X. Boyen L. Martin Internet Draft Voltage Security Expires: June 2007 December 2006 Identity-Based Cryptography Standard (IBCS) #1: Supersingular Curve Implementations of the BF and BB1 Cryptosystems <draft-martin-ibcs-02.txt> Status of this Memo By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79. Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet- Drafts. Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or made obsolete by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html Abstract This document describes the algorithms that implement Boneh-Franklin and Boneh-Boyen Identity-based Encryption. This document is in part based on IBCS #1 v2 of Voltage Security's Identity-based Cryptography Standards (IBCS) documents.

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Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 Table of Contents 1. Introduction...................................................3 2. Notation and definitions.......................................4 2.1. Notation..................................................4 2.2. Definitions...............................................6 3. Basic elliptic curve algorithms................................7 3.1. The group action in affine coordinates....................7 3.1.1. Implementation for type-1 curves.....................7 3.2. Point multiplication......................................9 3.3. Special operations in projective coordinates.............11 3.3.1. Implementation for type-1 curves....................11 3.4. Divisors on elliptic curves..............................13 3.4.1. Implementation in F_p^2 for type-1 curves...........13 3.5. The Tate pairing.........................................15 3.5.1. The Miller algorithm for type-1 curves..............16 4. Supporting algorithms.........................................19 4.1. Integer range hashing....................................19 4.2. Pseudo-random generation by hashing......................20 4.3. Canonical encodings of extension field elements..........21 4.3.1. Type-1 curve implementation.........................21 4.4. Hashing onto a subgroup of an elliptic curve.............22 4.4.1. Type-1 curve implementation.........................23 4.5. Bilinear pairing.........................................23 4.5.1. Type-1 curve implementation.........................24 4.6. Ratio of bilinear pairings...............................25 4.6.1. Type-1 curve implementation.........................26 5. The Boneh-Franklin BF cryptosystem............................26 5.1. Setup....................................................26 5.1.1. Type-1 curve implementation.........................27 5.2. Public key derivation....................................28 5.3. Private key extraction...................................29 5.4. Encryption...............................................29 5.5. Decryption...............................................31 6. Wrapper methods for the BF system.............................32 6.1. Private key generator (PKG) setup........................32 6.2. Private key extraction by the PKG........................32 6.3. Session key encryption...................................33 7. Concrete encoding guidelines for BF...........................35 7.1. Encoding of points on a curve............................35 7.2. Public parameters blocks.................................36 7.2.1. Type-1 implementation...............................37 7.3. Master secret blocks.....................................38 7.4. Private key blocks.......................................38 Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 2]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 7.5. Ciphertext blocks........................................39 8. The Boneh-Boyen BB1 cryptosystem..............................40 8.1. Setup....................................................40 8.1.1. Type-1 curve implementation.........................41 8.2. Public key derivation....................................42 8.3. Private key extraction...................................43 8.4. Encryption...............................................44 8.5. Decryption...............................................46 9. Wrapper methods for the BB1 system............................48 9.1. Private key generator (PKG) setup........................49 9.2. Private key extraction by the PKG........................49 9.3. Session key encryption...................................50 10. Concrete encoding guidelines for BB1.........................52 10.1. Encoding of points on a curve...........................52 10.2. Public parameters blocks................................52 10.2.1. Type-1 implementation..............................53 10.3. Master secret blocks....................................54 10.4. Private key blocks......................................55 10.5. Ciphertext blocks.......................................56 11. Test vectors.................................................58 11.1. Algorithm 3.2.2 (PointMultiply).........................58 11.2. Algorithm 4.1.1 (HashToRange)...........................58 11.3. Algorithm 4.5.1 (Pairing)...............................59 11.4. Algorithm 5.2.1 (BFderivePubl)..........................59 11.5. Algorithm 5.3.1 (BFextractPriv).........................59 11.6. Algorithm 5.4.1 (BFencrypt).............................60 11.7. Algorithm 8.3.1 (BBextractPriv).........................61 11.8. Algorithm 8.4.1 (BBencrypt).............................62 12. ASN.1 module.................................................63 13. Security considerations......................................67 14. IANA considerations..........................................68 15. Acknowledgments..............................................68 16. References...................................................69 16.1. Normative references....................................69 16.2. Informative references..................................69 Authors' Addresses...............................................69 Intellectual Property Statement..................................69 Disclaimer of Validity...........................................70 Copyright Statement..............................................70 Acknowledgment...................................................70 1. Introduction This document provides a set of specifications for implementing identity-based encryption (IBE) systems based on bilinear pairings. Two cryptosystems are described: the IBE system proposed by Boneh and Franklin (BF) [BF], and the first IBE system proposed by Boneh and Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 3]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 Boyen (BB1) [BB1]. Fully secure and practical implementations are described for each system, comprising the core IBE algorithms as well as ancillary hybrid components used to achieve security against active attacks. These specifications are restricted to a family of supersingular elliptic curves over finite fields of large prime characteristic, referred to as "type-1" curves (see Section 2.1). Implementations based on other types of curves currently fall outside the scope of this document. 2. Notation and definitions 2.1. Notation This section summarizes the essential notions and definitions regarding identity-based cryptosystems on elliptic curves. The reader is referred to [ECC] for the mathematical background and to [2, 3] regarding all notions pertaining to identity-based encryption. Let F_p be a finite field of large prime characteristic p, and let F_p^2 denote its extension field of degree 2. Denote by F*_p^2 the multiplicative subgroup of F_p^2. Let E/F_p: y^2 = x^3 + a * x + b be an elliptic curve over F_p. For an extension of degree 2, the curve E/F_p defines a group (E(F_p^2), +), which is the additive group of points of affine coordinates (x, y) in (F_p^2)^2 satisfying the curve equation over F_p^2, with null element, or point at infinity, denoted 0. Let #E(F_p^2) be the size of E(F_p^2). Let q be a prime such that E(F_p) has a cyclic subgroup G1' of order q. Let G1'' be a cyclic subgroup of E(F_p^2) of order q, and G2 be a cyclic subgroup of F*_p^2 of order p. Under these conditions, two mathematical constructions known as the Weil pairing and the Tate pairing, each provide an efficiently computable map e: G1' x G1'' -> G2 that is linear in both arguments and believed hard to invert. If an efficiently computable isomorphism phi: G1' -> G1'' is available for the selected elliptic curve on which the Tate pairing is computed, then one can construct a function e': G1' x G1'' -> G2, defined as e'(A, B) = e(A, phi(B)), called the modified Tate pairing. We generically call a pairing either the Tate pairing e or the modified Tate pairing e', depending on the chosen elliptic curve used in a particular implementation. The following additional notation is used throughout this document. Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 4]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 P - A 512-bit to 1536-bit prime, being the order of the finite field F_p. F_p - The base finite field of size p over which the elliptic curve of interest E/F_p is defined. #G - The size of G, where G is a finite group. G* - The multiplicative group of the invertible elements in G; e.g., (F_p)* is the multiplicative group of the finite field F_p. E/F_p - The equation of an elliptic curve over the field F_p, which, when p is neither 2 nor 3, is of the form E/F_p: y^2 = x^3 + a * x + b, for specified a, b in F_p. 0 - The conventional null element of any additive group of points on an elliptic curve, also called the point at infinity. E(F_p) - The additive group of points of affine coordinates (x, y), with x, y in F_p, that satisfy the curve equation E/F_p, including the point at infinity 0. q - A 160-bit to 256-bit prime, being the order of the cyclic subgroup of interest in E(F_p). k - The embedding degree, or security multiplier, of the cyclic subgroup of order q in E(F_p). For type-1 curves this is always equal to 2. F_p^2 - The extension field of degree 2 of the field F_p. E(F_p^2) - The group of points of affine coordinates in F_p^2 satisfying the curve equation E/F_p, including the point at infinity 0. Z_p - The additive group Z/pZ. The following conventions are assumed for curve operations. Point addition: If A and B are two points on a curve E, their sum is denoted A + B. Point multiplication: If A is a point on a curve, and n an integer, the result of adding A to itself a total of n times is denoted [n]A. Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 5]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 The following class of elliptic curves is exclusively considered for pairing operations in the present version of the IBCS#1 standard, referred to as "type-1." Type-1 curves: The class of curves of type 1 is defined as the class of all elliptic curves of equation E/F_p: y^2 = x^3 + 1 for all primes p congruent to 11 modulo 12. This class forms a subclass of the class of supersingular curves. These curves satisfy #E(F_p) = p + 1, so that the p pairs of (x, y) coordinates corresponding to the p non-zero points E(F_p) \ {0} satisfy a useful bijective relation x <- > y, with x = (y^2 - 1)^(1/3) (mod p) and y = (x^3 + 1)^(1/2) (mod p). Type-1 curves always lead to a security multiplier k = 2, where f(x) = (x^2 + 1) is always irreducible, allowing the uniform representation of F_p^2 = F[x] / (x^2 + 1). Type-1 curves are plentiful and easy to construct by random selection of a prime p of the appropriate form. Therefore, rather than to standardize upon a small set of common values of p, it is henceforth assumed that all type-1 curves are freshly generated at random for the given cryptographic application (an example of such generation will be given in Algorithm 5.1.2 (BFsetup1) or Algorithm 8.1.2 (BBsetup1)). Implementations based on different classes of curves are currently unsupported. We assume that the following concrete representations of mathematical objects are used. Base field elements: The p elements of the base field F_p are represented directly using the integers from 0 to p - 1. Extension field elements: The p^2 elements of the extension field F_p^2 are represented as ordered pairs of elements of F_p. An ordered pair (a_0, a_1) is interpreted as the polynomial a_1 * x + a_0 in F_p[x] / (x^2 + 1). Type-1 curves: For type-1 curves, which are supersingular curves of equation E/F_p: y^2 = x^3 + 1 with p congruent to 11 modulo 12, and elements of F_p^2 are represented as polynomials a_1 *_x + a_0 in F_p[x] / (x^2 + 1). Elliptic curve points: Points in E(F_p^2) with the point P = (x, y) in F_p^2 x F_p^2 satisfying the curve equation E/F_p. Points not equal to 0 are internally represented using the affine coordinates (x, y), where x and y are elements of F_p^2. 2.2. Definitions The following terminology is used to describe an IBE system. Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 6]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 Public parameters: The public parameters are set of common system- wide parameters generated and published by the private key server (PKG). Master secret: The master secret is the master key generated and privately kept by the key server, and used to generate the private keys of the users. Identity: An identity an arbitrary string, usually a human-readable unambiguous designator of a system user, possibly augmented with a time stamp and other attributes. Public key: A public key is a string that is algorithmically derived from an identity. The derivation may be performed by anyone, autonomously. Private key: A private key is issued by the key server to correspond to a given identity (and the public key that derives from it), under the published set of public parameters. Plaintext: A plaintext is an unencrypted representation, or in the clear, of any block of data to be transmitted securely. For the present purposes, plaintexts are typically session keys, or sets of session keys, for further symmetric encryption and authentication purposes. Ciphertext: A ciphertext is an encrypted representation of any block of data, including a plaintext, to be transmitted securely. 3. Basic elliptic curve algorithms This section describes algorithms for performing all needed basic arithmetic operations on elliptic curves. The presentation is specialized to the type of curves under consideration for simplicity of implementation. General algorithms may be found in [ECC]. 3.1. The group action in affine coordinates 3.1.1. Implementation for type-1 curves Algorithm 3.1.1 (PointDouble1): adds a point to itself on a type-1 elliptic curve. Input: o A point A in E(F_p^2), with A = (x, y) or 0. Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 7]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 o An elliptic curve E/F_p: y^2 = x^3 + 1. Output: o The point [2]A = A + A. Method: 1. If A = 0 or y = 0, then return 0. 2. Let lambda = (3 * x^2) / (2 * y). 3. Let x' = lambda^2 - 2 * x. 4. Let y' = (x - x') * lambda - y. 5. Return (x', y'). Algorithm 3.1.2 (PointAdd1): adds two points on a type-1 elliptic curve. Input: o A point A in E(F_p^2), with A = (x_A, y_A) or 0, o A point B in E(F_p^2), with B = (x_B, y_B) or 0, o An elliptic curve E/F_p: y^2 = x^3 + 1. Output: o The point A + B. Method: 1. If A = 0, return B. 2. If B = 0, return A. 3. If x_A = x_B: (a) If y_A = -y_B, return 0. (b) Else return [2]A computed using Algorithm 2.1.1 (PointDouble1). 4. Otherwise: Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 8]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 (a) Let lambda = (y_B - y_A) / (x_B - x_A). (b) Let x' = lambda^2 - x_A - x_B. (c) Let y' = (x_A - x') * lambda - y_A. (d) Return (x', y'). 3.2. Point multiplication Algorithm 3.2.1 (SignedWindowDecomposition): computes the signed m- ary window representation of a positive integer. Input: o An integer l > 0, o An integer window bit-size r > 0. Output: o The unique d-element sequence {(b_i, e_i), for i = 0 to d - 1} such that l = {Sum(b_i * 2^(e_i), for i = 0 to d - 1} and b_i = +/- 2^j for some 0 <= j <= r - 1. Method: 1. Let d = 0. 2. Let j = 0. 3. While j <= l, do: (a) If l_k = 0 then: i. Let j = j + 1. (b) Else: i. Let t = min{j + r - 1, l}. ii. Let h_d = (l_t, l_(t - 1), ..., l_j) (base 2). iii. If h_d > 2^(r - 1) then: A. Let b_d = h_d - 2^r. Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 9]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 B. Let l' = l' + 2^(t + 1). iv. Else: A. Let b_d = h_d. v. Let e_d = j. vi. Let d = d + 1. vii. Let j = t + 1. 4. Return d and the sequence {(b_0, e_0), ..., (b_(d - 1), e_(d - 1))}. Algorithm 3.2.2 (PointMultiply): scalar multiplication on an elliptic curve using the signed m-ary window method. Input: o A point A in E(F_p^2), o An integer l > 0, o An elliptic curve E/F_p: y^2 = x^3 + a * x + b. Output: o The point [l]A. Method: 1. (Window decomposition) (a) Let r > 0 be an integer (fixed) bit-wise window size, e.g., r = 5. (b) Let l' = l where l = {Sum(l_j * 2^j), for j = 0 to len_l} is the binary expansion of l, where len_l = Ceiling(lg(l)). (c) Compute (d, {(b_i, e_i), for i = 0 to d - 1} = SignedWindowDecomposition(l, r), the signed 2^r-ary window representation of l using Algorithm 3.2.1 (SignedWindowDecomposition). 2. (Precomputation) Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 10]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 (a) Let A_1 = A. (b) Let A_2 = [2]A, using Algorithm 3.1.1 (PointDouble1). (c) For i = 1 to 2^(r - 2) - 1, do: i. Let A_(2 * i + 1) = A_(2 * i - 1) + A_2 using Algorithm 3.1.2 (PointAdd1). (d) Let Q = A_(b_(d - 1)). 3. Main loop (a) For i = d - 2 to 0 by -1, do: i. Let Q = [2^(e_(i + 1) - e_i)]Q, using repeated applications of Algorithm 3.1.1 (PointDouble1) e_(i + 1) - e_i times. ii. If b_i > 0 then: A. Let Q = Q + A_(b_i) using Algorithm 3.1.2 (PointAdd1). iii. Else: A. Let Q = Q - A_(-b_i) using Algorithm 3.1.2 (PointAdd1). (b) Calculate Q = [2^(e_0)]Q using repeated applications of Algorithm 3.1.1 (PointDouble1) e_0 times. 4. Return Q. 3.3. Special operations in projective coordinates 3.3.1. Implementation for type-1 curves Algorithm 3.3.1 (ProjectivePointDouble1): adds a point to itself in projective coordinates for type-1 curves. Input: o A point (x, y, z) = A in E(F_p^2) in projective coordinates, o An elliptic curve E/F_p: y^2 = x^3 + 1. Output: o The point [2]A in projective coordinates. Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 11]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 Method: 1. If z = 0 or y = 0, return (0, 1, 0) = 0. Otherwise: 2. Let lambda_1 = 3 * x^2. 3. Let z' = 2 * y * z. 4. Let lambda_2 = y^2. 5. Let lambda_3 = 4 * lambda_2 * x. 6. Let x' = lambda_1^2 - 2 * lambda_3. 7. Let lambda_4 = 8 * lambda_2^2. 8. Let y' = lambda_1 * (lambda_3 - x) - lambda_4. 9. Return (x', y', z'). Algorithm 3.3.2 (ProjectivePointAccumulate1): adds a point in affine coordinates to an accumulator in projective coordinates, for type-1 curves. Input: o A point (x_A, y_A, z_A) = A in E(F_p^2) in projective coordinates, o A point (x_B, y_B) = B in E(F_p^2) \ {0} in affine coordinates, o An elliptic curve E/F_p: y^2 = x^3 + 1. Output: o The point A + B in projective coordinates. Method: 1. If z_A = 0 return (x_B, y_B, 1) = B. Otherwise: 2. Let lambda_1 = z_A^2 3. Let lambda_2 = lambda_1 * x_B. 4. Let lambda_3 = x_A - lambda_2. 5. If lambda_3 = 0 then return (0, 1, 0) = 0. Otherwise: Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 12]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 6. Let lambda_4 = lambda_3^2. 7. Let lambda_5 = lambda_1 * y_B * z_A. 8. Let lambda_6 = lambda_4 - lambda_5. 9. Let lambda_7 = x_A + lambda_2. 10. Let lambda_8 = y_A + lambda_5. 11. Let x' = lambda_6^2 - lambda_7 * lambda_4. 12. Let lambda_9 = lambda_7 * lambda_4 - 2 * x'. 13. Let y' = (lambda_9 * lambda_6 - lambda_8 * lambda_3 * lambda_4) / 2. 14. Let z' = lambda_3 * z_A. 15. Return (x', y', z'). 3.4. Divisors on elliptic curves 3.4.1. Implementation in F_p^2 for type-1 curves Algorithm 3.4.1 (EvalVertical1): evaluates the divisor of a vertical line on a type-1 elliptic curve. Input: o A point B in E(F_p^2) with B != 0. o A point A in E(F_p). o A description of a type-1 elliptic curve E/F_p. Output: o An element of F_p^2 that is the divisor of the vertical line going through A evaluated at B. Method: 1. Let r = x_B - x_A. 2. Return r. Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 13]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 Algorithm 2.4.2 (EvalTangent1): evaluates the divisor of a tangent on a type-1 elliptic curve. Input: o A point B in E(F_p^2) with B != 0. o A point A in E(F_p). o A description of a type-1 elliptic curve E/F_p. Output: o An element of F_p^2 that is the divisor of the line tangent to A evaluated at B. Method: 1. (Special cases) (a) If A = 0 return 1 = 1 + 0 * i. (b) If y_A = 0 return EvalVertical1(B, A) using Algorithm 3.4.1 (EvalVertical1). 2. (Line computation) (a) Let a = -3 * (x_A)^2. (b) Let b = 2 * y_A. (c) Let c = -b * y_A - a * x_A. 3. (Evaluation at B) (a) Let r = a * x_B + b * y_B) + c. 4. Return r. Algorithm 3.4.3 (EvalLine1): evaluates the divisor of a line on a type-1 elliptic curve. Input: o A point B in E(F_p^2) with B != 0. o Two points A', A'' in E(F_p). Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 14]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 o A description of a type-1 elliptic curve E/F_p. Output: o An element of F_p^2 that is the divisor of the line going through A' and A'' evaluated at B. Method: 1. (Special cases) (a) If A' = 0 return EvalVertical1(B, A'') using Algorithm 3.4.1 (EvalVertical1). (b) If A'' = 0 return EvalVertical1(B, A') using Algorithm 3.4.1 (EvalVertical1). (c) If A' = -A'' return EvalVertical1(B, A') using Algorithm 3.4.1 (EvalVertical1). (d) If A' = A'' return EvalTangent1(B, A') using Algorithm 3.4.2 (EvalTangent1). 2. (Line computation) (a) Let a = y_A' - y_A''. (b) Let b = x_A'' - x_A'. (c) Let c = -b * y_A' - a * x_A'. 3. (Evaluation at B) (a) Let r = a * x_B + b * y_B + c. 4. Return r. 3.5. The Tate pairing Algorithm 3.5.1 (Tate): computes the Tate pairing on an elliptic curve. Input: o A point A of order q in E(F_p), o A point B of order q in E(F_p^2), Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 15]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 o A description of an elliptic curve E/F_p such that E(F_p) and E(F_p^2) have a subgroup of order q. Output: o The value e(A, B) in F_p^2, computed using the Miller algorithm. Method: 1. For type-1 curve E, proceed with Algorithm 3.5.2 (TateMillerSolinas). 3.5.1. The Miller algorithm for type-1 curves Algorithm 3.5.2 (TateMillerSolinas): computes the Tate pairing on a type-1 elliptic curve. Input: o A point A of order q in E(F_p), o A point B of order q in E(F_p^2), o A description of a type-1 supersingular elliptic curve E/F_p such that E(F_p) and E(F_p^2) have a subgroup of prime order q, where q = 2^a + s * 2^b + c with c and s equal to either 1 or -1. Output: o The value e(A, B) in F_p^2, computed using the Miller algorithm. The following description assumes that F_p^2 = F_p[i], where i^2 = - 1. Elements x in F_p^2 may be explicitly represented as a + i * b, with a, b in F_p. Points in E(F_p) may also be represented as coordinate pairs (x, y) with x, y in F_p. Points in E(F_p^2) may be represented either as (x, y), with x, y in F_p^2 or as (a + i * b, c + i * d), with a, b, c, d in F_p. Method: 1. (Initialization) Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 16]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 (a) Let v_num = 1 in F_p^2. (b) Let v_den = 1 in F_p^2. (c) Let V = (x_V , y_V , z_V ) = (x_A, y_A, 1) in (F_p)^3, being the representation of (x_A, y_A) = A using projective coordinates. (d) Let t_num = 1 in F_p^2. (e) Let t_den = 1 in F_p^2. 