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Versions: 00 01 02

IPv6 Operations                                                J. Massar
Internet-Draft                                             Unfix / SixXS
Expires: January 5, 2005                                    July 7, 2004


                      AYIYA: Anything In Anything
                      draft-massar-v6ops-ayiya-02

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, I certify that any applicable
   patent or other IPR claims of which I am aware have been disclosed,
   and any of which I become aware will be disclosed, in accordance with
   RFC 3668.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
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   Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

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   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 5, 2005.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   This document defines a tunneling protocol that can be encapsulated
   in any other protocol.  This protocol uses authentication tokens,
   allowing multiple identities to exist on the same endpoint and thus
   also to create tunnels from/to the same NAT and making it possible to
   automatically change the endpoint of the tunnel on the fly.  This
   protocol is intended as an alternative to the proto-41 protocol in
   use for tunneling IPv6 over IPv4 packets over the Internet but can
   also be applied in multihoming and mobility solutions.  Due to the
   authentication this protocol is especially useful for dynamic non-24/
   7 endnodes which are located behind NATs and want to use an IPv6



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   Tunnel Broker, for instance.  The protocol can carry any payload and
   thus is not limited to only IPv6 over IPv4 but can also be used for
   IPv4 over IPv6 and many other combinations of protocols.

Table of Contents

   1.  Requirements notation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  AYIYA Packet Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     3.1   Identity Length (IDLen)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.2   Identity Type (IDType) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.3   Signature Length (SigLen)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.4   Hashing Method (HshMeth) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.5   Authentication Method (AutMeth)  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.6   Operation Code (OpCode)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       3.6.1   No Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       3.6.2   Forward  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       3.6.3   Echo's . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
       3.6.4   MOTD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
       3.6.5   Queries  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     3.7   Next Header  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     3.8   Epoch Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   4.  AYIYA Heartbeat  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   5.  Signing the packet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     5.1   Hashing the packet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     5.2   Signing with a Shared Secret . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     5.3   Signing with a Public/Private Key  . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   6.  Identity information in DNS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   7.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   8.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   9.  Scenarios  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     9.1   Using AYIYA for IPv6 Tunnel Brokers  . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     9.2   Tunneling to multiple endhosts behind a NAT  . . . . . . . 19
     9.3   Multihoming using AYIYA  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     9.4   Mobility using AYIYA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
   10.   IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
   11.   References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
       Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
       Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . 26












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1.  Requirements notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

2.  Introduction

   Many users are currently located behind NATs which prohibit the usage
   of proto-41 IPv6 in IPv4 tunnels [RFC3056] unless they manually
   reconfigure their NAT setup which in some cases is impossible as the
   NAT cannot be configured to forward proto-41 ([RFC1933]) to a
   specific host.  There might also be cases when multiple endpoints are
   behind the same NAT, when multiple NATs are used or when the user has
   no control at all over the NAT setup.  This is an undesired situation
   as it limits the deployment of IPv6 [RFC3513], which was meant to
   solve the problem of the disturbance in end to end communications
   caused by NATs, which where created because of limited address space
   in the first place.

   This problem can be solved easily by tunneling the IPv6 packets over
   either UDP [RFC0768], TCP [RFC0793] or even SCTP [RFC2960].  Taking
   into consideration that multiple separate endpoints could be behind
   the same NAT and/or that the public endpoint can change on the fly,
   there is also a need to identify the endpoint that certain packets
   are coming from and endpoints need to be able to change e.g.  source
   addresses of the transporting protocol on the fly while still being
   identifiable as the same endpoint.  The protocol described in this
   document is independent of the transport and payload's protocol.  An
   example could be IPv6-in-UDP-in-IPv4, which is a typical setup that
   can be used by IPv6 Tunnel Brokers [RFC3053].

   This document does not describe how to determine the identity,
   signature type or the inner and outer protocols.  These should be
   negotiated manually or automatically by e.g.  using TSP or a relevant
   protocol which is capable of describing the configuration parameters
   of AYIYA tunnels.  Separate documents for the configuration protocols
   supporting AYIYA should include the details on how this is done.

   Additionally this document describes how AYIYA could be used in both
   a multihoming and in a mobility scenario.










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3.  AYIYA Packet Format

   The AYIYA protocol is put inside the payload of another protocol.
   This can be either UDP [RFC0768], TCP [RFC0793] or SCTP [RFC2960]
   which are the currently defined transport protocols, future transport
   protocols could also be used.  The transport protocol can be run over
   both IPv4 or IPv6 or any other future protocol.  AYIYA can also be
   directly put in the payload of IPv4 or IPv6, just like UDP, TCP or
   SCTP.  This allows tunneling of IP over IP with a minimum overhead.
   When deciding in which protocol to encapsulate AYIYA one must keep
   into thought that some firewalls and/or NAT gateways won't work with
   certain combinations.  Schematically, this will look like the
   following diagram.

