A DE 85 96 3D 66 EB 5F 9A
       :             F8 60 5F 8E B1 FC 4A 43 53 B6 11 4D 2E F4 3D FF
       :           }
       :         }



Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 30]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


    778:       SET {
    782:         SEQUENCE {
    786:           INTEGER 1
    789:           SEQUENCE {
    791:             SEQUENCE {
    793:               SET {
    795:                 SEQUENCE {
    797:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER countryName (2 5 4 6)
    802:                   PrintableString 'US'
       :                   }
       :                 }
    806:               SET {
    808:                 SEQUENCE {
    810:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER
                                  stateOrProvinceName (2 5 4 8)
    815:                   PrintableString 'California'
       :                   }
       :                 }
    827:               SET {
    829:                 SEQUENCE {
    831:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER localityName (2 5 4 7)
    836:                   PrintableString 'San Jose'
       :                   }
       :                 }
    846:               SET {
    848:                 SEQUENCE {
    850:                  OBJECT IDENTIFIER organizationName (2 5 4 10)
    855:                  PrintableString 'sipit'
       :                  }
       :                 }
    862:               SET {
    864:                 SEQUENCE {
    866:                   OBJECT IDENTIFIER
       :                     organizationalUnitName (2 5 4 11)
    871:                   PrintableString
                             'Sipit Test Certificate Authority'
       :                   }
       :                 }
       :               }
    905:             INTEGER 01 95 00 71 02 33 00 58
       :             }
    915:           SEQUENCE {
    917:             OBJECT IDENTIFIER sha1 (1 3 14 3 2 26)
    924:             NULL
       :             }
    926:           [0] {
    929:             SEQUENCE {
    931:               OBJECT IDENTIFIER



Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 31]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


                              contentType (1 2 840 113549 1 9 3)
    942:               SET {
    944:                 OBJECT IDENTIFIER data (1 2 840 113549 1 7 1)
       :                 }
       :               }
    955:             SEQUENCE {
    957:               OBJECT IDENTIFIER
                              signingTime (1 2 840 113549 1 9 5)
    968:               SET {
    970:                 UTCTime 04/02/2005 20:07:14 GMT
       :                 }
       :               }
    985:             SEQUENCE {
    987:               OBJECT IDENTIFIER
                              messageDigest (1 2 840 113549 1 9 4)
    998:               SET {
   1000:                 OCTET STRING
       :                 58 ED 12 DD 68 18 99 96 F9 4C 81 4C A6 51 BD 84
       :                 A8 BA F3 6A
       :                 }
       :               }
   1022:             SEQUENCE {
   1024:               OBJECT IDENTIFIER
       :                 sMIMECapabilities (1 2 840 113549 1 9 15)
   1035:               SET {
   1037:                 SEQUENCE {
   1039:                   SEQUENCE {
   1041:                     OBJECT IDENTIFIER
       :                       des-EDE3-CBC (1 2 840 113549 3 7)
       :                     }
   1051:                   SEQUENCE {
   1053:                     OBJECT IDENTIFIER
                                rc2CBC (1 2 840 113549 3 2)
   1063:                     INTEGER 128
       :                     }
   1067:                   SEQUENCE {
   1069:                     OBJECT IDENTIFIER
                                rc2CBC (1 2 840 113549 3 2)
   1079:                     INTEGER 64
       :                     }
   1082:                   SEQUENCE {
   1084:                     OBJECT IDENTIFIER desCBC (1 3 14 3 2 7)
       :                     }
   1091:                   SEQUENCE {
   1093:                     OBJECT IDENTIFIER
                                rc2CBC (1 2 840 113549 3 2)
   1103:                     INTEGER 40
       :                     }



Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 32]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


       :                   }
       :                 }
       :               }
       :             }
   1106:           SEQUENCE {
   1108:             OBJECT IDENTIFIER
                            rsaEncryption (1 2 840 113549 1 1 1)
   1119:             NULL
       :             }
   1121:           OCTET STRING
       :             41 3C 43 53 6B EC 3A C2 E4 E2 1B 69 80 1B 68 54
       :             80 81 7F 33 05 DD 67 E8 ED D0 03 A0 90 4B AA 43
       :             D4 54 CA 04 C9 78 97 8A E7 93 C0 05 F6 FA 30 BC
       :             59 1B 5D 30 5D E3 92 94 BA 4D D6 23 C0 59 17 F2
       :             0A F5 2C 73 0B 54 26 11 C3 3E FE 4C C2 ED 0B 89
       :             30 15 55 38 4A 80 D1 D5 AA 11 89 3A 9D 4B 47 C4
       :             29 F9 CF B7 44 53 21 E0 36 7E 81 02 CC DB 4C 09
       :             2D CA A1 AA 1B 76 F9 83 5C 86 53 24 30 BD 94 69
       :           }
       :         }
       :       }
       :     }
       :   }


6.  Test Notes

   This section describes some common interoperability problems.
   Implementers should verify that their clients do the correct things
   and perhaps make their clients forgiving in what they receive, or at
   least have them produce reasonable error messages when interacting
   with software that has these problems.

