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Internet Engineering Task Force                           M. Mahalingam
Internet Draft                                                Storvisor
Intended Status: Informational                                  D. Dutt
Expires: October 10, 2014                              Cumulus Networks
                                                                K. Duda
                                                                 Arista
                                                             P. Agarwal
                                                               Broadcom
                                                             L. Kreeger
                                                                  Cisco
                                                             T. Sridhar
                                                                 VMware
                                                             M. Bursell
                                                                 Citrix
                                                              C. Wright
                                                                Red Hat
                                                         April 10, 2014




    VXLAN: A Framework for Overlaying Virtualized Layer 2 Networks over
                             Layer 3 Networks
                 draft-mahalingam-dutt-dcops-vxlan-09.txt


Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on October 10, 2014.


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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors. All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document. Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with
   respect to this document.

Abstract

  This document describes Virtual eXtensible Local Area Network
  (VXLAN), which is used to address the need for overlay networks
  within virtualized data centers accommodating multiple tenants. The
  scheme and the related protocols can be used in cloud service
  provider and enterprise data center networks. This memo documents the
  deployed VXLAN protocol for the benefit of the IETF community.



Table of Contents


   1. Introduction...................................................3
      1.1. Acronyms & Definitions....................................4
   2. Conventions used in this document..............................5
   3. VXLAN Problem Statement........................................5
      3.1. Limitations imposed by Spanning Tree & VLAN Ranges........5
      3.2. Multitenant Environments..................................6
      3.3. Inadequate Table Sizes at ToR Switch......................6
   4. Virtual eXtensible Local Area Network (VXLAN)..................7
      4.1. Unicast VM to VM communication............................8
      4.2. Broadcast Communication and Mapping to Multicast..........9
      4.3. Physical Infrastructure Requirements.....................10
   5. VXLAN Frame Format............................................10
   6. VXLAN Deployment Scenarios....................................16
      6.1. Inner VLAN Tag Handling..................................19
   7. Security Considerations.......................................19
   8. IANA Considerations...........................................21
   9. References....................................................21



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      9.1. Normative References.....................................21
      9.2. Informative References...................................21
   10. Acknowledgments..............................................22

1. Introduction

   Server virtualization has placed increased demands on the physical
   network infrastructure. A physical server now has multiple virtual
   machines (VMs) each with its own MAC address.  This requires larger
   MAC address tables in the switched Ethernet network due to potential
   attachment of and communication among hundreds of thousands of VMs.

   In the case when the VMs in a data center are grouped according to
   their Virtual LAN (VLAN, one might need thousands of VLANs to
   partition the traffic according to the specific group that the VM
   may belong to. The current VLAN limit of 4094 is inadequate in such
   situations.

   Data centers are often required to host multiple tenants, each with
   their own isolated network domain. Since it is not economical to
   realize this with dedicated infrastructure, network administrators
   opt to implement isolation over a shared network. In such scenarios,
   a common problem is that each tenant may independently assign MAC
   addresses and VLAN IDs leading to potential duplication of these on
   the physical network.

   An important requirement for virtualized environments using a Layer
   2 physical infrastructure is having the Layer 2 network scale across
   the entire data center or even between data centers for efficient
   allocation of compute, network and storage resources. In such
   networks, using traditional approaches like the Spanning Tree
   Protocol (STP) for a loop free topology can result in a large number
   of disabled links.

   The last scenario is the case where the network operator prefers to
   use IP for interconnection of the physical infrastructure (e.g. to
   achieve multipath scalability through Equal Cost Multipath (ECMP),
   thus avoiding disabled links). Even in such environments, there is a
   need to preserve the Layer 2 model for inter-VM communication.

   The scenarios described above lead to a requirement for an overlay
   network. This overlay is used to carry the MAC traffic from the
   individual VMs in an encapsulated format over a logical "tunnel".


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   This document details a framework termed Virtual eXtensible Local
   Area Network (VXLAN) which provides such an encapsulation scheme to
   address the various requirements specified above. This memo
   documents the deployed VXLAN protocol for the benefit of the IETF
   community.

