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Versions: 00 01 RFC 4312

Network Working Group
Internet Draft                                                   A. Kato
March 2005                                      NTT Software Corporation
Expiration Date: June 2005                                     S. Moriai
                                        Sony Computer Entertainment Inc.
                                                                M. Kanda
                              Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation
                                                              March 2005

          The Camellia Cipher Algorithm and Its Use With IPsec
                <draft-kato-ipsec-ciph-camellia-01.txt>

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is subject to all provisions
   of section 3 of RFC 3667.  By submitting this Internet-Draft, each
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   RFC 3668.

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   This document describes the use of the Camellia block cipher
   algorithm in Cipher Block Chaining Mode, with an explicit IV, as
   a confidentiality mechanism within the context of the IPsec
   Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP).

1. Introduction

   Camellia was selected as a recommended cryptographic primitive by

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   the EU NESSIE (New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity and
   Encryption) project [NESSIE] and included in the list of
   cryptographic techniques for Japanese e-Government systems, which
   were selected by the Japan CRYPTREC (Cryptography Research,
   Evaluation Committees) [CRYPTREC] .  Camellia has been submitted to
   other several standardization bodies such as ISO (ISO/IEC 18033) and
   IETF S/MIME Mail Security Working Group [Camellia-CMS].

   Camellia supports 128-bit block size and 128-, 192-, and 256-bit key
   lengths, i.e. the same interface specifications as the Advanced
   Encryption Standard (AES) [AES].

   Camellia was jointly developed by NTT and Mitsubishi Electric
   Corporation in 2000. It was carefully designed to withstand all
   known cryptanalytic attacks and even to have a sufficiently large
   security leeway. It has been scrutinized by worldwide
   cryptographic experts.

   Camellia was also designed to have suitability for both software
   and hardware implementations and to cover all possible encryption
   applications that range from low-cost smart cards to high-speed
   network systems.  Compared to the AES, Camellia offers at least
   comparable encryption speed in software and hardware. Camellia has a
   Feistel structure, which is different from AES. It is rich for the
   IPsec community that has block cipher in which was well verified by
   the cryptographic expert with another structure. In addition, a
   distinguishing feature is its small hardware design.

   The Camellia homepage, http://info.isl.ntt.co.jp/camellia/,
   contains a wealth of information about camellia, including
   detailed specification, security analysis, performance figures,
   reference implementation, test vectors, and intellectual property
   information.

   The remainder of this document specifies the use of Camellia within
   the context of IPsec ESP.  For further information on how the various
   pieces of ESP fit together to provide security services, please refer
   to [ARCH], [ESP], and [ROAD].

1.1. Specification of Requirements

   The keywords "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" that
   appear in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   [RFC-2119].

2. The Camellia Cipher Algorithm

   All symmetric block cipher algorithms share common characteristics
   and variables, including mode, key size, weak keys, block size, and
   rounds.  The following sections contain descriptions of the relevant
   characteristics of Camellia.

   The algorithm specification and object identifiers are described in

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   [Camellia-Desc].

2.1. Mode

   NIST has defined 5 modes of operation for AES and other FIPS-approved
   ciphers [SP800-38a]: CBC (Cipher Block Chaining), ECB (Electronic
   CodeBook), CFB (Cipher FeedBack), OFB (Output FeedBack) and CTR
   (Counter).  The CBC mode is well defined and well understood for
   symmetric ciphers, and is currently required for all other ESP
   ciphers.  This document specifies the use of the Camellia cipher in
   CBC mode within ESP.  This mode requires an Initialization Vector
   (IV) that is the same size as the block size.  Use of a randomly
   generated IV prevents generation of identical cipher text from
   packets, which have identical data that spans the first block of the
   cipher algorithm's block size.

   The CBC IV is XOR'd with the first plaintext block before it is
   encrypted.  Then for successive blocks, the previous cipher text
   block is XOR'd with the current plain text, before it is encrypted.

   More information on CBC mode can be obtained in [MODES, CRYPTO-S].
   For the use of CBC mode in ESP with 64-bit ciphers, please see [CBC].

2.2. Key Size

   Camellia supports three key sizes: 128 bits, 192 bits, and 256 bits.
   The default key size is 128 bits, and all implementations MUST
   support this key size.  Implementations MAY also support key sizes of
   192 bits and 256 bits.

   Camellia uses a different number of rounds for each of the defined
   key sizes.  When a 128-bit key is used, implementations MUST use 18
   rounds.  When a 192-bit key is used, implementations MUST use 24
   rounds.  When a 256-bit key is used, implementations MUST use 24
   rounds.

2.3. Weak Keys

   At the time of writing this document there are no known weak keys for
   Camellia.

2.4. Block Size and Padding

   Camellia uses a block size of sixteen octets (128 bits).

   Padding is required by the algorithms to maintain a 16-octet
   (128-bit) block size.  Padding MUST be added, as specified in [ESP],
   such that the data to be encrypted (which includes the ESP Pad Length
   and Next Header fields) has a length that is a multiple of 16 octets.

   Because of the algorithm specific padding requirement, no additional
   padding is required to ensure that the ciphertext terminates on a
   4-octet boundary (i.e. maintaining a 16-octet block size guarantees
   that the ESP Pad Length and Next Header fields will be right aligned

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   within a 4-octet word).  Additional padding MAY be included, as
   specified in [ESP], as long as the 16-octet block size is maintained.

2.6. Performance

   Performance figures of Camellia are available at
   http://info.isl.ntt.co.jp/camellia/. It also includes performance
   comparison with the AES cipher and other AES finalists.
   [NESSIE] project has reported performance of Optimized
   Implementations independently.

