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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 RFC 3962

Kerberos Working Group                                        K. Raeburn
Document: draft-raeburn-krb-rijndael-krb-03.txt                      MIT
                                                       February 24, 2003
                                                 expires August 24, 2003

                     AES Encryption for Kerberos 5

Abstract

   Recently the US National Institute of Standards and Technology chose
   a new Advanced Encryption Standard [AES], which is significantly
   faster and (it is believed) more secure than the old DES algorithm.
   This document is a specification for the addition of this algorithm
   to the Kerberos cryptosystem suite [KCRYPTO].

   Comments should be sent to the author, or to the IETF Kerberos
   working group (ietf-krb-wg@anl.gov).

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026 [RFC2026]. Internet-Drafts
   are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF),
   its areas, and its working groups. Note that other groups may also
   distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. Internet-Drafts are
   draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated,
   replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is
   inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite
   them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

1. Introduction

   This document defines encryption key and checksum types for Kerberos
   5 using the AES algorithm recently chosen by NIST.  These new types
   support 128-bit block encryption, and key sizes of 128 or 256 bits.

   Using the "simplified profile" of [KCRYPTO], we can define a pair of
   encryption and checksum schemes.  AES is used with cipher text
   stealing to avoid message expansion, and SHA-1 [SHA1] is the



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   associated checksum function.

2. Conventions Used in this Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.

3. Protocol Key Representation

   The profile in [KCRYPTO] treats keys and random octet strings as
   conceptually different.  But since the AES key space is dense, we can
   use any bit string of appropriate length as a key.  We use the byte
   representation for the key described in [AES], where the first bit of
   the bit string is the high bit of the first byte of the byte string
   (octet string) representation.

4. Key Generation From Pass Phrases or Random Data

   Given the above format for keys, we can generate keys from the
   appropriate amounts of random data (128 or 256 bits) by simply
   copying the input string.

   To generate an encryption key from a pass phrase and salt string, we
   use the PBKDF2 function from PKCS #5 v2.0 ([PKCS5]), with parameters
   indicated below, to generate an intermediate key (of the same length
   as the desired final key), which is then passed into the DK function
   with the 8-octet ASCII string "kerberos" as is done for des3-cbc-
   hmac-sha1-kd in [KCRYPTO].  (In [KCRYPTO] terms, the PBKDF2 function
   produces a "random octet string", hence the application of the
   random-to-key function even though it's effectively a simple identity
   operation.)  The resulting key is the user's long-term key for use
   with the encryption algorithm in question.

    tkey = random2key(PBKDF2(passphrase, salt, iter_count, keylength))
    key = DK(tkey, "kerberos")

   The pseudorandom function used by PBKDF2 will be a SHA-1 HMAC of the
   passphrase and salt, as described in Appendix B.1 to PKCS#5.

   The number of iterations is specified by the string-to-key parameters
   supplied.  The parameter string is four octets indicating an unsigned
   number in big-endian order.  This is the number of iterations to be
   performed.  If the value is 00 00 00 00, the number of iterations to
   be performed is 4294967296 (2**32).  (Thus the minimum expressable
   iteration count is 1.)

   For environments where slower hardware is the norm, implementations



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   may wish to limit the number of iterations to prevent a spoofed
   response from consuming lots of client-side CPU time; it is
   recommended that this bound be no less than 50000.  Even for
   environments with fast hardware, 4 billion iterations is likely to
   take a fairly long time; much larger bounds might still be enforced,
   and it might be wise for implementations to permit interruption of
   this operation by the user if the environment allows for it.

   If the string-to-key parameters are not supplied, the default value
   to be used is 00 00 b0 00 (decimal 45056, indicating 45056
   iterations, which takes slightly under 1 second on a 300MHz Pentium
   II in tests run by the author).

   Sample test vectors are given in the appendix.

5. Cipher Text Stealing

   Cipher block chaining is used to encrypt messages.  Unlike previous
   Kerberos cryptosystems, we use cipher text stealing to handle the
   possibly partial final block of the message.

   Cipher text stealing is described on pages 195-196 of [AC], and
   section 8 of [RC5]; it has the advantage that no message expansion is
   done during encryption of messages of arbitrary sizes as is typically
   done in CBC mode with padding.

