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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 draft-ietf-trill-over-ip

Network Working Group                                       M. Wasserman
Internet-Draft                                         Painless Security
Intended status: Standards Track                             D. Eastlake
Expires: April 19, 2014                                         D. Zhang
                                                     Huawei Technologies
                                                        October 16, 2013


      Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links (TRILL) over IP
                     draft-mrw-trill-over-ip-03.txt

Abstract

   The Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links (TRILL) protocol is
   implemented by devices called TRILL Switches or RBridges (Routing
   Bridges).  TRILL supports both point-to-point and multi-access links
   and is designed so that a variety of link protocols can be used
   between TRILL switch ports.  This document standardizes methods for
   encapsulating TRILL in IP(v4 or v6) to provide a unified TRILL
   campus.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 19, 2014.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect



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   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Requirements Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   3.  Use Cases for TRILL over IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.1.  Remote Office Scenario  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.2.  IP Backbone Scenario  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.3.  Important Properties of the Scenarios . . . . . . . . . .   4
       3.3.1.  Security Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
       3.3.2.  Multicast Handling  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
       3.3.3.  RBridge Neighbor Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   4.  TRILL Packet Formats  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.1.  TRILL Data Packet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.2.  TRILL IS-IS Packet  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   5.  Link Protocol Specifics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   6.  Port Configuration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   7.  TRILL over UDP/IP Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   8.  Handling Multicast  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   9.  Use of DTLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   10. Transport Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     10.1.  Recursive Ingress  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     10.2.  Fat Flows  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     10.3.  Congestion Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   11. MTU Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   12. Middlebox Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   13. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   14. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   15. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   16. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     16.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     16.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13

1.  Requirements Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

2.  Introduction






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   TRILL switches (RBridges) are devices that implement the IETF TRILL
   protocol [RFC6325] [I-D.eastlake-isis-rfc6326bis]
   [I-D.ietf-trill-rfc6327bis].

   RBridges provide transparent forwarding of frames within an arbitrary
   network topology, using least cost paths for unicast traffic.  They
   support not only VLANs and Fine Grained Labels
   [I-D.ietf-trill-fine-labeling] but also multipathing of unicast and
   multi-destination traffic.  They use IS-IS link state routing and
   encapsulation with a hop count.  They are compatible with IEEE 802.1
   customer bridges, and can incrementally replace them.

   Ports on different RBridges can communicate with each other over
   various link types, such as Ethernet [RFC6325] or PPP [RFC6361].

   This document defines a method for RBridges to communicate over UDP/
   IP(v4 or v6).  TRILL over IP will allow remote, Internet-connected
   RBridges to form a single RBridge campus, or multiple TRILL over IP
   networks within a campus to be connected as a single TRILL campus via
   a TRILL over IP backbone.

   TRILL over IP connects RBridge ports using IPv4 or IPv6 as a
   transport in such a way that the ports appear to TRILL to be
   connected by a single multi-access link.  Therefore, if more than two
   RBridge ports are connected via a single TRILL over IP link, any pair
   of them can communicate.

   To support the scenarios where RBridges are connected via links (such
   as the public Internet) that are not under the same administrative
   control as the TRILL campus, this document specifies the use of
   Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) [RFC6347] to secure the
   communications between RBridges running TRILL over IP.

3.  Use Cases for TRILL over IP

   This section introduces two application scenarios (a remote office
   scenario and an IP backbone scenario) which cover the most typical of
   situations where network administrators may choose to use TRILL over
   an IP network.

3.1.  Remote Office Scenario

   In the Remote Office Scenario, a remote TRILL network is connected to
   a TRILL campus across a multihop non-TRILL IP network, such as the
   public Internet.  The TRILL network in the remote office becomes a
   logical part of TRILL campus, and nodes in the remote office can be
   attached to the same VLANs as local campus nodes.  In many cases, a
   remote office may be attached to the TRILL campus by a single pair of



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   RBridges, one on the campus end, and the other in the remote office.
   In this use case, the TRILL over IP link will often cross logical and
   physical IP networks that do not support TRILL, and are not under the
   same administrative control as the TRILL campus.

