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Versions: 00 01 02 03

Network Working Group                                             J. Lee
Internet-Draft                                            H. Schulzrinne
Intended status: Standards Track                             Columbia U.
Expires: January 13, 2009                                    W. Kellerer
                                                           Z. Despotovic
                                                             DoCoMo Euro
                                                           July 12, 2008


                 SIP URI Service Discovery using DNS-SD
                      draft-lee-sip-dns-sd-uri-03

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
   applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 13, 2009.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008).











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Abstract

   This document describes how to use the DNS-based Service Discovery
   (DNS-SD), better known as Apple Bonjour, for advertising Session
   Initiation Protocol (SIP) URIs in local area networks.  Using this
   mechanism, a SIP user agent (UA) can communicate with another UA even
   when no SIP registrar is available, as in a wireless ad-hoc network
   for example.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Requirements Notation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.  Overview of Operation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   4.  SIP URI Advertisement Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.1.  SIP URI Service Instance Name  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.2.  TXT Record Attributes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       4.2.1.  txtvers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       4.2.2.  name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       4.2.3.  contact  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   5.  Making a Call Using Discovered SIP URI . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     5.1.  Forming the SIP Request  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     5.2.  Sending the SIP Request  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   6.  User Interface Guidelines  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   7.  Other Related Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     7.1.  SIP Multicast  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     7.2.  "sip" DNS-SD Service Type  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     7.3.  Peer-to-Peer SIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   8.  Transport Protocol in Service Instance Name  . . . . . . . . . 18
   9.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   10. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   11. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 23
















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1.  Introduction

   The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) [RFC3261], an application-layer
   protocol for controlling multimedia sessions such as voice-over-IP
   calls, uses SIP Uniform Resource Identifiers (SIP URIs) to represent
   who to contact or where to place a call.  There are two types of SIP
   URIs.  An Address-of-Record (AOR) represents the user's logical
   identity, analogous to an email address.  A contact URI, on the other
   hand, indicates the network location of a host machine or a
   communication device where the user can be currently reached.  The
   mappings between AORs and contact URIs are stored using SIP servers
   called registrars, and they are used by SIP servers called proxy
   servers to route calls (Section 10, [RFC3261]).  For example, Carol,
   whose AOR is sip:carol@chicago.com, registers
   sip:carol@cube2214a.chicago.com as the current contact location using
   the registrar for the chicago.com domain.  When the proxy server for
   the chicago.com domain receives a call request for
   sip:carol@chicago.com, it looks up the binding and routes the request
   to cube2214a.chicago.com.

   Server-based mechanisms are not suitable for all types of networks,
   however.  Consider, for example, a wireless ad-hoc network formed
   temporarily to address a specific situation, such as disaster
   recovery.  In this case, it is clearly impractical to deploy SIP
   servers and configure user agents (UAs) to use the servers.  What is
   needed here is a mechanism for the SIP UAs to learn the identities
   and locations of each other without using any server.

   DNS-based Service Discovery (DNS-SD) [I-D.cheshire-dnsext-dns-sd] and
   Multicast DNS (mDNS) [I-D.cheshire-dnsext-multicastdns], better known
   as Apple Bonjour, provide a generic multicast-based solution for
   discovering services available in a local network without requiring
   any server deployment.  DNS-SD/mDNS defines a set of naming rules for
   certain DNS record types that it uses for advertising and discovering
   services.  PTR records are used to enumerate service instances of a
   given service type.  A service instance name is mapped to a host name
   and a port number using a SRV record.  If a service instance has more
   information to advertise than the host name and port number contained
   in its SRV record, the additional information is carried in a TXT
   record.

   Those DNS records are not stored in a conventional unicast DNS
   server.  Instead, they are stored in a collection of mDNS daemons,
   which are limited-functionality DNS servers running on each host in a
   local subnet.  The mDNS daemons collectively manage a special top-
   level domain, ".local.", which is used for names that are meaningful
   only in a local subnet.  The queries and answers are sent via link-
   local multicast using UDP port 5353 instead of 53, the conventional



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   port for DNS.  Thus, an application can advertise a network service
   to the local subnet by creating appropriate DNS records and
   depositing them into the mDNS daemon running on the same host.  The
   mDNS daemon will then respond with these records when it hears a
   multicast query for a matching service.  We will see an example of
   this process in Section 3.  Note that creating DNS records and
   storing them with mDNS are usually done by invoking API calls in a
   DNS-SD/mDNS client library implementation.  A hardware device can
   also advertise its network service using DNS-SD/mDNS, in which case a
   stripped-down implementation of mDNS customized for the specific
   service is usually embedded in the device.