1.1. Acronyms & Definitions

         ACL  - Access Control List

        ECMP - Equal Cost Multipath

        IGMP - Internet Group Management Protocol

        MTU  - Maximum Transmission Unit

        PIM -  Protocol Independent Multicast

        SPB -  Shortest Path Bridging

        STP -  Spanning Tree Protocol

        ToR -  Top of Rack

        TRILL - Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links

        VXLAN - Virtual eXtensible Local Area Network

        VXLAN Segment - VXLAN Layer 2 overlay network over which VMs

                        communicate

        VXLAN Overlay Network -  VXLAN Segment

        VXLAN Gateway - an entity which forwards traffic between VXLAN

                        and non-VXLAN environments

        VTEP - VXLAN Tunnel End Point - an entity which originates
                                        and/or terminates VXLAN tunnels

        VLAN - Virtual Local Area Network




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        VM -   Virtual Machine

        VNI -  VXLAN Network Identifier (or VXLAN Segment ID)



2. Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119 [RFC2119].

3. VXLAN Problem Statement

   This section provides further details on the areas that VXLAN is
   intended to address. The focus is on the networking infrastructure
   within the data center and the issues related to them.

3.1. Limitations imposed by Spanning Tree & VLAN Ranges

   Current Layer 2 networks use the IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol
   (STP) [802.1D] to avoid loops in the network due to duplicate paths.
   STP blocks the use of links to avoid the replication and looping of
   frames.  Some data center operators see this as a problem with Layer
   2 networks in general since with STP they are effectively paying for
   more ports and links than they can really use. In addition,
   resiliency due to multipathing is not available with the STP model.
   Newer initiatives such as TRILL [RFC6325] and SPB[802.1aq]) have
   been proposed to help with multipathing and thus surmount some of
   the problems with STP.  STP limitations may also be avoided by
   configuring servers within a rack to be on the same Layer 3 network
   with switching happening at Layer 3 both within the rack and between
   racks. However, this is incompatible with a Layer 2 model for inter-
   VM communication.

   A key characteristic of Layer 2 data center networks is their use of
   Virtual LANs (VLANs) to provide broadcast isolation.  A 12 bit VLAN
   ID is used in the Ethernet data frames to divide the larger Layer 2
   network into multiple broadcast domains.  This has served well for
   several data centers which require fewer than 4094 VLANs. With the
   growing adoption of virtualization, this upper limit is seeing
   pressure. Moreover, due to STP, several data centers limit the
   number of VLANs that could be used. In addition, requirements for



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   multitenant environments accelerate the need for larger VLAN limits,
   as discussed in Section 3.3.

3.2. Multitenant Environments

   Cloud computing involves on demand elastic provisioning of resources
   for multi-tenant environments. The most common example of cloud
   computing is the public cloud, where a cloud service provider offers
   these elastic services to multiple customers/tenants over the same
   physical infrastructure.

   Isolation of network traffic by tenant could be done via Layer 2 or
   Layer 3 networks. For Layer 2 networks, VLANs are often used to
   segregate traffic - so a tenant could be identified by its own VLAN,
   for example. Due to the large number of tenants that a cloud
   provider might service, the 4094 VLAN limit is often inadequate. In
   addition, there is often a need for multiple VLANs per tenant, which
   exacerbates the issue.

   A related use case is cross pod expansion. A pod typically consists
   of one or more racks of servers with associated network and storage
   connectivity. Tenants may start off on a pod and, due to expansion,
   require servers/VMs on other pods, especially in the case when
   tenants on the other pods are not fully utilizing all their
   resources. This use case requires a "stretched" Layer 2 environment
   connecting the individual servers/VMs.

   Layer 3 networks are not a comprehensive solution for multi tenancy
   either. Two tenants might use the same set of Layer 3 addresses
   within their networks which requires the cloud provider to provide
   isolation in some other form. Further, requiring all tenants to use
   IP excludes customers relying on direct Layer 2 or non-IP Layer 3
   protocols for inter VM communication.



3.3. Inadequate Table Sizes at ToR Switch

   Today's virtualized environments place additional demands on the MAC
   address tables of Top of Rack (ToR) switches which connect to the
   servers. Instead of just one MAC address per server link, the ToR
   now has to learn the MAC addresses of the individual VMs (which
   could range in the 100s per server). This is needed because traffic
   from/to the VMs to the rest of the physical network will traverse



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   the link between the server and the switch. A typical ToR switch
   could connect to 24 or 48 servers depending upon the number of its
   server facing ports. A data center might consist of several racks,
   so each ToR switch would need to maintain an address table for the
   communicating VMs across the various physical servers. This places a
   much larger demand on the table capacity compared to non-virtualized
   environments.