3.2.  IP Backbone Scenario

   In the IP Backbone Scenario, TRILL over IP is used to connect a
   number of TRILL networks to form a single TRILL campus.  For example,
   a TRILL over IP backbone could be used to connect multiple TRILL
   networks on different floors of a large building, or to connect TRILL
   networks in separate buildings of a multi-building site.  In this use
   case, there may often be several TRILL switches on a single TRILL
   over IP link, and the IP link(s) used by TRILL over IP are typically
   under the same administrative control as the rest of the TRILL
   campus.

3.3.  Important Properties of the Scenarios

   There are a number of differences between the above two application
   scenarios, some of which drive features of this specification.  These
   differences are especially pertinent to the security requirements of
   the solution, how multicast data frames are handled, and how the
   TRILL switch ports discover each other.

3.3.1.  Security Requirements

   In the IP Backbone Scenario, TRILL over IP is used between a number
   of RBridge ports, on a network link that is in the same
   administrative control as the remainder of the TRILL campus.  While
   it is desirable in this scenario to prevent the association of rogue
   RBridges, this can be accomplished using existing IS-IS security
   mechanisms.  There may be no need to protect the data traffic, beyond
   any protections that are already in place on the local network.

   In the Remote Office Scenario, TRILL over IP may run over a network
   that is not under the same administrative control as the TRILL
   network.  Nodes on the network may think that they are sending
   traffic locally, while that traffic is actually being sent, in a UDP/
   IP tunnel, over the public Internet.  It is necessary in this
   scenario to protect the integrity and confidentiality of user
   traffic, as well as ensuring that no unauthorized RBridges can gain
   access to the RBridge campus.  The issues of protecting integrity and
   confidentiality of user traffic are addressed by using DTLS for both
   IS-IS frames and data frames between RBridges in this scenario.

3.3.2.  Multicast Handling




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   In the IP Backbone scenario, native multicast may be supported on the
   TRILL over IP link.  If so, it can be used to send TRILL IS-IS and
   multicast data packets, as discussed later in this document.
   Alternatively, multi-destination packets can be transmitted serially.

   In the Remote Office Scenario there will often be only one pair of
   RBridges connecting a given site and, even when multiple RBridges are
   used to connect a Remote Office to the TRILL campus, the intervening
   network may not provide reliable (or any) multicast connectivity.
   The issues such as complex key management also makes it difficult to
   provide strong data integrity and confidentiality protections for
   multicast traffic.  For all of these reasons, the connections between
   local and remote RBridges will be treated like point-to-point links,
   and all TRILL IS-IS control messages and multicast data packets that
   are transmitted between the Remote Office and the TRILL campus will
   be serially transmitted, as discussed later in this document.

3.3.3.  RBridge Neighbor Discovery

   In the IP Backbone Scenario, RBridges that use TRILL over IP will use
   the normal TRILL IS-IS Hello mechanisms to discover the existence of
   other RBridges on the link [I-D.ietf-trill-rfc6327bis], and to
   establish authenticated communication with those RBridges.

   In the Remote Office Scenario, a DTLS session will need to be
   established between RBridges before TRILL IS-IS traffic can be
   exchanged, as discussed below.  In this case, one of the RBridges
   will need to be configured to establish a DTLS session with the other
   RBridge.  This will typically be accomplished by configuring the
   RBridge at a Remote Office to initiate a DTLS session, and subsequent
   TRILL exchanges, with a TRILL over IP-enabled RBridge attached to the
   TRILL campus.

4.  TRILL Packet Formats

   To support the TRILL base protocol standard [RFC6325]. , two types of
   packets will be transmitted between RBridges: TRILL Data frames and
   TRILL IS-IS packets.