2. (Calculation of the (s * 2^b) contribution) (a) (Repeated doublings) For n = 0 to b - 1: i. Let t_num = t_num^2. ii. Let t_den = t_den^2. iii. Let t_num = t_num * EvalTangent1(B, V) using Algorithm 3.4.2 (EvalTangent1). iv. Let V = (x_V , y_V , z_V ) = [2]V using Algorithm 3.3.1 (ProjectivePointDouble1). v. Let t_den = t_den * EvalVertical1(B, V) using Algorithm 3.4.1 (EvalVertical1). (b) (Normalization) i. Let V_b = (x_(V_b) , y_(V_b)) = (x_V / z_V^2, s * y_V / z_V^3) in (F_p)^2, resulting in a point V_b in E(F_p). (c) (Accumulation) Selecting on s: i. If s = -1: A. Let v_num = v_num * t_den. B. Let v_den = v_den * t_num * EvalVertical1(B, V) using Algorithm 3.4.1 (EvalVertical1). ii. If s = 1: A. Let v_num = v_num * t_num. B. Let v_den = v_den * t_den. Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 17]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 3. (Calculation of the 2^a contribution) (a) (Repeated doublings) For n = b to a - 1: i. Let t_num = t_num^2. ii. Let t_den = t_den^2. iii. Let t_num = t_num * EvalTangent1(B, V) using Algorithm 3.4.2 (EvalTangent1). iv. Let V = (x_V , y_V , z_V) = [2]V using Algorithm 3.3.1 (ProjectivePointDouble1). v. Let t_den = t_den * EvalVertical1(B, V) using Algorithm 3.4.1 (EvalVertical1). (b) (Normalization) i. Let V_a = (x_(V_a) , y_(V_a)) = (x_V /z_V^2, s * x_V / z_V^3) in (F_p)^2, resulting in a point V_a in E(F_p). (c) (Accumulation) i. Let v_num = v_num * t_num. ii. Let v_den = v_den * t_den. 4. (Correction for the (s * 2^b) and (c) contributions) (a) Let v_num = v_num * EvalLine1(B, V_a, V_b) using Algorithm 3.4.3 (EvalLine1). (b) Let v_den = v_den * EvalVertical1(B, V_a + V_b) using Algorithm 3.4.1 (EvalVertical1). (c) If c = -1 then: i. Let v_den = v_den * EvalVertical1(B,A) using Algorithm 3.4.1 (EvalVertical1). 5. (Correcting exponent) (a) Let eta = (p^2 - 1) / q (an integer). 6. (Final result) Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 18]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 (a) Return (v_num / v_den)^eta in F_p^2. 4. Supporting algorithms This section describes a number of supporting algorithms for encoding and hashing. 4.1. Integer range hashing HashToRangen(s, n) takes a string s and an integer n as input, and returns an integer in the range 0 to n - 1 by cryptographic hashing. The function performs a number l of SHA1 applications, with l chosen in function of n so that, for random input, the output has an almost uniform distribution in the entire range 0 to n - 1 with a statistical relative non-uniformity no greater than 1/sqrt(n). I.e., for arbitrarily large n, for all v in 0 to n - 1, the probability that HashToRangen(s, n) = v lies in the interval [(1 - n^(-1/2)) / n, (1 + n^(-1/2)) / n]. Algorithm 4.1.1 (HashToRange): cryptographically hashes strings to integers in a range. Input: o A string s of length |s| bytes, o A positive integer n represented as Ceiling(8 * lg(n)) bytes. Output: o A positive integer v in the range 0 to n - 1. Method: 1. Let v_0 = 0. 2. Let h_0 = 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000, a string of 20 null bytes. 3. Let l = Ceiling((3 / 5) * lg(n)). 4. For each i in 1 to l, do: (a) Let t_i = h_(i - 1) || s, which is the (|s| + 20)-byte string concatenation of the strings h_(i - 1) and s. Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 19]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 (b) Let h_i = SHA1(t_i), which is a 20-byte string resulting from the SHA1 algorithm on input t_i. (c) Let a_i = Value(h_i) be the integer in the range 0 to 256^20 - 1 denoted by the raw byte string h_i interpreted in the unsigned big endian convention. (d) Let v_i = 256^20 * v_(i - 1) + a_i. 5. Let v = v_l (mod n). 4.2. Pseudo-random generation by hashing HashStream(b, p) takes an integer b and a string p as input, and returns a b-byte pseudo-random string r as output. This function relies on the SHA1 cryptographic hashing algorithm, and has a 160-bit internal effective key space equal to the range of SHA1. Algorithm 4.2.1 (HashStream): keyed cryptographic pseudo-random stream generator. Input: o An integer b, o A string p. Output: o A string r of size b bytes. Method: 1. Let K = SHA1(p). 2. Let h_0 = 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000, a string of 20 null bytes. 3. Let l = Ceiling(b / 20). 4. For each i in 1 to l do: (a) Let h_i = SHA1(h_(i - 1)). (b) Let r_i = SHA1(h_i || K), where h_i || K is the 40-byte concatenation of h_i and K. Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 20]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 5. Let r = LeftmostBytes(b, r_1 || ... || r_l), i.e., r is formed as the concatenation of the r_i, truncated to the desired number of bytes. 4.3. Canonical encodings of extension field elements Canonical(p, k, o, v) takes an element v in F_p^k, and returns a canonical byte-string of fixed length representing v. The parameter o must be either 0 or 1, and specifies the ordering of the encoding. Algorithm 4.3.1 (Canonical): encodes elements of an extension field F_p^2 as strings. Input: o An element v in F_p^k, o A description of F_p^k, o A ordering parameter o, either 0 or 1. Output: o A fixed-length string s representing v. Method: 1. For a type-1 curve, execute Algorithm 4.3.2 (Canonical1). 4.3.1. Type-1 curve implementation Canonical1(p, o, v) takes an element v in F_p^2 and returns a canonical representation of v as a byte-string s of fixed size. The parameter o must be either 0 or 1, and specifies the ordering of the encoding. Algorithm 4.3.2 (Canonical1): canonically represents elements of an extension field F_p^2. Input: o An element v in F_p^2, o A description of p, where p is congruent to 3 modulo 4, o A ordering parameter o, either 0 or 1. Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 21]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 Output: o A string s of size Ceiling(16 * lg(p)) bytes. Method: 1. Let l = 8 * Ceiling(lg(p)), the number of bytes needed to represent integers in Z_p. 2. Let (a, b) = v, where (a, b) in (Z_p)^2 is the canonical representation of v in F_p^2 = F_p / (x^2 + 1) as a polynomial a +i * b with i^2 = -1. 3. Let a_(256^l) be the big-endian zero-padded fixed-length byte- string representation of a in Z_p. 4. Let b_(256^l) be the big-endian zero-padded fixed-length byte- string representation of b in Z_p. 5. Depending on the choice of ordering o: (a) If o = 0, then let s = a_(256^l) || b_(256^l), which is the concatenation of a_(256^l) followed by b_(256^l). (b) If o = 1, then let s = b_(256^l) || a_(256^l), which is the concatenation of b_(256^l) followed by a_(256^l). 6. The fixed-length encoding of v is output as the string s. 4.4. Hashing onto a subgroup of an elliptic curve HashToPoint(E, p, q, id) takes an identity string id and the description of a subgroup of prime order q in E(F_p) or E(F_p^2) and returns a point Q_id of order q in E(F_p) or E(F_p^2). Algorithm 4.4.1 (HashToPoint): cryptographically hashes strings to points on elliptic curves. Input: o A string id, o A description of a subgroup of prime order q on a curve E/F_p. Output: o A point Q_id = (x, y) of order q on E. Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 22]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 Method: 1. For a type-1 curve E, execute Algorithm 4.4.2 (HashToPoint1). 4.4.1. Type-1 curve implementation HashToPoint1(E, p, q, id) takes an identity string id and the description of a subgroup of order q in E(F_p) where E: y^2 = x^3 + 1 with p congruent to 11 modulo 12, and returns a point Q_id of order q in E/F_p. This algorithm exploits the bijective mapping between the x and y coordinates of non-zero points on such supersingular curves. Algorithm 4.4.2 (HashToPoint1). Cryptographically hashes strings to points on type-1 curves. Input: o A string id, o A description of a subgroup of prime order q on a curve E/F_p: y^2 = x^3 + 1 where p is congruent to 11 modulo 12. Output: o A point Q_id of order q on E(F_p). Method: 1. Let y = HashToRangen(p, id), using Algorithm 4.1.1 (HashToRange). 2. Let x = (y^2 - 1)^(1/3) = (y^2 - 1)^((2 * p - 1) / 3). 3. Let Q' = (x, y), a non-zero point in E(F_p). 4. Let Q = [(p + 1) / q ]Q', a point of order q in E(F_p). 4.5. Bilinear pairing Pairing(E, p, q, A, B) takes two points A and B, both of order q, and, in the type-1 case, returns the modified pairing e'(A, phi(B)) in F_p^2 where A and B are both in E(F_p). Algorithm 4.5.1 (Pairing): computes the regular or modified Tate pairing depending on the curve type. Input: Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 23]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 o A description of an elliptic curve E/F_p such that E(F_p) and E(F_p^2) have a subgroup of order q, o Two points A and B of order q in E(F_p) or E(F_p^2). Output: o An supersingular curves, the value of e'(A, B) in F_p^2 where A and B are both in E(F_p). Method: 1. If E is a type-1 curve, execute Algorithm 4.5.2 (Pairing1). 4.5.1. Type-1 curve implementation Algorithm 4.5.2 (Pairing1): computes the modified Tate pairing on type-1 curves. Input: o A curve E/F_p: y^2 = x^3 + 1 where p is congruent to 11 modulo 12 and E(F_p) has a subgroup of order q, o Two points A and B of order q in E(F_p), Output: o The value of e'(A, B) = e(A, phi(B)) in F_p^2. Method: 1. Compute B' = phi(B), as follows: (a) Let (x, y) in F_p x F_p be the coordinates of B in E(F_p). (b) Let zeta = 1^(1/3) in F_p^2 , with zeta != 1. Specifically, as p is congruent to 3 modulo 4, and representing the elements of F_p^2 = F_p[x] / (x^2 + 1) as polynomials a + bx with x = (-1)^(1/2), the representation of zeta = (a_zeta , b_zeta) is obtained as: i. Let a_zeta = (p - 1) / 2. ii. Let b_zeta = 3^((p + 1) / 4) (mod p). (c) Let x' = x * x_zeta in F_p^2, Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 24]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 (d) Let B' = (x', y) in F_p^2 x F_p. 2. Compute the Tate pairing e(A, B') = e(A, phi(B)) in F_p^2 using the Miller method, as in Algorithm 4.5.1 (Tate) described in Section 4.5. 4.6. Ratio of bilinear pairings PairingRatio(E, p, q, A, B, C, D) takes four points as input, and computes the ratio of the two bilinear pairings, Pairing(E, p, q, A, B) / Pairing(E, p, q, C, D), or, equivalently, the product, Pairing(E, p, q, A, B) * Pairing(E, p, q, C, -D). On type-1 curves, all four points are of order q in E(F_p), and the result is an element of order q in the extension field F_p^2 . The motivation for this algorithm is that the ratio of two pairings can be calculated more efficiently than by computing each pairing separately and dividing one into the other, since certain calculations that would normally appear in each of the two pairings can be combined and carried out at once. Such calculations include the repeated doublings in steps 2(a)i, 2(a)ii, 3(a)i, and 3(a)ii of Algorithm 4.5.2 (TateMillerSolinas), as well as the final exponentiation in step 6(a) of Algorithm 4.5.2 (TateMillerSolinas). Algorithm 4.6.1 (PairingRatio): computes the ratio of two regular or modified Tate pairings depending on the curve type. Input: o A description of an elliptic curve E/F_p such that E(F_p) and E(F_p^2) have a subgroup of order q, o Four points A, B, C, and D, of order q in E(F_p) or E(F_p^2). Output: o On supersingular curves, the value of e'(A, B) / e'(C, D) in F_p^2 where A, B, C, D are all in E(F_p); Method: 1. If E is a type-1 curve, execute Algorithm 4.6.2 (PairingRatio1). Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 25]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 4.6.1. Type-1 curve implementation Algorithm 4.6.2 (PairingRatio1). Computes the ratio of two modified Tate pairings on type-1 curves. Input: o A curve E/F_p: y^2 = x^3 + 1, where p is congruent to 11 modulo 12 and E(F_p) has a subgroup of order q, o Four points A, B, C, and D, of order q in E(F_p), Output: o The value of e'(A, B) / e'(C, D) = e(A, phi(B)) / e(C, phi(D)) = e(A, phi(B)) * e(-C, phi(D)), in F_p^2. Method: 1. The step-by-step description of the optimized algorithm is omitted in this normative specification. The correct result can always be obtained, albeit more slowly, by computing the product of pairings Pairing1(E, p, q, A, B) * Pairing1(E, p, q, -C, D) by using two invocations of Algorithm 4.5.2 (Pairing1). 5. The Boneh-Franklin BF cryptosystem This chapter describes the algorithms constituting the Boneh-Franklin identity-based cryptosystem as described in [BF]. 5.1. Setup Algorithm 5.1.1 (BFsetup): randomly selects a master secret and the associated public parameters. Input: o A curve type t (currently required to be fixed to t = 1), o A security parameter n (currently required to take values n >= 1024). Output: o A set of common public parameters, Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 26]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 o A corresponding master secret. Method: 1. Depending on the selected type t: (a) If t = 1, then Algorithm 5.1.2 (BFsetup1) is executed. 2. The resulting master secret and public parameters are separately encoded as per the application protocol requirements. 5.1.1. Type-1 curve implementation BFsetup1 takes a security parameter n as input. For type-1 curves, the scale of n corresponds to the modulus bit-size believed of comparable security in the classical Diffie-Hellman or RSA public-key cryptosystems. For this implementation, the allowed value of n is limited to 1024, which corresponds to 80 bits of symmetric key security. Algorithm 5.1.2 (BFsetup1): randomly establishes a master secret and public parameters for type-1 curves. Input: o A security parameter n, assumed to be equal to 1024. Output: o A set of common public parameters (t, p, q, P, Ppub), o A corresponding master secret s. Method: 1. Determine the subordinate security parameters n_p and n_q as follows: (a) Let n_p = 512, which will determine the size of the field F_p. (b) Let n_q = 160, which will determine the size of the subgroup order q. 2. Construct the elliptic curve and its subgroup of interest, as follows: Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 27]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 (a) Select an arbitrary n_q-bit prime q, i.e., such that Ceiling(lg(q)) = n_q. For better performance, q is chosen as a Solinas prime, i.e., a prime of the form q = 2^a +/- 2^b +/- 1 where 0 < b < a. (b) Select a random integer r such that p = 12 * r * q - 1 is an n_p-bit prime, i.e., such that Floor(lg(p)) = n_p. 3. Select a point P of order q in E(F_p), as follows: (a) Select a random point P' of coordinates (x', y') on the curve E/F_p: y^2 = x^3 + 1 (mod p). (b) Let P = [12 * r]P'. (c) If P = 0, then start over in step 3a. 4. Determine the master secret and the public parameters as follows: (a) Select a random integer s in the range 2 to q - 1. (b) Let P_pub = [s]P. 5. (t, E, p, q, P, P_pub) are the common public parameters, where E: y^2 = x^3 + 1. 6. The integer s is the master secret. 5.2. Public key derivation BFderivePubl takes an identity string id and a set of public parameters, and returns a point Q_id. Algorithm 5.2.1 (BFderivePubl): derives the public key corresponding to an identity string. Input: o An identity string id, o A set of common public parameters (t, E, p, q, P, P_pub). Output: o A point Q_id of order q in E(F_p) or E(F_p^2). Method: Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 28]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 1. Q_id = HashToPoint(E, p, q, id), using Algorithm 4.4.1 (HashToPoint). 5.3. Private key extraction BFextractPriv takes an identity string id, and a set of public parameters and corresponding master secret, and returns a point S_id. Algorithm 5.3.1 (BFextractPriv): extracts the private key corresponding to an identity string. Input: o An identity string id, o A set of common public parameters (t, E, p, q, P, P_pub). Output: o A point S_id or order q in E(F_p). Method: 1. Let Q_id = HashToPoint(E, p, q, id) using Algorithm 4.4.1 (HashToPoint). 2. Let S_id = [s]Q_id. 5.4. Encryption BFencrypt takes three inputs: a public parameter block, an identity id, and a plaintext m. The plaintext is intended to be a symmetric session key, although variable-sized short messages are allowed. Algorithm 5.4.1 (BFencrypt): encrypts a short message or session key for an identity string. Input: o A plaintext string m of size |m| bytes, o A recipient identity string id, o A set of public parameters. Output: Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 29]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 o A ciphertext tuple (U, V, W) in E(F_p) x {0, ... , 255}^20 x {0, ... , 255}^|m|. Method: 1. Let the public parameter set be comprised of a prime p, a curve E/F_p, the order q of a large prime subgroup of E(F_p), and two points P and P_pub of order q in E(F_p). 2. Q_id = HashToPoint(E, p, q, id), using Algorithm 4.4.1 (HashToPoint), which results in a point of order q in E(F_p) or E(F_p^2). 3. Select s random 160-bit vector rho, represented as 20-byte string in big-endian convention. 4. Let t = SHA1(m), a 20-byte string resulting from the SHA1 algorithm. 5. Let l = HashToRangeq(rho || t), an integer in the range 0 to q - 1 resulting from applying Algorithm 4.1.1 (HashToRange) to the 40-byte concatenation of rho and t. 6. Let U = [l]P, which is a point of order q in E(F_p). 7. Let Theta = Pairing(E, p, q, P_pub, Q_id), which is an element of the extension field F_p^2 obtained using the modified Tate pairing of Algorithm 4.5.1 (Pairing). 8. Let theta' = theta^l, which is theta raised to the power of l in F_p^2. 9. Let z = Canonical(p, k, 0, theta'), using Algorithm 4.3.1 (Canonical), the result of which is a canonical string representation of theta'. 10. Let w = SHA1(z) using the SHA1 hashing algorithm, the result of which is a 20-byte string. 11. Let V = w XOR rho, which is the 20-byte long bit-wise exclusive- OR of w and rho. 12. Let W = HashStream(|m|, rho XOR m), which is the bit-wise exclusive-OR of m with the first |m| bytes of the pseudo-random stream produced by Algorithm 4.2.1 (HashStream) with seed rho. 13. The ciphertext is the triple (U, V, W). Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 30]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 5.5. Decryption BFdecrypt takes three inputs: a public parameter block, a private key block key, and a ciphertext parsed as (U' , V' , W'). Algorithm 5.5.1 (BFdecrypt): decrypts a short message or session key using a private key. Input: o A private key point S_id of order q in E(F_p), o A ciphertext triple (U', V', W') in E(F_p) x {0, . . . , 255}^20 x {0, . . . , 255}*. o A set of public parameters. Output: o A decrypted plaintext m', or an invalid ciphertext flag. Method: 1. Let the public parameter set be comprised of a prime p, a curve E/F_p, the order q of a large prime subgroup of E(F_p), and two points P and P_pub of order q in E(F_p). 2. Let theta' = Pairing(E, p ,q, U', S_id) by applying the modified Tate pairing of Algorithm 4.5.1 (Pairing). 3. Let z = Canonical(p, k, 0, theta') using Algorithm 4.3.1 (Canonical), the result of which is a canonical string representation of theta'. 4. Let w' = SHA1(z), using the SHA1 hashing algorithm, the result of which is a 20-byte string. 5. Let rho = w XOR V, the bit-wise XOR of w and V. 6. Let m = HashStream(|W|, rho) XOR W, which is the bit-wise exclusive-OR of m with the first |W| bytes of the pseudo-random stream produced by Algorithm 4.2.1 (HashStream) with seed rho. 7. Let t = SHA1(m) using the SHA1 algorithm. 8. Let l = HashToRange(q, rho || t) using Algorithm 4.1.1 (HashToRange) on the 40-byte concatenation of rho and t. Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 31]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 9. Verify that U' = [l]P: (a) If this is the case, then the decrypted plaintext m is returned. (b) Otherwise, the ciphertext is rejected and no plaintext is returned. 6. Wrapper methods for the BF system This chapter describes a number of wrapper methods providing the identity-based cryptosystem functionalities using concrete encodings. The following functions are presently given based on the Boneh- Franklin algorithms. 6.1. Private key generator (PKG) setup Algorithm 6.1.1 (BFwrapperPKGSetup): randomly selects a PKG master secret and a set of public parameters. Input: o A curve type t, o A security parameter n. Output: o A common public parameter block pi, o A corresponding master secret block sigma. Method: 1. Perform Algorithm 5.1.1 (BFsetup) on parameters t and n, producing a public parameter set and a master secret. 2. Apply Algorithm 7.2.1 (BFencodeParams) on the public parameter set obtained in step 1 to get the public parameter block pi. 3. Apply Algorithm 7.3.1 (BFencodeMaster) on the master secret obtained in step 1 to get the master secret block sigma. 6.2. Private key extraction by the PKG Algorithm 6.2.1 (BFwrapperPrivateKeyExtract): extraction by the PKG of a private key corresponding to an identity. Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 32]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 Input: o A master secret block sigma, o A corresponding public parameter block pi, o An identity string id. Output: o A private key block kappa_id Method: 1. Apply Algorithm 7.2.2 (BFdecodeParams) to the public parameter block pi to obtain the public parameters, comprising a prime p, a curve E/F_p, the order q of a large prime subgroup of E(F_p), and two points P and P_pub of order q in E(F_p). 2. Apply Algorithm 7.3.2 (BFdecodeMaster) on the master secret block sigma to obtain the master secret s. 3. Perform Algorithm 5.3.1 (BFextractPriv) on the identity id, using the decoded parameters and secret, to produce a private key point S_id. 4. Apply Algorithm 7.4.1 (BFencodePrivate) to S_id to produce a private key block kappa_id. 6.3. Session key encryption Algorithm 6.3.1 (BFwrapperSessionKeyEncrypt): encrypts a short message or session key for an identity. Input: o A public parameter block pi, o A recipient identity string id, o A plaintext string m (possibly comprising the concatenation of a pair of random session keys for symmetric encryption and message authentication purposes on a larger plaintext). Output: o A ciphertext block Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 33]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 Method: 1. Apply Algorithm 7.2.2 (BFdecodeParams) on the public parameter block pi to obtain a set of public parameters, comprising a prime p, a curve E/F_p, the order q of a large prime subgroup of E(F_p), and two points P and P_pub of order q in E(F_p). 2. Perform Algorithm 5.4.1 (BFencrypt) on the plaintext m for identity id using the decoded set of parameters, to obtain a ciphertext tuple (U, V, W). 