3.  ESP Payload

   The ESP payload is made up of the IV followed by raw cipher-text.
   Thus the payload field, as defined in [ESP], is broken down according
   to the following diagram:

   +---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
   |                                                               |
   +               Initialization Vector (16 octets)               +
   |                                                               |
   +---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
   |                                                               |
   ~ Encrypted Payload (variable length, a multiple of 16 octets)  ~
   |                                                               |
   +---------------------------------------------------------------+

   The IV field MUST be the same size as the block size of the cipher
   algorithm being used.  The IV MUST be chosen at random, and MUST be
   unpredictable.

   Including the IV in each datagram ensures that decryption of each
   received datagram can be performed, even when some datagrams are
   dropped, or datagrams are re-ordered in transit.

   To avoid CBC encryption of very similar plaintext blocks in different
   packets, implementations MUST NOT use a counter or other low-Hamming
   distance source for IVs.

3.1.  ESP Algorithmic Interactions

   Currently, there are no known issues regarding interactions between
   the Camellia and other aspects of ESP, such as use of certain
   authentication schemes.

3.2.  Keying Material

   The minimum number of bits sent from the key exchange protocol to the
   ESP algorithm must be greater than or equal to the key size.

   The cipher's encryption and decryption key is taken from the first
   128, 192, or 256 bits of the keying material.

4. Interaction with IKE

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   Camellia was designed to follow the same API as the AES cipher.
   Therefore, this section defines only Phase 1 Identifier and Phase 2
   Identifier.  Any other consideration related to interaction with IKE
   is the same as that of the AES cipher.  Details can be found in
   [AES-IPSEC].

4.1. Phase 1 Identifier

   For Phase 1 negotiations, IANA has assigned an Encryption Algorithm
   ID of (TBD1) for CAMELLIA-CBC.

4.2. Phase 2 Identifier

   For Phase 2 negotiations, IANA has assigned an ESP Transform
   Identifier of (TBD2) for ESP_CAMELLIA.

5. Security Considerations

   Implementations are encouraged to use the largest key sizes they can
   when taking into account performance considerations for their
   particular hardware and software configuration.  Note that encryption
   necessarily affects both sides of a secure channel, so such
   consideration must take into account not only the client side, but
   the server as well.  However, a key size of 128 bits is considered
   secure for the foreseeable future.

   No security problem has been found on Camellia [CRYPTREC][NESSIE].

6.  IANA Considerations

   IANA has assigned Encryption Algorithm ID (TBD1) to CAMELLIA-CBC.
   IANA has assigned ESP Transform Identifier (TBD2) to ESP_CAMELLIA.

7.  Acknowledgments

    Portions of this text were unabashedly borrowed from [AES-IPSEC].

    This work was done when the first author worked for NTT.

8. References

8.1. Normative References

   [Camellia-Desc]
               Matsui, M., Nakajima, J., Moriai, S., "A Description of
               the Camellia Encryption Algorithm", RFC3713, April 2004.

   [ESP]       Kent, S. and R. Atkinson, "IP Encapsulating Security
               Payload (ESP)", RFC 2406, November 1998.

   [CBC]       Pereira, R. and R. Adams, "The ESP CBC-Mode Cipher
               Algorithms," RFC 2451, November 1998.


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8.2 Informative References

   [AES]       NIST, FIPS PUB 197, "Advanced Encryption Standard
               (AES)," November 2001.
               http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips/fips197/
               fips-197.{ps,pdf}.

   [AES-IPSEC] Frankel, S., S. Kelly, and R. Glenn, "The AES Cipher
               Algorithm and Its Use With IPsec," RFC 3602,
               September, 2003.

   [ARCH]      Kent, S. and R. Atkinson, "Security Architecture for
               the Internet Protocol", RFC 2401, November 1998.

   [Camellia-CMS]
               Moriai, S. and Kato, A., "Use of the Camellia
               Encryption Algorithm in CMS", January 2004, RFC3657.

   [CRYPTO-S]  Schneier, B., "Applied Cryptography Second Edition",
               John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 1995, ISBN
               0-471-12845-7.

   [CRYPTREC]  Information-technology Promotion Agency (IPA), Japan,
               CRYPTREC.
               http://www.ipa.go.jp/security/enc/CRYPTREC/
               index-e.html.

   [IKE]       Harkins, D. and D. Carrel, "The Internet Key Exchange
               (IKE)", RFC 2409, November 1998.

   [SP800-38a] Dworkin, M., "Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of
               Operation - Methods and Techniques", NIST Special
               Publication 800-38A, December 2001.

   [NESSIE]    The NESSIE project (New European Schemes for
               Signatures, Integrity and Encryption),
               http://www.cosic.esat.kuleuven.ac.be/nessie/.

   [ROAD]      Thayer, R., N. Doraswamy and R. Glenn, "IP Security
               Document Roadmap", RFC 2411, November 1998.

   [RFC-2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
               Requirement Levels", RFC-2119, March 1997.

9. Authors' Addresses

   Akihiro Kato
   NTT Software Corporation
   Phone: +81-45-212-7934
   FAX:   +81-45-212-7410
   Email: akato@po.ntts.co.jp

   Shiho Moriai
   Sony Computer Entertainment Inc.

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   Phone: +81-3-6438-7523
   FAX:   +81-3-6438-8629
   Email: camellia@isl.ntt.co.jp (Camellia team)
          shiho "at" rd.scei.sony.co.jp (Shiho Moriai)

   Masayuki Kanda
   Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation
   Phone: +81-46-859-2437
   FAX:   +81-46-859-3365
   Email: kanda@isl.ntt.co.jp

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