4.1.  TRILL Data Packet

   The on-the-wire form of a TRILL Data packet in transit between two
   neighboring RBridges is as shown below:


      +--------------+----------+----------------+-----------+
      | TRILL Data   |  TRILL   |  Native Frame  |   Link    |
      | Link Header  |  Header  |     Payload    |  Trailer  |



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      +--------------+----------+----------------+-----------+



   Where the Encapsulated Native Frame is similar to Ethernet frame
   format with a VLAN tag or Fine Grained Label
   [I-D.ietf-trill-fine-labeling] but with no trailing Frame Check
   Sequence (FCS).

4.2.  TRILL IS-IS Packet

   TRILL IS-IS packets are formatted on-the-wire as follows:


      +--------------+---------------+-----------+
      | TRILL IS-IS  |  TRILL IS-IS  |   Link    |
      | Link Header  |    Payload    |  Trailer  |
      +--------------+---------------+-----------+



   The Link Header and Link Trailer in these formats depend on the
   specific link technology.  The Link Header usually contains one or
   more fields that distinguish TRILL Data from TRILL IS-IS.  For
   example, over Ethernet, the TRILL Data Link Header ends with the
   TRILL Ethertype while the TRILL IS-IS Link Header ends with the L2
   -IS-IS Ethertype; on the other hand, over PPP, there are no
   Ethertypes but PPP protocol code points are included that distinguish
   TRILL Data from TRILL IS-IS.

   In TRILL over IP, we will use UDP/IP (v4 or v6) as the link header,
   and the TRILL packet type will be determined based on the UDP
   destination port number.  In TRILL over IP, no Link Trailer is
   specified, although one may be added when the resulting IP packets
   are encapsulated for transmission on a network (e.g. Ethernet).

5.  Link Protocol Specifics

   TRILL Data packets can be unicast to a specific RBridge or multicast
   to all RBridges on the link.  TRILL IS-IS packets are always
   multicast to all other RBridge on the link (except for MTU PDUs,
   which may be unicast).  On Ethernet links, the Ethernet multicast
   address All-RBridges is used for TRILL Data and All-IS-IS-RBridges
   for TRILL IS-IS.

   To properly handle TRILL base protocol packets on a TRILL over IP
   link, either native multicast mode must be enabled on that link, or
   multicast must be simulated using serial unicast, as discussed below.



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   In TRILL Hello PDUs used on TRILL IP links, the IP addresses of the
   connected IP ports are their real SNPA (SubNetwork Point of
   Attachment) addresses and, for IPv6, the 16-byte IPv6 address is
   used; however, for easy of code re-use designed for common 48-bit
   SNPAs, for TRILL over IPv4, a 48-bit synthetic SNPA that looks like a
   unicast MAC address is constructed for use in the SNPA field of TRILL
   Neighbor TLVs
   [I-D.eastlake-isis-rfc6326bis][I-D.ietf-trill-rfc6327bis] on the
   link.  This synthetic SNPA is as follows:

       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |  0xFE         |  0x00         |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |  IPv4 upper half              |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |  IPv4 lower half              |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+



   This synthetic SNPA/MAC address has the local (0x02) bit on in the
   first byte and so cannot conflict with any globally unique 48-bit
   Ethernet MAC.  However, at the IP level, where TRILL operates on an
   IP link, there are only IP stations, not MAC stations, so conflict on
   the link with a real MAC address would be impossible in any case.

6.  Port Configuration

   Each RBridge physical port used for a TRILL over IP link MUST have at
   least one IP (v4 or v6) address.  Implementations MAY allow a single
   physical port to operate as multiple IPv4 and/or IPv6 logical ports.
   Each IP address constitutes a different logical port and the RBridge
   with those ports MUST associate a different Port ID with each logical
   port.

   TBD: MUST be able to configure a list of IP addresses for serial
   unicast.  MUST be able to configure a non-standard IP multi-cast
   address if native multicast is being used.

7.  TRILL over UDP/IP Format

   The general format of a TRILL over UDP/IP packet is shown below.