   +--------+                    +----------+
   | Sender | <--- Internet ---> | Receiver |
   +--------+                    +----------+

   A complete on the wire packet will typically have the format depicted
   in the following diagram.

   +-------------------------------+
   |       Delivery Header         |
   |        IPv4/IPv6/...          |
   +-------------------------------+
   |       Transport Header        |
   |        TCP/UDP/SCTP/...       |
   +-------------------------------+
   |          AYIYA Header         |
   +-------------------------------+
   |        Payload packet         |
   +-------------------------------+

   In the case where one encapsulates AYIYA directly inside IP the
   Transport Header won't be present.
















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   The AYIYA protocol header has the following format.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | IDLen | IDType| SigLen|HshMeth|AutMeth| OpCode|  Next Header  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                           Epoch Time                          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   :                                                               :
   :                            Identity                           :
   :                                                               :
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   :                                                               :
   :                            Signature                          :
   :                                                               :
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   All fields are in network byte order (Big Endian).  The base AYIYA
   header without an identity or signature is 8 bytes.

3.1  Identity Length (IDLen)

   The IDLen (Identity Length) Field defines the length of the Identity
   Field using a power of 2 in octets.

   e.g.  an IDLen of 4 is 2^4 = 16 bytes.

3.2  Identity Type (IDType)

   The Identity Type specifies what kind of Identity is included in the
   header.  The Identity field is used by the receiver to determine
   which sender sent the packet, this is done as there is an assumption
   that the source endpoint, the source IP address or the source port,
   may change arbitrarily which will be the case when the sender is
   behind a NAT, using DHCP, PPP or using IPv6 privacy extensions
   [RFC3041] and thus has a changing address.  Even though the endpoint
   is expected to change, the Identity will remain the same unless
   negotiated otherwise.  Currently defined Identity types are:

    - 0x0 None
    - 0x1 Integer
    - 0x2 ASCII string

   Types 0x3 till 0xf are reserved for future usage.

   The type of identity used by an AYIYA tunnel is negotiated either
   manually or automatically outside of this protocol, these fields are



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   included to allow verification of the type and also to allow multiple
   types to be used by one receiver at the same time.  ASCII strings are
   NULL padded when they do not fill the complete identity field.  The
   types are multifunctional, e.g.  type 0x01 could contain an IPv4
   address when the length of the identity is 0x2 or could contain an
   IPv6 address when the length is 0x4.  A string could contain DNS
   names.  The exact content of the Identity Field is defined by the
   users of this protocol and are out of scope of this document.

   If the Identity Type is None, the Identity Field is absent from the
   packet.  The Identity Length Field must be 0 in this case.  The
   Signature Field, if present, will then directly follow the Epoch Time
   Field.  In case the Signature Field is not present the payload will
   directly follow the Epoch Time field.

3.3  Signature Length (SigLen)

   The SigLen describes the length of the hash and is specified in
   octets divided by four.  e.g.  a SigLen of 3 means the signature is
   12 bytes long, a SigLen of 15 means that the Signature is 60 bytes
   long.  The protocol thus allows for a maximum signature of 480 bits.

3.4  Hashing Method (HshMeth)

   The HshMeth (Hashing Method) bits describe the type of the Hashing
   Method used to create the signature of the packet.  By hashing the
   complete packet we can verify that the packet did not change during
   transit between sender and receiver.  Currently defined Hashing
   Methods are:

    - 0x0 No hash
    - 0x1 MD5
    - 0x2 SHA1

   As there are known collisions for MD5 [RFC1321] it is advised to use
   SHA1 [RFC3174] as a default Hashing Method.  Hashing Methods 0x3 to
   0xf are reserved for future usage.

   When the Hashing Method is 0x0, AuthMeth and SigLen MUST also be set
   to 0 and the packet doesn't include a Signature, the payload, defined
   by the Next Header, then directly follows the Identity field, which
   may also be absent depending on its type.









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3.5  Authentication Method (AutMeth)

   AuthMeth (Authentication Method) describes the type of the
   Authentication Method.  By authenticating the packet we can verify
   that the sender really originated from the sender, of course assuming
   that the Authentication Method has not been compromised.  The AYIYA
   protocol doesn't have any options for encryption.  Encryption can be
   done in the payload.  The currently defined Authentication Methods
   are:

    - 0x0 No authentication
    - 0x1 Hash using a Shared Secret
    - 0x2 Hash using a public/private key method

   Authentication Methods 0x3 to 0xf are reserved for future usage.

   In the case where an implementation does not support or expect the
   received Identity or Signature Type (e.g.  because it was configured
   for a different type) it MUST silently discard the packet.  The user
   may be notified of this event.

3.6  Operation Code (OpCode)

   The Operation Code can request special operation on the packet.
   Currently the following Operation Codes are defined.

    - 0x0 No Operation / Heartbeat
    - 0x1 Forward
    - 0x2 Echo Request
    - 0x3 Echo Request and Forward
    - 0x4 Echo Response
    - 0x5 MOTD
    - 0x6 Query Request
    - 0x7 Query Response

   Values 0x8 till 0xf are reserved for future extensions.