3. Apply Algorithm 7.5.1 (BFencodeCiphertext) on (U, V, W) to obtain a serialized ciphertext string Algorithm 6.3.2 (BFwrapperSessionKeyDecrypt): decrypts a short message or session key using a private key. Input: o A public parameter block pi, o A private key block kappa, o A ciphertext block gamma. Output: o A decrypted plaintext string m, or an error flag signaling an invalid ciphertext. Method: 1. Apply Algorithm 7.2.2 (BFdecodeParams) on the public parameter block pi to obtain the public parameters, comprising a prime p, a curve E/F_p, the order q of a large prime subgroup of E(F_p), and two points P and P_pub of order q in E(F_p). 2. Apply Algorithm 7.4.2 (BFdecodePrivate) to kappa to obtain a private key point S_id. 3. Apply Algorithm 7.5.2 (BFdecodeCiphertext) to gamma to obtain a ciphertext triple (U', V', W'). 4. Perform Algorithm 5.5.1 (BFdecrypt) on (U', V', W') using the private key S_id and the decoded set of public parameters, to obtain decrypted plaintext m, or an invalid ciphertext flag. Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 34]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 (a) If the decryption was successful, return the plaintext m. (b) Otherwise, raise an error condition. 7. Concrete encoding guidelines for BF This section specifies a set of concrete encoding schemes for the inputs and outputs of the previously described algorithms. ASN.1 encodings are specified in Section 11 of this document. 7.1. Encoding of points on a curve Algorithm 7.1.1 (EncodePoint): encodes a point in E(F_p) in an exportable format. Input: o A non-zero point Q in E(F_p). Output: o A fixed-length (for given p) byte-string encoding of Q. Method: 1. Let (x, y) in F_p x F_p be the coordinates of P, where (x, y) satisfy the equation of E. 2. The point P is then encoded as a FpPoint using the ASN.1 rules given in the ASN.1 module given in Section 11 of this document. Algorithm 6.1.2 (DecodePoint): decodes a point in E(F_p) from an exportable format. Input: o A byte-string encoding of a non-zero point Q in E(F_p). Output: o Q = (x, y). Method: 1. The string is parsed and decoded as a pair (x, y), where x and y are integers in Z_p. Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 35]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 2. Q is reconstructed as (x, y). 7.2. Public parameters blocks Algorithm 7.2.1 (BFencodeParams): encodes a BF public parameter set in an exportable format. Input: o A set of public parameters (t, E, p, q, P, P_pub). Output: o A public parameter block pi, represented as a byte string. Method: 1. Separate encodings for E, p, q, P, P_pub are obtained as follows: (a) If t = 1, execute Algorithm 7.2.3 (BFencodeParams1). 2. The separate encodings as well as a type indicator flag for t are then serialized in any suitable manner as dictated by the application. Algorithm 7.2.2 (BFdecodeParams): imports a BF public parameter block from a serialized format. Input: o A public parameter block pi, represented as a byte string. Output: o A set of public parameters (t, E, p, q, P, P_pub). Method: 1. Identify from the appropriate flag the type t of curve upon which the parameter block is based. 2. Then: (a) If t = 1, execute Algorithm 7.2.4 (BFdecodeParams1). Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 36]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 7.2.1. Type-1 implementation Algorithm 7.2.3 (BFencodeParams1): encodes a BF type-1 public parameter set in an exportable format. Input: o A set of public parameters (t, E, p, q, P, P_pub) with t = 1. Output: o Separate encodings for each of the E, p, q, P, P_pub components. Method: 1. E: y^2 = x^3 + a * x + b is represented as a constant string, such as the empty string, since a and b are invariant for type-1 curves. 2. p = 12 * r * q - 1 is represented as the smaller integer r, encoded, e.g., using a big-endian byte-string representation. 3. q = 2^a + s * 2^b + c, where a, b are small and c and s are either 1 or -1, is compactly represented as the 4-tuple (a, b, c, s). 4. P = (x_P , y_P ) in F_p x F_p is represented using the point compression technique of Algorithm 7.1.1 (EncodePoint). 5. P_pub is similarly encoded using Algorithm 7.1.1 (EncodePoint). Algorithm 7.2.4 (BFdecodeParams1): decodes the components of a BF type-1 public parameter block. Input: o Separate encodings for each one of E, p, q, P, P_pub. Output: o A set of public parameters (t, E, p, q, P, P_pub) with t = 1. Method: 1. The equation of E is set to E = E : y^2 = x^3 + 1, as is always the case for type-1 curves. The actual encoding of E is ignored. 2. The encoding of q is parsed as (a, b, c, s), and its value set to q = 2^a + s * 2^b + c. Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 37]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 3. The encoding of p is parsed as the integer r, from which p is given by p = 12 * r * q - 1. 4. P is reconstructed from its encoding (x, y') using the point decompression technique of Algorithm 7.1.2 (DecodePoint). 5. P_pub is similarly reconstructed from its encoding using Algorithm 7.1.2 (DecodePoint). 7.3. Master secret blocks Algorithm 7.3.1 (BFencodeMaster): encodes a BF master secret in an exportable format. Input: o A master secret integer s between 2 and q - 1. Output: o A master secret block sigma, represented as a byte string. Method: 1. Sigma is constructed as the unsigned big-endian byte-string encoding of s of length 8 * Ceiling(lg(p)). Algorithm 7.3.2 (BFdecodeMaster): decodes a BF master secret from a block in exportable format. Input: o A master secret block sigma, represented as a byte string. Output: o A master secret integer s in between 2 and q - 1 . Method: 1. Let s = Value(sigma), where sigma is interpreted in the unsigned big endian convention. 7.4. Private key blocks Algorithm 7.4.1 (BFencodePrivate): encodes a BF private key point in an exportable format. Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 38]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 Input: o A private key point S_id in E(F_p). Output: o A private key block kappa, represented as a byte string. Method: 1. kappa is obtained by applying Algorithm 7.1.1 (EncodePoint) to S_id. Algorithm 7.4.2 (BFdecodePrivate): decodes a BF private key point from an exportable format. Input: o A private key block kappa, represented as a byte string. Output: o A private key point S_id in E(F_p). Method: 1. Kappa is parsed and decoded into a point S_id in E(F_p) using Algorithm 7.1.2 (DecodePoint). 7.5. Ciphertext blocks Algorithm 7.5.1 (BFencodeCiphertext): encodes a BF ciphertext tuple in an exportable format. Input: o A ciphertext tuple (U, V, W) in E(F_p) x {0, . . . , 255}^20 x {0, . . . , 255}*. Output: o A ciphertext block gamma, represented as a byte string. Method: 1. U = (x, y) is first encoded as a fixed-length string using Algorithm 7.1.1 (EncodePoint). Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 39]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 2. The output gamma is obtained as the encoding of U, concatenated with the fixed-length string V, and the variable length string W, both already in byte-string format. Algorithm 7.5.2 (BFdecodeCiphertext): decodes a BF ciphertext tuple from an exportable format. Input: o A ciphertext block gamma, represented as a byte string. Output: o A ciphertext tuple (U, V, W) in E(F_p) x {0, . . . , 255}^20 x {0, . . . , 255}*. Method: 1. The ciphertext block gamma is parsed as a 3-tuple comprising a fixed-length encoding of U, followed by a 20-byte string V, followed by an arbitrary-length string W. 2. U in E(F_p) is then recovered by applying Algorithm 7.1.2 (DecodePoint) on its encoding. 8. The Boneh-Boyen BB1 cryptosystem This chapter describes the algorithms constituting the first of the two Boneh-Boyen identity-based cryptosystems proposed in [BB1]. The description follows the practical implementation given in [BB1]. 8.1. Setup Algorithm 8.1.1 (BBsetup). Randomly selects a set of master secrets and the associated public parameters. Input: o A curve type t (currently required to be fixed to t = 1), o A security parameter n (currently required to take values n >= 1024). Output: o A set of common public parameters, Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 40]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 o A corresponding master secret. Method: 1. Depending on the selected type t: (a) If t = 1, then Algorithm 8.1.2 (BBsetup1) is executed. 2. The resulting master secret and public parameters are separately encoded as per the application protocol requirements. 8.1.1. Type-1 curve implementation BBsetup1 takes a security parameter n as input. For type-1 curves, the scale of n corresponds to the modulus bit-size believed of comparable security in the classical Diffie-Hellman or RSA public-key cryptosystems. For this implementation, allowed values of n are limited to 1024, 2048, and 3072, which correspond to the equivalent security level ranging from 80-, 112- and 128-bit symmetric keys respectively. Algorithm 8.1.2 (BBsetup1): randomly establishes a master secret and public parameters for type-1 curves. Input: o A security parameter n, either 1024, 2048 or 3072. Output: o A set of common public parameters (t, k, E, p, q, P, P_1, P_2, P_3, v), o A corresponding triple of master secrets (alpha, beta, gamma). Method: 1. Determine the subordinate security parameters n_p and n_q as follows: (a) Let n_p = n / 2, which will determine the size of the field F_p. (b) If n = 1024, n_q = 160; if n = 2048, n_q = 224; if n = 3072, n_q = 256, which will determine the size of the subgroup order q. Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 41]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 2. Construct the elliptic curve and its subgroup of interest as follows: (a) Select an arbitrary n_q-bit prime q, i.e., such that Ceiling(lg(p)) = n_q. For better performance, q is chosen as a Solinas prime, i.e., a prime of the form q = 2^a +/- 2^b +/- 1 where 0 < b < a. (b) Select a random integer r such that p = 12 * r * q - 1 is an n_p-bit prime, i.e., such that Ceiling(lg(p)) = n_p. 3. Select a point P of order q in E(F_p), as follows: (a) Select a random point P' of coordinates (x', y') on the curve E/F_p: y2 = x3 + 1 (mod p). (b) Let P = [12 * r]P'. (c) If P = 1, then start over in step 3a. 4. Determine the master secret and the public parameters as follows: (a) Select three random integers alpha, beta, gamma, each of them in the range 1 to q - 1. (b) Let P_1 = [alpha]P. (c) Let P_2 = [beta]P. (d) Let P_3 = [gamma]P. (e) Let v = Pairing(E, p, q, P_1, P_2), which is an element of the extension field F_p^2 obtained using the modified Tate pairing of Algorithm 3.5.1 (Pairing). 5. (t, k, E, p, q, P, P_1, P_2, P_3, v) are the common public parameters, where t = 1, k = 2, and E: y^2 = x^3 + 1. 6. (alpha, beta, gamma) constitute the master secret. 8.2. Public key derivation takes an identity string id and a set of public parameters, and returns an integer h_id. Algorithm 8.2.1 (BBderivePubl): derives the public key corresponding to an identity string. Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 42]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 Input: o An identity string id, o A set of common public parameters (t, k, E, p, q, P, P_1, P_2, P_3, v). Output: o An integer h_id modulo q. Method: 1. Let h_id = HashToRangeq(id), using Algorithm 3.1.1 (HashToRange). 