   This document specifies how the SIP UAs in the same subnet use DNS-
   SD/mDNS to advertise and discover the identities and locations of
   each other, enabling the communications between them without using
   SIP servers.  Section 3 describes this process using a simple example
   of a UA discovering a SIP URI advertised by another UA.  Section 4
   defines the format of the SIP URI advertisement, and Section 5
   specifies the behavior of a UA that discovers a SIP URI in the local
   network and wants to initiate a call.

   It should be noted that the DNS-SD/mDNS mechanism described in this
   document and the SIP server mechanism in [RFC3261] are not mutually
   exclusive.  Implementing SIP URI discovery via DNS-SD/mDNS will
   merely augment the functionality of a SIP UA, making it more useful
   in an ad-hoc network where the SIP servers are unavailable.
   Section 6 discusses how such enhancements can be incorporated to the
   existing user interface of a UA.

   The generic nature of DNS-SD/mDNS make it a good candidate for the
   discovery mechanism of other SIP resources such as server location
   and capability.  While we hope that the usage of DNS-SD/mDNS will
   become more pervasive in the SIP ecosphere, the scope of this
   document is limited to the discovery of SIP URIs among the UAs in a
   local network.
















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2.  Requirements Notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].














































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3.  Overview of Operation

   This section gives an overview of SIP URI advertisement in DNS-SD/
   mDNS environment using a simple example scenario.

   Consider two users, Alice and Bob, who are running SIP UAs on their
   laptop computers on the same subnet.  Assume that a DNS-SD/mDNS
   implementation, such as Bonjour or Avahi, is installed and running on
   both computers.  Further assume that SIP registrar and proxy server
   are not available to the UAs (there is no SIP server in the network
   or the UAs are not configured with the local servers, for instance),
   but the UAs are equipped with an implementation of the mechanism
   described in this document.  Alice, knowing that Bob is in the
   vicinity with his computer connected probably to the same subnet as
   hers, would like to make a SIP call to Bob.

   Bob's UA advertises sip:bob@example.com, Bob's AOR, to the local
   subnet.  This is done by the UA invoking an API function in a DNS-SD/
   mDNS client library, which in turn connects to the mDNS daemon
   process running on the same computer using an IPC mechanism and sends
   the following DNS records:

      _sipuri._udp.local.  PTR  sip:bob@example.com._sipuri._udp.local.

      sip:bob@example.com._sipuri._udp.local.
                           SRV  0 0 5060 bobs-machine.local.

      bobs-machine.local.  A    192.168.0.100

   The mDNS daemon receives and stores these records, and starts
   listening for multicast DNS queries that might ask for those records.
   The PTR record says that there is a service instance called
   "sip:bob@example.com", that it is of the service type "sipuri", that
   it uses UDP transport, and that it is available in the local subnet
   (".local.").  The SRV record maps the service instance to the host,
   "bobs-machine.local.", and the port, 5060.  Finally the A record
   provides the IP address.  In short, using these records, Bob's UA is
   advertising that it is listening on the UDP port 5060 at
   192.168.0.100 for a SIP request addressed to sip:bob@example.com.

   Alice's UA tries to discover the SIP URIs being advertised in the
   local subnet by multicasting a PTR query for "_sipuri._udp.local.".
   (It will probably send out queries for _sipuri._tcp.local. and
   _sipuri._sctp.local. as well, so it can also discover the UAs
   advertising those transport protocols.  But we will limit our
   scenario to UDP for simplicity.)

   Alice's UA receives the following two answers to its multicast PTR



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   query:

     _sipuri._udp.local.  PTR  sip:bob@example.com._sipuri._udp.local.
     _sipuri._udp.local.  PTR  sip:carol@chicago.com._sipuri._udp.local.

   Those two answers came from two different machines.  The mDNS daemons
   running on Bob's and Carol's computers both heard the multicast query
   and each replied to Alice's UA with its PTR record.  Alice's UA then
   communicates to the user, Alice, that it found the two SIP URI
   advertisement in the local subnet.  It does this perhaps by
   displaying sip:bob@example.com and sip:carol@chicago.com in a window
   titled "Local Users".  (Section 6 discusses the user interface in
   further detail.)