   If the table overflows, the switch may stop learning new addresses
   until idle entries age out, leading to significant flooding of
   subsequent unknown destination frames.

4. Virtual eXtensible Local Area Network (VXLAN)

   VXLAN (Virtual eXtensible Local Area Network) addresses the above
   requirements of the Layer 2 and Layer 3 data center network
   infrastructure in the presence of VMs in a multi-tenant environment.
   It runs over the existing networking infrastructure and provides a
   means to "stretch" a Layer 2 network. In short, VXLAN is a Layer 2
   overlay scheme over a Layer 3 network. Each overlay is termed a
   VXLAN segment. Only VMs within the same VXLAN segment can
   communicate with each other. Each VXLAN segment is identified
   through a 24 bit segment ID, hereafter termed the VXLAN Network
   Identifier (VNI). This allows up to 16M VXLAN segments to coexist
   within the same administrative domain.

   The VNI identifies the scope of the inner MAC frame originated by
   the individual VM. Thus, you could have overlapping MAC addresses
   across segments but never have traffic "cross over" since the
   traffic is isolated using the VNI.  The VNI is in an outer header
   which encapsulates the inner MAC frame originated by the VM.  In the
   following sections, the term "VXLAN segment" is used interchangeably
   with the term "VXLAN overlay network".

   Due to this encapsulation, VXLAN could also be termed a tunneling
   scheme to overlay Layer 2 networks on top of Layer 3 networks. The
   tunnels are stateless, so each frame is encapsulated according to a
   set of rules. The end point of the tunnel (VXLAN Tunnel End Point or
   VTEP) discussed in the following sections is located within the
   hypervisor on the server which hosts the VM. Thus, the VNI and VXLAN
   related tunnel/outer header encapsulation are known only to the VTEP
   - the VM never sees it (see Figure 1). Note that it is possible that
   VTEPs could also be on a physical switch or physical server and



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   could be implemented in software or hardware.  One use case where
   the VTEP is a physical switch is discussed in Section 6 on VXLAN
   deployment scenarios.

   The following sections discuss typical traffic flow scenarios in a
   VXLAN environment using one type of control scheme - data plane
   learning. Here, the association of VM's MAC to VTEP's IP address is
   discovered via source address learning. Multicast is used for
   carrying unknown destination, broadcast and multicast frames.

   In addition to a learning based control plane, there are other
   schemes possible for the distribution of the VTEP IP to VM MAC
   mapping information. Options could include a central
   authority/directory based lookup by the individual VTEPs,
   distribution of this mapping information to the VTEPs by the central
   authority, and so on. These are sometimes characterized as push and
   pull models respectively. This draft will focus on the data plane
   learning scheme as the control plane for VXLAN.

4.1. Unicast VM to VM communication

   Consider a VM within a VXLAN overlay network. This VM is unaware of
   VXLAN. To communicate with a VM on a different host, it sends a MAC
   frame destined to the target as normal. The VTEP on the physical
   host looks up the VNI to which this VM is associated.  It then
   determines if the destination MAC is on the same segment and if
   there is a mapping of the destination MAC address to
   the remote VTEP. If so, an outer header comprising an outer MAC,
   outer IP header and VXLAN header (see Figure 1 in Section 5 for
   frame format) are prepended to the original MAC frame. The
   encapsulated packet is forwarded towards the remote VTEP. Upon
   reception, the remote VTEP verifies the validity of the VNI and if
   there is a VM on that VNI using a MAC address that matches the inner
   destination MAC address.  If so, the packet is stripped of its
   encapsulating headers and passed on to the destination VM. The
   destination VM never knows about the VNI or that the frame was
   transported with a VXLAN encapsulation.

   In addition to forwarding the packet to the destination VM, the
   remote VTEP learns the Inner Source MAC to outer Source IP address
   mapping. It stores this mapping in a table so that when the
   destination VM sends a response packet, there is no need for an
   "unknown destination" flooding of the response packet.



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   Determining the MAC address of the destination VM prior to the
   transmission by the source VM is performed as with non-VXLAN
   environments except as described in Section 4.2. Broadcast frames
   are used but are encapsulated within a multicast packet, as detailed
   in the Section 4.2.

