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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 RFC 6882

Network Working Group
Internet Draft                                            K. Kumaki, Ed.
Intended Status: Standards Track                        KDDI Corporation
Created: October 8, 2010                                        T. Murai
Expires: April 8, 2011                  Furukawa Network Solutions Corp.
                                                             T. Yamagata
                                                        KDDI Corporation
                                                               C. Sasaki
                                                           KDDI R&D Labs


                       Support for RSVP-TE in L3VPNs
                  draft-kumaki-murai-l3vpn-rsvp-te-00.txt

Abstract

   IP Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) provide connectivity between sites
   across an IP backbone. These VPNs can be supported using BGP/MPLS and
   the connections can be created by using MPLS Traffic Engineered (TE)
   Label Switched Paths (LSPs).

   New RSVP-TE extensions are required to support multiple MPLS-TE based
   BGP/MPLS IP-VPNs that are interconnected via the same Provider Edge
   (PE) routers. These extensions are necessary so that RSVP control
   messages from the Customer Edge (CE) equipment, such as Path messages
   and Resv messages, are appropriately handled by the PE routers. This
   document defines the procedure and objects that enable a PE router
   to distinguish between BGP/MPLS IP-VPNs.


Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
   Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 12, 2011.

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with
   respect to this document.  Code Components extracted from this
   document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in
   Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without
   warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1. Introduction..................................................3
   2. Problem Statement.............................................3
   3. Protocol Extensions and Procedures............................4
      3.1 Object Definitions........................................5
      3.1.1 LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv4 and LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv6 SESSION Objet
      ..............................................................5
      3.1.2 LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv4 and LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv6 SENDER_TEMPLATE
      objects.......................................................6
      3.1.3 LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv4 and LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv6 FILTER_SPEC
      objects.......................................................7
      3.1.4 VPN-IPv4 and VPN-IPv6 RSVP_HOP objects..................8
      3.2 Handling..................................................8
      3.2.1 Path Message Processing at Ingress PE...................8
      3.2.2 Path Message Processing at Egress PE....................9
      3.2.3 Resv Processing at Egress PE............................10
      3.2.4 Resv Processing at Ingress PE...........................10
   4. Security Considerations.......................................10
   5. IANA Considerations...........................................10
   6. References....................................................11
      6.1 Normative References......................................11
      6.2 Informative References....................................11
   7. Acknowledgments...............................................11
   8. Author's Addresses............................................12


Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].




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1. Introduction

   Some Service Providers would like to use BGP/MPLS IP-VPNs to support
   connections between Customer Edge (CE) sites. These connections can
   be established using MPLS Traffic Engineered (TE) Label Switched
   Paths (LSPs). [RFC3209] defines extensions to RSVP for establishing a
   customer LSP using MPLS. In order to establish a customer MPLS-TE LSP
   over BGP/MPLS IP-VPNs, it is necessary for the RSVP control messages,
   including Path messages and Resv messages described in [RFC3209], to
   be appropriately handled by the Provider Edge (PE) routers. The
   requirements for supporting BGP/MPLS RSVP-TE based IP-VPNs are
   documented in [RFC5824].

   [RSVP-L3VPN] defines the new types of existing objects (i.e. SESSION,
   SENDER_TEMPLATE, FILTERSPEC and RSVP_HOP) described in [RFC2205] to
   establish reservations for customer flows in the context of a
   BGP/MPLS IP-VPNs. Section 7.4 (Support for CE-CE RSVP-TE) of
   [RSVP-L3VPN], describes the procedure used in this draft.

   This document defines new object types in SESSION, SENDER_TEMPLATE
   and FILTERSPEC object to establish a customer MPLS TE LSP in the
   context of BGP/IP-VPNs and describes a procedure of RSVP control
   messages including new object types. The new object types are
   defined in section 3.1 (Object Definitions) and the specific
   procedure is described in section 3.2 (Handling).

2. Problem Statement

   Customer MPLS TE LSPs in the context of BGP/MPLS IP-VPNs are shown in
   figure 1. Here, we make the following set of assumptions.

   1. VPN1 and VPN2 are completely different customers.
   2. CE1 and CE3 are head-end routers.
   3. CE2 and CE4 are tail-end routers.
   4. A same address (e.g., 192.0.2.1) is assigned at CE2 and CE4.