   Alice decides that she wants to call Bob and clicks on Bob's URI
   displayed in the window presented by her UA.  Alice's UA then sends
   another series of multicast queries, a SRV query followed by an A
   query, to which it receives the following responses from Bob's mDNS:

      sip:bob@example.com._sipuri._udp.local.
                           SRV  0 0 5060 bobs-machine.local.

      bobs-machine.local.  A    192.168.0.100

   From these answers, Alice's UA obtains the IP address and port
   number, to which it sends a SIP INVITE addressed to
   sip:bob@example.com.

   It should be noted that, for clarity of exposition, our example
   glosses over many details of how the mDNS daemons actually exchange
   DNS packets.  The mDNS specification
   ([I-D.cheshire-dnsext-multicastdns]) spends considerable efforts to
   provide immediate and on-going discovery of services while reducing
   network traffic.  For example, a mDNS daemon will send out a
   gratuitous multicast DNS answer packet containing all of its resource
   records whenever it starts up, wakes from sleep, or detects a change
   in network configuration.  The other mDNS daemons in the subnet will
   receive the gratuitous packet and cache the information contained in
   it.  Thus, in our example of Alice and Bob, what actually happened
   could have been that Alice's mDNS might have already cached the
   gratuitous packet sent by Bob's mDNS even before Alice launched her
   UA, and when Alice wanted to call Bob, her mDNS could have provided
   all the necessary DNS records from its cache without sending any
   multicast query.  DNS-SD/mDNS also tracks newly arriving services
   using these gratuitous announcements as other UAs enter and leave the
   subnet.

   In many cases, an application or a device advertising a service has



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   more information to convey than what a SRV record can carry, namely,
   the host name and port number.  For example, a printer advertising a
   LPR port should convey a queue name as well.  The necessary
   additional data can be carried in a TXT record with the same name as
   the SRV record.  In our previous example, Bob's UA could have
   included the following TXT record in the service advertisement:

   sip:bob@example.com._sipuri._udp.local.  TXT
     txtvers=1 name=Bob contact=<sip:bob@192.168.0.100:5060>;audio;video

   Under the same name as the SRV record, it defines several name/value
   attributes that the other UAs would find useful.  Using the "name"
   attribute, the "Local Users" window of Alice's UA can now display
   "Bob (sip:bob@example.com)" rather than just the URI.  The "contact"
   attribute contains a contact URI that includes the IP address and
   port number (thereby obviating the SRV and A queries) and the
   supported media types.  The formats of the attributes are defined in
   Section 4.2.

































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4.  SIP URI Advertisement Format

   This section specifies the format of a SIP URI advertisement.
   Section 4.1 specifies the format of the service instance name, which
   is the name of the SRV and TXT resource records.  Section 4.2 defines
   the attribute names that can be stored in the TXT record, and
   specifies the rules for their values.

4.1.  SIP URI Service Instance Name

   Section 4.1 of [I-D.cheshire-dnsext-dns-sd] specifies that a service
   instance name in DNS-SD has the following structure:

      <Instance> . <Service> . <Domain>

   The <Domain> portion specifies the DNS sub-domain where the service
   instance is registered.  It may be "local.", indicating the mDNS
   local domain, or it may be a conventional domain name such as
   "example.com.".

   The <Service> portion of the SIP URI service instance name MUST be
   "_sipuri._udp", "_sipuri._tcp", or "_sipuri._sctp", depending on the
   transport protocol desired by the UA advertising the service
   instance.  If a UA supports multiple protocols, it SHOULD advertise
   multiple service instances.  Note that, while this usage with the
   protocol part is in agreement with DNS SRV RR definition ([RFC2782])
   and with the previous usage of SRV RR in SIP (Section 4.1,
   [RFC3263]), it does not agree with the DNS-SD guideline.  This is
   discussed further in Section 8.

   The <Instance> portion is a DNS label, containing UTF-8-encoded text,
   limited to 63 octets in length.  It is meant to be a user-friendly
   description of the service instance, suitable for a menu-like user
   interface display.  Thus it can contain any characters including
   spaces, punctuation, and non-Latin characters as long as they can be
   encoded in UTF-8.