4.2. Broadcast Communication and Mapping to Multicast

   Consider the VM on the source host attempting to communicate with
   the destination VM using IP.  Assuming that they are both on the
   same subnet, the VM sends out an ARP broadcast frame. In the non-
   VXLAN environment, this frame would be sent out using MAC broadcast
   across all switches carrying that VLAN.

   With VXLAN, a header including the VXLAN VNI is inserted at the
   beginning of the packet along with the IP header and UDP header.
   However, this broadcast packet is sent out to the IP multicast group
   on which that VXLAN overlay network is realized.

   To effect this, we need to have a mapping between the VXLAN VNI and
   the IP multicast group that it will use. This mapping is done at the
   management layer and provided to the individual VTEPs through a
   management channel. Using this mapping, the VTEP can provide IGMP
   membership reports to the upstream switch/router to join/leave the
   VXLAN related IP multicast groups as needed. This will enable
   pruning of the leaf nodes for specific multicast traffic addresses
   based on whether a member is available on this host using the
   specific multicast address (see [RFC4541]). In addition, use of
   multicast routing protocols like Protocol Independent Multicast -
   Sparse Mode (PIM-SM see [RFC4601]) will provide efficient multicast
   trees within the Layer 3 network.

   The VTEP will use (*,G) joins. This is needed as the set of VXLAN
   tunnel sources is unknown and may change often, as the VMs come
   up/go down across different hosts. A side note here is that since
   each VTEP can act as both the source and destination for multicast
   packets, a protocol like PIM-bidir (see [RFC5015]) would be more
   efficient.

   The destination VM sends a standard ARP response using IP unicast.
   This frame will be encapsulated back to the VTEP connecting the
   originating VM using IP unicast VXLAN encapsulation. This is
   possible since the mapping of the ARP response's destination MAC to



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   the VXLAN tunnel end point IP was learned earlier through the ARP
   request.

   Note that multicast frames and "unknown MAC destination" frames are
   also sent using the multicast tree, similar to the broadcast frames.

4.3. Physical Infrastructure Requirements

   When IP multicast is used within the network infrastructure, a
   multicast routing protocol like PIM-SM can be used by the individual
   Layer 3 IP routers/switches within the network. This is used to
   build efficient multicast forwarding trees so that multicast frames
   are only sent to those hosts which have requested to receive them.

   Similarly, there is no requirement that the actual network
   connecting the source VM and destination VM should be a Layer 3
   network - VXLAN can also work over Layer 2 networks. In either case,
   efficient multicast replication within the Layer 2 network can be
   achieved using IGMP snooping.

   VTEPs MUST NOT fragment VXLAN packets. Intermediate routers may
   fragment encapsulated VXLAN packets due to the larger frame size.
   The destination VTEP MAY silently discard such VXLAN fragments. To
   ensure end to end traffic delivery without fragmentation, it is
   RECOMMENDED that the MTUs (Maximum Transmission Units) across the
   physical network infrastructure be set to a value that accommodates
   the larger frame size due to the encapsulation. Other techniques
   like Path MTU discovery (see [RFC1191] and [RFC1981]) MAY be used to
   address this requirement as well.



5. VXLAN Frame Format

   The VXLAN frame format is shown below. Parsing this from the bottom
   of the frame - above the outer frame check sequence (FCS), there is
   an inner MAC frame with its own Ethernet header with source,
   destination MAC addresses along with the Ethernet type plus an
   optional VLAN. See Section 6 for further details of inner VLAN tag
   handling.

   The inner MAC frame is encapsulated with the following four headers
   (starting from the innermost header):


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    O VXLAN Header:  This is an 8 byte field which has:


     o Flags (8 bits)-  where the I flag MUST be set to 1 for a valid
     VXLAN Network ID (VNI).  The other 7  bits (designated "R") are
     reserved fields and MUST be set to zero on transmit and ignored on
     receive.

     o VXLAN Segment ID/VXLAN Network Identifier (VNI) - this is a 24
     bit value used to designate the individual VXLAN overlay network
     on which the communicating VMs are situated.  VMs in different
     VXLAN overlay networks cannot communicate with each other.

     o Reserved fields (24 bits and 8 bits) - MUST be set to zero on
   transmit and ignored on receive.

