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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 RFC 6037

Network Working Group                             Eric C. Rosen (Editor)
Internet Draft                                        Yiqun Cai (Editor)
Intended Status: Informational                         IJsbrand Wijnands
Expires: February 18, 2010                           Cisco Systems, Inc.

                                                         August 18, 2009


                     Multicast in MPLS/BGP IP VPNs


                      draft-rosen-vpn-mcast-12.txt

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
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Abstract

   This draft describes the deployed MVPN (Multicast in BGP/MPLS IP
   VPNs) solution of Cisco Systems.















































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Table of Contents

 1          Specification of requirements  .........................   4
 2          Introduction  ..........................................   4
 2.1        Scaling Multicast State Info. in the Network Core  .....   5
 2.2        Overview  ..............................................   6
 3          Multicast VRFs  ........................................   7
 4          Multicast Domains  .....................................   8
 4.1        Model of Operation  ....................................   8
 5          Multicast Tunnels  .....................................   9
 5.1        Ingress PEs  ...........................................   9
 5.2        Egress PEs  ............................................   9
 5.3        Tunnel Destination Address(es)  ........................   9
 5.4        Auto-Discovery  ........................................  10
 5.4.1      MDT-SAFI  ..............................................  11
 5.5        Which PIM Variant to Use  ..............................  12
 5.6        Inter-AS MDT Construction  .............................  12
 5.6.1      The PIM MVPN Join Attribute  ...........................  12
 5.6.1.1    Definition  ............................................  12
 5.6.1.2    Usage  .................................................  13
 5.7        Encapsulation in GRE  ..................................  14
 5.8        MTU  ...................................................  15
 5.9        TTL  ...................................................  15
 5.10       Differentiated Services  ...............................  15
 5.11       Avoiding Conflict with Internet Multicast  .............  16
 6          The PIM C-Instance and the MT  .........................  16
 6.1        PIM C-Instance Control Packets  ........................  16
 6.2        PIM C-Instance RPF Determination  ......................  16
 6.2.1      Connector Attribute  ...................................  18
 7          Data MDT: Optimizing Flooding  .........................  18
 7.1        Limitation of Multicast Domain  ........................  18
 7.2        Signaling Data MDT Trees  ..............................  19
 7.3        Use of SSM for Data MDTs  ..............................  20
 8          Packet Formats and Constants  ..........................  21
 8.1        MDT TLV  ...............................................  21
 8.2        MDT Join TLV for IPv4 streams  .........................  21
 8.3        MDT Join TLV for IPv6 streams  .........................  22
 8.4        Multiple MDT Join TLVs per Datagram  ...................  24
 8.5        Constants  .............................................  24



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 9          IANA Considerations  ...................................  24
10          Security Considerations  ...............................  25
11          Acknowledgments  .......................................  25
12          Normative References  ..................................  25
13          Informative References  ................................  25
14          Authors' Addresses  ....................................  26




1. Specification of requirements

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].


2. Introduction

   This draft describes the deployed MVPN (Multicast in BGP/MPLS IP
   VPNs) solution of Cisco Systems.  This is sometimes known as the
   "PIM+GRE" MVPN profile (see [MVPN-PROFILES], section 2, which recasts
   the contents of this document into the terminology of a more
   generalized MVPN framework defined by the L3VPN WG).  This document
   is being made available as it is often used as a reference for
   interoperating with deployed implementations.

   The procedures specified in this draft differ in a few minor respects
   from the fully standards-compliant PIM+GRE profile.  These
   differences are pointed out where they occur.

   The base specification for BGP/MPLS IP VPNs [RFC4364] does not
   provide a way for IP multicast data or control traffic to travel from
   one VPN site to another.  This document extends that specification by
   specifying the necessary protocols and procedures for support of IP
   multicast.

   This specification presupposes that:

      1. PIM [PIMv2], running over either IPv4 or IPv6, is the multicast
         routing protocol used within the VPN,

      2. PIM, running over IPv4, is the multicast routing protocol used
         within the SP network, and







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      3. the SP network supports native IPv4 multicast forwarding.

   Familiarity with the terminology and procedures of [RFC4364] is
   presupposed.  Familiarity with [PIMv2] is also presupposed.


2.1. Scaling Multicast State Info. in the Network Core

   The BGP/MPLS IP VPN service of [RFC4364] provides a VPN with
   "optimal" unicast routing through the SP backbone, in that a packet
   follows the "shortest path" across the backbone, as determined by the
   backbone's own routing algorithm.  This optimal routing is provided
   without requiring the P routers to maintain any routing information
   which is specific to a VPN; indeed, the P routers do not maintain any
   per-VPN state at all.

   Unfortunately, optimal MULTICAST routing cannot be provided without
   requiring the P routers to maintain some VPN-specific state
   information.  Optimal multicast routing would require that one or
   more multicast distribution trees be created in the backbone for each
   multicast group that is in use.  If a particular multicast group from
   within a VPN is using source-based distribution trees, optimal
   routing requires that there be one distribution tree for each
   transmitter of that group. If shared trees are being used, one tree
   for each group is still required.  Each such tree requires state in
   some set of the P routers, with the amount of state being
   proportional to the number of multicast transmitters.  The reason
   there needs to be at least one distribution tree per multicast group
   is that each group may have a different set of receivers; multicast
   routing algorithms generally go to great lengths to ensure that a
   multicast packet will not be sent to a node which is not on the path
   to a receiver.