   Cipher text stealing, as defined in [RC5], assumes that more than one
   block of plain text is available.  If exactly one block is to be
   encrypted, that block is simply encrypted with AES (also known as ECB
   mode).  Input of less than one block is padded at the end to one
   block; the values of the padding bits are unspecified.
   (Implementations may use all-zero padding, but protocols should not
   rely on the result being deterministic.  Implementations may use
   random padding, but protocols should not rely on the result not being
   deterministic.  Note that in most cases, the Kerberos encryption
   profile will add a random confounder independent of this padding.)

   For consistency, cipher text stealing is always used for the last two
   blocks of the data to be encrypted, as in [RC5].  If the data length
   is a multiple of the block size, this is equivalent to plain CBC mode
   with the last two cipher text blocks swapped.

   A test vector is given in the appendix.








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6. Kerberos Algorithm Profile Parameters

   This is a summary of the parameters to be used with the simplified
   algorithm profile described in [KCRYPTO]:

   +--------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |               protocol key format       128- or 256-bit string     |
   |                                                                    |
   |            string-to-key function       PBKDF2+DK with variable    |
   |                                         iteration count (see       |
   |                                         above)                     |
   |                                                                    |
   |  default string-to-key parameters       00 00 b0 00                |
   |                                                                    |
   |        key-generation seed length       key size                   |
   |                                                                    |
   |            random-to-key function       identity function          |
   |                                                                    |
   |                  hash function, H       SHA-1                      |
   |                                                                    |
   |               HMAC output size, h       12 octets (96 bits)        |
   |                                                                    |
   |             message block size, m       1 octet                    |
   |                                                                    |
   |  encryption/decryption functions,       AES in CBC-CTS mode with   |
   |  E and D                                zero ivec (cipher block    |
   |                                         size 16 octets)            |
   +--------------------------------------------------------------------+

   Using this profile with each key size gives us two each of encryption
   and checksum algorithm definitions.

7. Assigned Numbers

   The following encryption type numbers are assigned:

   +--------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |                         encryption types                           |
   +--------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |         type name                  etype value          key size   |
   +--------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |   aes128-cts-hmac-sha1-96              17                 128      |
   |   aes256-cts-hmac-sha1-96              18                 256      |
   +--------------------------------------------------------------------+

   The following checksum type numbers are assigned:





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   +--------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |                          checksum types                            |
   +--------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |        type name                 sumtype value           length    |
   +--------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |    hmac-sha1-96-aes128                15                   96      |
   |    hmac-sha1-96-aes256                16                   96      |
   +--------------------------------------------------------------------+

   These checksum types will be used with the corresponding encryption
   types defined above.

8. Security Considerations

   This new algorithm has not been around long enough to receive the
   decades of intense analysis that DES has received.  It is possible
   that some weakness exists that has not been found by the
   cryptographers analyzing these algorithms before and during the AES
   selection process.

   The use of the HMAC function has drawbacks for certain pass phrase
   lengths.  For example, a pass phrase longer than the hash function
   block size (64 bytes, for SHA-1) is hashed to a smaller size (20
   bytes) before applying the main HMAC algorithm.  However, entropy is
   generally sparse in pass phrases, especially in long ones, so this
   may not be a problem in the rare cases of users with long pass
   phrases.

   Also, generating a 256-bit key from a pass phrase of any length may
   be deceptive, since the effective entropy in pass-phrase-derived key
   cannot be nearly that large.

   The iteration count in PBKDF2 appears to be useful primarily as a
   constant multiplier for the amount of work required for an attacker
   using brute-force methods.  Unfortunately, it also multiplies, by the
   same amount, the work needed by a legitimate user with a valid
   password.  Thus the work factor imposed on an attacker (who may have
   many powerful workstations at his disposal) must be balanced against
   the work factor imposed on the legitimate user (who may have a PDA or
   cell phone); the available computing power on either side increases
   as time goes on, as well.  A better way to deal with the brute-force
   attack is through preauthentication mechanisms that provide better
   protection of, the user's long-term key.  Use of such mechanisms is
   out of scope for this document.

   If the PBKDF2 iteration count can be spoofed by an intruder on the
   network, and the limit on the accepted iteration count is very high,
   the intruder may be able to introduce a form of denial of service



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   attack against the client by sending a very high iteration count,
   causing the client to spend a great deal of CPU time computing an
   incorrect key.

   Any benefit against other attacks specific to the HMAC or SHA-1
   algorithms is probably achieved with a fairly small number of
   iterations.

   Cipher text stealing mode, since it requires no additional padding in
   most cases, will reveal the exact length of each message being
   encrypted, rather than merely bounding it to a small range of
   possible lengths as in CBC mode.  Such obfuscation should not be
   relied upon at higher levels in any case; if the length must be
   obscured from an outside observer, it should be done by intentionally
   varying the length of the message to be encrypted.