   O Outer UDP Header:  This is the outer UDP header with a source
   port provided by the VTEP and the destination port being a well-
   known UDP port.  IANA has assigned the value 4789 for the VXLAN UDP
   port and this value SHOULD be used by default as the destination UDP
   port.  Some early implementations of VXLAN have used other values
   for the destination port.  To enable interoperability with these
   implementations, the destination port SHOULD be configurable.  It is
   recommended that the UDP source port number be calculated using a
   hash of fields from the inner packet - one example being a hash of
   the inner Ethernet frame`s headers. This is to enable a level of
   entropy for ECMP/load balancing of the VM to VM traffic across the
   VXLAN overlay. When calculating the UDP source port number in this
   manner, it is RECOMMENDED that the value be in the dynamic/private
   port range 49152-65535 [RFC6335].

   The UDP checksum field SHOULD be transmitted as zero.  When a packet
   is received with a UDP checksum of zero, it MUST be accepted for
   decapsulation.  Optionally, if the encapsulating endpoint includes a
   non-zero UDP checksum, it MUST be correctly calculated across the
   entire packet including the IP header, UDP header, VXLAN header and
   encapsulated MAC frame.  When a decapsulating endpoint receives a
   packet with a non-zero checksum it MAY choose to verify the checksum



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   value.  If it chooses to perform such verification, and the
   verification fails, the packet MUST be dropped.  If the
   decapsulating destination chooses not to perform the verification,
   or performs it successfully, the packet MUST be accepted for
   decapsulation.

   O Outer IP Header:  This is the outer IP header with the source IP
   address indicating the IP address of the VTEP over which the
   communicating VM (as represented by the inner source MAC address) is
   running.  The destination IP address can be a unicast or multicast
   IP address (see Sections 4.1 and 4.2). When it is a unicast IP
   address, it represents the IP address of the VTEP connecting the
   communicating VM as represented by the inner destination MAC
   address. For multicast destination IP addresses, please refer to the
   scenarios detailed in Section 4.2.

   O Outer Ethernet Header (example):  Figure 1 is an example of an
   inner Ethernet frame encapsulated within an outer Ethernet + IP +
   UDP + VXLAN header. The outer destination MAC address in this frame
   may be the address of the target VTEP or of an intermediate Layer 3
   router. The outer VLAN tag is optional. If present, it may be used
   for delineating VXLAN traffic on the LAN.





















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        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1

  Outer Ethernet Header:
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |             Outer Destination MAC Address                     |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       | Outer Destination MAC Address | Outer Source MAC Address      |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                Outer Source MAC Address                       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |OptnlEthtype = C-Tag 802.1Q    | Outer.VLAN Tag Information    |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       | Ethertype = 0x0800            |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

  Outer IPv4 Header:
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |Version|  IHL  |Type of Service|          Total Length         |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |         Identification        |Flags|      Fragment Offset    |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |  Time to Live |Protocl=17(UDP)|   Header Checksum             |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                       Outer Source IPv4 Address               |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                   Outer Destination IPv4 Address              |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

  Outer UDP Header:
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |       Source Port = xxxx      |       Dest Port = VXLAN Port  |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |           UDP Length          |        UDP Checksum           |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

  VXLAN Header:
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |R|R|R|R|I|R|R|R|            Reserved                           |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                VXLAN Network Identifier (VNI) |   Reserved    |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

  Inner Ethernet Header:


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       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |             Inner Destination MAC Address                     |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       | Inner Destination MAC Address | Inner Source MAC Address      |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                Inner Source MAC Address                       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |OptnlEthtype = C-Tag 802.1Q    | Inner.VLAN Tag Information    |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

  Payload:
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       | Ethertype of Original Payload |                               |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               |
       |                                  Original Ethernet Payload    |
       |                                                               |
       |(Note that the original Ethernet Frame's FCS is not included)  |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

  Frame Check Sequence:
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |   New FCS (Frame Check Sequence) for Outer Ethernet Frame     |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

           Figure 1 VXLAN Frame Format with IPv4 Outer Header

   The frame format above shows tunneling of Ethernet frames using IPv4
   for transport.  Use of VXLAN with IPv6 transport is detailed below.