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     <--------A customer MPLS TE LSP for VPN1-------->

   .......                                        .......
   . --- .    ---      ---       ---      ---     . --- .
   .|CE1|----|PE1|----|P1 |-----|P2 |----|PE2|-----|CE2|.
   . --- .    ---      ---       ---      ---     . --- .
   .......     |                           |      .......
   (VPN1)      |                           |      (VPN1)
               |                           |
   .......     |                           |      .......
   . --- .     |                           |      . --- .
   .|CE3|------+                           +-------|CE4|.
   . --- .                                        . --- .
   .......                                        .......
   (VPN2)                                         (VPN2)

     <--------A customer MPLS TE LSP for VPN2-------->
               ^                           ^
               |                           |
          VRF instance                VRF instance

   <-Customer->    <---BGP/MPLS IP-VPN--->   <-Customer->
      network                                   network

     Figure 1 Customer MPLS TE LSPs in the context of BGP/MPLS IP-VPNs

   Consider that customers in VPN1 and VPN2 would like to establish a
   customer MPLS TE LSP between their sites (i.e., between CE1 and CE2,
   between CE3 and CE4). In this situation the following RSVP-TE
   Path messages would be sent:

      1. CE1 would send a Path message to PE1 to establish
         the MPLS TE LSP (VPN1) between CE1 and CE2.

      2. CE3 would also send a Path message to PE1 to establish
         the MPLS TE LSP (VPN2) between CE1 and CE2.

   After receiving each Path messages, PE1 can identify each
   Path message from each incoming interface. Afterwards, PE1
   forwards the messages to PE2 by routing information described in
   [RFC4364] and [RFC4659]. However, the current RSVP control message
   specification [RFC3209] does not specify how PE2 is able to identify
   each Path message (i.e., the Path message for VPN1 and VPN2).
   Additionally, Resv messages per VPN sent from PE2 cannot be
   identified at PE1.






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   In order to distinguish between the VPN1 Path/Resv messages and the
   VPN2 Path/Resv messages, an identifier in Path/Resv messages is
   required. This document proposes a number of additional objects
   that extend RSVP. These new object types are SESSION,
   SENDER_TEMPLATE and FILTERSPEC object. These new objects will act as
   identifiers and allow PEs to distinguish Path/Resv messages per
   VPN in the context of BGP/MPLS IP-VPNs.


3. Protocol Extensions and Procedures

3.1 Object Definitions

3.1.1 LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv4 and LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv6 SESSION Object

   The LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv4 (or VPN-IPv6) SESSION Object appears in RSVP
   messages that ordinarily contain a SESSION Object and are sent
   between ingress PE and egress PE in either direction. The object MUST
   NOT be included in any RSVP messages that are sent outside of the
   provider's backbone.

   The LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv6 SESSION Object is analogous to the
   LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv4 SESSION Object, using a VPN-IPv6 address
   ([RFC4659]) instead of a VPN-IPv4 address ([RFC4364]).

   The formats of the objects are as follows:

   Class = SESSION, LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv4 C-Type = TBA


    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |            VPN-IPv4 tunnel end point address (12 bytes)       |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  MUST be zero                 |      Tunnel ID                |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                       Extended Tunnel ID                      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


   Class = SESSION, LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv6 C-Type = TBA





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    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |            VPN-IPv6 tunnel end point address                  |
   +                                                               +
   |                            (24 bytes)                         |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  MUST be zero                 |      Tunnel ID                |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                       Extended Tunnel ID                      |
   +                                                               +
   |                            (16 bytes)                         |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The VPN-IPv4 tunnel end point address (respectively VPN-IPv6 tunnel
   end point address) field contains an address of the VPN-IPv4
   (and VPN-IPv6) address family encoded as specified in [RFC4364]
   and [RFC4659].

   The Tunnel ID and Extended Tunnel ID are identical to the same fields
   in the LSP_TUNNEL_IPv4 and LSP_TUNNEL_IPv6 SESSION objects
   as per [RFC3209].

3.1.2 LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv4 and LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv6 SENDER_TEMPLATE
objects

   The LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv4 (or VPN-IPv6) SENDER_TEMPLATE Object appears
   in RSVP messages that ordinarily contain a SENDER_TEMPLATE Object and
   are sent between ingress PE and egress PE in either direction (such
   as Path, PathError, and PathTear).  The object MUST NOT be included
   in any RSVP messages that are sent outside of the provider's
   backbone. The format of the object is as follows:







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     Class = SENDER_TEMPLATE, LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv4 C-Type = TBA

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |            VPN-IPv4 tunnel sender address (12 bytes)          |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  MUST be zero                 |            LSP ID             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

     Class = SENDER_TEMPLATE, LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv6 C-Type = TBA

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |            VPN-IPv6 tunnel sender address                     |
   +                                                               +
   |                            (24 bytes)                         |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  MUST be zero                 |            LSP ID             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


   The VPN-IPv4 tunnel sender address (respectively VPN-IPv6 tunnel
   sender address) field contains an address of the VPN-IPv4
   (respectively VPN-IPv6) address family encoded as specified in
   [RFC4364] and [RFC4659].

   The LSP ID is identical to the LSP ID field in the LSP_TUNNEL_IPv4
   and LSP_TUNNEL_IPv6 SENDER_TEMPLATE objects as per [RFC3209].