   A common problem in interoperability is that some SIP clients do not
   support TLS and only do SSLv3.  Check that the client does use TLS.

   Many SIP clients were found to accept expired certificates with no
   warning or error.

   TLS and S/MIME can provide the identity of the peer that a client is
   communicating with in the Subject Alternative Name in the
   certificate.  The software must check that this name corresponds to
   the identity the server is trying to contact.  If a client is trying
   to set up a TLS connection to good.example.com and it gets a TLS
   connection set up with a server that presents a valid certificate but
   with the name evil.example.com, it must generate an error or warning
   of some type.  Similarly with S/MIME, if a user is trying to
   communicate with fluffy@example.com, the Subject Alternate Name field



Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 33]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


   in the certificate must match the AOR for fluffy.

   Some implementations used binary MIME encodings while others used
   base64.  There is no reason not to use binary - check that your
   implementation sends binary and preferably receives both.

7.  Open Issues

   The examples here attach the sender's certificates - is this how we
   want to go?

   Need to add Accept header field value with multipart to all of the
   examples.  Might also want to request congestion safety on all of
   them.

8.  IANA Considerations

   No IANA actions are required.

9.  Acknowledgments

   Many thanks to the developers of all the open source software used to
   create these call flows.  This includes the underling crypto and TLS
   software used from openssl.org, the SIP stack from
   www.resiprocate.org, and the SIMPLE IMPP agent from www.sipimp.org.
   The TLS flow dumps were done with SSLDump from
   http://www.rtfm.com/ssldump.  The book SSL and TLS [11] was a huge
   help in developing the code for these flows and is a great resource
   for anyone trying to implement TLS with SIP.

   Thanks to Dan Wing and Robert Sparks for catching many silly mistakes
   and to Tat Chan who caught a key problem in what the signature was
   being computed over.  Also thanks to Lyndsay Campbell.

10.  References

10.1  Normative References

   [1]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
        Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [2]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston, A.,
        Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E. Schooler, "SIP:
        Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261, June 2002.

   [3]  Housley, R., Polk, W., Ford, W., and D. Solo, "Internet X.509
        Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation
        List (CRL) Profile", RFC 3280, April 2002.



Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 34]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


   [4]  Dierks, T., Allen, C., Treese, W., Karlton, P., Freier, A., and
        P. Kocher, "The TLS Protocol Version 1.0", RFC 2246,
        January 1999.

   [5]  Blake-Wilson, S., Nystrom, M., Hopwood, D., Mikkelsen, J., and
        T. Wright, "Transport Layer Security (TLS) Extensions",
        RFC 3546, June 2003.

   [6]  Chown, P., "Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Ciphersuites for
        Transport Layer Security (TLS)", RFC 3268, June 2002.

   [7]  Ramsdell, B., "Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
        (S/MIME) Version 3.1 Message Specification", RFC 3851,
        July 2004.

   [8]  Housley, R., "Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)", RFC 3369,
        August 2002.

   [9]  Housley, R., "Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS) Algorithms",
        RFC 3370, August 2002.

10.2  Informative References

   [10]  Campbell, B., Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Huitema, C., and
         D. Gurle, "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Extension for
         Instant Messaging", RFC 3428, December 2002.

   [11]  Rescorla, E., "SSL and TLS - Designing and Building Secure
         Systems", 2001.


Authors' Addresses

   Cullen Jennings
   Cisco Systems
   170 West Tasman Drive
   Mailstop SJC-21/2
   San Jose, CA  95134
   USA

   Phone: +1 408 902-3341
   Email: fluffy@cisco.com









Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 35]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


   Kumiko Ono
   NTT Corporation
   Musashino-shi, Tokyo  180-8585
   Japan

   Phone: +81 422 59 4508
   Email: ono.kumiko@lab.ntt.co.jp

Appendix A.  Making Test Certificates

   These scripts allow you to make certificates for test purposes.  The
   certificates will all share a common CA root so that everyone running
   these scripts can have interoperable certificates.  WARNING - these
   certificates are totally insecure and are for test purposes only.
   All the CA created by this script share the same private key to
   facilitate interoperability testing, but this totally breaks the
   security since the private key of the CA is well known.

   The instructions assume a Unix-like environment with openssl
   installed, but openssl does work in Windows too.  Make sure you have
   openssl installed by trying to run "openssl".  Run the makeCA script
   found in Appendix A.1; this creates a subdirectory called demoCA.  If
   the makeCA script cannot find where your openssl is installed you
   will have to set an environment variable called OPENSSLDIR to
   whatever directory contains the file openssl.cnf.  You can find this
   with a "locate openssl.cnf".  You are now ready to make certificates.