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1

  Outer Ethernet Header:
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |             Outer Destination MAC Address                     |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       | Outer Destination MAC Address | Outer Source MAC Address      |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                Outer Source MAC Address                       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |OptnlEthtype = C-Tag 802.1Q    | Outer.VLAN Tag Information    |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       | Ethertype = 0x86DD            |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+



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  Outer IPv6 Header:
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |Version| Traffic Class |           Flow Label                  |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |         Payload Length        | NxtHdr=17(UDP)|   Hop Limit   |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                                                               |
       +                                                               +
       |                                                               |
       +                     Outer Source IPv6 Address                 +
       |                                                               |
       +                                                               +
       |                                                               |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                                                               |
       +                                                               +
       |                                                               |
       +                  Outer Destination IPv6 Address               +
       |                                                               |
       +                                                               +
       |                                                               |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

  Outer UDP Header:
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |       Source Port = xxxx      |       Dest Port = VXLAN Port  |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |           UDP Length          |        UDP Checksum           |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+



  VXLAN Header:
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |R|R|R|R|I|R|R|R|            Reserved                           |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                VXLAN Network Identifier (VNI) |   Reserved    |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

  Inner Ethernet Header:
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |             Inner Destination MAC Address                     |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       | Inner Destination MAC Address | Inner Source MAC Address      |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                Inner Source MAC Address                       |


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       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |OptnlEthtype = C-Tag 802.1Q    | Inner.VLAN Tag Information    |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

  Payload:
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       | Ethertype of Original Payload |                               |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               |
       |                                  Original Ethernet Payload    |
       |                                                               |
       |(Note that the original Ethernet Frame's FCS is not included)  |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

  Frame Check Sequence:
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |   New FCS (Frame Check Sequence) for Outer Ethernet Frame     |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


           Figure 2 VXLAN Frame Format with IPv6 Outer Header

6. VXLAN Deployment Scenarios

   VXLAN is typically deployed in data centers on virtualized hosts,
   which may be spread across multiple racks. The individual racks may
   be parts of a different Layer 3 network or they could be in a single
   Layer 2 network. The VXLAN segments/overlay networks are overlaid on
   top of these Layer 2 or Layer 3 networks.

   Consider Figure 3 below depicting two virtualized servers attached
   to a Layer 3 infrastructure. The servers could be on the same rack,
   or on different racks or potentially across data centers within the
   same administrative domain. There are 4 VXLAN overlay networks
   identified by the VNIs 22, 34, 74 and 98. Consider the case of VM1-1
   in Server 1 and VM2-4 on Server 2 which are on the same VXLAN
   overlay network identified by VNI 22. The VMs do not know about the
   overlay networks and transport method since the encapsulation and
   decapsulation happen transparently at the VTEPs on Servers 1 and 2.
   The other overlay networks and the corresponding VMs are: VM1-2 on
   Server 1 and VM2-1 on Server 2 both on VNI 34, VM1-3 on Server 1 and
   VM2-2 on Server 2 on VNI 74, and finally VM1-4 on Server 1 and VM2-3
   on Server 2 on VNI 98.





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     +------------+-------------+
     |        Server 1          |
     | +----+----+  +----+----+ |
     | |VM1-1    |  |VM1-2    | |
     | |VNI 22   |  |VNI 34   | |
     | |         |  |         | |
     | +---------+  +---------+ |
     |                          |
     | +----+----+  +----+----+ |
     | |VM1-3    |  |VM1-4    | |
     | |VNI 74   |  |VNI 98   | |
     | |         |  |         | |
     | +---------+  +---------+ |
     | Hypervisor VTEP (IP1)    |
     +--------------------------+
                           |
                           |
                           |
                           |   +-------------+
                           |   |   Layer 3   |
                           |---|   Network   |
                               |             |
                               +-------------+
                                   |
                                   |
                                   +-----------+
                                               |
                                               |
                                        +------------+-------------+
                                        |        Server 2          |
                                        | +----+----+  +----+----+ |
                                        | |VM2-1    |  |VM2-2    | |
                                        | |VNI 34   |  |VNI 74   | |
                                        | |         |  |         | |
                                        | +---------+  +---------+ |
                                        |                          |
                                        | +----+----+  +----+----+ |
                                        | |VM2-3    |  |VM2-4    | |
                                        | |VNI 98   |  |VNI 22   | |
                                        | |         |  |         | |
                                        | +---------+  +---------+ |
                                        | Hypervisor VTEP (IP2)    |
                                        +--------------------------+


      Figure 3   VXLAN Deployment - VTEPs across a Layer 3 Network


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   One deployment scenario is where the tunnel termination point is a
   physical server which understands VXLAN. An alternate scenario is
   where nodes on a VXLAN overlay network need to communicate with
   nodes on legacy networks which could be VLAN based. These nodes may
   be physical nodes or virtual machines. To enable this communication,
   a network can include VXLAN gateways (see Figure 4 below with a
   switch acting as a VXLAN gateway) which forward traffic between
   VXLAN and non-VXLAN environments.