3.6.1  No Operation

   The No Operation OpCode allows the packet to be used for updating the
   latest received time, see the Heartbeat section explaining the
   rationale why this packet is also dubbed a Heartbeat Packet.  The
   Next Header field must be set to 59 (No Next Header).

3.6.2  Forward

   The Forward OpCode specifies that this is a normal packet of which
   the payload is to be forwarded.



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3.6.3  Echo's

   The "Echo Request" OpCode requests that the payload is echoed back to
   the sender, the OpCode of the returned packet must then be set to
   "Echo Response".  The payload of the Echo Request packet MUST NEVER
   be forwarded.  When the OpCode is set to "Echo Request and Forward"
   then the packet must be echoed back to the sender and also forwarded
   as a normal packet.  This allows the Heartbeat functionality, as
   discussed in the next chapter, to be integrated into the normal
   packet stream.  It can also be used to ensure delivery of the packet
   to the other end of the tunnel.  An Echo operation causes the payload
   to be returned unaltered.  The Next Header field must be set to 59
   (No Next Header) for both the Echo and Echo Response Operation Codes.
   When the OpCode is "Echo Request and Forward" the Next Header field
   must be set to the value describing the payload to be forwarded.

3.6.4  MOTD

   The MOTD (Message Of The Day) OpCode allows the sender to send a
   message to the receiver.  The receiver SHOULD then display this
   message to the user.  This facility can be used to notify the user of
   software updates, changes in infrastructure and many more events.
   Typically a server side of the AYIYA connection will send its MOTD to
   the receiver when it connects and the server has not seen the client
   for some time.  The Next Header field must be set to 59 (No Next
   Header).  The payload of the MOTD Operation Code consists of a
   multiline ASCII message in the following format as per ABNF
   [RFC2234].

   message   = epochtime LF title LF [URL] LF [text]

   epochtime = *DIGIT

   title     = *( %x2D | %x2E | %x30-39 | %x41-5A | %x61-7A )

   URL       = [ "http://" | "https://" ] *(%x23 | %x25 | %x26 |
               %x2B | %x2E-3A | %x3F-5A | %x61-7A)

   text      = *( LF | %x20-7E )

   The epochtime, the time in seconds since "00:00:00 1970-01-01 UTC",
   specifies the date of this message, when the server sends the same
   message it should also send the same epochtime, this allows the
   receiver to ignore the message when the user has already read it when
   it is sent more than once.  The string of which epochtime is made up
   corresponds to the output of the UNIX "date +%s" command.  A client
   could convert the epochtime to a human readable string and present
   that to the user.  Title should contain a short descriptive title of



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   the content of the message.  URL can contain a URL to further or even
   all information, keeping text empty.  Text can contain the message
   directly.  At least URL or text must contain content, both may also
   be specified.  The precedence is then given to the message in text
   with additional information to be found on URL.

3.6.5  Queries

   The Query and Query Response Operation Codes allow the sender to ask
   a question to the receiver.  The Next Header field is set to 59 (No
   Next Header).  The payload consists of a 4 byte 32bit integer in
   network byte order which can be used as sequence number the client
   SHOULD change this number every query, the receiver will respond with
   the same sequence number so that the original sender can distinguish
   between the queries it sent.  The rest of the payload contains the
   answer to the question the sender asked in ASCII.  The length of the
   answer depends on the payload length.  In cases where the receiver
   doesn't want to or can't answer it should return only the sequence
   number, the original sender can find out why this occurred by
   querying for the error code.  Queries may be given in lower, upper or
   mixed case, they must be treated the same.  The query functionality
   can amongst others be used for retrieving diagnostic information
   during troubleshooting situations.  The following sections define the
   queries that are defined.

3.6.5.1  contact

   The "contact" query requests the receiver to respond with contact
   information.  The response could be a name of a person, a phone
   number, email address, NIC handle etc.  Multiple lines can be used to
   specify the information.  No format is defined to avoid automatic
   parsing.

3.6.5.2  hostname

   The "hostname" query requests that the receiver respond with the
   hostname it perceives to have.  This information can be used to
   verify when an endpoint changes its endpoint a lot if maybe there are
   not multiple hosts using the same authentication information.  The
   side that notices the many changes could then issue a hostname query
   and compare the results and notify the users using a MOTD or even
   send a "shutdown" query to one of the clients.









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3.6.5.3  lasterror

   The "lasterror" query asks the receiver to return a human readable
   description of the last error that occurred.  The response can
   consist of multiple lines by inserting ASCII newlines at appropriate
   places.

   description = *[ LF | %x20-7E ]


3.6.5.4  outer-endpoint

   The "outer-endpoint" query requests the receiver to respond with the
   endpoint address (IPv4 / IPv6) information on a single line of the
   following format:

   endpoint = (IPv4address | IPv6address) [ SP (tcp-port | udp-port) ]

   tcp-port = port

   udp-port = port

   port     = *DIGIT

   e.g.:
   2001:db8::1 3740

   192.0.2.42

   This can be useful to determine if the sender is the same as another
   host, like in the example case mentioned at the "hostname" query.  It
   can also be useful to determine if the client is behind a NAT even
   though AYIYA can operate fully across NATs.