   To create certs for use with TLS, run the makeCert script found in
   Appendix A.2 with the fully qualified domain name of the proxy you
   are making the certificate for.  For example, "makeCert
   host.example.net".  This will generate a private key and a
   certificate.  The private key will be left in a file named
   domain_key_example.net.pem in pem format.  The certificate will be in
   domain_cert_example.net.pem.  Some programs expect both the
   certificate and private key combined together in a PKCS12 format
   file.  This is created by the script and left in a file named
   example.net.p12.  Some programs expect this file to have a .pfx
   extension instead of .p12 - just rename the file if needed.  A filed
   with a certificate signing request, called example.net.csr, is also
   created an can be used to get the certificate signed by another CA.

   A second argument indicating the number of days for which the
   certificate should be valid can be passed to the makeCert script.  It
   is possible to make an expired certificate using the command
   "makeCert host.example.net 0".

   Anywhere that a password is used to protect a certificate, the
   password is set to the string "password".



Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 36]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


   The root certificate for the CA is in the file
   root_cert_fluffyCA.pem.

   For things that need DER format certificates, a certificate can be
   converted from PEM to DER with "openssl x509 -in cert.pem -inform PEM
   -out cert.der -outform DER".

   Some programs expect certificates in PKCS#7 format (with a file
   extension of .p7c).  You can convert these from PEM format with to
   PKCS#7 with "openssl crl2pkcs7 -nocrl -certfile cert.pem -certfile
   demoCA/cacert.pem -outform DER -out cert.p7c"

   IE, Outlook, and Netscape can import and export .p12 files and .p7c
   files.  You can convert a pkcs7 certificate to PEM format with
   "openssl pkcs7 -in cert.p7c -inform DER -outform PEM -out cert.pem".

   The private key can be converted to pkcs8 format with "openssl pkcs8
   -in a_key.pem -topk8 -outform DER -out a_key.p8c"

   In general, a TLS client will just need the root certificate of the
   CA.  A TLS server will need its private key and its certificate.
   These could be in two PEM files or one .p12 file.  An S/MIME program
   will need its private key and certificate, the root certificate of
   the CA, and the certificate for every other user it communicates
   with.

A.1  makeCA script


   #!/bin/sh
   #set -x

   rm -rf demoCA

   mkdir demoCA
   mkdir demoCA/certs
   mkdir demoCA/crl
   mkdir demoCA/newcerts
   mkdir demoCA/private
   #echo "01" > demoCA/serial
   hexdump -n 4 -e '4/1 "%04d"' /dev/random > demoCA/serial
   touch demoCA/index.txt

   # You may need to modify this for where your default file is
   # you can find where yours in by typing "openssl ca"
   for D in /etc/ssl /usr/local/ssl /sw/etc/ssl /sw/share/ssl; do
           CONF=${OPENSSLDIR:=$D}/openssl.cnf
           [ -f ${CONF} ] && break



Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 37]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


   done

   if [ ! -f $CONF  ]; then
       echo "Can not find file $CONF - set your OPENSSLDIR variable"
       exit
   fi
   cp $CONF openssl.cnf

   cat >> openssl.cnf  <<EOF
   [ cj_cert ]
   subjectAltName=\${ENV::ALTNAME}
   basicConstraints=CA:FALSE
   subjectKeyIdentifier=hash
   #authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid,issuer:always

   [ cj_req ]
   basicConstraints = CA:FALSE
   subjectAltName=\${ENV::ALTNAME}
   subjectKeyIdentifier=hash
   #authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid,issuer:always
   #keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment

   EOF

   cat > demoCA/private/cakey.pem <<EOF
   -----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
   Proc-Type: 4,ENCRYPTED
   DEK-Info: DES-EDE3-CBC,4B47A0A73ADE342E

   aHmlPa+ZrOV6v+Jk0SClxzpxoG3j0ZuyoVkF9rzq2bZkzVBKLU6xhWwjMDqwA8dH
   3fCRLhMGIUVnmymXYhTW9svI1gpFxMBQHJcKpV/SmgFn/fbYk98Smo2izHOniIiu
   NOu2zr+bMiaBphOAZ/OCtVUxUOoBDKN9lR39UCDOgkEQzp9Vbw7l736yu5H9GMHP
   JtGLJyx3RhS3TvLfLAJZhjm/wZ/9QM8GjyJEiDhMQRJVeIZGvv4Yr1u6yYHiHfjX
   tX2eds8Luc83HbSvjAyjnkLtJsAZ/8cFzrd7pjFzbogLdWuil+kpkkf5h1uzh7oa
   um0M1EXBE4tcDHsfg1iqEsDMIei/U+/rWfk1PrzYlklwZp8S03vulkDm1fT76W7d
   mRBg4+CrHA6qYn6EPWB37OBtfEqAfINnIcI1dWzso9A0bTPD4EJO0JA0PcZ/2JgT
   PaKySgooHQ8AHNQebelch6M5LFExpaOADJKrqauKcc2HeUxXaYIpac5/7drIl3io
   UloqUnMlGa3eLP7BZIMsZKCfHZ8oqwU4g6mmmJath2gODRDx3mfhH6yaimDL7v4i
   SAIIkrEHXfSyovrTJymfSfQtYxUraVZDqax6oj/eGllRxliGfMLYG9ceU+yU/8FN
   LE7P+Cs19H5tHHzx1LlieaK43u/XvbXHlB5mqL/fZdkUIBJsjbBVx0HR8eQl2CH9
   YJDMOPLADecwHoyKA0AY59oN9d41oF7yZtN9KwNdslROYH7mNJlqMMenhXCLN+Nz
   vVU5/7/ugZFhZqfS46c1WdmSvuqpDp7TBtMeaH/PXjysBr0iZffOxQ==
   -----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
   EOF

   cat > demoCA/cacert.pem <<EOF
   -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
   MIIDJDCCAo2gAwIBAgIBADANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQUFADBwMQswCQYDVQQGEwJVUzET



Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 38]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


   MBEGA1UECBMKQ2FsaWZvcm5pYTERMA8GA1UEBxMIU2FuIEpvc2UxDjAMBgNVBAoT
   BXNpcGl0MSkwJwYDVQQLEyBTaXBpdCBUZXN0IENlcnRpZmljYXRlIEF1dGhvcml0
   eTAeFw0wMzA3MTgxMjIxNTJaFw0xMzA3MTUxMjIxNTJaMHAxCzAJBgNVBAYTAlVT
   MRMwEQYDVQQIEwpDYWxpZm9ybmlhMREwDwYDVQQHEwhTYW4gSm9zZTEOMAwGA1UE
   ChMFc2lwaXQxKTAnBgNVBAsTIFNpcGl0IFRlc3QgQ2VydGlmaWNhdGUgQXV0aG9y
   aXR5MIGfMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBAQUAA4GNADCBiQKBgQDDIh6DkcUDLDyK9BEUxkud
   +nJ4xrCVGKfgjHm6XaSuHiEtnfELHM+9WymzkBNzZpJu30yzsxwfKoIKugdNUrD4
   N3viCicwcN35LgP/KnbN34cavXHr4ZlqxH+OdKB3hQTpQa38A7YXdaoz6goW2ft5
   Mi74z03GNKP/G9BoKOGd5QIDAQABo4HNMIHKMB0GA1UdDgQWBBRrRhcU6pR2JYBU
   bhNU2qHjVBShtjCBmgYDVR0jBIGSMIGPgBRrRhcU6pR2JYBUbhNU2qHjVBShtqF0
   pHIwcDELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxEzARBgNVBAgTCkNhbGlmb3JuaWExETAPBgNVBAcT
   CFNhbiBKb3NlMQ4wDAYDVQQKEwVzaXBpdDEpMCcGA1UECxMgU2lwaXQgVGVzdCBD
   ZXJ0aWZpY2F0ZSBBdXRob3JpdHmCAQAwDAYDVR0TBAUwAwEB/zANBgkqhkiG9w0B
   AQUFAAOBgQCWbRvv1ZGTRXxbH8/EqkdSCzSoUPrs+rQqR0xdQac9wNY/nlZbkR3O
   qAezG6Sfmklvf+DOg5RxQq/+Y6I03LRepc7KeVDpaplMFGnpfKsibETMipwzayNQ
   QgUf4cKBiF+65Ue7hZuDJa2EMv8qW4twEhGDYclpFU9YozyS1OhvUg==
   -----END CERTIFICATE-----
   EOF


   # uncomment the following lines to generate your own key pair

   #openssl req -newkey rsa:1024 -passin pass:password \
   #    -passout pass:password \
   #    -sha1 -x509 -keyout demoCA/private/cakey.pem \
   #    -out demoCA/cacert.pem -days 3650 <<EOF
   #US
   #California
   #San Jose
   #sipit
   #Sipit Test Certificate Authority
   #
   #
   #EOF

   openssl crl2pkcs7 -nocrl -certfile demoCA/cacert.pem \
           -outform DER -out demoCA/cacert.p7c

   cp demoCA/cacert.pem root_cert_fluffyCA.pem


A.2  makeCert script


   #!/bin/sh
   #set -x

   if [  $# == 1  ]; then



Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 39]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


     DAYS=1095
   elif [ $# == 2 ]; then
     DAYS=$2
   else
     echo "Usage: makeCert test.example.org [days]"
     echo "       makeCert alice@example.org [days]"
     echo "days is how long the certificate is valid"
     echo "days set to 0 generates an invalid certificate"
     exit 0
   fi

   ADDR=$1

   echo "making cert for ${ADDR}"

   rm -f ${ADDR}_*.pem
   rm -f ${ADDR}.p12

   case ${ADDR} in
   *:*) ALTNAME="URI:${ADDR}" ;;
   *@*) ALTNAME="URI:sip:${ADDR},URI:im:${ADDR},URI:pres:${ADDR}" ;;
   *)   ALTNAME="DNS:${ADDR}" ;;
   esac

   rm -f demoCA/index.txt
   touch demoCA/index.txt
   rm -f demoCA/newcerts/*

   export ALTNAME

   openssl genrsa  -out ${ADDR}_key.pem 1024
   openssl req -new  -config openssl.cnf -reqexts cj_req \
           -sha1 -key ${ADDR}_key.pem \
           -out ${ADDR}.csr -days ${DAYS} <<EOF
   US
   California
   San Jose
   sipit

