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INTERNET-DRAFT                                                 S. Sakane
Intended Status: Standards Track                           Cisco Systems
Expires: August 18, 2012                                     M. Ishiyama
                                                           Toshiba Corp.
                                                       February 15, 2012


                      Kerberos Options for DHCPv6
               draft-sakane-dhc-dhcpv6-kdc-option-14.txt


                                Abstract

   This document defines new four options for the Dynamic Host
   Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6) to carry configuration
   information related to the Kerberos protocol [RFC4120].


Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft expires in August 18, 2012.


Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal



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   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
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   than English.































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Table of Contents

    1. Introduction .................................................  4
    2. Conventions used in this document ............................  5
    3. Kerberos Options .............................................  5
       3.1. Kerberos Principal Name Option ..........................  5
       3.2. Kerberos Realm Name Option ..............................  6
       3.3. Kerberos Default Realm Name Option ......................  7
       3.4. Kerberos KDC Option .....................................  7
    4. Client Operation .............................................  8
       4.1. KDC discovery for a client ..............................  9
    5. Server Operation ............................................. 10
    6. IANA Considerations .......................................... 10
    7. Security Considerations ...................................... 11
    8. Acknowledgments .............................................. 12
    9. References ................................................... 12
       9.1. Normative References .................................... 12
       9.2. Informative References .................................. 13
   Appendix A. Why DNS is not acceptable in some environments ....... 13
   Authors' Addresses ............................................... 17































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1.  Introduction

   Kerberos Version 5 [RFC4120] is an authentication system which is a
   trusted third-party authentication protocol.  Each organization
   wishing to use the Kerberos protocol establishes its own "realm", and
   each client is assigned to that realm.  At least one Key Distribution
   Center (KDC) is required for the operation of a Kerberos realm.

   When a client wants to start communication with a Kerberos
   application server (which is another client of the KDC), and to be
   authenticated to that server, the client needs to acquire a
   credential from the KDC.  In this process, the client presents both
   an identifier for itself, and the realm name to which the client
   itself belongs.  After the client gets a credential from the KDC, the
   client presents it to the Kerberos application server.  The server
   can authenticate the access from the client with this credential.
   Hence, the client needs to know at least one IP address for a KDC
   from which the client can get a credential before the client begins
   the communication with the Kerberos application server.

   One use case for this specification is as follows.  A public
   workstation for an unspecified several number of students in a
   college might not have any initial configuration for Kerberos.  If
   there is a mechanism providing a realm name and a set of IP addresses
   for KDC instances, a student need only input a user identifier and a
   pass phrase into the workstation, and can then use the Kerberos
   authentication system.

   To provide a set of IP addresses of the KDC, the Kerberos V5
   specification [RFC4120] defines KDC discovery by utilizing DNS SRV
   records [RFC2782].  However, systems that do not employ the DNS, but
   do use DHCP, do exist, for example industrial systems.  Some
   industrial systems don't use DNS because they have already had their
   own name spaces and their own name resolution systems, including pre-
   configured mapping tables for devices, rather than using FQDNs and
   DNS.  And these systems would prefer not to employ DNS only for name
   resolution because adding a new server may bring a decrease in the
   reliability of the system, and increase the management cost of the
   system.  (Details are described in Appendix A ), For such an
   environment, another mechanism is required to provide a set of IP
   addresses for the KDC instances.  For the PacketCable Architecture
   [PCARCH], the KDC Server Address sub-option for the DHCPv4 CableLabs
   Client Configuration option is defined in RFC 3634 [RFC3634].
   However, a mechanism which does not depend on any external
   architecture is required for providing a realm name and a set of IPv6
   addresses.

   The Kerberos option for DHCPv6 defined by this document allows for



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   provision of a realm name and/or a list of IP addresses for KDC
   instances.  The Kerberos option does not replace any of the previous
   methods, and this option does not interfere with those methods.


2.  Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

   It is assumed that the readers are familiar with the terms and
   concepts described in DHCPv6 [RFC3315].


3.  Kerberos Options

   The Kerberos options provide a set of configuration parameters for
   Kerberos.  This document defines the options listed below.

           Kerberos Principal Name Option
           Kerberos Realm Name Option
           Kerberos Default Realm Name Option
           Kerberos KDC Option

   This section describes the format of each option, and the usage of
   each field.