      +----------+--------+-----------------------+
      | IP       | UDP    |  TRILL                |
      | Header   | Header |  Payload              |



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      +----------+--------+-----------------------+



   Where the UDP Header is as follows:


      TBD



   The TRILL Payload starts with the TRILL Header (not including the
   TRILL Ethertype) for TRILL Data packets and starts with the 0x83
   Intradomain Routeing Protocol Discriminator byte (thus not including
   the L2-IS-IS Ethertype) for TRILL IS-IS packets.

8.  Handling Multicast

   By default, both TRILL IS-IS packets and multi-destination TRILL Data
   packets are sent to an All-RBridges IPv4 or IPv6 multicast Address as
   appropriate (see Section 14); however, a TRILL over IP port may be
   configured to use serial unicast with a list of unicast addresses of
   other stations to which multi-destination packets are sent.

   TBD

9.  Use of DTLS

   All RBridges that support TRILL over IP MUST implement DTLS and
   support the use of DTLS to secure both TRILL IS-IS and TRILL data
   packets.  When DTLS is used to secure a TRILL over IP link, the DTLS
   session MUST be fully established before any TRILL IS-IS or data
   frames are exchanged.

   RBridges that implement TRILL over IP SHOULD support the use of
   certificates for DTLS and, if they support certificates, MUST support
   the following algorithm:

   o  TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA [RFC5246]

   RBridges that support TRILL over IP MUST support the use of pre-
   shared keys for DTLS.  If the communicating RBridges have IS-IS Hello
   authentication enabled with a pre-shared key, then, by default a key
   derived from that TRILL Hello pre-shared key is used for DTLS unless
   some other pre-shared key is configured.  The following cryptographic
   algorithms MUST be supported for use with pre-shared keys:

   o  TLS_PSK_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA [RFC5246]



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   If the derived default preshared key is used, it is derived as
   follows:

   HMAC-SHA256 ("TRILL IP", IS-IS-shared key )

   In the above "|" indicates concatenation, HMAC-SHA256 is as described
   in [FIPS180] [RFC6234] and "TRILL IP" is the eight byte US ASCII
   [ASCII] string indicated.

10.  Transport Considerations

10.1.  Recursive Ingress

   TRILL is designed to transport end station traffic to and from IEEE
   802.1Q conformant end stations and IP is frequently transported over
   IEEE 802.3 or similar protocols supporting 802.1Q conformant end
   stations.  Thus, an end station data frame EF might get TRILL
   ingressed to TRILL(EF) which was then sent on a TRILL over IP over an
   802.3 link resulting in an 802.3 frame of the form
   802.3(IP(TRILL(EF))).  There is a risk of such a packet being re-
   ingressed by the same TRILL campus, due to physical or logical
   misconfiguration, looping round, being further re-ingressed, etc.
   The packet might get discarded if it got too large but if
   fragmentation is enabled, it would just keep getting split into
   fragments that would continue to loop and grow and re-fragment until
   the path was saturated with junk and packets were being discarded due
   to queue overflow.  The TRILL Header TTL would provide no protection
   because each TRILL ingress adds a new Header and TTL.

   To protect against this scenario, TRILL over IP output ports MUST be
   able to test whether a TRILL packet they are above to send is, in
   fact a TRILL ingress of a TRILL over IP over 802.3 or the like
   packets.  That is, is it of the form TRILL(802.3(IP(TRILL(...))).  If
   so, the default action of the TRILL over IP output port is to discard
   the packet.  However, there are cases where some level of nested
   ingress is desired so it MUST be possible to configure the port to
   allow such packets.

10.2.  Fat Flows

   For the purpose of load balancing, it could be worthwhile to consider
   how to transport the TRILL packets over the Equal Cost Multiple Paths
   (ECMPs) existing in the IP path.