3.1.3 LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv4 and LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv6 FILTER_SPEC objects

   The LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv4 (or VPN-IPv6) FILTER_SPEC Object appears in
   RSVP messages that ordinarily contain a FILTER_SPEC Object and are
   sent between ingress PE and egress PE in either direction (such as
   Resv, ResvError, and ResvTear).  The object MUST NOT be included in
   any RSVP messages that are sent outside of the provider's backbone.

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      Class = FILTER SPECIFICATION, LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv4 C-Type = TBA

   The format of the LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv4 FILTER_SPEC Object is identical
   to the LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv4 SENDER_TEMPLATE Object.

      Class = FILTER SPECIFICATION, LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv6 C-Type = TBA

   The format of the LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv6 FILTER_SPEC Object is identical
   to the LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv6 SENDER_TEMPLATE Object.

3.1.4 VPN-IPv4 and VPN-IPv6 RSVP_HOP objects

   The format of the VPN-IPv4 and VPN-IPv6 RSVP_HOP objects are
   identical to objects described in [RSVP-L3VPN].

3.2 Handling

   It assumes that ingress PEs and egress PEs in the context of BGP/MPLS
   IP-VPNs have RSVP capabilities.

3.2.1 Path Message Processing at Ingress PE

   When a Path message arrives at the ingress PE (PE1 in Figure 1), the
   PE needs to establish suitable Path state and forward the Path
   message on to the egress PE (PE2 in Figure 1). In this section
   we described the message handling process at the ingress PE.

      1. CE1 would send a Path message to PE1 to establish the MPLS TE
         LSP (VPN1) between CE1 and CE2. The Path message
         is addressed to the eventual destination (the receiver at the
         remote customer site) and carries the IP Router Alert option,
         in accordance with [RFC2205].  The ingress PE must recognize
         the router alert, intercept these messages and process them
         as RSVP signalling messages.

      2. When the ingress PE receives a Path message from a CE that is
         addressed to the receiver, the VRF that is associated with the
         incoming interface can be identified (this step does not
         deviate from current behavior).

      3. The tunnel end point address of the receiver is looked up in
         the appropriate VRF, and the BGP Next-Hop for that tunnel end
         point address is identified. The next-hop is the egress PE.

      4. A new LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv4/VPN-IPv6 SESSION Object is
         constructed, containing the Route Distinguisher (RD) that is
         part of the VPN-IPv4/VPN-IPv6 route prefix for this tunnel end
         point address, and the IPv4/IPv6 tunnel end point address from
         the original SESSION Object.


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      5. A new LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-Pv4/IPv6 SENDER_TEMPLATE Object is
         constructed, with the original IPv4/IPv6 tunnel sender address
         from the incoming SENDER_TEMPLATE plus the RD that is used by
         the PE to advertise the prefix for the customers VPN.

      6. A new Path message is sent containing all the objects from the
         original Path message, replacing the original SESSION and
         SENDER_TEMPLATE objects with the new
         LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv4/VPN-IPv6 type objects. This Path message is
         sent without IP Router Alert.

3.2.2 Path Message Processing at Egress PE

   In this section we described the message handling process at the
   egress PE.

       1. When a Path message arrives at the egress PE (PE2 in Figure 1)
          , it is addressed to the PE itself, and is handed to RSVP for
          processing.

       2. The router extracts the RD and IPv4/IPv6 address from the
          LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv4/VPN-IPv6 SESSION Object, and determines
          the local VRF context by finding a matching VPN-IPv4 prefix
          with the specified RD that has been advertised by this router
          into BGP.

       3. The entire incoming RSVP message, including the VRF
          information, is stored as part of the Path state.

       4. The egress PE can now construct a Path message which differs
          from the Path message it received in the following ways:

            a.  Its tunnel end point address is the IP address extracted
                from the SESSION Object;

            b.  The SESSION and SENDER_TEMPLATE objects are converted
                back to IPv4-type/IPv6-type by discarding the attached
                RD;

            c. The RSVP_HOP Object contains the IP address of the
               outgoing interface of the egress PE and an LIH, as per
               normal RSVP processing.

        5. The egress PE then sends the Path message on towards its
           tunnel end point address over the interface identified above.
           This Path message carries the IP Router-Alert option as
           required by [RFC2205].




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3.2.3 Resv Processing at Egress PE

   When a receiver at the customer site originates a Resv message for
   the session, normal RSVP procedures apply until the Resv, making its
   way back towards the sender, arrives at the "egress" PE (it is
   "egress" with respect to the direction of data flow, i.e.  PE2 in
   figure 1).  On arriving at PE2, the SESSION and FILTER_SPEC objects
   in the Resv, and the VRF in which the Resv was received, are used to
   find the matching Path state stored previously.