   Given that an SP generally supports many VPNs, where each VPN may
   have many multicast groups, and each multicast group may have many
   transmitters, it is not scalable to have one or more distribution
   trees for each multicast group.  The SP has no control whatsoever
   over the number of multicast groups and transmitters that exist in
   the VPNs, and it is difficult to place any bound on these numbers.

   In order to have a scalable multicast solution for MPLS/BGP IP VPNs,
   the amount of state maintained by the P routers needs to be
   proportional to something which IS under the control of the SP.  This
   specification describes such a solution.  In this solution, the
   amount of state maintained in the P routers is proportional only to
   the number of VPNs which run over the backbone; the amount of state
   in the P routers is NOT sensitive to the number of multicast groups
   or to the number of multicast transmitters within the VPNS.  To



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   achieve this scalability, the optimality of the multicast routes is
   reduced.  A PE which is not on the path to any receiver of a
   particular multicast group may still receive multicast packets for
   that group, and if so, will have to discard them.  The SP does
   however have control over the tradeoff between optimal routing and
   scalability.


2.2. Overview

   An SP determines whether a particular VPN is multicast-enabled.  If
   it is, it corresponds to a "Multicast Domain".  A PE which attaches
   to a particular multicast-enabled VPN is said to belong to the
   corresponding Multicast Domain.  For each Multicast Domain, there is
   a default "Multicast Distribution Tree (MDT)" through the backbone,
   connecting ALL of the PEs that belong to that Multicast Domain.  A
   given PE may be in as many Multicast Domains as there are VPNs
   attached to that PE.  However, each Multicast Domain has its own MDT.
   The MDTs are created by running PIM in the backbone, and in general
   an MDT also includes P routers on the paths between the PE routers.

   In a departure from the usual multicast tree distribution procedures,
   the Default MDT for a Multicast Domain is constructed automatically
   as the PEs in the domain come up.  Construction of the Default MDT
   does not depend on the existence of multicast traffic in the domain;
   it will exist before any such multicast traffic is seen.  Default
   MDTs correspond to the "MI-PMSIs" of [MVPN-ARCH].

   In BGP/IP MPLS VPNs, each CE router is a unicast routing adjacency of
   a PE router, but CE routers at different sites do NOT become unicast
   routing adjacencies of each other.  This important characteristic is
   retained for multicast routing -- a CE router becomes a PIM adjacency
   of a PE router, but CE routers at different sites do NOT become PIM
   adjacencies of each other.  Multicast packets from within a VPN are
   received from a CE router by an ingress PE router.  The ingress PE
   encapsulates the multicast packets and (initially) forwards them
   along the Default MDT tree to all the PE routers connected to sites
   of the given VPN.  Every PE router attached to a site of the given
   VPN thus receives all multicast packets from within that VPN.  If a
   particular PE routers is not on the path to any receiver of that
   multicast group, the PE simply discards that packet.

   If a large amount of traffic is being sent to a particular multicast
   group, but that group does not have receivers at all the VPN sites,
   it can be wasteful to forward that group's traffic along the Default
   MDT.  Therefore, we also specify a method for establishing individual
   MDTs for specific multicast groups.  We call these "Data MDTs".  A
   Data MDT delivers VPN data traffic for a particular multicast group



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   only to those PE routers which are on the path to receivers of that
   multicast group.  Using a Data MDT has the benefit of reducing the
   amount of multicast traffic on the backbone, as well reducing the
   load on some of the PEs; it has the disadvantage of increasing the
   amount of state that must be maintained by the P routers.  The SP has
   complete control over this tradeoff.  Data MDTs correspond to the
   S-PMSIs of [MVPN-ARCH].

   This solution requires the SP to deploy appropriate protocols and
   procedures, but is transparent to the SP's customers.  An enterprise
   which uses PIM-based multicasting in its network can migrate from a
   private network to a BGP/MPLS IP VPN service, while continuing to use
   whatever multicast router configurations it was previously using; no
   changes need be made to CE routers or to other routers at customer
   sites.  For instance, any dynamic RP-discovery procedures that area
   already in use may be left in place.


3. Multicast VRFs

   The notion of a "VRF", defined in [RFC4364], is extended to include
   multicast routing entries as well as unicast routing entries.

   Each VRF has its own multicast routing table.  When a multicast data
   or control packet is received from a particular CE device, multicast
   routing is done in the associated VRF.

   Each PE router runs a number of instances of PIM-SM, as many as one
   per VRF.  In each instance of PIM-SM, the PE maintains a PIM
   adjacency with each of the PIM-capable CE routers associated with
   that VRF.  The multicast routing table created by each instance is
   specific to the corresponding VRF.  We will refer to these PIM
   instances as "VPN-specific PIM instances", or "PIM C-instances".

   Each PE router also runs a "provider-wide" instance of PIM-SM (a "PIM
   P-instance"), in which it has a PIM adjacency with each of its IGP
   neighbors (i.e., with P routers), but NOT with any CE routers, and
   not with other PE routers (unless they happen to be adjacent in the
   SP's network).  The P routers also run the P-instance of PIM, but do
   NOT run a C-instance.