   The ECMP election for the IP traffics could be based, at least for
   IPv4, on the quintuple of the outer IP header { Source IP,
   Destination IP, Source Port, Destination Port, and IP protocol }.
   Such tuples, however, can be exactly the same for all TRILL Data



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   packets between two RBridge ports, even if there is a huge amount of
   data being sent.  Therefore, in order to support ECMP, a RBridge
   SHOULD set the Source Port as an entropy field for ECMP decisions.
   This idea is also introduced in [I-D.yong-tsvwg-gre-in-udp-encap].

10.3.  Congestion Control

   TBD

11.  MTU Considerations

   In TRILL each RBridge advertises the largest LSP frame it can accept
   (but not less than 1,470 bytes) on any of its interfaces (at least
   those interfaces with adjacencies to other RBridges in the campus) in
   its LSP number zero through the originatingLSPBufferSize TLV
   [RFC6325] [I-D.eastlake-isis-rfc6326bis].  The campus minimum MTU,
   denoted Sz, is then established by taking the minimum of this
   advertised MTU for all RBridges in the campus.  Links that do not
   meet the Sz MTU are not included in the routing topology.  This
   protects the operation of IS-IS from links that would be unable to
   accommodate some LSPs.

   A method of determining originatingLSPBufferSize for an RBridge with
   one or more TRILL over IP portsis described in
   [I-D.ietf-trill-clear-correct].  However, if an IP link either can
   accommodate jumbo frames or is a link on which IP fragmentation is
   enabled and acceptable, then it is unlikely that the IP link will be
   a constraint on the RBridge's originatingLSPBufferSize.  On the other
   hand, if the IP link can only handle smaller frames and fragmentation
   is to be avoided when possible, a TRILL over IP port might constrain
   the RBridge's originatingLSPBufferSize.  Because TRILL sets the
   minimum values of Sz at 1,470 bytes, there may be links that meet the
   minimum MTU for the IP protocol (1,280 bytes for IPv6, theoretically
   68 bytes for IPv4) on which it would be necessary to enable
   fragmentation for TRILL use.

   The optional use of TRILL IS-IS MTU PDUs, as specified in [RFC6325]
   and [I-D.ietf-trill-rfc6327bis] can provide added assurance of the
   actual MTU of a link.

12.  Middlebox Considerations

   TBD

13.  Security Considerations

   TRILL over IP is subject to all of the security considerations for
   the base TRILL protocol [RFC6325].  In addition, there are specific



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   security requirements for different TRILL deployment scenarios, as
   discussed in the "Use Cases for TRILL over IP" section above.

   This document specifies that all RBridges that support TRILL over IP
   MUST implement DTLS, and makes it clear that it is both wise and good
   to use DTLS in all cases where a TRILL over IP link will traverse a
   network that is not under the same administrative control as the rest
   of the TRILL campus.  DTLS is necessary, in these cases to protect
   the privacy and integrity of data traffic.

   TRILL over IP is completely compatible with the use of IS-IS
   security, which can be used to authenticate RBridges before allowing
   them to join a TRILL campus.  This is sufficient to protect against
   rogue RBridges, but is not sufficient to protect data packets that
   may be sent, in UDP/IP tunnels, outside of the local network, or even
   across the public Internet.  To protect the privacy and integrity of
   that traffic, use DTLS.

   In cases were DTLS is used, the use of IS-IS security may not be
   necessary, but there is nothing about this specification that would
   prevent using both DTLS and IS-IS security together.  In cases where
   both types of security are enabled, by default, a key derived from
   the IS-IS key will be used for DTLS.

14.  IANA Considerations

   IANA has allocated the following destination UDP Ports for the TRILL
   IS-IS and Data channels:


          UDP Port           Protocol

          (TBD)              TRILL IS-IS Channel
          (TBD)              TRILL Data Channel



   IANA has allocated one IPv4 and one IPv6 multicast address, as shown
   below, which correspond to the All-RBridges and All-IS-IS-RBridges
   multicast MAC addresses that the IEEE Registration Authority has
   assigned for TRILL.  Because the low level hardware MAC address
   dispatch considerations for TRILL over Ethernet do not apply to TRILL
   over IP, one IP multicast address for each version of IP is
   sufficient.