   The PE constructs a Resv message to send to the RSVP HOP stored in
   the Path state, i.e., the ingress PE (PE1 in Figure 1).  The LSP
   TUNNEL IPv4/IPv6 SESSION Object is replaced with the same
   LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv4/VPN-IPv6 SESSION Object received in the Path. The
   LSP TUNNEL IPv4/IPv6 FILTER_SPEC Object is replaced with a
   LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv4/VPN-IPv6 FILTER_SPEC Object, which copies the
   VPN-IPv4/VPN-IPv6 address from the LSP TUNNEL SENDER_TEMPLATE
   received in the matching Path message.

   The Resv message MUST be addressed to the IP address contained within
   the RSVP_HOP Object in the Path message.

3.2.4 Resv Processing at Ingress PE

   Upon receiving a Resv message at the ingress PE (with respect to data
   flow, i.e.  PE1 in Figure 1), the PE determines the local VRF context
   and associated Path state for this Resv by decoding the received
   SESSION and FILTER_SPEC objects.  It is now possible to generate a
   Resv message to send to the appropriate CE.  The Resv message sent to
   the ingress CE will contain LSP TUNNEL IPv4/IPv6 SESSION and LSP
   TUNNEL FILTER_SPEC objects, derived from the appropriate Path state.

4.  Security Considerations

   This document defines RSVP-TE extensions for BGP/MPLS IP-VPNs. Hence
   the security of the RSVP-TE extensions relies on the security of
   RSVP-TE extensions for LSP tunnels.

   The security issues are described in the existing RSVP-TE extensions
   for LSP tunnels. [RFC3209]

5.  IANA Considerations

   IANA maintains a registry of RSVP parameters. As described in Section
   3 (Protocol Extensions and Procedures) six new Class Types (C-types)
   have been defined. IANA is requested to make the following
   allocations from the "RSVP C-Types" sub-registry:




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   Class = SESSION, LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv4 C-Type = TBA
   Class = SESSION, LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv6 C-Type = TBA
   Class = SENDER_TEMPLATE, LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv4 C-Type = TBA
   Class = SENDER_TEMPLATE, LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv6 C-Type = TBA
   Class = FILTER SPECIFICATION, LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv4 C-Type = TBA
   Class = FILTER SPECIFICATION, LSP_TUNNEL_VPN-IPv6 C-Type = TBA

6.  References

6.1 Normative References

   [RFC2119]     Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
                 Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3209]     Awduche, D., Berger, L., Gan, D., Li, T., Srinivasan,
                 V. and Swallow, G., "RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for
                 LSP Tunnels", RFC 3209, December 2001.

6.2 Informative References

   [RFC5824]     Kumaki, K., Zhang, R. and Kamite, Y., "Requirements for
                 supporting Customer RSVP and RSVP-TE over a BGP/MPLS
                 IP-VPN", RFC 5824, April 2010.

   [RFC6016]     Davie, B., Faucheur, F. and Narayanan, A., "Support for
                 the Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) in Layer 3
                 VPNs",  RFC 6016, October 2010.

   [RFC2205]     Braden, B., Zhang, L., Berson, S., Herzog, S., and
                 Jamin, S., "Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) --
                 Version 1 Functional Specification", RFC 2205,
                 September 1997.

   [RFC4364]     Rosen, E. and Y. Rekhter, "BGP/MPLS IP Virtual Private
                 Networks (VPNs)", RFC 4364, February 2006.

   [RFC4659]     De Clercq, J., Ooms, D., Carugi, M., and
                 F. Le Faucheur, "BGP-MPLS IP Virtual Private Network
                 (VPN) Extension for IPv6 VPN", RFC 4659,
                 September 2006.

7. Acknowledgments

   The author would like to express thanks to Makoto Nakamura for his
   helpful and useful comments and feedback.





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8. Author's Addresses

Kenji Kumaki
   KDDI Corporation
   Garden Air Tower
   Iidabashi, Chiyoda-ku,
   Tokyo 102-8460, JAPAN
   Email: ke-kumaki@kddi.com

   Tomoki Murai
   Furukawa Network Solutions Corp.
   5-1-9, HIGASHI-YAWATA, HIRATSUKA
   Kanagawa 254-0016, JAPAN
   Email: murai@fnsc.co.jp

   Tomohiro Yamagata
   KDDI Corporation
   Garden Air Tower
   Iidabashi, Chiyoda-ku,
   Tokyo 102-8460, JAPAN
   Email: to-yamagata@kddi.com

   Chikara Sasaki
   KDDI R&D Laboratories, Inc.
   2-1-15 Ohara Fujimino
   Saitama 356-8502, JAPAN
   Email: ch-sasaki@kddilabs.jp

























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