   For the SIP URI service instance, however, there is a required
   format.  The <Instance> portion of the SIP URI service instance MUST
   start with a valid SIP or SIPS URI, optionally followed by a space
   character and an arbitrary text further describing the URI.  In
   Augmented BNF (ABNF) [RFC2234], this is expressed as follows:

      instance = ( SIP-URI / SIPS-URI ) [ SP description ]

   The definition and the ABNF for SIP-URI and SIPS-URI are given in
   Section 19.1 and Section 25.1 of [RFC3261].  SP denotes a space
   character and "description" is an arbitrary UTF-8-encoded text



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   string.  The entire instance string cannot be more than 63 octets in
   length.

   For example, the SIP URI service instance names for Bob's two SIP
   devices may be:

      sip:bob@example.com - Softphone._sipuri._udp.local.

      sip:bob@example.com - PDA._sipuri._udp.local.

   This scheme is also compatible with the automatic name conflict
   resolution of Apple's mDNS implementation, which appends a numerical
   suffix such as " (2)" to a name in order to distinguish it from
   another instance with the same name in the same subnet.  If both of
   Bob's devices advertise themselves as "sip:bob@example.com" in such
   an environment, the resulting service instance names will be:

      sip:bob@example.com._sipuri._udp.local.

      sip:bob@example.com (2)._sipuri._udp.local.

   which are both valid SIP URI service instance names.  Since an
   advertiser is free to choose any arbitrary text for the description
   following the URI, the other UAs discovering the service instance
   should not attempt to parse the text for any specific information.
   The text is meant to be displayed to the human user as is, in a menu
   listing the discovered service instances for example.

   The reason for requiring that the instance name begins with a valid
   SIP URI is that having a SIP URI available in the name makes the
   service advertisement contain sufficient information for a UA to
   initiate a call.  The UA resolves the service instance name and
   obtains the IP address and the port number.  (This is done by issuing
   an SRV query.  See Section 5, [I-D.cheshire-dnsext-dns-sd].)  Then it
   can send a SIP request using the SIP URI from the service name as the
   Request-URI.  This makes the information from the TXT record
   (described in the next section) optional, in accordance with the
   recommendation that the TXT record should be viewed as a performance
   optimization (Section 6.2, [I-D.cheshire-dnsext-dns-sd]).

   The SIP or SIPS URI in the service instance name SHOULD be an
   Address-of-Record (AOR).  It is conceivable that a UA may not be
   configured with an AOR.  A group of UAs in an ad-hoc network may be
   configured only with user names, for example.  In such cases, the UA
   host names or IP addresses may be used to form a valid SIP URI for
   service advertisement.





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4.2.  TXT Record Attributes

   In addition to the service instance name, IP address and the port
   number, DNS-SD provides a way to publish other information pertinent
   to the service being advertised.  The additional data can be stored
   as name/value attributes in a TXT record with the same name as the
   SRV record for the service.  Each name/value pair within the TXT
   record is preceded by a single length byte, thereby limiting the
   length of the pair to 255 bytes.  (See Section 6 of
   [I-D.cheshire-dnsext-dns-sd] and Section 3.3.14 of [RFC1035] for
   details.)

   The following subsections describe the attributes defined for the SIP
   URI service.  Note that, while the presence of any of these
   attributes in a SIP URI advertisement is optional, the presence of
   certain attributes affects the behavior of the UA processing the
   service instance.  (See Section 5 for detail.)

4.2.1.  txtvers

   The "txtvers" attribute defines the version number of the TXT record
   specification as recommended in Section 6.7,
   [I-D.cheshire-dnsext-dns-sd].  If present, this attribute MUST be the
   first name/value pair in the TXT record.  For this specification, it
   MUST be "txtvers=1".

4.2.2.  name

   The "name" attribute contains the display name of the user.  For
   example, "name=John Doe".

   It MUST conform to the "display-name" ABNF element in Section 25.1,
   [RFC3261], so that it can be used in the "To" SIP header, as in "To:
   John Doe <sip:john@example.com>".

4.2.3.  contact

   The "contact" attribute contains a SIP or SIPS URI that represents a
   direct route to the user.  The URI usually contains a fully qualified
   domain name (FQDN) or an IP address indicating the physical contact
   location of the user.  For example,
   "contact=sip:carol@cube2214a.chicago.com".

   Note that, while this attribute has the same semantics as the
   "Contact" SIP header defined in [RFC3261], the attribute does not
   allow the full syntax of the SIP header.  First, only SIP or SIPS
   URIs are allowed in the attribute, whereas non-SIP URIs are allowed
   in the Contact header.  Non-SIP URIs are not applicable in the SIP



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   URI service discovery.  Second, the attribute can contain only a
   single URI, whereas the Contact header can contain multiple URIs in a
   comma-separated list.  We argue that multiple contact locations can
   (and should) be advertised as multiple service instances.