   ${ADDR}



   EOF

   if [ $DAYS == 0 ]; then
   openssl ca -extensions cj_cert -config openssl.cnf \
       -passin pass:password -policy policy_anything \



Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 40]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


       -md sha1 -batch -notext -out ${ADDR}_cert.pem \
       -startdate 990101000000Z \
       -enddate 000101000000Z \
        -infiles ${ADDR}.csr
   else
   openssl ca -extensions cj_cert -config openssl.cnf \
       -passin pass:password -policy policy_anything \
       -md sha1 -days ${DAYS} -batch -notext -out ${ADDR}_cert.pem \
        -infiles ${ADDR}.csr
   fi

   openssl pkcs12 -passin pass:password \
       -passout pass:password -export \
       -out ${ADDR}.p12 -in ${ADDR}_cert.pem \
       -inkey ${ADDR}_key.pem -name ${ADDR} -certfile demoCA/cacert.pem

   openssl x509 -in ${ADDR}_cert.pem -noout -text

   case ${ADDR} in
   *@*) mv ${ADDR}_key.pem user_key_${ADDR}.pem;   \
        mv ${ADDR}_cert.pem user_cert_${ADDR}.pem ;;
   *)   mv ${ADDR}_key.pem domain_key_${ADDR}.pem; \
        mv ${ADDR}_cert.pem domain_cert_${ADDR}.pem ;;
   esac


Appendix B.  Certificates for Testing

   This section contains various certificates used for testing in PEM
   format.

   Fluffy's certificate.



















Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 41]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


   -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
   MIICzjCCAjegAwIBAgIIAZUAcQIzAFgwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEFBQAwcDELMAkGA1UE
   BhMCVVMxEzARBgNVBAgTCkNhbGlmb3JuaWExETAPBgNVBAcTCFNhbiBKb3NlMQ4w
   DAYDVQQKEwVzaXBpdDEpMCcGA1UECxMgU2lwaXQgVGVzdCBDZXJ0aWZpY2F0ZSBB
   dXRob3JpdHkwHhcNMDUwMjAzMTg0OTM0WhcNMDgwMjAzMTg0OTM0WjBiMQswCQYD
   VQQGEwJVUzETMBEGA1UECBMKQ2FsaWZvcm5pYTERMA8GA1UEBxMIU2FuIEpvc2Ux
   DjAMBgNVBAoTBXNpcGl0MRswGQYDVQQDFBJmbHVmZnlAZXhhbXBsZS5jb20wgZ8w
   DQYJKoZIhvcNAQEBBQADgY0AMIGJAoGBAMqrm5tOPNVFPM4ApjaouezSduK5m+go
   qrqGIsXPMz5PbVYhrr1UhHwUFPl9mYUATpPW/WvU0dRVjsmJsa8rXyOZSpXlaGVk
   HRKn29PVlxhHNZzmiCedqGzKKoTmYtjx6aIaOX4OD5ClpnkhvCpntN1pkIKarh8C
   UopY0/XQ1GZnAgMBAAGjfzB9MFEGA1UdEQRKMEiGFnNpcDpmbHVmZnlAZXhhbXBs
   ZS5jb22GFWltOmZsdWZmeUBleGFtcGxlLmNvbYYXcHJlczpmbHVmZnlAZXhhbXBs
   ZS5jb20wCQYDVR0TBAIwADAdBgNVHQ4EFgQU7NqYXun399fsKylL2iXux8d+lXAw
   DQYJKoZIhvcNAQEFBQADgYEATEZJbgFI4tRu10ih83vIpZg3pURGWJ9KN32Q+1//
   Nr1nMfAp3gri6rnwXJ+toN7lTkKPEdhB6mi+28Ie+uWKLX9mEynp2o/7gL9+XrYE
   rQheWJW3xTiF1WUxrYDLKKdMrRH9QTs3d1rehZY9ZutfmvhgX46x/EpDU7YRTS70
   Pf8=
   -----END CERTIFICATE-----