   The IPv6address and IPv4address ABNF are defined in "APPENDIX B: ABNF
   Description of Text Representations" of the "IP Version 6 Addressing
   Architecture" [RFC3513].

3.6.5.5  shutdown

   The "shutdown" query requests that the receiver side shuts down the
   tunnel and stops communicating with the server.  The shutdown command
   MUST be preceded with a MOTD to notify the user with the reason of
   the shutdown request.  The "shutdown" command must always be obeyed.
   A client thought might retry communications after at least 5 minutes
   after receiving and having obeyed the shutdown command.





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3.6.5.6  version

   "version" requests the version information of the client on the
   receiver side.  The response should be in the following format as
   formatted per ABNF [RFC2234].

   response       = ayiya-version " " client-version " " os-version

   ayiya-version  = "AYIYA/draft-02"

   client-version = version

   os-version     = version

   version        = name [ "/" release ]

   name           = chars

   release        = chars

   chars          = *( %x2D | %x2E | %x30-39 | %x41-5A | %x61-7A )

   ayiya-versions contains the version of the protocol which the client
   supports.  Currently only draft-02 can be mentioned as draft-00
   didn't include OpCodes and draft-01 didn't include the Query OpCode.

   client-version contains the version of the client.

   os-version contains the Operating System version.

   Including the release version is optional for both client-version and
   os-version.  This allows the querier to know partially what is
   running on the side of the receiver but avoids disclosing too much
   information which might be seen as an information leakage in some
   security contexts.

   The following, individual lines give example responses:

   AYIYA/draft-02 SixXS-AICCU/2004.07.04 Wendy/6.66-suus

   AYIYA/draft-02 HSKT/2004.07.04 NikiOS

   AYIYA/draft-02 SiXXS-AICCU NicoleOS


3.7  Next Header

   The Next Header, like in IPv6, contains the protocol value of the



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   payload following the AYIYA Packet Header.  There is no length field
   as that can be deduced from the protocol that is carrying this
   packet.

   When there is no payload to be forwarded, the Next Header field MUST
   be set to 59 (No Next Header).  When the Next Header field is set to
   No Next Header the payload can not be forwarded even if there is a
   payload included in the AYIYA packet.

3.8  Epoch Time

   Epoch Time is the time in seconds since "00:00:00 1970-01-01 UTC".
   Both the sender and the receiver are advised to be synchronized using
   NTP [RFC2030] to make sure that their clocks do not differ too much
   even after traveling the intermediate networks between the sender and
   the receiver.  The number of seconds since the above date is stored
   in a 32 bit unsigned integer in network byte order.

   The Epoch Time is included to be able to guard against replay
   attacks.  See the Security Considerations section for more details.































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   The Epoch Time will loop in 2038 when the 32 bit unsigned integer
   reaches its maximum value.  This will cause that the difference
   between the two times is larger than the advised timeout time even
   though the difference is not that big.  To avoid a service
   interruption, because the time in the packet is not inside the limits
   of the clock shift time, every implementation MUST handle times in
   the range (0-timeout)..0 specially and compensate the loop, e.g.  by
   shifting away from the loop time.  Typical C code which handles the
   verification of the epochtime is included as an example:

   // epochtime = epochtime as received in the packet
   // Don't forget to convert the byteorder using ntohl()
   bool ayiya_checktime(time_t epochtime)
   {
      // Number of seconds we allow the clock to be off
      #define CLOCK_OFF 120
      int i;

      // Get the current time
      time_t curr_time = time(NULL);

      // Is one of the times in the loop range?
      if ( (curr_time  >= -CLOCK_OFF) ||
           (epochtime >= -CLOCK_OFF))
      {
         // Shift the times out of the loop range
         i = (curr_time + (CLOCK_OFF*2)) -
             (epochtime + (CLOCK_OFF*2));
      }
      else i = curr_time - epochtime;

      // The clock may be faster, thus flip the sign
      if (i < 0) i = -i;

      // Compare the clock offset
      if (i > CLOCK_OFF)
      {
         // Time is off, silently drop the packet
         return false;
      }

      // Time is in the allowed range
      return true;
   }

   Theory for the above: for simplicity let's assume the loop is around
   10000.  Sender sends an epochtime of 9990, but the receiver's time is
   at 10 already, thus we apply the shift and the times become: (9990 +



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   240)%10000 = 230 and (10 + 240)%10000 = 250 the difference !(250 -
   230) is 20, which is in the allowed clock_off range.  If we didn't
   apply this compensation the difference would have been !(10 - 9990) =
   9980 seconds which would mean the packet would have been dropped even
   though the time of the packet is valid.