   Consider Figure 4 for the following discussion. For incoming frames
   on the VXLAN connected interface, the gateway strips out the VXLAN
   header and forwards to a physical port based on the destination MAC
   address of the inner Ethernet frame. Decapsulated frames with the
   inner VLAN ID SHOULD be discarded unless configured explicitly to be
   passed on to the non-VXLAN interface. In the reverse direction,
   incoming frames for the non-VXLAN interfaces are mapped to a
   specific VXLAN overlay network based on the VLAN ID in the frame.
   Unless configured explicitly to be passed on in the encapsulated
   VXLAN frame, this VLAN ID is removed before the frame is
   encapsulated for VXLAN.

   These gateways which provide VXLAN tunnel termination functions
   could be ToR/access switches or switches higher up in the data
   center network topology -  e.g. core or even WAN edge devices. The
   last case (WAN edge) could involve a Provider Edge (PE) router which
   terminates VXLAN tunnels in a hybrid cloud environment. Note that in
   all these instances, the gateway functionality could be implemented
   in software or hardware.















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      +---+-----+---+                                    +---+-----+---+
      |    Server 1 |                                    |  Non VXLAN  |
      (VXLAN enabled)<-----+                       +---->|  server     |
      +-------------+      |                       |     +-------------+
                           |                       |
      +---+-----+---+      |                       |     +---+-----+---+
      |Server 2     |      |                       |     |  Non VXLAN  |
      (VXLAN enabled)<-----+   +---+-----+---+     +---->|    server   |
      +-------------+      |   |Switch acting|     |     +-------------+
                           |---|  as VXLAN   |-----|
      +---+-----+---+      |   |   Gateway   |
      | Server 3    |      |   +-------------+
      (VXLAN enabled)<-----+
      +-------------+      |
                           |
      +---+-----+---+      |
      | Server 4    |      |
      (VXLAN enabled)<-----+
      +-------------+
              Figure 4   VXLAN Deployment - VXLAN Gateway



6.1. Inner VLAN Tag Handling

   Inner VLAN Tag Handling in VTEP and VXLAN Gateway should conform to
   the following:

   Decapsulated VXLAN frames with the inner VLAN tag SHOULD be
   discarded unless configured otherwise.  On the encapsulation side, a
   VTEP SHOULD NOT include an inner VLAN tag on tunnel packets unless
   configured otherwise.  When a VLAN-tagged packet is a candidate for
   VXLAN tunneling, the encapsulating VTEP SHOULD strip the VLAN tag
   unless configured otherwise.

7. Security Considerations

   Traditionally, layer 2 networks can only be attacked from 'within'
   by rogue endpoints - either by having inappropriate access to a LAN
   and snooping on traffic or by injecting spoofed packets to 'take



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   over' another MAC address or by flooding and causing denial of
   service. A   MAC-over-IP mechanism for delivering Layer 2 traffic
   significantly extends this attack surface. This can happen by rogues
   injecting themselves into the network by subscribing to one or more
   multicast groups that carry broadcast traffic for VXLAN segments and
   also by sourcing MAC-over-UDP frames into the transport network to
   inject spurious traffic, possibly to hijack MAC addresses.

   This document does not, at this time, incorporate specific measures
   against such attacks, relying instead on other traditional
   mechanisms layered on top of IP. This section, instead, sketches out
   some possible approaches to security in the VXLAN environment.


   Traditional Layer 2 attacks by rogue end points can be mitigated by
   limiting the management and administrative scope of who deploys and
   manages VMs/gateways in a VXLAN environment. In addition, such
   administrative measures may be augmented by schemes like 802.1X for
   admission control of individual end points.  Also, the use of the
   UDP based encapsulation of VXLAN enables configuration and use of
   the 5 tuple based ACLs (Access Control Lists) functionality in
   physical switches.