   Except for the Kerberos KDC Option, none of these options may appear
   more than once in a DHCPv6 message.


3.1.  Kerberos Principal Name Option

   This option provides a principal name of the Kerberos system.  It is
   intended that a DHCPv6 server determines a specific set of the
   configuration parameters of the Kerberos system for either a client
   or a Kerberos application server specified by the principal-name
   field.

   The format of the Kerberos Principal Name option is:










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      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |   OPTION_KRB_PRINCIPAL_NAME   |          option-len           |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      :                                                               :
      :                        principal-name                         :
      :                       (variable length)                       :
      :                                                               :
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


   o  option-code (16-bit): OPTION_KRB_PRINCIPAL_NAME (TBD by IANA)

   o  option-len (16-bit): length of the principal-name field.

   o  principal-name (variable): a client principal name.  The encoding
      of the principal-name field MUST conform to "PrincipalName"
      defined in section 5.2.2 of RFC 4120 [RFC4120].


3.2.  Kerberos Realm Name Option

   This option provides a realm name for the Kerberos system.  It is
   intended for DHCPv6 client use.  This option informs a DHCPv6 server
   of which realm the client want to access, and a DHCPv6 server can
   determine what information should be sent to the client.

   The format of the Kerberos Realm Name option is:

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |     OPTION_KRB_REALM_NAME     |          option-len           |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      :                                                               :
      :                          realm-name                           :
      :                       (variable length)                       :
      :                                                               :
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


   o  option-code (16-bit): OPTION_KRB_REALM_NAME (TBD by IANA)

   o  option-len (16-bit): the length of the realm-name field in octets.

   o  realm-name (variable): a realm-name.  The encoding of the realm-
      name field MUST conform to "Realm" which is defined in section



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      5.2.2 of RFC 4120 [RFC4120].


3.3.  Kerberos Default Realm Name Option

   This option provides a default realm name of the Kerberos system.
   Unlike the Kerberos Realm Name Option, it is intended for a DHCPv6
   server to use, and specifies the default realm name to both clients
   and Kerberos application servers in the Kerberos system.

   The option-code of this option is OPTION_KRB_DEFAULT_REALM_NAME.  The
   format and the usage of each field are identical to the Kerberos
   Realm Name Option.


3.4.  Kerberos KDC Option

   This option provides a set of configuration information about a KDC.

   The format of the Kerberos KDC Option is:

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |         OPTION_KRB_KDC        |          option-len           |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |           Priority            |            Weight             |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      | Transport Type|          Port Number          |               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+               |
      |                                                               |
      |                                                               |
      |                       KDC IPv6 address        +---------------+
      |                                               |               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+               :
      :                                                               :
      :                          realm-name                           :
      :                       (variable length)                       :
      :                                                               :
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


   o  option-code (16-bit): OPTION_KRB_KDC (TBD by IANA)

   o  option-len (16-bit): 24-octet + the length of the realm-name field
      in octets.





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   o  Priority (16-bit): see the description of Weight field.

   o  Weight (16-bit): both Priority and Weight provide a hint for the
      KDC server selection mechanism of a client.  An implementer MUST
      follow the handling of the Priority and Weight values in the DNS
      SRV specification [RFC2782] for this usage.

   o  Transport Type (8-bit): The Transport Type specifies the transport
      for the Kerberos communication.  The Kerberos specification
      [RFC4120] defines how to use both UDP and TCP for communication
      between clients and Kerberos application servers.  The exchanges
      over TCP are described in [RFC5021].  The exchanges over TLS are
      described in [RFC6251].

      The transport type is defined in below.

        Value    Transport Type
        ----     --------------
        0        Reserved
        1        UDP
        2        TCP
        3        TLS
        4-254    Unassigned
        255      Reserved


   o  Port Number (16-bit): a port number listened to by the KDC.

   o  KDC address (128-bit): an IPv6 address of the KDC.


4.  Client Operation

   This section describes the client behavior when the client requires
   configuration parameters for the Kerberos system, and when the client
   receives messages from the DHCPv6 server.

   When the client requires configuration parameters for a Kerberos
   system while bootstrapping, the client SHOULD put the client
   principal name itself into the Kerberos Principal Name Option.