4.  AYIYA Heartbeat

   As the receiver will disable the tunnel after it has not received a
   packet from the sender after a configured time the sender should send
   packets to the other side of the tunnel with the Next Header field
   set to 59 (No Next Header) but the payload may contain data which is
   private to the implementation.  The implementation could include a
   sequence number in the payload like is common with ICMP Echo
   [RFC2463] packets.  The receiver will reply on reception of this
   packet returning the exact payload the sender transmitted allowing
   the sender to compare the information and deduce latency information
   and other statistical information from it using the implementation
   specific data contained in the payload.  This packet allows the
   sender to test the tunnel's functionality.  If the signature is not
   correct, either because of the wrong shared secret, wrong hash, wrong
   identity or connectivity problems, the sender will not get a reply
   and could notify the user of this situation.

   Senders should send these packets once per 60 seconds as the receiver
   is usually configured to disable the tunnel after it has received no
   packets for a timeout time of 120 seconds.  An implementation could
   choose to not send the heartbeat packet when it has already sent a
   packet in the last 60 seconds thus avoiding a small overhead in
   transmission and processing of these extra heartbeat packets.
   Receivers MUST handle every correctly verified packet as the last
   received one.

   A side effect of the Heartbeat Packet is that a NAT will update its
   mappings and keep the same source/destination ports in cases where
   AYIYA is encapsulated inside UDP, for instance.

   An implementation could choose to not send any heartbeat packets, but
   this will cause the connectivity, provided by the tunnel, to be
   interrupted until the sender sends the next packet.

5.  Signing the packet

   When there is no Hashing there neither is no signing of the packet
   and the header won't include a Signature.

   If a received packet contains flags that the packet contains a hash
   or that the packet contains an authentication then the receiver must



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   verify that the signature provided is correct by following the same
   procedure as taken by the sender and comparing the results of the
   signatures.  When the signatures match the packet can be processed
   further.  When the signatures do not match the receiver MUST silently
   ignore the packet and may notify the user.

5.1  Hashing the packet

   When there is no Authentication we create the signature of the packet
   by initializing the signature of the packet to NULL.  The rest of the
   fields and the payload should also be initialized as to be sent over
   the wire.  The signature is then made over the complete packet using
   the Hashing Method defined by the type, thus over the entire AYIYA
   header and the payload together.

   This method allows verification that the packet has not been
   incidentally mangled along its route to the receiver.  It does not
   provide any security or authenticity that the packet has been
   forcefully mangled.

5.2  Signing with a Shared Secret

   To create the signature of the packet, the Signature Field MUST be
   set to the signature of the shared secret, this signature is made
   using the same hashing method as the one specified in the Signature
   Type Field.  The signature is then made over the complete packet,
   thus the AYIYA header and the payload.  By hashing the shared secret
   we allow shared secrets of arbitrary lengths to be used.  Which
   shared secret is used is out of scope of this document and this
   should be described by manual or automatic configuration documents
   which should describe the definition of the shared secret.

   The result is stored in the Signature field, which contains the
   signature of the shared secret while hashing.

   Implementations could pre-cache the hashed shared secret and would
   thus not require the knowledge of the real shared secret.

   This method thus allows verification that the packet has not been
   modified along its path from sender to receiver and also allows
   verification that the sender or receiver, who should be the only
   parties knowing the shared secrets, where the originators of this
   packet.  This all without sending the shared secret over the network.

5.3  Signing with a Public/Private Key

   The Signature Field of the header is initialized to NULL.  The rest
   of the fields and the payload should also be initialized as to be



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   sent over the wire.  A hash defined by the HshMeth Field is then
   calculated over the complete packet.  After that the Public / Private
   Key signature is calculated, the result of which is stored in the
   Signature Field.

6.  Identity information in DNS

   Some of the Identity Types could represent an IPv4 or IPv6 address or
   a hostname.  Using normal (reverse) DNS lookup procedures the
   additional properties relating to these identities can then also be
   found out using DNS.  These properties could be alternate endpoint
   addresses, pointers to home agents or public keys.  This can be used
   for the multihoming and mobility scenarios to bootstrap the initial
   connection.  When a receiver receives the first packet from a, up to
   then unknown identity, it could lookup the identities additional
   properties like its public key to be able to authenticate the
   received packet.

7.  Acknowledgements

   The protocol presented has formed during the existence of SixXS
   [SIXXS] to allow the users of the various Tunnel Servers provisioned
   by SixXS to have a dynamic non-static IPv4 endpoint which could even
   be located behind a NAT.  This protocol is the natural successor of
   the combination of the proto-41 tunneling protocol and the SixXS
   Heartbeat protocol.

   Thanks to Christian Strauf, Brian Carpenter and Pim van Pelt for
   valuable comments which improved this document and therefore the
   protocol a lot.

8.  Security Considerations

   The shared secret used MUST never be made publicly available to 3rd
   parties otherwise that 3rd party could sign a packet and
   automatically reconfigure the tunnel endpoint.  This would enable a
   3rd party to send traffic in both directions and thus posing as the
   actual user.

   The inclusion of the Epoch Time along with the verification on the
   receiver side should guard against replay attacks.  The receiver MUST
   ensure that the time difference between local clock and the epochtime
   never differ for more than 60 seconds.  This allows for a tolerance
   of latency and time-shifts.

   Note that the Epoch Time doesn't guard against resending of the same
   packet.  A solution could be to add a sequence number in the AYIYA
   protocol but that would overcomplicate the receivers as they would



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   need to keep state and even re-order packets, which is something that
   is not wanted with a protocol that is built to allow packets to drop.
   Upper layer protocols should have protection mechanisms against this,
   e.g.  TCP has its own sequence numbering.  Not having a sequence
   number also allows packets to be lost during transmission.  One could
   also choose to encapsulate AYIYA inside TCP to alleviate this issue
   but note well that while using TCP one inherits also the latency
   issues because of the reordering which makes TCP of suboptimal use
   for tunneling packets through.

   Any packet that is not well formed or contains an invalid signature
   MUST be silently dropped, appropriate logging may be done of these
   issues but in that case a rate limit MUST be applied to not clutter
   the logs with these messages.  Invalid signatures MUST be handled as
   possibly being spoofed, thus no packet MUST be sent back as these
   packets would then go to the spoofed source address.

   As a side effect of this protocol, when a sender can not or does not
   send a packet in time, the tunnel is detected as defunct and the
   receiver will dispose of it.  This could be the case when the
   sender's connectivity is interrupted.  Disposition of the tunnel will
   also make sure that no packets will be forwarded over the tunnel to
   an endpoint which might not be expecting this kind of traffic as it
   is not the host that heartbeated the last time.  This situation could
   arise for instance when DHCP changes the endpoint address or a host
   which dials into a PPP pool disconnects, after which the next dialin,
   by another host receives the former hosts endpoint address.

   This document specifies a tunneling protocol which can circumvent
   administrative policies implied by a firewall.  This firewall can
   prohibit the communication between sender and receiver.  If such a
   policy is in place, then that is an administrative policy which
   should not be tried to be circumvented.  Using tunneling in general
   opens up a new hole into a network which might be used for gaining
   access into that network.

   When and one or both of the outer addresses is a [RFC3041] address,
   any process that receives the AYIYA packets can still make the
   relation to that single host as the Identity in the AYIYA packet
   doesn't change.  The limited privacy effect of RFC3041 is thus
   removed in this case.

   As mentioned in the "hostname" and "shutdown" sections a receiver may
   request a shutdown of the tunnel in cases where it suspects that
   multiple different hosts are using the same authentication data.
   This could be the case when multiple hosts are mistakenly configured
   using the same configuration.  To limit the load on the receiver the
   receiver may thus request a shutdown after having notified the



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   clients of this problem using a MOTD.

9.  Scenarios

   As AYIYA is a generic tunneling protocol it can be used in many
   different scenarios, amongst which the scenarios described in this
   section.

   Note that TEST-NET [RFC3300] addresses used in the scenarios could
   never reach a Tunnel Server over the public Internet due to filtering
   of these documentation prefixes.

9.1  Using AYIYA for IPv6 Tunnel Brokers

   The main scenario where AYIYA is intended to be used is for solving
   the problem where an IPv4 host is behind a NAT and wants to tunnel to
   a Tunnel Server [RFC3056].  As many NATs don't support forwarding
   protocol 41 or require manual configuration of the NAT, using AYIYA
   and encapsulating the AYIYA packet including the payload inside IPv4
   UDP is a good solution.  The AYIYA packet includes an identity, thus
   the endpoint address of the client does not need to be known and the
   tunnel can be brought and kept up at wish by the user when its client
   notifies the Tunnel Server of its existence by sending AYIYA packets.

   This type of tunnel will generally use a Identity Type of 0x3, the
   Identity Field will contain the IPv6 address of the endpoint of the
   tunnel from the direction where the packet is coming from, the
   Signature Type will be 0x2 (SHA-1).

     192.0.2.2               192.0.2.1
   2001:db8::2/64          2001:db8::1/64
   +----------+             +--------+
   |  Tunnel  |<----------->| Tunnel |
   |  Client  |             | Server |
   +----------+             +--------+
















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   The packet send over the wire will have the following format:

   +---------+
   |  IPv4   |
   +---------+
   |   UDP   |
   +---------+
   |  AYIYA  |
   +---------+
   |  IPv6   |
   +---------+
   | Payload |
   +---------+

   This setup causes a per-packet overhead of: 20 (IPv4) + 8 (UDP) +
   8+16+20 (AYIYA+Identity+Signature) = 72 bytes.  This allows
   encapsulation of packets of 1428 bytes over Ethernet, which has a MTU
   of 1500 bytes.  As the minimum MTU of IPv6 packets is 1280 bytes, any
   medium with at least an MTU of (1280 + 72 =) 1352 bytes can be used
   for AYIYA without having to fragment the packets.

9.2  Tunneling to multiple endhosts behind a NAT

   This scenario demonstrates a typical situation where this protocol
   will mainly be used: tunneling to multiple endhosts behind a NAT.  In
   this scenario the Tunnel Server acts as a receiver in server mode
   which does not initiate any tunneling as it does not know the source
   endpoint of the clients, which might change at arbitrary time points.
   In this scenario the server is assumed to have a static endpoint.
   The server does not send heartbeats to check connectivity; it is up
   to the client to send the heartbeats at the agreed regular intervals
   making sure the server does not dispose of the tunnel.  This setup
   allows both clients behind the NAT to change their private IPv4
   addresses and also allows the NAT to change its public IPv4 or source
   port numbers.  The server will notice the changes of source IP or
   port numbers and can reconfigure its tunnel to send to the specific
   host:port combination for which a mapping will exist at the NAT and
   the packet can go through the NAT.

     10.0.0.0/8     NAT    192.0.2.0/24
                     |
   +----------+  (1) | (2)  +--------+
   | Client A |------|------|        |
   +----------+      |      | Tunnel |
   +----------+      |      | Server |
   | Client B |------|------|        |
   +----------+  (3) | (4)  +--------+
                     |



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   (1) = src = 10.10.0.1:1234, dst = 192.0.2.42:3740
   (2) = src = 192.0.2.5:4321, dst = 192.0.2.42:3740
   (3) = src = 10.10.9.2:7890, dst = 192.0.2.42:3740
   (4) = src = 192.0.2.5:5678, dst = 192.0.2.42:3740

   AYIYA is capable of crossing any NAT because an AYIYA receiver uses
   the AYIYA port as the source port and the address that received the
   initial AYIYA packet from the client as a source address, Restricted
   Cone NATs, Port-Restricted Cone NATs and Symmetric NATs can be
   traversed.  If the mapping would change the next packet coming from
   the client would update the host:port mapping on the receiver.

   This scenario would typically encapsulate AYIYA and the payload
   inside IPv4 and UDP.  Schematically this would look like:

   +---------+
   |  IPv4   |
   +---------+
   |   UDP   |
   +---------+
   |  AYIYA  |
   +---------+
   | Payload |
   +---------+


9.3  Multihoming using AYIYA

   AYIYA can also be used as a tunneling protocol for solving
   multihoming problems.  For instance the following packet could be
   crafted which encapsulates IPv6 inside IPv6.  The encapsulated packet
   could contain a source/destination address which could be described
   as the identifiers of this multihoming protocol.  The outer IPv6
   addresses are the locators.

















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   A typical Multihoming scenario.  Site A is connected to the Internet
   using two independent upstream providers (Provider 1 and Provider 2).
   Every host inside Site A has two addresses, one from Provider 1
   (2001:db8:1000::/48) and one from Provider 2 (2001:db8:2000::/48).
   Both upstream providers correctly filter egress traffic making sure
   that only source addresses assigned to Site A from their own address
   space is sent to the Internet, thus protecting against spoofing.  The
   SiteRouters must thus make sure that only the correctly sourced
   packets are sent outward.  Either the Host or the SiteRouters could
   support AYIYA, in the first case the SiteRouters MUST never do any
   additional AYIYA tunneling, this can be accomplished easily by
   checking that the IPv6 Next Header or IPv4 Protocol field doesn't
   contain the value mentioning that the next header is an AYIYA header.
   If this value is not set to be an AYIYA header, the SiteRouters MAY
   initiate AYIYA traffic to the remote host or site using their Site
   Identifiers.  This allows host-host, host-site and also site-site
   multihoming.

   +---------------------------------------+
   |            +------------+      Site A |
   |            |   Host A   |             |
   |            +------------+             |
   |              |         |              |
   |              |         |              |
   | +--------------+     +--------------+ |
   | | SiteRouter 1 |     | SiteRouter 2 | |
   | +--------------+     +--------------+ |
   |        |                    |         |
   +--------|--------------------|---------+
            |                    |
     +--------------+     +--------------+
     |  Provider 1  |     |  Provider 2  |
     +--------------+     +--------------+
            |                    |
            |                    |
     +------------------------------------+
     |           The Internet             |
     +------------------------------------+
                      |
               +------------+
               |   Host B   |
               +------------+

   The hosts communicating with each other using this setup would need
   to agree on which identities, hashing, authentication methods and
   shared secrets or private/public keys they use.  This is out of scope
   for this document.