   [RFC3261] also defines two Contact parameters "q" and "expires".  The
   "q" parameter is only applicable when there are multiple Contact
   locations.  The "expires" parameter is also not relevant in this
   environment since the service instance must be created and removed
   according to the rules of the underlying service discovery system.

   The attribute name/value pair has the following syntax ABNF:

      contact-attr  =  "contact="
                       ( name-addr / uri ) *( SEMI contact-extension )
      name-addr     =  [ display-name ] LAQUOT uri RAQUOT
      uri           =  SIP-URI / SIPS-URI

   SEMI, LAQUOT and RAQUOT denote ";", "<" and ">", respectively.  Note
   that whitespace is often allowed around these characters.  The
   contact attribute value has nearly the same syntax as the "contact-
   param" element in Section 25.1 of [RFC3261].  The difference is that
   the contact attribute syntax disallows non-SIP URIs and it omits the
   "q" and "expires" parameters.  See Section 25.1 of [RFC3261] for the
   other syntax elements that are not expanded here, such as contact-
   extension and display-name.  Also see Section 20.10 and the last
   paragraph of Section 20 of [RFC3261] for the important information
   regarding the Contact header parsing rules, which are equally
   applicable to the contact attribute.

   The attribute syntax allows one or more contact-extension elements,
   which are generic name/value parameter provisions for future
   extensions.  Currently, [RFC3840] defines a mechanism by which SIP
   UAs can exchange information about their capabilities and
   characteristics through these parameters.  Such a mechanism is
   particularly germane to service discovery.















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5.  Making a Call Using Discovered SIP URI

   This section specifies the behavior of the UA that sends a SIP
   request using the discovered SIP URI service instance.  In
   particular, it specifies how to form the Request-URI and the "To"
   header of the request, and how to determine the destination host to
   which the SIP request should be transported.  Beyond that, Section
   8.1 and 18.1 of [RFC3261] describe in detail the behavior of a UA
   generating and sending a SIP request.

5.1.  Forming the SIP Request

   The "To" header MUST be formed using the SIP or SIPS URI from the
   service instance name.  The URI is either the first DNS label of the
   service instance name if it contains no space, or the longest prefix
   in the first DNS label that does not include the first space
   character.  (See Section 4.1.)

   If the "name" attribute of the TXT record is available, it SHOULD be
   used as the "display-name" in the "To" header according to the
   formatting rules outlined in Section 20.10 of [RFC3261].

   The Request-URI MUST be formed using the SIP or SIPS URI from the
   "contact" attribute of the TXT record.  If the "contact" attribute is
   not available, the Request-URI MUST be set to the same value as the
   "To" header.

5.2.  Sending the SIP Request

   First, the UA determines the transport protocol from the service type
   portion of the discovered service instance name.  The three possible
   values are "_sipuri._udp", "_sipuri._tcp", or "_sipuri._sctp", for
   which the UDP, TCP, or SCTP transport protocol MUST be used,
   respectively.

   Next, the UA determines the IP address and port number to which to
   send the request.  This procedure differs depending on whether the
   "contact" attribute is available in the TXT record.

   If the "contact" attribute is available, the IP address and the port
   number of the destination host MUST be determined from the SIP/SIPS
   URI in the attribute as follows.  The value of the maddr parameter of
   the URI, if present, becomes the destination host.  Otherwise, the
   host value of the hostport component of the URI becomes the
   destination host.  (See [RFC3261] for the description of the maddr
   parameter and the definition of the SIP/SIPS URI.)  If the
   destination host is already in the form of a numeric IP address, the
   UA uses that address.  If not, the UA performs an A or AAAA record



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   lookup of the description host to obtain the IP address.  The A/AAAA
   query should be sent to the local mDNS daemon if the destination host
   name belongs in the ".local." domain.  The DNS-SD/mDNS
   implementations usually modify the resolver configuration of the
   operating system to direct all .local queries to mDNS, so the UA can
   simply make a DNS query as usual without worrying about whether it is
   for a local name or not.  If a port number is present in the SIP/SIPS
   URI, the UA uses that port.  Otherwise, the UA uses the default port
   for the particular transport protocol.