   When the client requires specific information for a certain realm,
   the client SHOULD specify the realm name in the Kerberos Realm Name
   Option.  When the client requires specific information related to a
   certain Kerberos application server of the Kerberos system, the
   client SHOULD put the principal name of the server into the Kerberos
   Principal Name Option.




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   More than one KDC Options MAY be presented in a DHCPv6 message of the
   Reply Message from the DHCP server.  In this case, the client MUST
   use the addresses in the order of the value of the priority field in
   each Kerberos KDC Option.  The value of the weight field might be
   considered simultaneously.  For this usage, an implementer MUST refer
   to the DNS SRV specification [RFC2782].

   The client MAY include any other options with data values as hints to
   the DHCP server as described in section 18.1.5 of RFC 3315 [RFC3315].



4.1.  KDC discovery for a client

   When a client is capable of using both the DNS method defined by
   section 7.2.3.2 of [RFC4120] and the DHCP method defined by this
   document, the method the client adopts depends on local policy.  The
   administrator of the realm MUST define the method for the client
   before the client is installed into the environment.

   When there are no criteria in the environment, and the client could
   get the Kerberos information from either the DNS server or the DHCP
   server, then the information from DNS SHOULD be preferred.  The
   following is a recommendation of the behavior of the client in such
   environment where there is no criteria.

                               No Ans. or
               +------------+  DNS Info.  +-----------+ No Ans.
     Start --> | Ask DHCP(1)| ----------> | Ask DNS(3)| ------> Abort(4)
               +------------+             +-----------+
                /          \                       \
      Only KRB /            \ DNS and               \ KRB Info.
        Info. /              \ KRB Info.             \
             /                \                       \
            |                  |                       |
            |                  V                       |
            V     No Ans.  +-----------+  KRB Info.    V
     Adopt Info. <-------- | Ask DNS(6)| ---------> Adopt Info.
     from DHCP             +-----------+            from DNS
      (2), (7)                                      (5), (8)

        Abbreviations:
          Ans.: Answer
          Info.: Information
          KRB: Kerberos






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   1) Initially, the client asks both DNS and Kerberos information to
      the DHCP server.

   2) If the client gets a response with Kerberos information from the
      DHCP server, the client adopts the information from the DHCP
      server.

   3) As the result of (1), if the client gets either no answer or only
      a response with DNS information from the DHCP server, the client
      then asks Kerberos information from the DNS server.

   4) If the client gets no answer from the DNS server, then the client
      will abort.

   5) If the client gets Kerberos information from the DNS server, then
      the client adopts the information from the DNS server.

   6) If, as the result of (1), if the client gets both DNS and Kerberos
      information from the DHCP server, then the client asks Kerberos
      information to the DNS server.

   7) If the client gets no answer from the DNS server, the client
      adopts the Kerberos information from the DHCP server.

   8) If, as the result of (6), the client gets Kerberos information
      from the DNS server, the client adopts the information instead of
      another from the DHCP server.


5.  Server Operation

   After the DHCPv6 server receives a message which is contained an
   Option Request Option, the information the server will provide
   depends on local policy.  If there are no criteria on the server, the
   following operation is RECOMMENDED.

   If the message from a client did not include any information which
   can be used to determine the correct configuration parameters for a
   specific client, the DHCP server SHOULD reply with at least the
   Default Realm Name Option.


6.  IANA Considerations

   IANA is requested to assign four option codes from the "DHCPv6
   Options Codes" registry for the following:





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      OPTION_KRB_PRINCIPAL_NAME
      OPTION_KRB_REALM_NAME
      OPTION_KRB_DEFAULT_REALM_NAME
      OPTION_KRB_KDC

   IANA is requested to maintain a new number space of Kerberos Message
   Transport Type, located in the Kerberos Parameters Registry.  The
   initial types are described in section 3.4.

   IANA is requested to assign future types with an "IETF Consensus"
   policy as described in BCP 26.  Future proposed types are to be
   referenced symbolically in the Internet-Drafts that describe them,
   and shall be assigned numeric codes by IANA when approved for
   publication as an RFC.


7.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations in RFC 3315 fully apply.