   In order to help clarify when we are speaking of the PIM P-instance
   and when we are speaking of a a PIM C-instance, we will also apply
   the prefixes "P-" and "C-" respectively to control messages,
   addresses, etc.  Thus a P-Join would be a PIM Join which is processed
   by the PIM P-instance, and a C-Join would be a PIM Join which is
   processed by a C-instance.  A P-group address would be a group
   address in the SP's address space, and a C-group address would be a



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   group address in a VPN's address space.


4. Multicast Domains

4.1. Model of Operation

   A "Multicast Domain (MD)" is essentially a set of VRFs associated
   with interfaces that can send multicast traffic to each other.  From
   the standpoint of PIM C-instance, a multicast domain is equivalent to
   a multi-access interface.  The PE routers in a given MD become PIM
   adjacencies of each other in the PIM C-instance.

   Each multicast VRF is assigned to one MD.  Each MD is configured with
   a distinct, multicast P-group address, called the "Default MDT group
   address".  This address is used to build the Default MDT for the MD.

   When a PE router needs to send PIM C-instance control traffic to the
   other PE routers in the MD, it encapsulates the control traffic, with
   its own IPv4 address as source IP address and the Default MDT group
   address as destination IP address.  Note that the Default MDT is part
   of P-instance of PIM, whereas the PEs that communicate over the
   Default MDT are PIM adjacencies in a C-instance.  Within the
   C-instance, the Default MDT appears to be a multi-access network to
   which all the PEs are attached.  This is discussed in more detail in
   section 5.

   The Default MDT does not only carry the PIM control traffic of the
   MD's PIM C-instance.  It also, by default, carries the multicast data
   traffic of the C-instance.  In some cases though, multicast data
   traffic in a particular MD will be sent on a Data MDT rather than on
   the Default MDT The use of Data MDTs is described in section 7.

   Note that, if an MDT (Default or Data) is set up using the ASM
   Service Model, MDT (Default or Data) must have a P-group address
   which is "globally unique" (more precisely, unique over the set of SP
   networks carrying the multicast traffic of the corresponding MD).  If
   if the MDT is set up using the SSM model, the P-group address of an
   MDT only needs to be unique relative to the source of the MDT (though
   see section 5.4).  However, some implementations require the same SSM
   group address to be assigned to all the PEs.  Interoperability with
   those implementations requires conformance to this restriction.









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5. Multicast Tunnels

   An MD can be thought of as a set of PE routers connected by a
   "multicast tunnel (MT)".  From the perspective of a VPN-specific PIM
   instance, an MT is a single multi-access interface.  In the SP
   network, a single MT is realized as a Default MDT combined with zero
   or more Data MDTs.


5.1. Ingress PEs

   An ingress PE is a PE router that is either directly connected to the
   multicast sender in the VPN, or via a CE router.  When the multicast
   sender starts transmitting, and if there are receivers (or PIM RP)
   behind other PE routers in the common MD, the ingress PE becomes the
   transmitter of either the Default MDT group or a Data MDT group in
   the SP network.


5.2. Egress PEs

   A PE router with a VRF configured in an MD becomes a receiver of the
   Default MDT group for that MD.  A PE router may also join a Data MDT
   group if if it has a VPN-specific PIM instance in which it is
   forwarding to one of its attached sites traffic for a particular
   C-group, and that particular C-group has been associated with that
   particular Data MDT.  When a PE router joins any P-group used for
   encapsulating VPN multicast traffic, the PE router becomes one of the
   endpoints of the corresponding MT.

   When a packet is received from an MT, the receiving PE derives the MD
   from the destination address which is a P-group address of the the
   packet received.  The packet is then passed to the corresponding
   Multicast VRF and VPN-specific PIM instance for further processing.


5.3. Tunnel Destination Address(es)

   An MT is an IP tunnel for which the destination address is a P-group
   address.  However an MT is not limited to using only one P-group
   address for encapsulation.  Based on the payload VPN multicast
   traffic, it can choose to use the Default MDT group address, or one
   of the Data MDT group addresses (as described in section 7 of this
   document), allowing the MT to reach a different set of PE routers in
   the common MD.






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5.4. Auto-Discovery

   Any of the variants of PIM may be used to set up the Default MDT:
   PIM-SM, Bidirectional PIM [BIDIR], or PIM-SSM [SSM].  Except in the
   case of PIM-SSM, the PEs need only know the proper P-group address in
   order to begin setting up the Default MDTs.  The PEs will then
   discover each others' addresses by virtue of receiving PIM control
   traffic, e.g., PIM Hellos, sourced (and encapsulated) by each other.

   However, in the case of PIM-SSM, the necessary MDTs for an MD cannot
   be set up until each PE in the MD knows the source address of each of
   the other PEs in that same MD.  This information needs to be
   auto-discovered.

   A new BGP Address Family, MDT-SAFI is defined.  The NLRI for this
   address family consists of an RD, an IPv4 unicast address, and a
   multicast group address.  A given PE router in a given MD constructs
   an NLRI in this family from:

     - Its own IPv4 address.  If it has several, it uses the one which
       it will be placing in the IP source address field of multicast
       packets that it will be sending over the MDT.