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   The following figure depicts an example IPv6 TCP packet which is
   encapsulated using AYIYA inside IPv4 or IPv6 which demonstrates its
   protocol independency.  The Next Header field of the outer IPv6
   packet directly contains an IPv6 Next Header value of IANA:TBD.  The
   Next Header field of the AYIYA Header contains the value of 41
   (IPv6).  The locators used are IPv4 or IPv6 addresses, while the
   identifiers and the actual protocol addresses that are being
   multihomed are IPv6.  This scenario could allow a host to decide to
   start communicating with another host over IPv4 when an IPv6 route is
   not available or doesn't have the required properties, based on
   latency for instance.

   +---------+
   |IPv4/IPv6|
   +---------+
   |  AYIYA  |
   +---------+
   |  IPv6   |
   +---------+
   |   TCP   |
   +---------+
   | Payload |
   +---------+

   If the locator of a host changes, that host can directly send a
   heartbeat packet to the other host notifying that host of the change.
   The receiving host recognizes the new locator as a valid source as
   the signature can be verified and sets its outgoing packets to use
   this new endpoint.  As the identifiers are encapsulated, existing
   connections or communications won't notice this change.





















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9.4  Mobility using AYIYA

   AYIYA could be used in a mobility situation for tunneling its Home
   Address back to the Home Agent, thus acting as a normal tunnel
   situation and for the Remote Host it seems the communication is
   happening directly.  In this case the remote host doesn't need to
   support AYIYA.  When the Remote Host does support AYIYA, it could
   also directly setup a tunnel with the mobile host, circumventing that
   traffic is sent over the Home Agent.  The Remote Host can determine
   if a host supports AYIYA by looking up properties in DNS and use a
   Public/Private Key algorithm to authenticate the packets without
   prior information, e.g.  the keys, needing to be available.  The
   following diagram illustrates this.

   +-------------+           +------------+
   | Mobile Host |<--AYIYA-->| Home Agent |
   +-------------+           +------------+
          ^                         ^
          |                         |
        AYIYA                   IPv4/IPv6
          |                         |
          v                         v
   +-------------+           +-------------+
   | Remote Host |           | Remote Host |
   |   + AYIYA   |           |             |
   +-------------+           +-------------+

   The exact mechanism for determining the public/private key and the
   identities used are out of scope for this document.

10.  IANA Considerations

   IANA will need to allocate a protocol number value for "AYIYA"
   allowing AYIYA packets to be directly encapsulated inside IPv4, IPv6
   or possibly any other future protocols.

   IANA will need to allocate a port number in the case where AYIYA is
   used over UDP [RFC0768], TCP [RFC0793] or SCTP [RFC2960] or any other
   protocol supporting port numbers.  A port number request has been
   made through normal port allocation procedures requesting a system
   port.

11  References

   [RFC0768]  Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768,
              August 1980.

   [RFC0793]  Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol", STD 7, RFC



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              793, September 1981.

   [RFC1321]  Rivest, R., "The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm", RFC 1321,
              April 1992.

   [RFC1933]  Gilligan, R. and E. Nordmark, "Transition Mechanisms for
              IPv6 Hosts and Routers", RFC 1933, April 1996.

   [RFC2030]  Mills, D., "Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) Version 4
              for IPv4, IPv6 and OSI", RFC 2030, October 1996.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2234]  Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", RFC 2234, November 1997.

   [RFC2463]  Conta, A. and S. Deering, "Internet Control Message
              Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet Protocol Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2463, December 1998.

   [RFC2960]  Stewart, R., Xie, Q., Morneault, K., Sharp, C.,
              Schwarzbauer, H., Taylor, T., Rytina, I., Kalla, M.,
              Zhang, L. and V. Paxson, "Stream Control Transmission
              Protocol", RFC 2960, October 2000.

   [RFC3041]  Narten, T. and R. Draves, "Privacy Extensions for
              Stateless Address Autoconfiguration in IPv6", RFC 3041,
              January 2001.

   [RFC3053]  Durand, A., Fasano, P., Guardini, I. and D. Lento, "IPv6
              Tunnel Broker", RFC 3053, January 2001.

   [RFC3056]  Carpenter, B. and K. Moore, "Connection of IPv6 Domains
              via IPv4 Clouds", RFC 3056, February 2001.

   [RFC3174]  Eastlake, D. and P. Jones, "US Secure Hash Algorithm 1
              (SHA1)", RFC 3174, September 2001.

   [RFC3300]  Reynolds, J., Braden, R., Ginoza, S. and A. De La Cruz,
              "Internet Official Protocol Standards", RFC 3300, November
              2002.

   [RFC3513]  Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "Internet Protocol Version 6
              (IPv6) Addressing Architecture", RFC 3513, April 2003.

   [SIXXS]    Massar, J. and P. van Pelt, "SixXS - IPv6 Deployment &
              Tunnelbroker", <http://www.sixxs.net>.



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Author's Address

   Jeroen Massar
   Unfix / SixXS
   Hofpoldersingel 45
   Gouda  2807 LW
   NL

   EMail: jeroen@unfix.org
   URI:   http://unfix.org/~jeroen/









































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