   DHCPv6 messages can be altered undesirably.  If an adversary modifies
   the response from a DHCPv6 server or inserts its own response, a
   client could be led to contact a rogue KDC that does not know the
   client access.  Both cases are categorized as a kind of the Denial of
   Service (DoS) attack.  However, such an incorrect KDC does not know
   the shared key between the client and a valid KDC.  The incorrect KDC
   is not be able to proceed any further state of the client.  Even when
   the client receives a response from such KDC, the client can know the
   fact that it has received an inappropriate message after it verifies
   the response with the shared key.

   The considerable situation is that the support of an unconfigured
   workstation used by multiple users, which obtains its KDC information
   and default realm via DHCP.  In such a scenario, the workstation may
   not have a host or other service key, and thus be unable to validate
   TGT's issued to users for the purposes of authorizing login.  If this
   is the case, an altered DHCP response could result in the workstation
   talking to a rogue KDC which it will be unable to distinguish from a
   real KDC, and allowing access by unauthorized users.

   In order to minimize potential vulnerabilities, a client SHOULD use
   DHCPv6 authentication as defined in section 21 of RFC 3315.

   Sometimes, Kerberos information is manually configured into the
   client before the DHCPv6 process starts.  Generally, manual
   configuration of the device SHOULD be preferred to configuration via
   the DHCP server.




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8.  Acknowledgments

   The authors are very grateful to Nobuo Okabe and Shigeya Suzuki.
   They contributed the summary explaining why DNS is not appropriate to
   some industry networks, which is put as the appendix of this
   document.  Ted Lemon gave us many suggestions to improve the
   specification in terms of the DHCP manner.  Ken'ichi Kamada and
   Yukiyo Akisada contributed for the initial work of making this
   document.  The authors also thank Jeffrey Hutzelman, Kazunori
   Miyazawa, Kensuke Hosoya, Nicolas Williams, Nobumichi Ozoe, Sam
   Hartman, and Stephen Farrell.  They gave us valuable comments and
   suggestions for this document.


9.  References


9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]
      Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
      Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2782]
      A. Gulbrandsen, P. Vixie, L. Esibov, "A DNS RR for specifying the
      location of services (DNS SRV)", RFC 2782, February 2000.

   [RFC3315]
      R. Droms, Ed., J. Bound, B. Volz, T. Lemon, C. Perkins, M. Carney.
      "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315,
      July 2003.

   [RFC4120]
      Neuman, C., Yu, T., Hartman, S., and K. Raeburn, "The Kerberos
      Network Authentication Service (V5)", RFC 4120, July 2005.

   [RFC5021]
      Josefsson, S., "Extended Kerberos Version 5 Key Distribution
      Center (KDC) Exchanges over TCP", RFC 5021, August 2007.

   [RFC6251]
      Josefsson, S., "Using Kerberos Version 5 over the Transport Layer
      Security (TLS) Protocol", RFC 6251, May 2011.








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9.2.  Informative References

   [PCARCH]
      "PacketCable 1.0 Architecture Framework Technical Report", PKT-TR-
      ARCH-V01-991201, http://www.packetcable.com/downloads/specs/pkt-
      tr-arch-v01-991201.pdf

   [RFC3634]
      K. Luehrs, R. Woundy, J. Bevilacqua, N. Davoust, "Key Distribution
      Center (KDC) Server Address Sub-option for the Dynamic Host
      Configuration Protocol (DHCP) CableLabs Client Configuration (CCC)
      Option", RFC 3634, December 2003.

Appendix A. Why DNS is not acceptable in some environments





































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   1. Summary

      - This appendix describes reasons why DHCP-based KDC discovery
        is more suitable than DNS-based KDC discovery described
        in RFC4120 (= the RFC4120-way) for industrial systems.

      - The main reason is that some industrial systems don't use DNS
        because they have already had their own name spaces and
        naming systems rather than FQDN and DNS.

      - Fewer servers benefit industrial systems:
        1) Less messages simplifying the systems.
        2) Less servers contributing reliability,
           and reducing management cost.

      - We understand that RFC4120 does not require DHCP for KDC
        discovery.  However, we will have to solve DNS discovery
        when considering the RFC4120-way.
        And it is natural way to use DHCP for the purpose.

      - DHCP-based KDC discovery is more efficient under those
        systems (=expecting not to use DNS).

   2. Background (what are industrial systems?)

      These systems can have a large number of devices, i.e. sensors and
      actuators, usually called field devices
      by which the systems control plants, factories, buildings, etc.