     - An RD which has been assigned to the MD.

     - The P-group address, an IPv4 multicast address which is to be
       used as the IP destination address field of multicast packets
       that will be sent over the MDT.

   When a PE distributes this NLRI via BGP, it may include a Route
   Target Extended Communities attribute.  This RT must be an "Import
   RT" [RFC4364] of each VRF in the MD.  The ordinary BGP distribution
   procedures used by [RFC4364] will then ensure that each PE learns the
   MDT-SAFI "address" of each of the other PEs in the MD, and that the
   learned MDT-SAFI addresses get associated with the right VRFs.

   If a PE receives an MDT-SAFI NLRI which does not have an RT
   attribute, the P-group address from the NLRI has to be used to
   associate the NLRI with a particular VRF.  In this case, each
   multicast domain must be associated with a unique P-address, even if
   PIM-SSM is used.  However, finding a unique P-address for a
   multi-provider multicast group may be difficult.

   In order to facilitate the deployment of multi-provider multicast
   domains, this specification REQUIRES the use of the MDT-SAFI NLRI
   (even if PIM-SSM is not used to set up the default MDT).  This
   specification also REQUIRES that an implementation be capable of
   using PIM-SSM to set up the default MDT.



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   In the standard PIM+GRE profile, the MDT-SAFI is replaced by the
   "Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D Route."  The latter is a generalized version of
   the MDT-SAFI, which allows the "default MDTs" and "data MDTs" to be
   implemented as MPLS P2MP or MP2MP LSPs, as well as by PIM-created
   multicast distribution trees.  In the latter case, the Intra-AS A-D
   routes carry the same information that the MDT-SAFI does, though with
   a different encoding.

   The Intra-AS A-D Routes also carry Route Targets, and so may be
   distributed inter-AS in the same manner as unicast routes.  (Inter-AS
   distribution of "Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D routes" is necessary in some
   cases, see below.)

   The encoding of the MDT-SAFI is specified in the following
   subsection:


5.4.1. MDT-SAFI

   BGP messages in which AFI=1 and SAFI=66 are "MDT-SAFI" messages.

   The NLRI format is 8-byte-RD:IPv4-address followed by the MDT group
   address.  i.e. The MP_REACH attribute for this SAFI will contain one
   or more tuples of the following form :


          +-------------------------------+
          |                               |
          |  RD:IPv4-address (12 octets)  |
          |                               |
          +-------------------------------+
          |    Group Address (4 octets)   |
          +-------------------------------+


   The IPv4 address identifies the PE that originated this route, and
   the RD identifies a VRF in that PE.  The group address must be an
   IPv4 multicast group address, and is used to build the P-tunnels.
   All PEs attached to a given MVPN must specify the same group-address,
   even if the group is an SSM group.  MDT-SAFI routes do not carry RTs,
   and the group address is used to associated a received MDT-SAFI route
   with a VRF.









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5.5. Which PIM Variant to Use

   To minimize the amount of multicast routing state maintained by the P
   routers, the Default MDTs should be realized as shared trees, such as
   PIM Bidirectional trees.  However, the operational procedures for
   assigning P-group addresses may be greatly simplified, especially in
   the case of multi-provider MDs, if PIM-SSM is used.

   Data MDTs are best realized as source trees, constructed via PIM-SSM.


5.6. Inter-AS MDT Construction

   Standard PIM techniques for the construction of source trees
   presuppose that every router has a route to the source of the tree.
   However, if the source of the tree is in a different AS than a
   particular P router, it is possible that the P router will not have a
   route to the source.  For example, the remote AS may be using BGP to
   distribute a route to the source, but a particular P router may be
   part of a "BGP-free core", in which the P routers are not aware of
   BGP-distributed routes.

   What is needed in this case is a way for a PE to tell PIM to
   construct the tree through a particular BGP speaker, the "BGP next
   hop" for the tree source.  This can be accomplished with a PIM
   extension.

   If the PE has selected the source of the tree from the MDT SAFI
   address family, then it may be desirable to build the tree along the
   route to the MDT SAFI address, rather than along the route to the
   corresponding IPv4 address.  This enables the inter-AS portion of the
   tree to follow a path which is specifically chosen for multicast
   (i.e., it allows the inter-AS multicast topology to be
   "non-congruent" to the inter-AS unicast topology).  This too requires
   a PIM extension.

   The necessary PIM extension is the PIM MVPN Join Attribute described
   in in the following sub-section.


5.6.1. The PIM MVPN Join Attribute

5.6.1.1. Definition

   In [PIM-ATTRIB], the notion of a "join attribute" is defined, and a
   format for included join attributes in PIM Join/Prune messages is
   specified.  We now define a new join attribute, which we call the
   "MVPN Join Attribute".



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    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    | Type          | Length        |     Proxy IP address
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                    |      RD
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-.......


The Type field of the MVPN Join Attribute is set to 1.

The F bit is set to 0.

Two information fields are carried in the MVPN Join attribute:

  - Proxy: The IP address of the node towards which the PIM Join/Prune
    message is to be forwarded.  This will either be an IPv4 or an IPv6
    address, depending on whether the PIM Join/Prune message itself is
    IPv4 or IPv6.