   Tunneled traffic over the IP network can be secured with traditional
   security mechanisms like IPsec that authenticate and optionally
   encrypt VXLAN traffic. This will, of course, need to be coupled with
   an authentication infrastructure for authorized endpoints to obtain
   and distribute credentials.

   VXLAN overlay networks are designated and operated over the existing
   LAN infrastructure. To ensure that VXLAN end points and their VTEPs
   are authorized on the LAN, it is recommended that a VLAN be
   designated for VXLAN traffic and the servers/VTEPs send VXLAN
   traffic over this VLAN to provide a measure of security.

   In addition, VXLAN requires proper mapping of VNIs and VM membership
   in these overlay networks. It is expected that this mapping be done
   and communicated to the management entity on the VTEP and the
   gateways using existing secure methods.



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8. IANA Considerations

   A well-known UDP port (4789) has been assigned by the IANA Service
   Name and Transport Protocol Port Number Registry for VXLAN. See
   Section 5 for discussion of the port number.

9. References

9.1. Normative References

   [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
             Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

9.2. Informative References

   [802.1D] "Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks/
   Media Access Control (MAC) Bridges, IEEE P802.1D-2004".

   [RFC4601] Fenner, B., Handley, M., Holbrook, H., and Kouvelas, I.,
   "Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM): Protocol
   Specification", RFC 4601, August 2006.

   [RFC5015] Handley, M., Kouvelas, I., Speakman, T., and Vicisano, L.,
   "Bidirectional Protocol Independent Multicast (BIDIR-PIM)", RFC
   5015, October 2007.

   [RFC4541] Christensen, M., Kimball, K., and Solensky, F.,
   "Considerations for Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
   and Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) Snooping Switches", RFC 4541,
   May 2006.

   [RFC6325] Perlman, R., Eastlake, D., Dutt, D., Gai, S., and A.
   Ghanwani, "RBridges: Base Protocol Specification", RFC 6325, July
   2011.

   [802.1aq] "Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks /
   Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks / Amendment20: Shortest
   Path Bridging, IEEE P802.1aq-2012".

   [RFC1191] Mogul, J. and S. Deering, "Path MTU discovery", RFC1191,
   November 1990.





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   [RFC1981] McCann, J., Deering, S., and J. Mogul, "Path MTU Discovery
   for IP version 6", RFC 1981, August 1996.

   [RFC6335] Cotton, M,  Eggert, L., Touch, J., Westerlund, M., and
   Cheshire, S., "Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) Procedures
   for the Management of the Service Name and Transport Protocol Port
   Number Registry", RFC 6335, August 2011.



10. Acknowledgments

   The authors wish to thank Ajit Sanzgiri for contributions to the
   Security Considerations section and editorial inputs, Joseph Cheng,
   Margaret Petrus, Milin Desai, Nial de Barra, Jeff Mandin and Siva
   Kollipara for their editorial reviews, inputs and comments.

Authors' Addresses

   Mallik Mahalingam
   Storvisor
   333 W.El Camino Real
   Sunnyvale, CA 94087

   Email: mallik_mahalingam@yahoo.com

   Dinesh G. Dutt
   Cumulus Networks
   140C S.Whisman Road
   Mountain View, CA 94041

   Email: ddutt.ietf@hobbesdutt.com

   Kenneth Duda
   Arista Networks
   5470 Great America Parkway
   Santa Clara, CA 95054

   Email: kduda@aristanetworks.com

   Puneet Agarwal
   Broadcom Corporation
   3151 Zanker Road


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   San Jose, CA 95134

   Email: pagarwal@broadcom.com

   Lawrence Kreeger
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   170 W. Tasman Avenue
   San Jose, CA 95134

   Email: kreeger@cisco.com

   T. Sridhar
   VMware Inc.
   3401 Hillview
   Palo Alto, CA 94304

   Email: tsridhar@vmware.com

   Mike Bursell
   Citrix Systems Research & Development Ltd.
   Building 101
   Cambridge Science Park
   Milton Road
   Cambridge CB4 0FY
   United Kingdom

   Email: mike.bursell@citrix.com

   Chris Wright
   Red Hat Inc.
   1801 Varsity Drive
   Raleigh, NC 27606

   Email: chrisw@redhat.com











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