8.3. Private key extraction BBextractPriv takes an identity string id, and a set of public parameters and corresponding master secrets, and returns a private key consisting of two points D_0 and D_1. Algorithm 8.3.1 (BBextractPriv): extracts the private key corresponding to an identity string. Input: o An identity string id, o A set of common public parameters (t, k, E, p, q, P, P_1, P_2, P_3, v). Output: o A pair of points (D_0, D_1), each of which has order q in E(F_p). Method: 1. Select a random integer r in the range 1 to q - 1. 2. Calculate the point D_0 as follows: (a) Let hid = HashToRange(q, id), using Algorithm 3.1.1 (HashToRange). (b) Let y = alpha * beta + r * (alpha * h_id * gamma) in F_q. (c) Let D_0 = [y]P. Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 43]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 3. Calculate the point D_1 as follows: (a) Let D_1 = [r]P. 4. The pair of points (D_0, D_1) constitutes the private key for id. 8.4. Encryption BBencrypt takes three inputs: a set of public parameters, an identity id, and a plaintext m. The plaintext is intended to be a short random session key, although messages of arbitrary size are in principle allowed. Algorithm 8.4.1 (BBencrypt): encrypts a short message or session key for an identity string. Input: o A plaintext string m of size |m| bytes, o A recipient identity string id, o A set of public parameters (t, k, E, p, q, P, P_1, P_2, P_3, v). Output: o A ciphertext tuple (u, C_0, C_1, y) in F_q x E(F_p) x E(F_p) x {0, . . . , 255}^|m|. Method: 1. Let the public parameter set be comprised of a prime p, a curve E/F_p, the order q of a large prime subgroup of E(F_p), four points P, P_1, P_2, P_3, of order q in E(F_p), and an extension field element v of order q in F_p^2 . 2. Select a random integer s in the range 1 to q - 1. 3. Let w = v^s, which is v raised to the power of s in F_p^2, the result is an element of order q in F_p^2 . 4. Calculate the point C_0 as follows: (a) Let C_0 = [s]P. 5. Calculate the point C_1 as follows: Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 44]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 (a) Let _hid = HashToRangeq(id), using Algorithm 3.1.1 (HashToRange). (b) Let y = s * h_id in F_q. (c) Let C_1 = [y]P_1 + [s]P_3. 6. Obtain canonical string representations of certain elements: (a) Let psi = Canonical(p, k, 1, w) using Algorithm 3.3.1 (Canonical), the result of which is a canonical byte-string representation of w. (b) Let l = Ceiling(8 * lg(p)), the number of bytes needed to represent integers in F_p, and represent each of these F_p elements as a big-endian zero-padded byte-string of fixed length l: (x_0)_(256^l) to represent the x coordinate of C_0. (y_0)_(256^l) to represent the y coordinate of C_0. (x_1)_(256^l) to represent the x coordinate of C_1. (y_1)_(256^l) to represent the y coordinate of C_1. 7. Encrypt the message m into the string y as follows: (a) Compute an encryption key h_0 as a dual-pass hash of w via its representation psi: i. Let zeta = SHA1(psi), using the SHA1 hashing algorithm; the result is a 20-byte string. ii. Let xi = SHA1(zeta || psi), using the SHA1 hashing algorithm; the result is a 20-byte string. iii. Let h' = xi || zeta, the 40-byte concatenation of the previous two SHA1 outputs. (b) Let y = HashStream(|m|, h') XOR m, which is the bit-wise exclusive-OR of m with the first |m| bytes of the pseudo-random stream produced by Algorithm 3.2.1 (HashStream) with seed h'. 8. Create the integrity check tag u as follows: (a) Compute a one-time pad h'' as a dual-pass hash of the representation of (w, C_0, C_1, y): Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 45]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 i. Let sigma = (y_1)_(256^l) || (x_1)_(256^l) || (y_0)_(256^l) || (x_0)_(256^l) || y || psi be the concatenation of y and the five indicated strings in the specified order. ii. Let eta = SHA1(sigma), using the SHA1 hashing algorithm to get a 20-byte string. iii. Let mu = SHA1(eta || sigma), using the SHA1 hashing algorithm to get a 20-byte string. iv. Let h'' = mu || eta, the 40-byte concatenation of the previous two SHA1 outputs. (b) Build the tag u as the encryption of the integer s with the one-time pad h'': i. Let rho = HashToRangeq(h'') to get an integer in Z_q. ii. Let u = s + rho (mod q). 9. The complete ciphertext is given by the quadruple (u, C_0, C_1, y). 8.5. Decryption BBdecrypt takes three inputs: a set of public parameters, a private key (D_0, D_1), and a ciphertext parsed as (u, C_0, C_1, y). It outputs a message m, or signals an error if the ciphertext is invalid for the given key. Algorithm 7.5.1 (BBdecrypt): decrypts a short message or session key using a private key. Input: o A private key given as a pair of points (D_0, D_1) of order q in E(F_p), o A ciphertext quadruple (u, C_0, C_1, y) in Z_q x E(F_p) x E(F_p) x {0, . . . , 255}*. o A set of public parameters. Output: o A decrypted plaintext m, or an invalid ciphertext flag. Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 46]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 Method: 1. Let the public parameter set be comprised of a prime p, a curve E/F_p, the order q of a large prime subgroup of E(F_p), four points P, P_1, P_2, P_3, of order q in E(F_p), and an extension field element v of order q in F_p^2 . 2. Let w = PairingRatio(E, p, q, C_0, D_0, C_1, D_1), which computes the ratio of two Tate pairings (modified, for type-1 curves) as specified in Algorithm 4.6.1 (PairingRatio). 3. Obtain canonical string representations of certain elements: (a) Let psi = Canonical(p, k, 1, w), using Algorithm 4.3.1 (Canonical); the result is a canonical byte-string representation of w. (b) Let l = Ceiling(8 * lg(p)), the number of bytes needed to represent integers in F_p, and represent each of these F_p elements as a big-endian zero-padded byte-string of fixed length l: (x_0)_(256^l) to represent the x coordinate of C_0. (y_0)_(256^l) to represent the y coordinate of C_0. (x_1)_(256^l) to represent the x coordinate of C_1. (y_1)_(256^l) to represent the y coordinate of C_1. 4. Decrypt the message m from the string y as follows: (a) Compute the decryption key h' as a dual-pass hash of w via its representation psi: i. Let zeta = SHA1(psi), using the SHA1 hashing algorithm to get a 20-byte string. ii. Let xi = SHA1(zeta || psi), using the SHA1 hashing algorithm to get a 20-byte string. iii. Let h' = xi || zeta, the 40-byte concatenation of the previous two SHA1 outputs. (b) Let m = HashStream(|y|, h')_XOR y, which is the bit-wise exclusive-OR of y with the first |y| bytes of the pseudo-random stream produced by Algorithm 3.2.1 (HashStream) with seed h'. Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 47]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 5. Obtain the integrity check tag u as follows: (a) Recover the one-time pad h'' as a dual-pass hash of the representation of (w, C_0, C_1, y): i. Let sigma = (y_1)_(256^l) || (x_1)_(256^l) || (y_0)_(256^l) || (x_0)_(256^l) || y || psi be the concatenation of y and the five indicated strings in the specified order. ii. Let eta = SHA1(sigma) using the SHA1 hashing algorithm to get a 20-byte string. iii. Let mu = SHA1(eta || sigma), using the SHA1 hashing algorithm to get a 20-byte string. iv. Let h'' = mu || eta, the 40-byte concatenation of the previous two SHA1 outputs. (b) Unblind the encryption randomization integer s from the tag u using h'': i. Let rho = HashToRangeq(h'') to get an integer in Z_q. ii. Let s = u - rho (mod q). 6. Verify the ciphertext consistency according to the decrypted values: (a) Test whether the equality w = v^s holds in F_p^2 . (b) Test whether the equality C_0 = [s]P holds in E(F_p). 7. Adjudication and final output: (a) If either of the tests performed in step 6 fails, the ciphertext is rejected, and no decryption is output. (b) Otherwise, i.e., when both tests performed in step 6 succeed, the decrypted message is output. 9. Wrapper methods for the BB1 system This section describes a number of wrapper methods providing the identity-based cryptosystem functionalities using concrete encodings. The following functions are presently given based on the Boneh- Franklin algorithms. Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 48]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 9.1. Private key generator (PKG) setup Algorithm 9.1.1 (BBwrapperPKGSetup): randomly selects a PKG master secret and a set of public parameters. Input: o A curve type t, o A security parameter n. Output: o A common public parameter block pi, o A corresponding master secret block sigma. Method: 1. Perform Algorithm 8.1.1 (BBsetup) on parameters t and n, producing a set of public parameters and master secret. 2. Apply Algorithm 10.2.1 (BBencodeParams) on the public parameters obtained in step 1 to get the public parameter block pi. 3. Apply Algorithm 10.3.1 (BBencodeMaster) on the master secrets obtained in step 1 to get the master secret block sigma. 9.2. Private key extraction by the PKG Algorithm 9.2.1 (BBwrapperPrivateKeyExtract): extraction by the PKG of a private key corresponding to an identity. Input: o A master secret block sigma, o A corresponding public parameter block pi, o An identity string id. Output: o A private key block kappa_id. Method: Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 49]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 1. Apply Algorithm 10.2.2 (BBdecodeParams) on the public parameter block pi to obtain the public parameters, comprising a prime p, the parameters of a curve E/F_p with embedding degree k = 2, the order q of a large prime subgroup of E(F_p), four points P, P_1, P_2, P_3, of order q in E(F_p), and an element v of order q in the extension field F_p^k of degree k. 2. Apply Algorithm 10.3.2 (BBdecodeMaster) on the master secret block sigma to obtain the master secret (alpha, beta, gamma). 3. Perform Algorithm 8.3.1 (BBextractPriv) on the identity id, using the decoded public parameters and master secret, to produce a private key (D_0, D_1). 4. Apply Algorithm 10.4.1 (BBencodePrivate) on the private key to produce a private key block kappa_id. 9.3. Session key encryption Algorithm 9.3.1 (BBwrapperSessionKeyEncrypt): encrypts a short message or session key for an identity. Input: o A public parameter block pi, o A recipient identity string id, o A plaintext string m (possibly comprising the concatenation of a pair of random session keys for symmetric encryption and message authentication purposes on a larger plaintext). Output: o A ciphertext block omega. Method: 1. Apply Algorithm 10.2.2 (BBdecodeParams) on the public parameter block pi to obtain the public parameters, comprising a prime p, the parameters of a curve E/F_p with embedding degree k = 2, the order q of a large prime subgroup of E(F_p), four points P, P_1, P_2, P_3, of order q in E(F_p), and an element v of order q in the extension field F_p^k . Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 50]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 2. Perform Algorithm 8.4.1 (BBencrypt) on the plaintext m for identity id using the decoded set of parameters, to obtain a ciphertext quadruple (u, C_0, C_1, y). 3. Apply Algorithm 10.5.1 (BBencodeCiphertext) on the ciphertext (u, C_0, C_1, y) to obtain a string representation of omega. Algorithm 9.3.2 (BBwrapperSessionKeyDecrypt): decrypts a short message or session key using a private key. Input: o A public parameter block pi, o A private key block kappa, o A ciphertext block omega. Output: o A decrypted plaintext string m, or an error flag signaling an invalid ciphertext. Method: 1. Apply Algorithm 10.2.2 (BBdecodeParams) on the public parameter block pi to obtain the public parameters, comprising a prime p, the parameters of a curve E/F_p with embedding degree k = 2, the order q of a large prime subgroup of E(F_p), four points P, P_1, P_2, P_3, of order q in E(F_p), and an element v of order q in the extension field F_p^2. 2. Apply Algorithm 10.4.2 (BBdecodePrivate) on kappa to obtain the private key points (D_0, D_1). 3. Apply Algorithm 10.5.2 (BBdecodeCiphertext) on omega to obtain a ciphertext quadruple (u, C_0, C_1, y). 4. Perform Algorithm 8.5.1 (BBdecrypt) on (u, C_0, C_1, y) using the private key (D_0, D_1) and the decoded set of public parameters, to obtain decrypted plaintext m, or an invalid ciphertext flag. (a) If the decryption was successful, return the plaintext string m. (b) Otherwise, raise an error condition. Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 51]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 10. Concrete encoding guidelines for BB1 This section specifies a set of concrete encoding schemes for the inputs and outputs of the previously described algorithms. ASN.1 encodings are specified in Section 11 of this document. 10.1. Encoding of points on a curve We refer to the description of Algorithm 7.1.1 (EncodePoint) and Algorithm 7.1.2 (DecodePoint). 10.2. Public parameters blocks Algorithm 10.2.1 (BBencodeParams): encodes a BB1 public parameter set in an exportable format. Input: o A set of public parameters (t, k, E, p, q, P, P_1, P_2, P_3, v). Output: o A public parameter block pi, represented as a byte string. Method: 1. Separate encodings for k, E, p, q, P, P_1, P_2, P_3 are obtained as follows: (a) If t = 1, execute Algorithm 10.2.3 (BBencodeParams1). 2. The separate encodings as well as a type indicator flag for t are then serialized in any suitable manner as dictated by the application. Algorithm 10.2.2 (BBdecodeParams): imports a BB1 public parameter block from a serialized format. Input: o A public parameter block pi, represented as a byte string. Output: o A set of public parameters (t, k, E, p, q, P, P_1, P_2, P_3, v). Method: Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 52]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 1. Identify from the appropriate flag the type t of curve upon which the parameter block is based. 2. Then: (a) If t = 1, execute Algorithm 10.2.4 (BBdecodeParams1). 10.2.1. Type-1 implementation Algorithm 10.2.3 (BBencodeParams1): encodes a BB1 type-1 public parameter set in an exportable format. Input: o A set of public parameters (t, k, E, p, q, P, P_1, P_2, P_3, v) with t = 1. Output: o Separate encodings for each of the k, E, p, q, P, P_1, P_2, P_3 components (v is redundant and omitted). Method: 1. The elliptic curve E: y^2 = x^3 + a * x + b and the embedding degree k = 2 are represented as a constant string, such as the empty string, since the coefficients a and b and the embedding degree are invariant for type-1 curves. 2. The integer p = 12 * r * q - 1 is represented as the smaller integer r, encoded, e.g., using a big-endian byte-string representation. 3. The integer q = 2^a + s* 2^b + c, where a, b are small and both c and s are either 1 or -1 is compactly represented as the 4-tuple (a, b, c, s). 4. The point P = (x_P , y_P) in F_p x F_p is represented using the point compression technique of Algorithm 7.1.1 (EncodePoint). 5. Each of P_1, P_2, and P_3 is similarly encoded using Algorithm 7.1.1 (EncodePoint). Algorithm 10.2.4 (BBdecodeParams1): decodes the components of a BB1 type-1 public parameter block. Input: Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 53]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 o Separate encodings for each one of k, E, p, q, P, P_1, P_2, P_3. Output: o A set of public parameters (t, k, E, p, q, P, P_1, P_2, P_3, v) with t = 1. Method: 1. The equation of E is set to E: y^2 = x^3 + 1, as is always the case for type-1 curves. 2. The embedding degree is set to k = 2 for type-1 curves. 3. The encoding of q is parsed as (a, b, c, s), and its value set to q = 2^a + s * 2^b + c. 4. The encoding of p is parsed as the integer r, from which p is given by p = 12 * r * q - 1. 5. The point P is reconstructed from its encoding (x, y') using the point decompression technique of Algorithm 7.1.2 (DecodePoint). 6. Each of P_1, P_2, and P_3 is reconstructed in a similar manner from its encoding using Algorithm 7.1.2 (DecodePoint). 7. The extension field element v is reconstructed as v = Pairing(E, p, q, P_1, P_2) using Algorithm 4.5.1 (Pairing). 10.3. Master secret blocks Algorithm 10.3.1 (BBencodeMaster): encodes a BB1 master secret in an exportable format. Input: o A master secret triple of integers (alpha, beta, gamma) in (Z+_q) ^3. Output: o A master secret block sigma, represented as a byte string. Method: Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 54]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 1. Encode each integer as an unsigned big-endian byte-string of fixed length Ceiling(8 * lg(q)), or, when q is a Solinas prime q = 2^a +/- 2^b +/- 1, of length Ceiling((a + 1) / 8): (a) sigma_alpha to represent alpha. (b) sigma_beta to represent beta. (c) sigma_gamma to represent gamma. 2. Sigma = sigma_alpha || sigma_beta || sigma_gamma is the concatenation of these strings. Algorithm 10.3.2 (BBdecodeMaster): decodes a BB1 master secret from a block in exportable format. Input: o A master secret block sigma, represented as a byte string. Output: o A master secret triple of integers (alpha, beta, gamma) in (Z+_q) ^3. Method: 1. Parse sigma as sigma_alpha || sigma_beta || sigma_gamma, where each substring is a byte string of fixed length Ceiling(8 * lg(q)), or, when q is a Solinas prime q = 2^a +/- 2^b +/- 1, of length Ceiling((a + 1) / 8)). 2. Decode each substring as an integer in unsigned big-endian byte- string representation: (a) Let alpha = Value(sigma_alpha). (b) Let beta = Value(sigma_beta). (c) Let gamma = Value(sigma_gamma). 10.4. Private key blocks Algorithm 10.4.1 (BBencodePrivate): encodes a BB1 private key in an exportable format. Input: Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 55]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 o A private key pair of points (D_0, D_1) in E(F_p) x E(F_p). Output: o A private key block kappa, represented as a byte string. Method: 1. Encode each point separately: (a) The first component of kappa, kappa_0 is obtained by applying Algorithm 7.1.1 (EncodePoint) to D_0. (b) The second componente of kappa, kappa_1 is obtained by applying Algorithm 7.1.1 (EncodePoint) to D_0. 2. Let kappa = kappa_0 || kappa_1. Algorithm 10.4.2 (BBdecodePrivate): decodes a BB1 private key from an exportable format. Input: o A private key block kappa, represented as a byte string. Output: o A private key pair of point (D_0, D_1) in E(F_p) x E(F_p). Method: 1. Decode each point separately: (a) The first prefix of kappa is parsed and decoded into a point D_0 in E(F_p) using Algorithm 7.1.2 (DecodePoint). (b) The remainder of kappa is parsed and decoded into a point D_1 in E(F_p) using Algorithm 7.1.2 (DecodePoint). 10.5. Ciphertext blocks Algorithm 10.5.1 (BBencodeCiphertext). Encodes a BB1 ciphertext tuple in an exportable format. Input: Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 56]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 o A ciphertext tuple (u, C_0, C_1, y) in Z_q x E(F_p) x E(F_p) x {0, . . . , 255}*. Output: o A ciphertext block omega, represented as a byte string. Method: 1. Let chi_0 be the fixed-length encoding of C_0 = (x_0, y_0) using Algorithm 7.1.1 (EncodePoint). 2. Let chi_1 be the fixed-length encoding of C_1 = (x_1, y_1) using Algorithm 7.1.1 (EncodePoint). 3. Let nu be the encoding of u as an unsigned big-endian byte-string of fixed length Ceiling(8 * lg(q)), or, when q is a Solinas prime q = 2^a +/- 2^b +/- 1, of length Ceiling((a + 1)/8). 4. The value of omega = chi_0 || chi_1 || nu || y is the concatenation of these three strings and y. Algorithm 10.5.2 (BBdecodeCiphertext): decodes a BB1 ciphertext tuple from an exportable format. Input: o A ciphertext block omega, represented as a byte string. Output: o A ciphertext tuple (u, C_0, C_1, y) in Z_q x E(F_p) x E(F_p) x {0, . . . , 255}*. Method: 1. The value of omega is parsed as a quadruple comprising a fixed- length encoding of C_0, a fixed-length encoding of C_1, a fixed- length encoding of u, and the arbitrary-length string y: (a) C_0 in E(F_p) is first recovered by applying Algorithm 7.1.2 (DecodePoint) on the first parsed component of omega. (b) C_1 in E(F_p) is next recovered by applying Algorithm 7.1.2 (DecodePoint) on the second parsed component of omega. Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 57]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 (c) The value of u in Z_q is then recovered from its unsigned big- endian byte-string representation in the third parsed component of omega, of length Ceiling(8 * lg(q)), or, when q is a Solinas prime q = 2^a +/- 2b +/- 1, of length Ceiling((a + 1)/8). (d) The value of y is finally taken as the remainder of omega. 11. Test vectors The following data can be used to verify the correct operation of selected algorithms that are defined in this document. 11.1. Algorithm 3.2.2 (PointMultiply) Input: q = 0xfffffffffffffffffffffffffffbffff p = 0xbffffffffffffffffffffffffffcffff3 E/F_p: y^2 = x^3 + 1 A = (0x489a03c58dcf7fcfc97e99ffef0bb4634, 0x510c6972d795ec0c2b081b81de767f808) l = 0xb8bbbc0089098f2769b32373ade8f0daf Output: [l]A = (0x073734b32a882cc97956b9f7e54a2d326, 0x9c4b891aab199741a44a5b6b632b949f7) 11.2. Algorithm 4.1.1 (HashToRange) Input: s = 54:68:69:73:20:41:53:43:49:49:20:73:74:72:69:6e:67:20:77:69:74:68:6f: 75:74:20:6e:75:6c:6c:2d:74:65:72:6d:69:6e:61:74:6f:72 ("This ASCII string without null-terminator") n = 0xffffffffffffffffffffefffffffffffffffffff Output: v = 0x79317c1610c1fc018e9c53d89d59c108cd518608 Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 58]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 11.3. Algorithm 4.5.1 (Pairing) q = 0xfffffffffffffffffffffffffffbffff p = 0xbffffffffffffffffffffffffffcffff3 E/F_p: y^2 = x^3 + 1 A = (0x489a03c58dcf7fcfc97e99ffef0bb4634, 0x510c6972d795ec0c2b081b81de767f808) B = (0x40e98b9382e0b1fa6747dcb1655f54f75, 0xb497a6a02e7611511d0db2ff133b32a3f) Output: e'(A, B) = (0x8b2cac13cbd422658f9e5757b85493818, 0xbc6af59f54d0a5d83c8efd8f5214fad3c) in F_p^2 where F_p^2 is represented as F_p[x]/(x^2 + 1) 11.4. Algorithm 5.2.1 (BFderivePubl) Input: id = 6f:42:62 ("Bob") t = 1 p = 0xa6a0ffd016103ffffffffff595f002fe9ef195f002fe9efb q = 0xffffffffffffffffffffffeffffffffffff P = (0x6924c354256acf5a0ff7f61be4f0495b54540a5bf6395b3d, 0x024fd8e2eb7c09104bca116f41c035219955237c0eac19ab) P_pub = (0xa68412ae960d1392701066664d20b2f4a76d6ee715621108, 0x9e7644e75c9a131d075752e143e3f0435ff231b6745a486f) Output: Q_id = (0x22fa1207e0d19e1a4825009e0e88e35eb57ba79391498f59, 0x982d29acf942127e0f01c881b5ec1b5fe23d05269f538836) 11.5. Algorithm 5.3.1 (BFextractPriv) Input: Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 59]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 s = 0x749e52ddb807e0220054417e514742b05a0 t = 1 p = 0xa6a0ffd016103ffffffffff595f002fe9ef195f002fe9efb q = 0xffffffffffffffffffffffeffffffffffff P = (0x6924c354256acf5a0ff7f61be4f0495b54540a5bf6395b3d, 0x024fd8e2eb7c09104bca116f41c035219955237c0eac19ab) P_pub = (0xa68412ae960d1392701066664d20b2f4a76d6ee715621108, 0x9e7644e75c9a131d075752e143e3f0435ff231b6745a486f) Output: Q_id = (0x8212b74ea75c841a9d1accc914ca140f4032d191b5ce5501, 0x950643d940aba68099bdcb40082532b6130c88d317958657) 11.6. Algorithm 5.4.1 (BFencrypt) (Note that the following values can also be used to test Algorithm 5.5.1 (BFdecrypt)) Input: m = 48:69:20:74:68:65:72:65:21 ("Hi there!") id = 6f:42:62 ("Bob") t = 1 p = 0xa6a0ffd016103ffffffffff595f002fe9ef195f002fe9efb q = 