  - RD: An eight-byte RD.  This immediately follows the proxy IP
    address.

The PIM message also carries the address of the upstream PE.

In the case of an intra-AS MVPN, the proxy and the upstream PE are the
same.  In the case of an inter-AS MVPN, proxy will be the ASBR which is
the exit point from the local AS on the path to the upstream PE.


5.6.1.2. Usage

   When a PE router creates a PIM Join/Prune message in order to set up
   an inter-AS default MDT, it does so as a result of having received a
   particular MDT-SAFI route. It includes an MVPN Join attribute whose
   fields are set as follows:

     - If the upstream PE is in the same AS as the local PE, then the
       proxy field contains the address of the upstream PE.  Otherwise,
       it contains the address of the BGP next hop on the route to the
       upstream PE.

     - The Rd field contains the RD from the NLRI of the MDT-SAFI route.

     - The upstream PE field contains the address of the PE that
       originated the MDT-SAFI route (obtained from the NLRI of that
       route).




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   When a PIM router processes a PIM Join/Prune message with an MVPN
   Join Attribute, it first checks to see if the proxy field contains
   one of its own addresses.

   If not, the router uses the proxy IP address in order to determine
   the RPF interface and neighbor.  The MVPN Join Attribute must be
   passed upstream, unchanged.

   If the proxy address is one of the router's own IP addresses, then
   the router looks in its BGP routing table for an MDT-SAFI route whose
   NLRI consists of the upstream PE address prepended with the RD from
   the Join attribute.  If there is no match, the PIM message is
   discarded.  If there is a match the IP address from the BGP next hop
   field of the matching route is used in order to determine the RPF
   interface and neighbor. When the PIM Join/Prune is forwarded
   upstream, the proxy field is replaced with the address of the BGP
   next hop, and the RD and upstream PE fields are left unchanged.


5.7. Encapsulation in GRE

   GRE [GRE1701] encapsulation is used when sending multicast traffic
   through an MDT.  The following diagram shows the progression of the
   packet as it enters and leaves the service provider network.


   Packets received        Packets in transit      Packets forwarded
   at ingress PE           in the service          by egress PEs
                           provider network

                           +---------------+
                           |  P-IP Header  |
                           +---------------+
                           |      GRE      |
   ++=============++       ++=============++       ++=============++
   || C-IP Header ||       || C-IP Header ||       || C-IP Header ||
   ++=============++ >>>>> ++=============++ >>>>> ++=============++
   || C-Payload   ||       || C-Payload   ||       || C-Payload   ||
   ++=============++       ++=============++       ++=============++


   The IPv4 Protocol Number field in the P-IP Header must be set to 47.
   The Protocol Type field of the GRE Header must be set to 0x0800 if
   C-IP header is an IPv4 header; it must be sent to 0x86dd if the C-IP
   header is an IPv6 header.

   [GRE2784] specifies an optional GRE checksum, and [GRE2890] specifies
   optional GRE key and sequence number fields.



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   The GRE key field is not needed because the P-group address in the
   delivery IP header already identifies the MD, and thus associates the
   VRF context, for the payload packet to be further processed.

   The GRE sequence number field is also not needed because the
   transport layer services for the original application will be
   provided by the C-IP Header.

   The use of GRE checksum field must follow [GRE2784].

   To facilitate high speed implementation, this document recommends
   that the ingress PE routers encapsulate VPN packets without setting
   the checksum, key or sequence field.


5.8. MTU

   Because multicast group addresses are used as tunnel destination
   addresses, existing Path MTU discovery mechanisms can not be used.
   This requires that:

      1. The ingress PE router (one that does the encapsulation) must
         not set the DF bit in the outer header, and

      2. If the "DF" bit is cleared in the IP header of the C-Packet,
         fragment the C-Packet before encapsulation if appropriate.
         This is very important in practice due to the fact that the
         performance of reassembly function is significantly lower than
         that of decapsulating and forwarding packets on today's router
         implementations.


5.9. TTL

   The ingress PE should not copy the TTL field from the payload IP
   header received from a CE router to the delivery IP header.  The
   setting the TTL of the deliver IP header is determined by the local
   policy of the ingress PE router.


5.10. Differentiated Services

   By default, the setting of the DS field in the delivery IP header
   should follow the guidelines outlined in [DIFF2983].  An SP may also
   choose to deploy any of the additional mechanisms the PE routers
   support.





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5.11. Avoiding Conflict with Internet Multicast

   If the SP is providing Internet multicast, distinct from its VPN
   multicast services, it must ensure that the P-group addresses which
   correspond to its MDs are distinct from any of the group addresses of
   the Internet multicasts it supports.  This is best done by using
   administratively scoped addresses [ADMIN-ADDR].

   The C-group addresses need not be distinct from either the P-group
   addresses or the Internet multicast addresses.



6. The PIM C-Instance and the MT

   If a particular VRF is in a particular MD, the corresponding MT is
   treated by that VRF's VPN-specific PIM instances as a LAN interface.
   The PEs which are adjacent on the MT must execute the PIM LAN
   procedures, including the generation and processing of PIM Hello,
   Join/Prune, Assert, DF election and other PIM control packets.