   If the "contact" attribute is not available, the UA MUST resolve the
   service instance name to obtain the host name and port number to
   which to send the request.  The service instance name is resolved by
   sending a SRV query or by calling the equivalent API routine in the
   DNS-SD library implementation (Section 5,
   [I-D.cheshire-dnsext-dns-sd]).  The host name is then further
   resolved to an IP address by performing an A/AAAA lookup.

   We should note that the host name and the port number in the SRV
   record are ignored when the "contact" attribute is present.  Normally
   the destination obtained from the contact URI will be the same as
   that from the SRV record.  But a UA has an option to advertise a
   contact URI pointing to a host or device different from its own,
   perhaps in order to redirect incoming calls to voice mail or to have
   the calls go through a proxy server for accounting reasons, for
   example.

   As described above, the host name from the contact URI or from the
   SRV record is resolved by performing an A/AAAA query.  This is in
   contrast with [RFC3263], which requires additional steps using NAPTR
   and SRV lookups in resolving a host name in a SIP URI.  (The SRV
   lookups in [RFC3263] are plain SRV lookups described in [RFC2782], so
   they should not be confused with the DNS-SD's use of SRV records that
   we have been discussing.)  The flexibility provided by the additional
   levels of indirection specified in [RFC3263] is of limited value in
   the usual serverless setting of DNS-SD/mDNS, so it was deemed not a
   strong enough reason to deviate from the normal DNS-SD convention of
   resolving a host name using an A/AAAA query.













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6.  User Interface Guidelines

   This section considers the user interface of a UA that implements the
   behavior specified in Section 5.  As a model for our discussion, let
   us consider a typical graphical UA that presents three user interface
   elements: an address book window containing the AORs manually
   maintained by the human user, another window listing the SIP URIs
   currently available through DNS-SD, and a text edit box in which the
   user can directly type a URI not listed in either window.

   The address book entries and the DNS-SD entries SHOULD be presented
   in a way that makes it clear to the user that they are two separate
   lists.  When the user selects an entry from the DNS-SD list, the UA
   MUST follow the behavior outlined in Section 5.

   When the user selects an entry from the address book window, the UA
   MUST follow the normal user agent client behavior specified in
   Section 8.1 of [RFC3261].  This means that the SIP request is routed
   either using a configured outbound proxy or using the SIP server
   location mechanisms described in [RFC3263].  If such an effort fails,
   due to a network outage or a server failure for example, and there is
   a DNS-SD entry with the same URI as the address book entry that the
   user has selected, then (and only then) the UA MAY try the DNS-SD
   entry with the same URI, following the behavior in Section 5.  In
   this case, the address book entry might indicate that the URI is also
   being announced via DNS-SD advertisement.  The reason for requiring
   that the UA first follows the server mechanisms when processing an
   address book entry is discussed in Section 9.

   A URI directly typed in by the user MUST be processed as if it has
   been selected from the address book window.




















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7.  Other Related Mechanisms

7.1.  SIP Multicast

   The previous SIP specification [RFC2543] included sending INVITE
   requests via multicast.  The intended purpose was to provide the
   mechanism where a UA can send an INVITE message to a logical entity
   comprised of multiple hosts serving a single function such as a help
   desk.  Due to the complexity of the mechanism, the multicast INVITE
   has been removed from the current specification.  Currently the use
   of multicast is limited to "single-hop-discovery-like" services such
   as registrations.  (Section 10.2.6 and 18.1.1, [RFC3261])

   Multicast REGISTER requests provide another way to discover peer
   locations.  When using multicast REGISTER, UAs send the REGISTER
   requests to the SIP multicast address (sip.mcast.net or 224.0.1.75).
   They would also listen to that address and keep a local database of
   peer locations as they encounter REGISTER requests.  This may seem
   similar to the SIP URI advertisement using DNS-SD/mDNS as described
   in this document.  The most important difference is that the
   multicast REGISTER method provides passive discovery only.  Unlike in
   the DNS-SD/mDNS environment where a UA can simply make a query, in
   the multicast REGISTER setting a newly arriving UA would not discover
   the existing UAs until their registrations are refreshed, which could
   introduce up to an hour delay even if we assume no packet loss.  This
   makes multicast REGISTER unsuitable for high-churn environments such
   as wireless ad-hoc networks.