   Fluffy's private key


   -----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
   MIICXAIBAAKBgQDKq5ubTjzVRTzOAKY2qLns0nbiuZvoKKq6hiLFzzM+T21WIa69
   VIR8FBT5fZmFAE6T1v1r1NHUVY7JibGvK18jmUqV5WhlZB0Sp9vT1ZcYRzWc5ogn
   nahsyiqE5mLY8emiGjl+Dg+QpaZ5IbwqZ7TdaZCCmq4fAlKKWNP10NRmZwIDAQAB
   AoGAXgtxwoh0jBZ716/PcS+sTut+xUiRwxIT30fdHONACRr8RmqM1khAzf7XmMoi
   kegJjmrF3+K6l4g4IOcnL3y1wVCtzJ1f2QDTuVzAsvazZqI4+pNB4LaAb+JPNQ+4
   BtrQSXADXv7HfkUakzeZpgnJYw+zHWaVogKjcLDKHWdrbOECQQDpH/G+GsJ4mnrp
   wZF9OxKqKhqBO73ZONHDxu55AukLghGnFh1udqdCQ7EPsaCqLN82RS4gn/WDfnBh
   WB8DRavxAkEA3o6nMOMyKdsuqBbGyEPvaPDVmw973wtEohIj6MgwdYSUOhdKAurR
   hs09yVGy0QpjoNHIE0vi5lUhPxJ1+Xvv1wJBAL0Ry14DFfX6U/WBqB2I63pW62gk
   q7ShAH9nt8EtOxS6SNbaeMQ+Nyjm/ZNc3JEoE2BQezi6gsRCp6JLdduRhgECQD1p
   V7EhwCHUnVc8kbWJKXLnocmbyC6PyWx/XPFK7DRBVTWCX6XWbeKol7gJlzIfj8Y8
   nNzWP9IXA4mH6o3hKRkCQA+1er++Tx24uypEijIi7OK0bfjJUlrhCM9NVWxDKrzO
   3zpuUB7yzuxrbcMZI8JKQIHL0sWz7egscepxS+N61y8=
   -----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----

   Kumiko's certificate












Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 42]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


   -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
   MIICzjCCAjegAwIBAgIIAZUAcQIzAFcwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEFBQAwcDELMAkGA1UE
   BhMCVVMxEzARBgNVBAgTCkNhbGlmb3JuaWExETAPBgNVBAcTCFNhbiBKb3NlMQ4w
   DAYDVQQKEwVzaXBpdDEpMCcGA1UECxMgU2lwaXQgVGVzdCBDZXJ0aWZpY2F0ZSBB
   dXRob3JpdHkwHhcNMDUwMjAzMTg0OTIzWhcNMDgwMjAzMTg0OTIzWjBiMQswCQYD
   VQQGEwJVUzETMBEGA1UECBMKQ2FsaWZvcm5pYTERMA8GA1UEBxMIU2FuIEpvc2Ux
   DjAMBgNVBAoTBXNpcGl0MRswGQYDVQQDFBJrdW1pa29AZXhhbXBsZS5uZXQwgZ8w
   DQYJKoZIhvcNAQEBBQADgY0AMIGJAoGBANX6dhOhUuf+2I3lymzeuSDwHLZqMqnu
   3ISiIji/VlEoVUBFIHYjtxbmhIi40mEl4cqT+tVI6gY6Pe7VrL835Yr3AoLLeUB7
   4mXa7T152+jAxA4+nCVnIAkMrPxTDeBFEfn+qyCRPWyQ7WEgH3Vd9AufnC7aeafD
   pp+dcAOFZ2pBAgMBAAGjfzB9MFEGA1UdEQRKMEiGFnNpcDprdW1pa29AZXhhbXBs
   ZS5uZXSGFWltOmt1bWlrb0BleGFtcGxlLm5ldIYXcHJlczprdW1pa29AZXhhbXBs
   ZS5uZXQwCQYDVR0TBAIwADAdBgNVHQ4EFgQUNi5qQQ2G6AsiZK79cPEXYmPsqFIw
   DQYJKoZIhvcNAQEFBQADgYEABIFd9N/3/05AD7Kt9kKSdy6vFvncU1IaccuFfdXc
   QPfewY8NWwYKWsu588D4Nu77VQ++6a8AtjlJPSY/742Z4oKq1jfxdA+Uz/Z9cv2v
   6aM4oX7R5FTgJTbHRC0ueH32OhNlcLhSNGHzNWSrS8AbtNOlfLRJipZI3N0W5b6q
   09Q=
   -----END CERTIFICATE-----

   Kumiko's private key


   -----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
   MIICXQIBAAKBgQDV+nYToVLn/tiN5cps3rkg8By2ajKp7tyEoiI4v1ZRKFVARSB2
   I7cW5oSIuNJhJeHKk/rVSOoGOj3u1ay/N+WK9wKCy3lAe+Jl2u09edvowMQOPpwl
   ZyAJDKz8Uw3gRRH5/qsgkT1skO1hIB91XfQLn5wu2nmnw6afnXADhWdqQQIDAQAB
   AoGBANJktWrxyanxC47iLdpEWHVJgoHeA7jQ8yS6orl3cPDVnpVWIufmkCTFPfWM
   /Namv89HF3BVhD3hUHogwP03gcsIdxpccnu1wnmTW7IhSQXjBts0mEDbOw8S+WtS
   9NjRI4m1+86OflE+TVa3DtwCE/pEOKhFvcZHvXiosYMnucABAkEA6xqKEwR1zI/V
   u2B28Lcv0iafkJQDfPB3ooahQ+9qy5qUWgGZzXj6tM8YUusVqR/NCg8auqRC5uWD
   yonN98phQQJBAOj/Pp9yyO2NCVs4Mp5QSXDOlRAOuruMz6vlmURQO/8uBmHvETfC
   nkvqxxHjHW7mmusEY+ZIvRxmFV4RZcYByQECQHiT5/TQ+Mmti2TKmLXkffY+MOAp
   yZAulG0at2LsS82YvjVbVNJ5Fbvd6w+72iQfVz2teXv3+wgI9orOGoDXnwECQGrE
   I58PCzGHkkUBkHhpE+4kS7wK89hjYvpDAKOEHKoHHhecZAhoHv9suwHgT6l09IJD
   BcANjtLHmHz9feRpBwECQQCuIn02CMxFy5yhjj4nlmCRQ6w6KBWjY68xnN4Qj/g3
   SV+1HtmCclS0bK7e/IV6gOKn+MV3C+14JGdSRM+9HqcZ
   -----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----