6.1. PIM C-Instance Control Packets

   The PIM protocol packets are sent to ALL-PIM-ROUTERS (224.0.0.13 for
   IPv4 or ff02::d for IPv6) in the context of that VRF, but when in
   transit in the provider network, they are encapsulated using the
   Default MDT group configured for that MD.  This allows VPN-specific
   PIM routes to be extended from site to site without appearing in the
   P routers.

   If a PIM C-Instance control packet is an IPv6 packet, its source
   address is the IPv4-mapped IPv6 address corresponding to the IPv4
   address of the PE router sending the packet.


6.2. PIM C-Instance RPF Determination

   Although the MT is treated as a PIM-enabled interface, unicast
   routing is NOT run over it, and there are no unicast routing
   adjacencies over it.  It is therefore necessary to specify special
   procedures for determining when the MT is to be regarded as the "RPF
   Interface" for a particular C-address.

   When a PE needs to determine the RPF interface of a particular
   C-address, it looks up the C-address in the VRF. If the route
   matching it is not a VPN-IP route learned from MP-BGP as described in
   [RFC4364], or if that route's outgoing interface is one of the



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   interfaces associated with the VRF, then ordinary PIM procedures for
   determining the RPF interface apply.

   However, if the route matching the C-address is a VPN-IP route whose
   outgoing interface is not one of the interfaces associated with the
   VRF, then PIM will consider the outgoing interface to be the MT
   associated with the VPN-specific PIM instance.

   Once PIM has determined that the RPF interface for a particular
   C-address is the MT, it is necessary for PIM to determine the RPF
   neighbor for that C-address.  This will be one of the other PEs that
   is a PIM adjacency over the MT.

   The BGP "Connector" attribute is defined.  Whenever a PE router
   distributes a VPN-IP address from a VRF that is part of an MD, it
   SHOULD distribute a Connector attribute along with it.  The Connector
   attribute should specify the MDT address family, and its value should
   be the IP address which the PE router is using as its source IP
   address for multicast packets which encapsulated and sent over the
   MT.  Then when a PE has determined that the RPF interface for a
   particular C-address is the MT, it must look up the Connector
   attribute that was distributed along with the VPN-IP address
   corresponding to that C-address.  The value of this Connector
   attribute will be considered to be the RPF adjacency for the
   C-address.

   There are older implementations in which the Connector attribute is
   not present.  In this case, as long as "BGP Next Hop" for the
   C-address is one of the PEs that is a PIM adjacency, then that PE
   should be treated as the RPF adjacency for that C-address.

   However, if the MD spans multiple Autonomous Systems, and an "option
   b" interconnect is used, the BGP Next Hop might not be a PIM
   adjacency, and the RPF check will not succeed unless the Connector
   attribute is used.

   In the standard PIM+GRE profile, the connector attribute is replaced
   by the "VRF Route Import Extended Community" attribute.  The latter
   is a generalized version, but carries the same information as the
   connector attribute does; the encoding however is different.

   The connector attribute is defined in the following sub-section.









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6.2.1. Connector Attribute

   The Connector Attribute is an optional transitive attribute.  Its
   value field is formatted as follows:


           0                   1
           0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
          +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
          |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1|
          +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
          |                               |
          |  IPv4 Address of PE           |
          |                               |
          +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+



7. Data MDT: Optimizing Flooding

7.1. Limitation of Multicast Domain

   While the procedure specified in the previous section requires the P
   routers to maintain multicast state, the amount of state is bounded
   by the number of supported VPNs.  The P routers do NOT run any
   VPN-specific PIM instances.

   In particular, the use of a single bidirectional tree per VPN scales
   well as the number of transmitters and receivers increases, but not
   so well as the amount of multicast traffic per VPN increases.

   The multicast routing provided by this scheme is not optimal, in that
   a packet of a particular multicast group may be forwarded to PE
   routers which have no downstream receivers for that group, and hence
   which may need to discard the packet.

   In the simplest configuration model, only the Default MDT group is
   configured for each MD.  The result of the configuration is that all
   VPN multicast traffic, control or data, will be encapsulated and
   forwarded to all PE routers that are part of the MD.  While this
   limits the number of multicast routing states the provider network
   has to maintain, it also requires PE routers to discard multicast
   C-packets if there are no receivers for those packets in the
   corresponding sites.  In some cases, especially when the content
   involves high bandwidth but only a limited set of receivers, it is
   desirable that certain C-packets only travel to PE routers that do
   have receivers in the VPN to save bandwidth in the network and reduce
   load on the PE routers.



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7.2. Signaling Data MDT Trees

   A simple protocol is proposed to signal additional P-group addresses
   to encapsulate VPN traffic.  These P-group addresses are called data
   MDT groups.  The ingress PE router advertises a different P-group
   address (as opposed to always using the Default MDT group) to
   encapsulate VPN multicast traffic.  Only the PE routers on the path
   to eventual receivers join the P-group, and therefore form an optimal
   multicast distribution tree in the service provider network for the
   VPN multicast traffic.  These multicast distribution trees are called
   Data MDT trees because they do not carry PIM control packets
   exchanged by PE routers.

   The following documents the procedures of the initiation and teardown
   of the Data MDT trees.  The definition of the constants and timers
   can be found in section 8.

     - The PE router connected to the source of the content initially
       uses the Default MDT group when forwarding the content to the MD.

     - When one or more pre-configured conditions are met, it starts to
       periodically announce MDT Join TLV at the interval of
       [MDT_INTERVAL].  The MDT Join TLV is forwarded to all the PE
       routers in the MD.

       If a PE in a particular MD transmits a C-multicast data packet to
       the backbone, by transmitting it through an MD, every other PE in
       that MD will receive it. Any of those PEs which are not on a
       C-multicast distribution tree for the packet's C-multicast
       destination address (as determined by applying ordinary PIM
       procedures to the corresponding multicast VRF) will have to
       discard the packet.

       A commonly used condition is the bandwidth.  When the VPN traffic
       exceeds certain threshold, it is more desirable to deliver the
       flow to the PE routers connected to receivers in order to
       optimize the performance of PE routers and the resource of the
       provider network.  However, other conditions can also be devised
       and they are purely implementation specific.

     - The MDT Join TLV is encapsulated in UDP.

       UDP over IPv4 is used if the multicast stream being assigned to a
       data-MDT is an IPv4 stream.  In this case the UDP datagram is
       addressed to ALL-PIM-ROUTERS (224.0.0.13).

       UDP over IPv6 is used if the multicast stream being assigned to a
       data-MDT is an IPv6 stream.  In this case the UDP datagram is



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       addressed to ALL-PIM-ROUTERS (ff02::d).

       The destination UDP port is 3232.

       The UDP datagram is sent on the Default MDT. This allows all PE
       routers to receive the information.  Any MDT Join that is not
       received over a Default MDT must be dropped.

     - Upon receiving MDT Join TLV, PE routers connected to receivers
       will join the Data MDT group announced by the MDT Join TLV in the
       global table.  When the Data MDT group is in PIM-SM or
       bidirectional PIM mode, the PE routers build a shared tree toward
       the RP.  When the data MDT group is setup using PIM-SSM, the PE
       routers build a source tree toward the PE router that is
       advertising the MDT Join TLV.  The IP address of the source
       address is the same as the source IP address used in the IP
       packet advertising the MDT Join TLV.

       PE routers which are not connected to receivers may wish to cache
       the states in order to reduce the delay when a receiver comes up
       in the future.

     - After [MDT_DATA_DELAY], the PE router connected to the source
       starts encapsulating traffic using the Data MDT group.

     - When the pre-configured conditions are no longer met, e.g. the
       traffic stops, the PE router connected to the source stops
       announcing MDT Join TLV.

     - If the MDT Join TLV is not received over [MDT_DATA_TIMEOUT], PE
       routers connected to the receivers just leave the Data MDT group
       in the global instance.


7.3. Use of SSM for Data MDTs

   The use of Data MDTs requires that a set of multicast P-addresses be
   pre-allocated and dedicated for use as the destination addresses for
   the Data MDTs.

   If SSM is used to set up the Data MDTs, then each MD needs to be
   assigned a set of these of multicast P-addresses.  Each VRF in the MD
   needs to be configured with this set (i.e., all VRFs in the MD are
   configured with the same set).  If there are n addresses in this set,
   then each PE in the MD can be the source of n Data MDTs in that MD.

   If SSM is not used for setting up Data MDTs, then each VRF needs to
   be configured with a unique set of multicast P-addresses; two VRFs in



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   the same MD cannot be configured with the same set of addresses.
   This requires the pre-allocation of many more multicast P-addresses,
   and the need to configure a different set for each VRF greatly
   complicates the operations and management.  Therefore the use of SSM
   for Data MDTs is very strongly recommended.


8. Packet Formats and Constants

8.1. MDT TLV

   "MDT TLV" has the following format.

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |     Type      |            Length           |     Value       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                               .                               |
       |                               .                               |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type (8 bits):

       the type of the MDT TLV.  In this specification, types 1 and 4
       are defined.

   Length (16 bits):

       the total number of octets in the TLV for this type, including
       both the Type and Length field.

   Value (variable length):

       the content of the TLV.


8.2. MDT Join TLV for IPv4 streams

   "MDT Join TLV for IPv4 streams" has the following format.











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        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |     Type      |           Length            |    Reserved     |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                           C-source                            |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                           C-group                             |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                           P-group                             |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type (8 bits):

       Must be set to 1.

   Length (16 bits):

       Must be set to 16.

   Reserved (8 bits):

       for future use.

   C-Source (32 bits):

       the IPv4 address of the traffic source in the VPN.

   C-Group (32 bits):

       the IPv4 address of the multicast traffic destination address in
       the VPN.

   P-Group (32 bits):

       the IPv4 group address that the PE router is going to use to
       encapsulate the flow (C-Source, C-Group).


8.3. MDT Join TLV for IPv6 streams

   "MDT Join TLV for IPv6 streams" has the following format.









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        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |     Type      |           Length            |    Reserved     |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                                                               |
       |                           C-Source                            |
       |                                                               |
       |                                                               |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                                                               |
       |                           C-Group                             |
       |                                                               |
       |                                                               |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                           P-Group                             |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+



   Type (8 bits):

       Must be set to 4.

   Length (16 bits):

       Must be set to 40.

   Reserved (8 bits):

       for future use.

   C-Source (128 bits):

       the IPv6 address of the traffic source in the VPN.

   C-Group (128 bits):

       the IPv6 address of the multicast traffic destination address in
       the VPN.

   P-Group (32 bits):

       the IPv4 group address that the PE router is going to use to
       encapsulate the flow (C-Source, C-Group).






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8.4. Multiple MDT Join TLVs per Datagram

   A single UDP datagram MAY carry multiple MDT Join TLVs, as many as
   can fit entirely within it.  If there are multiple MDT Join TLVs in a
   UDP datagram, they MUST be of the same type.  The end of the last MDT
   Join TLV (as determined by the MDT Join TLV length field) MUST
   coincide with the end of the UDP datagram, as determined by the UDP
   length field.  When processing a received UDP datagram that contains
   one or more MDT Join TLVs, a router MUST be able to process all the
   MDT Join TLVs that fit into the datagram.


8.5. Constants

   [MDT_DATA_DELAY]:

       the interval before the PE router connected to the source to
       switch to the Data MDT group.  The default value is 3 seconds.

   [MDT_DATA_TIMEOUT]:

       the interval before which the PE router connected to the
       receivers to time out MDT JOIN TLV received and leave the data
       MDT group.  The default value is 3 minutes.  This value must be
       consistent among PE routers.

   [MDT_DATA_HOLDOWN]:

       the interval before which the PE router will switch back to the
       Default MDT tree after it started encapsulating packets using the
       Data MDT group.  This is used to avoid oscillation when traffic
       is bursty.  The default value is 1 minute.

   [MDT_INTERVAL]
       the interval the source PE router uses to periodically send
       MDT_JOIN_TLV message.  The default value is 60 seconds.


9. IANA Considerations

   The codepoint for the connector attribute is defined in IANA's
   registry of BGP attributes. The reference should be changed to refer
   to this document.

   The codepoint for MDT-SAFI is defined in IANA's registry of BGP SAFI
   assignments.  The reference should be changed to refer to this
   document.




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10. Security Considerations

   [RFC4364] discusses in general the security considerations that
   pertain to when the RFC4364 type of VPN is deployed.

   [PIMv2] discusses the security considerations that pertain to the use
   of PIM.

   The security considerations of [RFC4023] and [RFC4797] apply whenever
   VPN traffic is carried through IP or GRE tunnels.


11. Acknowledgments

   Major contributions to this work have been made by Dan Tappan and
   Tony Speakman.

   The authors also wish to thank Arjen Boers, Robert Raszuk, Toerless
   Eckert and Ted Qian for their help and their ideas.


12. Normative References

   [GRE2784] "Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE)", Farinacci, Li,
   Hanks, Meyer, Traina, March 2000, RFC 2784

   [PIMv2] "Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM)",
   Fenner, Handley, Holbrook, Kouvelas, August 2006, RFC 4601

   [PIM-ATTRIB] "The PIM Join Attribute Format" A. Boers, IJ. Wijnands,
   E. Rosen, November 2008, RFC 5384

   [RFC2119] "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
   Levels.", Bradner, March 1997, RFC 2119

   [RFC4364] "BGP/MPLS IP  VPNs", Rosen, Rekhter, February 2006, RFC
   4364


13. Informative References

   [ADMIN-ADDR] "Administratively Scoped IP Multicast", Meyer, July
   1998, RFC 2365

   [BIDIR] "Bidirectional Protocol Independent Multicast", Handley,
   Kouvelas, Speakman, Vicisano, October 2007, RFC 5015

   [DIFF2983] "Differentiated Services and Tunnels", Black, October



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   2000, RFC2983.

   [GRE1701] "Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE)", Farinacci, Li,
   Hanks, Traina, October 1994, RFC 1701

   [GRE2890] "Key and Sequence Number Extensions to GRE", Dommety,
   September 2000, RFC 2890

   [MVPN-ARCH] "Multicast in MPLS/BGP IP VPNs", Rosen, Aggarwal,
   draft-ietf-l3vpn-2547bis-mcast-08.txt, March 2009

   [MVPN-PROFILES] "MVPN Profiles Using PIM Control Plane", Rosen,
   Boers, Cai, Wijnands, June 2009,
   draft-rosen-l3vpn-mvpn-profiles-03.txt

   [SSM] "Source-Specific Multicast for IP", Holbrook, Cain, August
   2006, RFC 4607

   [RFC4023] " Encapsulating MPLS in IP or Generic Routing Encapsulation
   (GRE)", T. Worster, Y. Rekhter, E. Rosen, Ed.. March 2005, RFC 4023

   [RFC4797] "Use of Provider Edge to Provider Edge (PE-PE) Generic
   Routing Encapsulation (GRE) or IP in BGP/MPLS IP Virtual Private
   Networks", Y.Rekhter, R. Bonica, E. Rosen, January 2007, RFC 4797


14. Authors' Addresses

   Yiqun Cai (Editor)
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   170 Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA, 95134
   E-mail: ycai@cisco.com

   Eric C. Rosen (Editor)
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   1414 Massachusetts Avenue
   Boxborough, MA, 01719
   E-mail: erosen@cisco.com

   IJsbrand Wijnands
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   170 Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA, 95134
   E-mail: ice@cisco.com






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