   The author is not a cryptographer.  Caveat emptor.

9. IANA Considerations

   None.

10. Acknowledgements

   Thanks to John Brezak, Gerardo Diaz Cuellar and Marcus Watts for
   feedback on earlier versions of this document.

11. Normative References

   [AC] Schneier, B., "Applied Cryptography", second edition, John Wiley
   and Sons, New York, 1996.

   [AES] National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S. Department
   of Commerce, "Advanced Encryption Standard", Federal Information
   Processing Standards Publication 197, Washington, DC, November 2001.

   [KCRYPTO] Raeburn, K., "Encryption and Checksum Specifications for
   Kerberos 5", draft-ietf-krb-wg-crypto-01.txt, May, 2002.  Work in
   progress.

   [PKCS5] Kaliski, B., "PKCS #5: Password-Based Cryptography
   Specification Version 2.0", RFC 2898, September 2000.

   [RC5] Baldwin, R, and R. Rivest, "The RC5, RC5-CBC, RC5-CBC-Pad, and
   RC5-CTS Algorithms", RFC 2040, October 1996.

   [RFC2026] Bradner, S., "The Internet Standards Process -- Revision
   3", RFC 2026, October 1996.



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   [SHA1] National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S.
   Department of Commerce, "Secure Hash Standard", Federal Information
   Processing Standards Publication 180-1, Washington, DC, April 1995.

12. Informative References

   [PECMS] Gutmann, P., "Password-based Encryption for CMS", RFC 3211,
   December 2001.

13. Author's Address

   Kenneth Raeburn
   Massachusetts Institute of Technology
   77 Massachusetts Avenue
   Cambridge, MA 02139
   raeburn@mit.edu

14. Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003).  All Rights Reserved.

   This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
   others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
   or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
   and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
   kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
   included on all such copies and derivative works.  However, this
   document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
   the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
   Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
   developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
   copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
   followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
   English.

   The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
   revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.

   This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
   TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
   BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION
   HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
   MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE."

A. Sample test vectors

   Sample values for the string-to-key function are included below.



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   Iteration count = 1
   Pass phrase = "password"
   Salt = "ATHENA.MIT.EDUraeburn"
   128-bit PBKDF2 output:
       cd ed b5 28 1b b2 f8 01 56 5a 11 22 b2 56 35 15
   128-bit AES key:
       42 26 3c 6e 89 f4 fc 28 b8 df 68 ee 09 79 9f 15
   256-bit PBKDF2 output:
       cd ed b5 28 1b b2 f8 01 56 5a 11 22 b2 56 35 15
       0a d1 f7 a0 4b b9 f3 a3 33 ec c0 e2 e1 f7 08 37
   256-bit AES key:
       fe 69 7b 52 bc 0d 3c e1 44 32 ba 03 6a 92 e6 5b
       bb 52 28 09 90 a2 fa 27 88 39 98 d7 2a f3 01 61

   Iteration count = 2
   Pass phrase = "password"
   Salt="ATHENA.MIT.EDUraeburn"
   128-bit PBKDF2 output:
       01 db ee 7f 4a 9e 24 3e 98 8b 62 c7 3c da 93 5d
   128-bit AES key:
       c6 51 bf 29 e2 30 0a c2 7f a4 69 d6 93 bd da 13
   256-bit PBKDF2 output:
       01 db ee 7f 4a 9e 24 3e 98 8b 62 c7 3c da 93 5d
       a0 53 78 b9 32 44 ec 8f 48 a9 9e 61 ad 79 9d 86
   256-bit AES key:
       a2 e1 6d 16 b3 60 69 c1 35 d5 e9 d2 e2 5f 89 61
       02 68 56 18 b9 59 14 b4 67 c6 76 22 22 58 24 ff

   Iteration count = 1200
   Pass phrase = "password"
   Salt = "ATHENA.MIT.EDUraeburn"
   128-bit PBKDF2 output:
       5c 08 eb 61 fd f7 1e 4e 4e c3 cf 6b a1 f5 51 2b
   128-bit AES key:
       4c 01 cd 46 d6 32 d0 1e 6d be 23 0a 01 ed 64 2a
   256-bit PBKDF2 output:
       5c 08 eb 61 fd f7 1e 4e 4e c3 cf 6b a1 f5 51 2b
       a7 e5 2d db c5 e5 14 2f 70 8a 31 e2 e6 2b 1e 13
   256-bit AES key:
       55 a6 ac 74 0a d1 7b 48 46 94 10 51 e1 e8 b0 a7
       54 8d 93 b0 ab 30 a8 bc 3f f1 62 80 38 2b 8c 2a