   Certificate for example.com












Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 43]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


   -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
   MIICjDCCAfWgAwIBAgIIAZUAcQIzAFUwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEFBQAwcDELMAkGA1UE
   BhMCVVMxEzARBgNVBAgTCkNhbGlmb3JuaWExETAPBgNVBAcTCFNhbiBKb3NlMQ4w
   DAYDVQQKEwVzaXBpdDEpMCcGA1UECxMgU2lwaXQgVGVzdCBDZXJ0aWZpY2F0ZSBB
   dXRob3JpdHkwHhcNMDUwMjAzMTg0OTA4WhcNMDgwMjAzMTg0OTA4WjBbMQswCQYD
   VQQGEwJVUzETMBEGA1UECBMKQ2FsaWZvcm5pYTERMA8GA1UEBxMIU2FuIEpvc2Ux
   DjAMBgNVBAoTBXNpcGl0MRQwEgYDVQQDEwtleGFtcGxlLmNvbTCBnzANBgkqhkiG
   9w0BAQEFAAOBjQAwgYkCgYEA5jF2tSfMjTKFVnD3wjMzMiZCXjxocXsfeVDQcic7
   Sq/yztEMvMBfMWpD53ytZL3H5iWfqs0tkKpohGJ7Bb5Dpa+76p2pW6RTnSKL2pYu
   Hz+SRrjMyCQ8Rs1dLWSFsaTKAfGOxX4P/wCRo+rLPhICdaS7CMjQKu+zu3J6mOX/
   n4ECAwEAAaNEMEIwFgYDVR0RBA8wDYILZXhhbXBsZS5jb20wCQYDVR0TBAIwADAd
   BgNVHQ4EFgQUIurLOGYd8ZYMmke2uxxSRLB3ZY0wDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEFBQADgYEA
   rutJ7R7xjSapbQOCktXfRMQeHwd1iDfkdpc1ElmYeXgWbjuxwCvbhQJrdMlbGZLa
   fvVBC7zS3UWqb74k3EhXZtkugt+ejXADc3Xvj3pWTMxCvTFFsF7/0TvEgu79p8EQ
   NOuBSRprhn7HYR2zuQoCvYT4R6/P8ahzqDEdIHoGf6w=
   -----END CERTIFICATE-----

   Private key for example.com

   -----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
   MIICXgIBAAKBgQDmMXa1J8yNMoVWcPfCMzMyJkJePGhxex95UNByJztKr/LO0Qy8
   wF8xakPnfK1kvcfmJZ+qzS2QqmiEYnsFvkOlr7vqnalbpFOdIovali4fP5JGuMzI
   JDxGzV0tZIWxpMoB8Y7Ffg//AJGj6ss+EgJ1pLsIyNAq77O7cnqY5f+fgQIDAQAB
   AoGBANtRm2FkRv7seJ/wSA6OS6PnUeqJMZWVklo6xi9M86/oTbYA9VrNCqWBMqtW
   XboTG2dKx4KrtFMWGTiwv7esHLPsUB1jYF7/KEsRh4WoRxfeWoQlAY6VYXycg6b5
   X0uORdFMWL+WRxPmo8IhDKEwNyRyCyGQjfKpMj0724WjEqWxAkEA9MFDUQD+fL3N
   ImRQl9ns3nHIIbcrtfxGCFaj+EJEwsyc5gq7QxRc3niNVt5pogPP7+CxskLaPPKU
   TJmhtwixLQJBAPDE7hcDCPtsn9DIOXf/ZxXjfZAlAfwVsT+ggWQi5r63lGwjIbCT
   qO6TijtbSqqD0QqULTabVwpIdYyknQqQlCUCQGnkG322UmQhsdiJUh0Amex7ibyc
   hPrNVHdTFMnZ0en9oHwedHpHGw7dVTkaLNV9lL8RlY+sQMNRqDuj1EVeK1kCQQCH
   945FLI+b/OHbs9bQb0k10TyNdHjEdTOdrPSlKhiIx39n+gcCgsC5ylQb5RgrZzlb
   8gX+eocS5YyMmkGdP7yJAkEAsmGKAgt4nTfZY5L8PytPK8lCJjBLcyIllI3QEiMY
   K/81YWYQcqsg5/cLBZC26KgNvxkyLwxS220Djlm19HJKGQ==
   -----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----

   Certificate for example.net















Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 44]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