   [Values recommended to IANA:]





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         Name                 IPv4              IPv6

         All-RBridges         233.252.14.0      FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:205



   Note: when these IPv4 and IPv6 multicast addresses are used and the
   resulting IP frame is sent over Ethernet, the usual IP derived MAC
   address is used.

   [Need to discuss scopes for IPv6 multicast (the "X" in the addresses)
   somewhere.  Default to "site" scope but MUST be configurable?]

15.  Acknowledgements

   This document was written using the xml2rfc tool described in RFC
   2629 [RFC2629].

   The following people have provided useful feedback on the contents of
   this document: Sam Hartman, Adrian Farrel.

16.  References

16.1.  Normative References

   [ASCII]    , ""USA Code for Information Interchange", ANSI
              X3.4-1968", 1968.

   [FIPS180]  , ""Secure Hash Standard (SHS)"", March 2012.

   [I-D.eastlake-isis-rfc6326bis]
              Eastlake, D., Senevirathne, T., Ghanwani, A., Dutt, D.,
              and A. Banerjee, "Transparent Interconnection of Lots of
              Links (TRILL) Use of IS-IS", draft-eastlake-isis-
              rfc6326bis-09 (work in progress), August 2012.

   [I-D.ietf-trill-clear-correct]
              Eastlake, D., Zhang, M., Ghanwani, A., Manral, V., and A.
              Banerjee, "TRILL: Clarifications, Corrections, and
              Updates", draft-ietf-trill-clear-correct-06 (work in
              progress), July 2012.

   [I-D.ietf-trill-rfc6327bis]
              Eastlake, D., Perlman, R., Ghanwani, A., Yang, H., and V.
              Manral, "TRILL: Adjacency", draft-ietf-trill-rfc6327bis-01
              (work in progress), July 2013.





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   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008.

   [RFC6325]  Perlman, R., Eastlake, D., Dutt, D., Gai, S., and A.
              Ghanwani, "Routing Bridges (RBridges): Base Protocol
              Specification", RFC 6325, July 2011.

16.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-trill-fine-labeling]
              Eastlake, D., Zhang, M., Agarwal, P., Perlman, R., and D.
              Dutt, "TRILL (Transparent Interconnection of Lots of
              Links): Fine-Grained Labeling", draft-ietf-trill-fine-
              labeling-07 (work in progress), May 2013.

   [I-D.yong-tsvwg-gre-in-udp-encap]
              Crabbe, E., Yong, L., and K. Building, "Generic UDP
              Encapsulation for IP Tunneling", draft-yong-tsvwg-gre-in-
              udp-encap-01 (work in progress), July 2013.

   [RFC2629]  Rose, M., "Writing I-Ds and RFCs using XML", RFC 2629,
              June 1999.

   [RFC6234]  Eastlake, D. and T. Hansen, "US Secure Hash Algorithms
              (SHA and SHA-based HMAC and HKDF)", RFC 6234, May 2011.

   [RFC6347]  Rescorla, E. and N. Modadugu, "Datagram Transport Layer
              Security Version 1.2", RFC 6347, January 2012.

   [RFC6361]  Carlson, J. and D. Eastlake, "PPP Transparent
              Interconnection of Lots of Links (TRILL) Protocol Control
              Protocol", RFC 6361, August 2011.

Authors' Addresses

   Margaret Wasserman
   Painless Security
   356 Abbott Street
   North Andover, MA  01845
   USA

   Phone: +1 781 405-7464
   Email: mrw@painless-security.com
   URI:   http://www.painless-security.com




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   Donald Eastlake
   Huawei Technologies
   155 Beaver Street
   Milford, MA  01757
   USA

   Phone: +1 508 333-2270
   Email: d3e3e3@gmail.com


   Dacheng Zhang
   Huawei Technologies
   Q14, Huawei Campus
   No.156 Beiqing Rd.
   Beijing, Hai-Dian District  100095
   P.R. China

   Email: zhangdacheng@huawei.com

































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