      These field devices have the following features:
      1) Their resources, e.g. processing capability, memory size,
         footprint, power consumption and user i/f, are limited
         even though they are physically large.
      2) The field device is controlled as an I/O by a administrative
         device, usually called controller, with a legacy communication
         technology.
      3) Security of the field devices has to date not been considered
         as they were regarded as being on I/O buses, not networks.

   3. High-level goal and some requirements

   3.1. IP and security can enhance industrial systems.

      Our goal is to introduce the latest IP-based networking technology
      into field devices for enhancing the entire system.
      1) Network architecture (=IP technology) can enhance
         the systems including the field devices.
      2) Field devices will require security if connected to a network.



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         The field devices will not be I/O devices anymore.

   3.2. Auto-configuration benefits industrial systems.

      Auto-configuration will also be important for large systems
      like the industrial systems if introducing new technology or
      capabilities:

      1) Reducing engineering cost when installing/configuring
         a large number of field devices over a large area.
         The size of a plant, the size of an industrial system and
         the number of field devices are growing.

         - An example of a single large process automation system:
           About 20000 field devices over 2km*2km area

           References:
              - http://www.process-worldwide.com/fachartikel/pw_facha
                rtikel_2699276.html

         - An example of a distributed process automation systems:
           About 30000 field devices for 26 distributed sites
           over 30km*30km area.

           References:
              - http://www.mikrocentrum.nl/FilesPage/3462/Presentatie
                %20C3-1.pdf
              - http://www.nam.nl/home/Framework?siteId=nam-en&FC2=/n
                am-en/html/iwgen/algemeen/zzz_lhn.html&FC3=/nam-en/ht
                ml/iwgen/algemeen/over_de_nam.html

         - An example of a single large building automation system:
           170000 control points of 16500 field devices in
           729,000 sq. meters (7.8 million sq. ft.) building complex.

           References:
              - http://www.echelon.com/company/press/2003/echelon_mor
                i.htm

      2) Reducing the chance of human error.

      3) Making disaster-recovery easier.

   3.3. Security mechanisms suited to resource-limited devices are
        necessary.

      Kerberos-based security can be suited for resource-limited
   devices,



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      i.e. field devices, because of not requiring
      public key cryptography (of course, when not using PKINIT).

   4. Some industrial systems don't use DNS.

      For field devices, there have been multiple technologies (see
      Section 6) which don't use DNS because of having already had
      their own name spaces and naming systems even though introducing
      IP (partially at this moment).

      For example, "tag" is the common logical identifier for the
   process
      automation systems and Device ID is the common logical identifier
      for the building automation systems.
      (You may think those names are not so abstracted, though....)

   5. KDC discovery with DHCP is more suitable than with DNS.

      If Kerberos is introduced into field devices,
      auto-configuration will be achieved with the following steps:
      1) Learning DNS address(es) by DHCP
      2) Learning KDC address(es) by DNS based on RFC4120-way.
      However, DNS will be used by kerberos-related part only.
      Most application will not use DNS as described above.

      If DHCP can advertise KDC-related information instead of DNS,
      there are the following advantages.
      1) It can reduce messages handled by the field devices.
         Consequently, it can reduce footprint of the field devices.
      2) It can reduce the number of servers.
         Consequently, it contribute to management cost of the systems.

   6. References

      There have been multiple technologies for field devices.
      Examples:
      - FOUNDATION Fieldbus (http://www.fieldbus.org/)
      - PROFIBUS (http://www.profibus.com/)
      - BACnet (http://www.bacnet.org/)
      - LonWorks (http://www.echelon.co.jp/products/lonworks.html)
      - Modbus (http://www.modbus.org/)

      You can learn about communication technology of field devices
      with wikipedia:
      - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fieldbus
      - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BACnet
      - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LonWorks




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Authors' Addresses

   Shoichi Sakane
   Cisco Systems
   2-1-1 Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku,
   Tokyo  163-0409 Japan
   E-mail: ssakane@cisco.com


   Masahiro Ishiyama
   Toshiba Corporation
   1, komukai-toshiba-cho, Saiwai-ku,
   Kawasaki  212-8582 Japan
   E-mail: masahiro@isl.rdc.toshiba.co.jp





































Sakane & Ishiyama                                              [Page 17]


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