   -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
   MIICjDCCAfWgAwIBAgIIAZUAcQIzAFYwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEFBQAwcDELMAkGA1UE
   BhMCVVMxEzARBgNVBAgTCkNhbGlmb3JuaWExETAPBgNVBAcTCFNhbiBKb3NlMQ4w
   DAYDVQQKEwVzaXBpdDEpMCcGA1UECxMgU2lwaXQgVGVzdCBDZXJ0aWZpY2F0ZSBB
   dXRob3JpdHkwHhcNMDUwMjAzMTg0OTExWhcNMDgwMjAzMTg0OTExWjBbMQswCQYD
   VQQGEwJVUzETMBEGA1UECBMKQ2FsaWZvcm5pYTERMA8GA1UEBxMIU2FuIEpvc2Ux
   DjAMBgNVBAoTBXNpcGl0MRQwEgYDVQQDEwtleGFtcGxlLm5ldDCBnzANBgkqhkiG
   9w0BAQEFAAOBjQAwgYkCgYEA2w4I/bz/vxzVskUEF56EYjf4yUftpG8jhmIiwsA8
   AKLwc7CTnceW+tLmdDfUQLWw+HP4ky0tgQQA6pmviPORUNjuSj91dE7EJk3ZKePE
   3MZ2M5JL6CEFn3HEFnHOQKv3TMKIGSpUZJjHmm15yRPiAlx0Q2vJ29h4W52X1DPM
   62MCAwEAAaNEMEIwFgYDVR0RBA8wDYILZXhhbXBsZS5uZXQwCQYDVR0TBAIwADAd
   BgNVHQ4EFgQUHNoIc7Or6o1iTsM1PmWPdgbxUAwwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEFBQADgYEA
   VlSod7+XfvSKNsybqtWPaM8VnoRLFVXvukgQbsdv4wuv5bnDfwxdU25rdizBbql+
   m8Us+ky8ORw190v73mSeOro7KMv0mN1u2BaGUB/wjaRsH2HC+UZb0ok3vzZ+W8Re
   ECjcVyHNRGVw5Iu2W5iWcO/a/74vPaVBiFQQJBRSLxg=
   -----END CERTIFICATE-----<

   Private key for example.net

   -----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
   MIICXgIBAAKBgQDbDgj9vP+/HNWyRQQXnoRiN/jJR+2kbyOGYiLCwDwAovBzsJOd
   x5b60uZ0N9RAtbD4c/iTLS2BBADqma+I85FQ2O5KP3V0TsQmTdkp48TcxnYzkkvo
   IQWfccQWcc5Aq/dMwogZKlRkmMeabXnJE+ICXHRDa8nb2HhbnZfUM8zrYwIDAQAB
   AoGBAIrUP1CIutEldi3wXaKWfTI+ZPc0FeFz6mDdy0gAS0bf/WJk03lYqFA434Ni
   aqvEOu+LmEu2gzNUFTyZwE0ciMg3NQ0H57z7OvbnHa0LajiJROo7zkROrmE5GTIV
   v2WstOKJYsMdcTVa4VZd9cHH6zWXHtWDT+Y2MxrIerFnOYxBAkEA72cBQSE4SStZ
   KvodDuMjFXG97Z1F927Xe/47iWnYRKhVB/jwN9uYpJog2cQFgsIsRMltozi3huTP
   L8IKkI5N4QJBAOo95ShiRPcbXIXY1IcUGx1Rulr+paIAJwjuuutwrtCA1CbIKB0j
   vfGVr3mKBGV2XLmz15nNV+5WFiLRBiUgucMCQQCxf+63KnlADurS6ZTH5/KoQKfw
   WE568WzFWy8raBXYefJpsdHxqFiZmklHDIaFd5A5BBvNDA1O77EKGNWablghAkEA
   zbvpPqv4+LRuchy8pZtyKTE0JWHNZlkN79mGEO4ajITqUNmx6c4PsVUQFwayz87C
   qFQdxDdHyMyRiqjd5dQ1cwJAfJsXNGcOhilkV3xBy95tb3IsVP6G5DqwtID4hrYa
   Onf9xrVzh9M29Xp+AHcwS4Y0+UgiNrd5BlbZs+ALZPD/jw==
   -----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----

















Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 45]

Internet-Draft              SIP Secure Flows                   July 2005


Intellectual Property Statement

   The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
   Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed to
   pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in
   this document or the extent to which any license under such rights
   might or might not be available; nor does it represent that it has
   made any independent effort to identify any such rights.  Information
   on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC documents can be
   found in BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any
   assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result of an
   attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of
   such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this
   specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository at
   http://www.ietf.org/ipr.

   The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
   copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
   rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement
   this standard.  Please address the information to the IETF at
   ietf-ipr@ietf.org.


Disclaimer of Validity

   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
   OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
   ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
   INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE
   INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
   WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005).  This document is subject
   to the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and
   except as set forth therein, the authors retain all their rights.


Acknowledgment

   Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
   Internet Society.




Jennings & Ono          Expires January 17, 2006               [Page 46]


Html markup produced by rfcmarkup 1.108, available from http://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcmarkup/