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Network Working Group                                 M. Montemurro, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                  A. Allen
Intended status: Experimental                   Research in Motion (RIM)
Expires: August 6, 2007                                      D. McDonald
                                                         GSM Association
                                                        February 2, 2007


A Uniform Resource Name Namespace For The GSM Association (GSMA) and the
         International Mobile station Equipment Identity(IMEI)
                   draft-montemurro-gsma-imei-urn-01

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
   applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
   have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 6, 2007.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).

Abstract

   This specification defines a Uniform Resource Name namespace for the
   GSMA and sub namespaces for the IMEI (International Mobile station
   Equipment Identity), and for the IMEISV (International Mobile station
   Equipment Identity and Software Version number).  The IMEI is 15
   decimal digits long and the IMEISV is 16 decimal digits long and are



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   both encoded using Binary Encoded Decimal (BCD).  The IMEI and IMEISV
   were introduced as part of the specification for Global System for
   Mobile (GSM) and are also now incorporated by the 3rd Generation
   Partnership Project (3GPP) as part of the 3GPP specification for GSM,
   and the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS).  The IMEI
   and IMEISV are used to uniquely identify Mobile Equipment within
   these systems and are managed by the GSMA (GSM Association).


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3

   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4

   3.  Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4

   4.  Namespace Registration Template  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     4.1.  GSMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5

   5.  Specification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     5.1.  IMEI Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       5.1.1.  Type Allocation Code (TAC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       5.1.2.  Serial Number (SNR)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       5.1.3.  Spare  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     5.2.  IMEISV Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       5.2.1.  Type Allocation Code (TAC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       5.2.2.  Serial Number (SNR)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       5.2.3.  Software Version Number (SVN)  . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

   6.  Community considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

   7.  Namespace considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

   8.  Security considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

   9.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

   10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     10.1. Normative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     10.2. Informative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 14







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1.  Introduction

   This specification defines a Uniform Resource Name namespace for the
   GSMA (GSM Association) and sub namespaces for the IMEI (International
   Mobile station Equipment Identity), and for the IMEISV (International
   Mobile station Equipment Identity and Software Version number as per
   the namespace registration requirement found in [1].  The IMEI and
   the IMEISV are managed by the GSMA, so this namespace would be
   managed by the GSMA.  Whilst this specification currently specifies
   only the IMEI and IMEISV sub namespaces under the GSMA URN namespace
   additional sub namespaces under the GSMA namespace may be specified
   in the future by the GSMA.

   The IMEI is 15 decimal digits long and includes a Type Allocation
   Code (TAC) of 8 decimal digits and the Serial Number (SNR) of 6
   decimal digits plus a Spare decimal digit.  The TAC identifies the
   type of the Mobile Equipment and is chosen from a range of values
   allocated to the Mobile Equipment manufacturer in order to uniquely
   identify the model of the Mobile Equipment.  The SNR is an individual
   serial number that uniquely identifies each Mobile Equipment within
   the TAC.  The Spare digit is used as a security check to combat
   potential spoofing and is always set to the value 0 when transmitted
   by the Mobile Equipment.

   The IMEISV is 16 decimal digits long and includes the TAC and SNR
   same as for the IMEI but also a 2 decimal digit Software Version
   Number (SVN) which is allocated by the Mobile Equipment manufacturer
   to identify the software version of the Mobile Equipment.

   The IMEI is specified to be stored in a tamper proof fashion so that
   it cannot be overwritten or otherwise reprogrammed by software.

   The information here is meant to be a concise guide for those wishing
   to use the IMEI and IMEISV as URNs.  Nothing in this document should
   be construed to override 3GPP TS 23.003 [2] that defines the IMEI and
   IMEISV.

   The GSM Association (GSMA) is a global trade association representing
   more than 690 GSM mobile phone operators across 214 territories and
   countries of the world.  The primary goals of the GSMA are to ensure
   mobile phones and wireless services work globally and are easily
   accessible.  Further details about the GSMA role in allocating the
   IMEI and the IMEISV and the IMEI and IMEISV allocation guidelines can
   be found in GSMA PRD TW.06 [3]







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2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [4].


3.  Motivation

   The theft of mobile phones has become a significant problem in many
   countries and often involves the use of violence and intimidation
   which is frequently perpetrated against children.  The ability of the
   network to identify that a stolen mobile is being used and identify
   the subscription that is using it or to prevent its use should help
   to reduce these problems.

   The potential for damage by malfunctioning mobiles is also of
   increasing concern.  In earlier times when there was a limited well
   specified set of features and services that were defined for Mobile
   Equipment it was possible to define and conduct rigorous conformance
   testing of the Mobile Equipment to ensure its appropriateness for use
   on the Cellular network.  Now however as the networks and services
   are becoming much more complex, varied and feature rich and with the
   associated drive for rapid deployment of new services leveraging the
   great flexibility provided by Internet Protocols this kind of
   rigorous conformance testing of every service, application and
   capability is becoming no longer viable.  As a result it is more
   likely that Mobile Equipment commercially deployed in the networks in
   future will not always exhibit the correct behaviors under all
   circumstances.  Sometimes this may result in more than just
   dissatisfaction for a particular mobile user but could potentially
   result in an unintended Denial of Service (DoS) attack on the network
   that could potentially impact thousands of other users.  The use of
   the IMEISV is additionally helpful in this respect as it allows
   specific problematic software versions of Mobile Equipment to be
   identified so that appropriate defensive or corrective action can be
   taken.

   There is also increasing concern that the increasingly disturbing
   phenomenon of malware such as viruses and other trojans will rapidly
   spread to Mobile Equipment.  This equipment has become more computer
   like through the increasing use of smartphones and PDAs with
   standardized Operating Systems.  Such devices provide support for
   downloadable installable applications and the communication ability
   through peer to peer IP to deliver these programs from one Mobile
   Phone to another.  There is a real concern that once the appearance
   of malware viruses on Mobile Equipment becomes common that
   coordinated DoS attacks could be conducted against Mobile Networks by



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   possibly millions of mobile phones.  Since the bandwidth capabilities
   of Cellular Networks are an order of magnitude lower than those of
   broadband access networks it is potentially much easier to congest a
   cellular network through a coordinated attack than the fixed network.
   These networks are also already relied upon for Emergency Services so
   the consequences of widespread network failure through coordinated
   Mobile Phone virus DoS attack are potentially much more severe.  The
   IMEI can play a significant role in identifying Mobile Equipment that
   is known to be infected with viruses and to prevent its use and limit
   potential damage to the operation of the network and the Mobile
   Equipment of other users.  Likewise the IMEISV can help identify
   Mobile Equipment running software versions vulnerable to attack by
   such malware.

   Currently GSM and UMTS network lower layers provide the ability to
   transport the IMEI and IMEISV between the Mobile Equipment and the
   network.  However these networks are now transitioning to IP Core
   Networks such as the 3GPP IP Multimedia Subssytem (IMS) where the
   cellular access network signaling is becoming decoupled from the IP
   based network and applications such that it is becoming more
   difficult for the session and application layers to obtain the IMEI
   and IMEISV of the Mobile Equipment involved in the session or
   accessing the application or server.  Also access for Mobile
   Equipment to these networks is now being extended via non cellular
   access technologies such as WLAN and Bluetooth and various broadband
   technologies that do not provide any transport layer support for the
   IMEI or IMEISV.  It is therefore necessary that support for transport
   of these identifiers by IP protocols be provided by defining URNs for
   them.


4.  Namespace Registration Template

4.1.  GSMA

   Namespace ID:  "gsma" requested

   Registration Information:

   Registration date:  2006-10-11

   Declared registrant of the namespace:  GSMA.

   Declaration of syntactic structure:







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      GSMA is an identifier for a namespace for identifiers used by
      Mobile Equipment used in GSM and UMTS networks.  The identifier is
      expressed in ASCII (UTF-8) characters and has a hierarchical
      structure as follows:


      urn:gsma:<gsma-specifier>[<gsma-specifier-defined-string>]+
      where
        <gsma-specifier>                  = "imei" | "imeisv" | <gsma-specifier-tbd>
        <gsma-specifier-tbd>              = GSMA-approved specifier to be defined
        <gsma-specifier-defined-string>   = GSMA-approved string to be defined
        +                                 = one or more occurences of "gsma-specifier-defined-string"


      The GSMA namespace includes two predefined namespaces IMEI and
      IMEISV and may be in the future extended to include other
      identifiers used by Mobile Equipment used in GSM and UMTS networks
      or future networks deployed by members of the GSMA.

      A IMEI is an identifier under the GSMA namespace that uniquely
      identifies Mobile Equipment used in GSM and UMTS networks.

      The internal representation of a IMEI is a specific sequence of
      bits in memory, as described in 3GPP TS 23.003 [2].  To accurately
      represent a IMEI as a URN, it is necessary to convert the BCD bit
      sequence to a string representation.  Each field BCD bit sequence
      has its value printed as a decimal digit string with the most
      significant digit first.

      The formal definition of the IMEISV string representation is
      provided by the following ABNF [5]

      IMEI =  tac "-" snr "-" svn
      tac      = 8decDigit
      snr      = 6decDigit
      spare    = 1decDigit
      decDigit =  "0" / "1" / "2" / "3" / "4" / "5" / "6" / "7" / "8" /
         "9"

      For example:

         urn:gsma:imei:90420156-025763-0

      A IMEISV is an identifier under the GSMA namespace that uniquely
      identifies Mobile Equipment and associated software versions used
      in GSM and UMTS networks.  The internal representation of a IMEISV
      is a specific sequence of bits in memory, as described in 3GPP TS
      23.003 [2].  To accurately represent a IMEISV as a URN, it is



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      necessary to convert the BCD bit sequence to a string
      representation.  Each field BCD bit sequence has its value printed
      as a decimal digit string with the most significant digit first.

      The formal definition of the IMEISV string representation is
      provided by the following ABNF [5]

      IMEISV =  tac "-" snr "-" svn
      tac      = 8decDigit
      snr      = 6decDigit
      svn      = 2decDigit
      decDigit =  "0" / "1" / "2" / "3" / "4" / "5" / "6" / "7" / "8" /
         "9"

      For example:

         urn:gsma:imeisv:90420156-025763-42

      The <gsma-specifier> and <gsma-specifier defined string> can
      comprise any ASCII characters compliant with URI syntax and must
      not contain the ":" character (see STD 66, RFC 3986 [6]).  The
      exclusion of the colon from the list of other characters means
      that the colon can only occur as a delimiter between string
      values.

      The GSMA will take responsibility for the gsma-specifier "imei"
      and "imeisv".

      The GSMA will take responsibility to assign other gsma-specifiers
      and manage the sub level and its applicable gsma-specifier defined
      string(s).

   Relevant ancillary documentation:  None.

   Identifier uniqueness considerations:
      Identifiers in the "gsma" namespace are defined and assigned in
      the requested namespace by the GSMA after ensuring that the URNs
      to be assigned are unique.  Uniqueness is achieved by checking
      against the registry of previously assigned names.

      Procedures are in place to ensure that each IMEI is uniquely
      assigned by the Mobile Equipment manufacturer so that it is
      guaranteed to uniquely identify that particular Mobile Equipment.
      IMEIs are stored in the Mobile Equipment in a tamper proof non
      modifiable fashion so they remain persistent.






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      Procedures are in place to ensure that each IMEISV is uniquely
      assigned by the Mobile Equipment manufacturer so that it is
      guaranteed to uniquely identify that particular Mobile Equipment
      and the specific software version installed.

   Identifier persistence considerations:

      The GSMA is committed to maintaining uniqueness and persistence of
      all resources identified by assigned URNs.