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   Iteration count = 5
   Pass phrase = "password"
   Salt=0x1234567878563412
   128-bit PBKDF2 output:
       d1 da a7 86 15 f2 87 e6 a1 c8 b1 20 d7 06 2a 49
   128-bit AES key:
       e9 b2 3d 52 27 37 47 dd 5c 35 cb 55 be 61 9d 8e
   256-bit PBKDF2 output:
       d1 da a7 86 15 f2 87 e6 a1 c8 b1 20 d7 06 2a 49
       3f 98 d2 03 e6 be 49 a6 ad f4 fa 57 4b 6e 64 ee
   256-bit AES key:
       97 a4 e7 86 be 20 d8 1a 38 2d 5e bc 96 d5 90 9c
       ab cd ad c8 7c a4 8f 57 45 04 15 9f 16 c3 6e 31
   (This test is based on values given in [PECMS].)

   Iteration count = 1200
   Pass phrase = (64 characters)
     "XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX"
   Salt="pass phrase equals block size"
   128-bit PBKDF2 output:
       13 9c 30 c0 96 6b c3 2b a5 5f db f2 12 53 0a c9
   128-bit AES key:
       59 d1 bb 78 9a 82 8b 1a a5 4e f9 c2 88 3f 69 ed
   256-bit PBKDF2 output:
       13 9c 30 c0 96 6b c3 2b a5 5f db f2 12 53 0a c9
       c5 ec 59 f1 a4 52 f5 cc 9a d9 40 fe a0 59 8e d1
   256-bit AES key:
       89 ad ee 36 08 db 8b c7 1f 1b fb fe 45 94 86 b0
       56 18 b7 0c ba e2 20 92 53 4e 56 c5 53 ba 4b 34

   Iteration count = 1200
   Pass phrase = (65 characters)
     "XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX"
   Salt = "pass phrase exceeds block size"
   128-bit PBKDF2 output:
       9c ca d6 d4 68 77 0c d5 1b 10 e6 a6 87 21 be 61
   128-bit AES key:
       cb 80 05 dc 5f 90 17 9a 7f 02 10 4c 00 18 75 1d
   256-bit PBKDF2 output:
       9c ca d6 d4 68 77 0c d5 1b 10 e6 a6 87 21 be 61
       1a 8b 4d 28 26 01 db 3b 36 be 92 46 91 5e c8 2a
   256-bit AES key:
       d7 8c 5c 9c b8 72 a8 c9 da d4 69 7f 0b b5 b2 d2
       14 96 c8 2b eb 2c ae da 21 12 fc ee a0 57 40 1b







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   Iteration count = 50
   Pass phrase = g-clef (0xf09d849e)
   Salt = "EXAMPLE.COMpianist"
   128-bit PBKDF2 output:
       6b 9c f2 6d 45 45 5a 43 a5 b8 bb 27 6a 40 3b 39
   128-bit AES key:
       f1 49 c1 f2 e1 54 a7 34 52 d4 3e 7f e6 2a 56 e5
   256-bit PBKDF2 output:
       6b 9c f2 6d 45 45 5a 43 a5 b8 bb 27 6a 40 3b 39
       e7 fe 37 a0 c4 1e 02 c2 81 ff 30 69 e1 e9 4f 52
   256-bit AES key:
       4b 6d 98 39 f8 44 06 df 1f 09 cc 16 6d b4 b8 3c
       57 18 48 b7 84 a3 d6 bd c3 46 58 9a 3e 39 3f 9e

   Some test vectors for CBC with cipher text stealing, using an initial
   vector of all-zero.

   AES 128-bit key:
       63 68 69 63 6b 65 6e 20 74 65 72 69 79 61 6b 69

   Input:
       49 20 77 6f 75 6c 64 20 6c 69 6b 65 20 74 68 65
       20
   Output:
       c6 35 35 68 f2 bf 8c b4 d8 a5 80 36 2d a7 ff 7f
       97

   Input:
       49 20 77 6f 75 6c 64 20 6c 69 6b 65 20 74 68 65
       20 47 65 6e 65 72 61 6c 20 47 61 75 27 73 20
   Output:
       fc 00 78 3e 0e fd b2 c1 d4 45 d4 c8 ef f7 ed 22
       97 68 72 68 d6 ec cc c0 c0 7b 25 e2 5e cf e5