7.2.  "sip" DNS-SD Service Type

   There is another DNS-SD service type related to SIP.  The "sip"
   service type is primarily used for server advertisements.  Most
   notably, it is used by Asterisk, a popular open-source software
   system for IP PBX (<http://www.asterisk.org/>).  In contrast, the
   "sipuri" service type described in this document is intended for user
   agent advertisements.

   Some UA implementations are currently using the "sip" service type
   for user agent advertisements.  This is not ideal because the TXT
   attributes defined for the "sip" type are geared towards server
   announcements, and thus are not suitable for user agent
   advertisements.  This leads the UAs using the "sip" type to ignore
   the TXT attributes, or even worse, to define their own set of
   attributes.  Ekiga softphone (<http://www.ekiga.org/>) uses the "sip"
   type, but introduces a number of TXT attributes not defined for the
   "sip" type.  Gizmo Project (<http://www.gizmoproject.com/>) uses the
   "sip" service type to advertise SIP URIs in the same way as the
   "sipuri" type advertisement described in this document: it uses the



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   SIP URI as the name of the SRV resource record.  But it does not use
   any TXT attribute.  We encourage the UA implementations to use the
   "sipuri" service type described in this document, which defines a set
   of TXT attributes that are suitable for user agent advertisements.

7.3.  Peer-to-Peer SIP

   The IETF Peer-to-peer SIP (P2PSIP) working group has been formed
   recently.  The working group's goal is to develop protocols and
   mechanisms to replace or augment the centralized SIP servers with the
   services provided by the peer-to-peer network of SIP endpoints.

   This may seem similar to the DNS-SD/mDNS setting considered in this
   document.  The difference is that while DNS-SD/mDNS is primarily for
   local area networks, P2PSIP is concerned with the peer-to-peer
   overlays of SIP endpoints spanning the globe.  In fact, its charter
   (<http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/p2psip-charter.html>)
   specifically excludes multicast and dynamic DNS based approaches from
   the scope of its work.
































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8.  Transport Protocol in Service Instance Name

   Section 7 of [I-D.cheshire-dnsext-dns-sd] states:

      The "_tcp" or "_udp" should be regarded as little more than
      boilerplate text, and care should be taken not to attach too much
      importance to it.  Some might argue that the "_tcp" or "_udp"
      should not be there at all, but this format is defined by RFC
      2782, and that's not going to change.  In addition, the presence
      of "_tcp" has the useful side-effect that it provides a convenient
      delegation point to hand off responsibility for service discovery
      to a different DNS server, if so desired.

   The web site for DNS-SD service type registration (see Section 10)
   goes further and says:

      Protocols that can run over either UDP or TCP (e.g.  NFS) are
      usually advertised using whichever transport is considered the
      'normal' or 'primary' mode of operation (and clients should
      attempt communication with the service using either or both
      transports, as appropriate for the client).

   This interpretation and policy are reasonable for those application
   protocols that have clear "primary" transport protocols, but they
   present difficulty in a protocol such as SIP that supports multiple
   transports without favoring any particular one.  [RFC3263] specifies
   how NAPTR and SRV records are used to resolve a SIP URI into the IP
   address, port, and transport protocol of the request destination.
   The transport label in the SRV record ("_udp", "_tcp", or "_sctp")
   plays an important role in determining which transport protocol
   should be used.

   It would be inconsistent and confusing for a SIP UA to interpret the
   transport labels in SRV records differently depending on whether it
   is processing a DNS-SD service or not.  This document follows the
   conventional SRV record interpretation that treats the transport
   label as indicating the desired transport protocol (Section 4.1).  We
   believe the DNS-SD interpretation is an oversight and hope to see a
   change in the subsequent iterations of [I-D.cheshire-dnsext-dns-sd].












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9.  Security Considerations

   In a DNS-SD/mDNS environment, there is no restriction on who can
   advertise what services.  An attacker who has gained access to a
   local area network, such as an unsecured wireless network, can
   impersonate any SIP URI simply by advertising it using DNS-SD.  At a
   minimum, a UA must be careful to present the URIs discovered through
   DNS-SD in a way clearly distinguishable from the ones in the user's
   address book.  The discovered URIs and the address book entries
   SHOULD be presented to the user in two separate lists.  Moreover, the
   DNS-SD entries can use the display names rather than the advertised
   URIs in order to further indicate the fact that the URIs are not
   authenticated in any way.  This security concern underlies the user
   interface guidelines in Section 6.