0xffffffffffffffffffffffeffffffffffff P = (0x6924c354256acf5a0ff7f61be4f0495b54540a5bf6395b3d, 0x024fd8e2eb7c09104bca116f41c035219955237c0eac19ab) P_pub = (0xa68412ae960d1392701066664d20b2f4a76d6ee715621108, 0x9e7644e75c9a131d075752e143e3f0435ff231b6745a486f) Output: Using the random value rho = 0xed5397ff77b567ba5ecb644d7671d6b6f2082968, we get the following output: Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 60]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 U = (0x1b5f6c461497acdfcbb6d6613ad515430c8b3fa23b61c585e9a541b199e2a6cb, 0x9bdfbed1ae664e51e3d4533359d733ac9a600b61048a7d899104e826a0ec4fa4) V = e0:1d:ad:81:32:6c:b1:73:af:c2:8d:72:2e:7a:32:1a:7b:29:8a:aa W = f9:04:ba:40:30:e9:ce:6e:ff 11.7. Algorithm 8.3.1 (BBextractPriv) Inputs: alpha = 0xa60c395285ded4d70202c8283d894bad4f0 beta = 0x48bf012da19f170b13124e5301561f45053 gamma = 0x226fba82bc38e2ce4e28e56472ccf94a499 t = 1 p = 0x91bbe2be1c8950750784befffffffffffff6e441d41e12fb q = 0xfffffffffbfffffffffffffffffffffffff P = (0x13cc538fe950411218d7f5c17ae58a15e58f0877b29f2fe1, 0x8cf7bab1a748d323cc601fabd8b479f54a60be11e28e18cf) P_1 = (0x0f809a992ed2467a138d72bc1d8931c6ccdd781bedc74627, 0x11c933027beaaf73aa9022db366374b1c68d6bf7d7a888c2) P_2 = (0x0f8ac99a55e575bf595308cfea13edb8ec673983919121b0, 0x3febb7c6369f5d5f18ee3ea6ca0181448a4f3c4f3385019c) P_3 = (0x2c10b43991052e78fac44fdce639c45824f5a3a2550b2a45, 0x6d7c12d8a0681426a5bbc369c9ef54624356e2f6036a064f) v = (0x38f91032de6847a89fc3c83e663ed0c21c8f30ce65c0d7d3, 0x44b9aa10849cc8d8987ef2421770a340056745da8b99fba2) in F_p^2 where F_p^2 is represented as F_p[x]/(x^2 + 1) id = 6f:42:62 ("Bob") Output: Using the random value r = 0x695024c25812112187162c08aa5f65c7a2c, we get the following output: Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 61]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 D_0 = (0x3264e13feeb7c506493888132964e79ad657a952334b9e53, 0x3eeaefc14ba1277a1cd6fdea83c7c882fe6d85d957055c7b) D_1 = (0x8d7a72ad06909bb3bb29b67676d935018183a905e7e8cb18, 0x2b346c6801c1db638f270af915a21054f16044ab67f6c40e) 11.8. Algorithm 8.4.1 (BBencrypt) (Note that the following values can also be used to test Algorithm 8.5.1 (BFdecrypt)) Input: m = 48:69:20:74:68:65:72:65:21 ("Hi there!") id = 6f:42:62 ("Bob") t = 1 k = 2 E: y^2 = x^3 + 1 p = 0x91bbe2be1c8950750784befffffffffffff6e441d41e12fb q = 0xfffffffffbfffffffffffffffffffffffff P = (0x13cc538fe950411218d7f5c17ae58a15e58f0877b29f2fe1, 0x8cf7bab1a748d323cc601fabd8b479f54a60be11e28e18cf) P_1 = (0x0f809a992ed2467a138d72bc1d8931c6ccdd781bedc74627, 0x11c933027beaaf73aa9022db366374b1c68d6bf7d7a888c2) P_2 = (0x0f8ac99a55e575bf595308cfea13edb8ec673983919121b0, 0x3febb7c6369f5d5f18ee3ea6ca0181448a4f3c4f3385019c) P_3 = (0x2c10b43991052e78fac44fdce639c45824f5a3a2550b2a45, 0x6d7c12d8a0681426a5bbc369c9ef54624356e2f6036a064f) v = (0x38f91032de6847a89fc3c83e663ed0c21c8f30ce65c0d7d3, 0x44b9aa10849cc8d8987ef2421770a340056745da8b99fba2) in F_p^2 where F_p^2 is represented as F_p[x]/(x^2 + 1) Output: Using the random value s = 0x62759e95ce1af248040e220263fb41b965e, we get the following output: Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 62]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 u = 0xad1ebfa82edf0bcb5111e9dc08ff0737c68 C_0 = (0x79f8f35904579f1aaf51897b1e8f1d84e1c927b8994e81f9, 0x1cf77bb2516606681aba2e2dc14764aa1b55a45836014c62) C_1 = (0x410cfeb0bccf1fa4afc607316c8b12fe464097b20250d684, 0x8bb76e7195a7b1980531b0a5852ce710cab5d288b2404e90) y = 82:a6:42:b9:bb:e9:82:c4:57 12. ASN.1 module This section defines the ASN.1 module for the encodings discussed in sections 7 and 10. Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 63]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 IBCS { joint-iso-itu(2) country(16) us(840) organization(1) identicrypt(114334) ibcs(1) module(5) version(1) } DEFINITIONS IMPLICIT TAGS ::= BEGIN -- -- Identity-based cryptography standards (IBCS): supersingular curve -- implementations of the BF and BB1 cryptosystems. -- -- This version of the IBCS standard only supports IBE over -- type-1 curves. In the current version, the Curve type is -- always set to NULL, although future versions will use it. -- IMPORTS Curve FROM X9-62-module { iso(1) member-body(2) us(840) ansi-x9-62(10045) module(5) 1 }; ibcs OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { joint-iso-itu(2) country(16) us(840) organization(1) identicrypt(114334) ibcs(1) } -- -- IBCS1 -- -- IBCS1 defines the algorithms used to implement IBE -- ibcs1 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { ibcs ibcs1(1) } -- -- Supporting types -- -- -- Encoding of a point on an elliptic curve E/Fp. -- FpPoint ::= SEQUENCE { x INTEGER, y INTEGER } Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 64]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 -- -- Encoding of a Solinas prime. -- -- Encodes a Solinas prime of the form -- q = 2^a + s * 2^b +c with the integers a, b, c, and s. -- SolinasPrime ::= SEQUENCE { a INTEGER, b INTEGER, c INTEGER { positive(1), negative(-1) }, s INTEGER { positive(1), negative(-1) } } -- -- Algorithms -- ibe-algorithms OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { ibcs1 ibe-algorithms(2) } --- --- Boneh-Franklin IBE --- bf OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { ibe-algorithms bf(1) } -- -- Encoding of a BF public parameters block. -- The only version currently supported is version 1. -- For type-1 curves, the curve is fixed, so Curve is set to NULL -- For the BF prime p and subprime q, we have q * r = p + 1, -- and we encode the values of r and q in the public parameters. -- The points P and P_pub are encoded as pointP and pointPpub respectively. -- BFPublicParamaters ::= SEQUENCE { version INTEGER { v1(1) }, curve Curve { NULL }, r INTEGER, q SolinasPrime, pointP FpPoint, pointPpub FpPoint } Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 65]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 -- -- A BF private key is a point on an elliptic curve, -- which is an FpPoint. -- BFPrivateKeyBlock ::= FpPoint -- -- A BF master secret is an integer. -- BFMasterSecret ::= INTEGER -- -- BF ciphertext block -- BFCiphertextBlock ::= SEQUENCE { U FpPoint, v OCTET STRING, w OCTET STRING } -- -- Boneh-Boyen (BB1) IBE -- bb1 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { ibe-algorithms bb1(2) } -- -- Encoding of a BB1 public parameters block. -- The version is currently fixed to 1. -- The embedding degree is currently fixed to 2. -- For type-1 curves, curve is set to NULL. -- For the BB1 prime p and subprime q, we have q * r = p + 1, -- and we encode the values of r and q in the public parameters. -- BB1PublicParameters ::= SEQUENCE { Version INTEGER { v1(1) }, embedding-degree INTEGER { degree-2(2) }, curve Curve { NULL }, r INTEGER, q SolinasPrime, pointP FpPoint, pointP1 FpPoint, pointP2 FpPoint, Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 66]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 pointP3 FpPoint } -- -- BB1 master secret block -- BB1MasterSecret ::= SEQUENCE { alpha INTEGER, beta INTEGER, gamma INTEGER } -- -- BB1 private Key block -- BB1PrivateKeyBlock ::= SEQUENCE { pointD0 FpPoint, pointD1 FpPoint } -- -- BB1 ciphertext block -- BB1CiphertextBlock ::= SEQUENCE { pointChi0 FpPoint, pointChi1 FpPoint, nu INTEGER, y OCTET STRING } END 13. Security considerations This document describes cryptographic algorithms, for which we assume that the security of the algorithm relies entirely on the secrecy of the relevant private key, so that an adversary will need to intercept encrypted messages and perform computationally-intensive cryptanalytic attacks against the ciphertext that he obtains in this way to recover either plaintext or a secret cryptographic key. We assume that users of the algorithms described in this document will require one of three levels of cryptographic strength: the Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 67]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 equivalent of 80 bits, the equivalent of 112 bits, or the equivalent of 128 bits. The 80-bit level is suitable for legacy applications and SHOULD not be used to protect information whose useful life extends past the year 2010. The 112-bit level is suitable for use in key transport of Triple-DES keys and should be adequate to protect information whose useful life extends up to the year 2030. The 128- bit level is suitable for use in key transport of 128-bit AES keys. The following table describes the security parameters for the BF and BB1 algorithms that will attain 80-bit, 112-bit and 128-bit levels of security. In this table, |p| represents the number of bits in a prime number p and |q| represents the number of bits in a subprime q. This table assumes that a Type-1 supersingular curve is used. Bits of Security |p| |q| 80 512 160 112 1024 224 128 1536 256 Note that this document specifies the use of the SHA1 hashing algorithm to hash identities to either a point on an elliptic curve or an integer. Recent attacks on SHA1 have discovered ways to find collisions in SHA1 with much less work that the 80 bits of strength in resistance to collisions that we would expect for a hashing algorithm that creates a 160-bit digest. If we can find a collision in SHA1 we could use the colliding preimages to create two identities which have the same IBE private key. The practical use of such a SHA1 collision seems extremely unlikely, particularly if IBE is used as described in [IBECMS], in which components of an identity are defined to be either a time or a URI. Any protocol using IBE SHOULD define part of an identity to avoid the possible use of collisions in SHA1 in this way. 14. IANA considerations All of the OIDs used in this document were assigned by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), so no further action by the IANA is necessary for this document. 15. Acknowledgments This document is based on the IBCS #1 v2 document of Voltage Security, Inc. Any substantial use of material from this document should acknowledge Voltage Security, Inc. as the source of the information. Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 68]

Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006 16. References 16.1. Normative references [IBECMS] L. Martin, M. Schertler, "Using the Boneh-Franklin identity- based encryption algorithm with the Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)," draft-ietf-smime-bfibecms-01.txt, September 2006. 16.2. Informative references [BB1] D. Boneh, X. Boyen, "Efficient selective-ID secure identity based encryption without random oracles," In Proc. of EUROCRYPT 04, LNCS 3027, pp. 223-238, 2004. [BF] D. Boneh, M. Franklin, "Identity-based encryption from the Weil pairing," In Proc. of CRYPTO 01, LNCS 2139, pp. 213-229, 2001. [ECC] I. Blake, G. Seroussi, N. Smart, Elliptic Curves in Cryptography, Cambridge University Press, 1999. Authors' Addresses Xavier Boyen Voltage Security 1070 Arastradero Rd Suite 100 Palo Alto, CA 94304 Email: xavier@voltage.com Luther Martin Voltage Security 1070 Arastradero Rd Suite 100 Palo Alto, CA 94304 Email: martin@voltage.com Intellectual Property Statement The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed to pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in this document or the extent to which any license under such rights might or might not be available; nor does it represent that it has made any independent effort to identify any such rights. Information Boyen & Martin Expires June 2007 [Page 69]

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Internet Draft IBCS #1: Identity-based Cryptography December 2006
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