      As the NID sought is "gsma" and GSMA is the long standing acronym
      for the trade association that represents the mobile phone
      operators the URN should also persist indefinitely, (at least as
      long as there is a need for its use).The assignment process
      guarantees that names are not reassigned.  The binding between the
      name and its resource is permanent.

      IMEIs are stored in Mobile Equipment in a tamper proof non-
      modifiable fashion so they remain persistent
      The TAC and SNR portions of IMEISVs are stored in the Mobile
      Equipment in a tamper proof non modifiable fashion so they remain
      persistent.  The SVN may be modified by software when new versions
      are installed but should be persistent for the duration of the
      installation of that specific version of software.

   Process of identifier assignment:

      GSMA will manage the <gsma-specifier> and <gsma-defined string>
      including "imei" and "imeisv" identifier resources to maintain
      uniqueness.

      The process of assigning additional URNs at the <gsma-specifier>
      sub-level will be managed by the GSMA.
      The process for IMEI and IMEISV assignment is documented in GSMA
      PRD TW.06 [3]


   Process for identifier resolution:   Since the GSMA namespace is not
      globally resolvable, this is not applicable.

      Consider each field of the IMEI or IMEISV to be a sequence of
      decimial digits.  Then, to compare a pair of IMEIs or IMEISVs,
      arithmetically compare the corresponding fields from each IMEI or
      IMEISV in order of significance and according to their data type.
      Two IMEIs or IMEISVs are equal if and only if all the
      corresponding fields are equal.





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   Rules for Lexical Equivalence:

      The lexical equivalence of the GSMA namespace-specific strings
      (NSSs) is defined as an exact, but not case-sensitive, string
      match.

      Any identifier in GSMA namespaces can be compared using the normal
      mechanisms for percent-encoded UTF-8 strings.

   Conformance with URN Syntax:  The string representation of the GSMA
      URN and of the IMEI and IMEISV subnamespaces is fully compatible
      with the URN syntax.

   Validation Mechanism:

      The IMEI can be validated using the mechanism defined in Annex B
      of 3GPP TS 23.003 [2].  The TAC and SNR fields of the IMEISV can
      be validated using the mechanism defined in Annex B of 3GPP TS
      23.003 [2].  There is no mechanism defined to validate the SVN
      field of the IMEISV.

   Scope:  GSMA URN is global in scope.



5.  Specification

5.1.  IMEI Format

   The IMEI format is 15 decimal digits encoded in 8 octets using BCD as
   defined in 3GPP TS 24.008 [7].  The least significant digit is coded
   in the 1st 3 bits of octet 1.  The most significant digit is coded in
   the least significant bits of octet 8.  Last 4 digits of octet 8 are
   all 1's.

       1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5  Decimal Digits
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |               |           |S|
      |        T      |      S    |p|
      |        A      |      N    |a|
      |        C      |      R    |r|
      |               |           |e|
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8  Octets







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5.1.1.  Type Allocation Code (TAC)

   The TAC is a 8 decimal digit value.  The TAC identifies the type of
   the Mobile Equipment and is chosen from a range of values allocated
   to the Mobile Equipment manufacturer in order to uniquely identify
   the model of the Mobile Equipment.

5.1.2.  Serial Number (SNR)

   The SNR is a 6 decimal digit value.  The SNR is an individual serial
   number that uniquely identifies each Mobile Equipment within the TAC

5.1.3.  Spare

   The Spare is a single decimal digit that is used as a security check
   digit to combat potential spoofing.  The Spare is always set to zero
   when transmitted by the Mobile Equipment.  Annex B of 3GPP TS 23.003
   [2] defines a mechanism for computing the actual check digit in order
   to validate the TAC and SNR.

5.2.  IMEISV Format

   The IMEISV format is 16 decimal digits encoded in 8 octets using BCD
   as defined in 3GPP TS 24.008 [7].  The least significant digit is
   coded in the 1st 3 bits of octet 1.  The most significant digit is
   coded in the least significant bits of octet 8.