   When it is important to verify the authenticity of the advertised
   AORs, SIPS URIs should be used.  Ideally a UA advertising a SIPS URI
   should authenticate itself using a certificate signed by a
   certificate authority (CA), but the burden of obtaining a CA-signed
   certificate may not be justifiable for a few SIP end-points
   communicating directly with each other in a local area network.  In
   such cases, self-signed certificates can be used to obtain most of
   the security benefits provided by TLS without having to acquire a CA-
   signed certificate.  A self-signed certificate provides no
   authentication when the connection is made for the first time.  The
   UA SHOULD present a clear warning to the user indicating that the
   SIPS URI that the user wants to contact is using a self-signed
   certificate, therefore it is unauthenticated, and encouraging the
   user to verify the authenticity in some other way.  Once the user has
   successfully made the first connection (perhaps after checking the
   authenticity by external means), the UA can store the self-signed
   certificate in its local database so that all the subsequent
   connections can be authenticated by comparing the certificate being
   presented to the one stored in the local database.  The usefulness of
   this mechanism is clearly demonstrated by the widespread adoption of
   SSH, which uses essentially the same mechanism for authenticating the
   servers.  (Section 4.1, [RFC4251])

   Since this document is essentially a naming and usage convention
   within the framework of DNS-SD and mDNS, the security considerations
   for those systems apply here as well.  [I-D.cheshire-dnsext-dns-sd]
   recommends the use of DNSSEC [RFC2535] when the authenticity of
   information is important.  [I-D.cheshire-dnsext-multicastdns]
   suggests, among other things, IPSEC and/or DNSSEC signatures when it
   is desirable to distinguish a group of cooperating nodes from other
   (possibly) antagonistic ones operating on the same physical link.





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10.  IANA Considerations

   Currently, DNS-SD service type names are not managed by IANA.
   Section 19 of [I-D.cheshire-dnsext-dns-sd] proposes an IANA
   allocation policy for unique application protocol or service type
   names.  Until the proposal is adopted and in force, Section 19 points
   to <http://www.dns-sd.org/ServiceTypes.html> for instruction on how
   to register a unique service type name for DNS-SD.

   The service type "sipuri" for the discovery method presented in this
   document has been registered according to that instruction.








































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11.  Normative References

   [I-D.cheshire-dnsext-dns-sd]
              Krochmal, M. and S. Cheshire, "DNS-Based Service
              Discovery", draft-cheshire-dnsext-dns-sd-04 (work in
              progress), August 2006.

   [I-D.cheshire-dnsext-multicastdns]
              Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "Multicast DNS",
              draft-cheshire-dnsext-multicastdns-06 (work in progress),
              August 2006.

   [RFC1035]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
              specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2234]  Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", RFC 2234, November 1997.

   [RFC2535]  Eastlake, D., "Domain Name System Security Extensions",
              RFC 2535, March 1999.

   [RFC2543]  Handley, M., Schulzrinne, H., Schooler, E., and J.
              Rosenberg, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 2543,
              March 1999.

   [RFC2782]  Gulbrandsen, A., Vixie, P., and L. Esibov, "A DNS RR for
              specifying the location of services (DNS SRV)", RFC 2782,
              February 2000.

   [RFC3261]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
              A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
              Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
              June 2002.

   [RFC3263]  Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "Session Initiation
              Protocol (SIP): Locating SIP Servers", RFC 3263,
              June 2002.

   [RFC3840]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., and P. Kyzivat,
              "Indicating User Agent Capabilities in the Session
              Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC 3840, August 2004.

   [RFC4251]  Ylonen, T. and C. Lonvick, "The Secure Shell (SSH)
              Protocol Architecture", RFC 4251, January 2006.




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Authors' Addresses

   Jae Woo Lee
   Columbia University
   Dept. of Computer Science
   1214 Amsterdam Avenue
   New York, NY  10027
   US

   Email: jae@cs.columbia.edu


   Henning Schulzrinne
   Columbia University
   Dept. of Computer Science
   1214 Amsterdam Avenue
   New York, NY  10027
   US

   Email: schulzrinne@cs.columbia.edu


   Wolfgang Kellerer
   DoCoMo Communications Laboratories Europe
   Landsberger Str. 312
   Munich  80687
   Germany

   Email: kellerer@docomolab-euro.com


   Zoran Despotovic
   DoCoMo Communications Laboratories Europe
   Landsberger Str. 312
   Munich  80687
   Germany

   Email: despotovic@docomolab-euro.com













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Full Copyright Statement

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