   Input:
       49 20 77 6f 75 6c 64 20 6c 69 6b 65 20 74 68 65
       20 47 65 6e 65 72 61 6c 20 47 61 75 27 73 20 43
   Output:
       39 31 25 23 a7 86 62 d5 be 7f cb cc 98 eb f5 a8
       97 68 72 68 d6 ec cc c0 c0 7b 25 e2 5e cf e5 84











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   Input:
       49 20 77 6f 75 6c 64 20 6c 69 6b 65 20 74 68 65
       20 47 65 6e 65 72 61 6c 20 47 61 75 27 73 20 43
       68 69 63 6b 65 6e 2c 20 70 6c 65 61 73 65 2c
   Output:
       97 68 72 68 d6 ec cc c0 c0 7b 25 e2 5e cf e5 84
       b3 ff fd 94 0c 16 a1 8c 1b 55 49 d2 f8 38 02 9e
       39 31 25 23 a7 86 62 d5 be 7f cb cc 98 eb f5

   Input:
       49 20 77 6f 75 6c 64 20 6c 69 6b 65 20 74 68 65
       20 47 65 6e 65 72 61 6c 20 47 61 75 27 73 20 43
       68 69 63 6b 65 6e 2c 20 70 6c 65 61 73 65 2c 20
   Output:
       97 68 72 68 d6 ec cc c0 c0 7b 25 e2 5e cf e5 84
       9d ad 8b bb 96 c4 cd c0 3b c1 03 e1 a1 94 bb d8
       39 31 25 23 a7 86 62 d5 be 7f cb cc 98 eb f5 a8

   Input:
       49 20 77 6f 75 6c 64 20 6c 69 6b 65 20 74 68 65
       20 47 65 6e 65 72 61 6c 20 47 61 75 27 73 20 43
       68 69 63 6b 65 6e 2c 20 70 6c 65 61 73 65 2c 20
       61 6e 64 20 77 6f 6e 74 6f 6e 20 73 6f 75 70 2e
   Output:
       97 68 72 68 d6 ec cc c0 c0 7b 25 e2 5e cf e5 84
       39 31 25 23 a7 86 62 d5 be 7f cb cc 98 eb f5 a8
       48 07 ef e8 36 ee 89 a5 26 73 0d bc 2f 7b c8 40
       9d ad 8b bb 96 c4 cd c0 3b c1 03 e1 a1 94 bb d8

Document History (delete before RFC publication)

   Major changes from -02 to -03:

   Describe encryption of data of one block or less.

   Fix default string-to-key parameters in table to agree with text.

   Remove Recommendations section; the Kerberos RFC will cover
   recommendations and requirements.

   Restore change history, added notes to RFC editor saying to remove
   it, and update the [KCRYPTO] entry in Normative References.

   Delete confounder size, since it's gone from the simplified profile
   in crypto-03.

   Change checksum numbers, since Assar Westerlund says 10 is in use.




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   Add Security Consideration about denial of service caused by very
   high spoofed iteration count.

   Major changes from -01 to -02:

   Add test vectors.

   Drop 192/384-bit variants.  Prevailing opinion seems to be that
   128-bit keys are good for speed, and 256-bit for paranoia, and no one
   cares about the intermediate sizes.

   Update for new string-to-key params per new Kerberos crypto draft and
   discussions during the IETF conferences at Salt Lake City, December,
   2001, and Minneapolis, March, 2002.

   Drop Serpent and Twofish; Rijndael is the only one people care about.
   Use "AES" in preference to "Rijndael".

   Use cipher text stealing mode intead of plain CBC, and add -cts to
   the algorithm names.

   Drop SHA-2, stick with SHA-1.  New test cases to exercise boundary
   conditions in HMAC used in string-to-key.

   Split References into Normative/Informative.

   Major changes from -00:

   Define different types based on key/hash sizes, with hash size always
   twice key size.  Use simplified profile of revised section 6 of
   RFC1510bis.  Drop "-kd" from the names.

   Use PKCS#5 instead of simple hash.  Changed string-to-key vector to
   use some "Appendix Z" cases also submitted for kerberos-revisions.

Notes to RFC Editor

   Assuming this document goes through Last Call along with the Kerberos
   crypto framework draft, the reference entry for [KCRYPTO] will list
   the draft name, not the RFC number.  This should be replaced with the
   RFC info.

   The "Document History" section should be deleted, as should this one.








Raeburn                                                        [Page 12]


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