       1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6  Decimal Digits
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |               |           |   |
      |        T      |      S    | S |
      |        A      |      N    | V |
      |        C      |      R    | N |
      |               |           |   |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
        1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   Octets


5.2.1.  Type Allocation Code (TAC)

   The TAC is the same as for the IMEI in Section 5.1.1.

5.2.2.  Serial Number (SNR)

   The SNR is the same as for the IMEI in Section 5.1.2.






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5.2.3.  Software Version Number (SVN)

   The Software Version Number is allocated by the Mobile Equipment
   manufacturer to identify the software version of the Mobile
   Equipment.


6.  Community considerations


7.  Namespace considerations

   A URN was considered the most appropriate URI to represent the IMEI
   and IMEISV as these identifiers may be used and transported similarly
   to the Universally Unique Identifier (UUID)which is defined as a URN
   in [10].  Since specifications for protocols that are used to
   transport device identifiers often require the device identifier to
   be globally unique and in the URN format it is necessary that the
   IMEI and IMEISV URN formats are defined.


8.  Security considerations

   IMEIs (with the Spare value set to zero) are displayable on most
   Mobile Equipment therefore they must not be used as security
   capabilities (identifiers whose mere possession grants access), for
   example.

   Care should be taken regarding use of the IMEISV as it could help a
   malicious device identify Mobile Equipment running software that is
   known to be vulnerable to certain attacks.  This is a similar concern
   to the use of the User-Agent header in SIP as specified in RFC 3261
   [8].

   Additional security considerations are specified in 3GPP TS 22.016
   [9].


9.  Acknowledgements

   This document draws heavily on the 3GPP work on Numbering, Addressing
   and Identification in 3GPP TS 23.003 [2] and also on the style and
   structure used in RFC 4122 [10].


10.  References





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10.1.  Normative references

   [1]   Daigle, L., van Gulik, D., Iannella, R., and P. Faltstrom,
         "Uniform Resource Names (URN) Namespace Definition Mechanisms",
         BCP 66, RFC 3406, October 2002.

   [2]   3GPP, "TS 23.003: Numbering, addressing and identification
         (Release 7)", 3GPP 23.003, June 2006,
         <ftp://ftp.3gpp.org/Specs/archive/23_series/23.003/>.

   [3]   GSMA Assocaition, "IMEI Allocation and Approval Guidelines",
         PRD TW.06 version 3.3.0, December 2004,
         <http://www.gsmworld.com/documents/twg/tw06.pdf>.

   [4]   Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
         Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [5]   Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
         Specifications: ABNF", RFC 4234, October 2005.

   [6]   Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
         Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, RFC 3986,
         January 2005.

   [7]   3GPP, "TS 24.008: Mobile radio interface Layer 3 specification;
         Core network protocols; Stage 3 (Release 7)", 3GPP 24.008,
         June 2006,
         <ftp://ftp.3gpp.org/Specs/archive/24_series/24.008/>.

10.2.  Informative references

   [8]   Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston, A.,
         Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E. Schooler, "SIP:
         Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261, June 2002.

   [9]   3GPP, "TS 22.016: International Mobile station Equipment
         Identities (IMEI)(Release 6)", 3GPP 22.016, January 2005,
         <ftp://ftp.3gpp.org/Specs/archive/22_series/22.016/>.

   [10]  Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R. Salz, "A Universally Unique
         IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace", RFC 4122, July 2005.










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Authors' Addresses

   Michael Montemurro (editor)
   Research in Motion (RIM)
   5090 Commerce Blvd
   Mississauga, Ontario  L4W 5W4
   Canada

   Phone: unlisted
   Fax:   unlisted
   Email: mmontemurro@rim.com


   Andrew Allen
   Research in Motion (RIM)
   102 Decker Court, Suite 100
   Irving, Texas  75062
   USA

   Phone: unlisted
   Fax:   unlisted
   Email: aallen@rim.com


   David McDonald
   GSM Association
   Block 2, Deansgrange Business Park
   Deansgrange, Co. Dublin
   Ireland

   Phone: unlisted
   Fax:   unlisted
   Email: DMcDonald@gsm.org


















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Full Copyright Statement

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