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Network Working Group                                       T. Showalter
Internet Draft: Sieve                                    Carnegie Mellon
Document: draft-showalter-sieve-07.txt                 February 24, 1999
Expire in six months


                    Sieve: A Mail Filtering Language


Status of this memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
   Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html

   The protocol discussed in this document is experimental and subject
   to change.  Persons planning on either implementing or using this
   protocol are STRONGLY URGED to get in touch with the author before
   embarking on such a project.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society 1999.  All Rights Reserved.













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Abstract

   This document describes a language for filtering e-mail messages at
   time of final delivery.  It is designed to be implementable on either
   a mail client or mail server.  It is meant to be extensible, simple,
   and independent of access protocol, mail architecture, and operating
   system.  It is suitable for running on a mail server where users may
   not be allowed to execute arbitrary programs, such as on black box
   IMAP servers, as it has no variables, loops, or ability to shell out
   to external programs.









































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                           Table of Contents



Status of this memo ...............................................    1
Copyright Notice ..................................................    1
Abstract ..........................................................    2
0.      Meta-information on this draft ............................    5
0.1.     Discussion ...............................................    5
0.2.     Known Issues .............................................    5
0.2.1.   Probable Extensions ......................................    5
0.2.2.   Known Bugs ...............................................    5
0.3.     Noted Changes ............................................    6
0.3.1.   since -06 ................................................    6
0.3.2.   since -05 ................................................    7
0.3.3.   since -04 ................................................    7
1.      Introduction ..............................................    9
1.1.     Conventions Used in This Document ........................    9
1.2.     Example mail messages ....................................   10
2.      Design ....................................................   11
2.1.     Form of the Language .....................................   11
2.2.     Whitespace ...............................................   11
2.3.     Comments .................................................   11
2.4.     Literal Data .............................................   12
2.4.1.   Numbers ..................................................   12
2.4.2.   Strings ..................................................   12
2.4.2.1. String Lists .............................................   13
2.4.2.2. Headers ..................................................   13
2.4.2.3. Addresses ................................................   13
2.5.     Tests ....................................................   14
2.5.1.   Test Lists ...............................................   14
2.6.     Arguments ................................................   14
2.6.1.   Positional Arguments .....................................   14
2.6.2.   Tagged Arguments .........................................   14
2.6.3.   Optional Arguments .......................................   15
2.6.4.   Types of Arguments .......................................   15
2.7.     String Comparison ........................................   15
2.7.1.   Match Type ...............................................   16
2.7.2.   Comparisons Across Character Sets ........................   17
2.7.3.   Comparators ..............................................   17
2.7.4.   Comparisons Against Addresses ............................   18
2.8.     Blocks ...................................................   18
2.9.     Commands .................................................   19
2.10.    Evaluation ...............................................   19
2.10.1.  Mutually Exclusive Delivery Actions ......................   19



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2.10.2.  Implicit Keep ............................................   19
2.10.3.  Message Uniqueness in a Mailbox ..........................   20
2.10.4.  Limits on Numbers of Actions .............................   20
2.10.5.  Extensions and Optional Features .........................   20
3.      Control Commands ..........................................   21
4.      Action Commands ...........................................   22
4.1.     Action reject ............................................   22
4.2.     Action fileinto ..........................................   23
4.3.     Action redirect ..........................................   24
4.4.     Action keep ..............................................   24
4.5.     Action stop ..............................................   24
4.6.     Action discard ...........................................   24
4.7.     Action require ...........................................   25
5.      Test Commands .............................................   25
5.1.     Test address .............................................   25
5.2.     Test allof ...............................................   26
5.3.     Test anyof ...............................................   26
5.4.     Test envelope ............................................   26
5.5.     Test exists ..............................................   27
5.6.     Test false ...............................................   27
5.7.     Test header ..............................................   28
5.8.     Test not .................................................   28
5.9.     Test size ................................................   28
5.10.    Test true ................................................   29
6.      Extensibility .............................................   29
6.1.     Capability String ........................................   29
6.2.     Registry .................................................   30
6.3.     Capability Transport .....................................   30
7.      Transmission ..............................................   30
8.      Parsing ...................................................   31
8.1.     Lexical Tokens ...........................................   31
8.2.     Grammar ..................................................   32
9.      Extended Example ..........................................   33
10.     Security Considerations ...................................   34
11.     Acknowledgments ...........................................   35
12.     Author's Address ..........................................   35
Appendix A.  References ...........................................   35
Appendix B.  Full Copyright Statement .............................   36













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0.      Meta-information on this draft

   This information is intended to facilitate discussion.  It will be
   removed when this document leaves the Internet-Draft stage.

0.1.     Discussion

   This draft is being discussed on the MTA Filters mailing list at
   <ietf-mta-filters@imc.org>.  Subscription requests can be sent to
   <ietf-mta-filters-request@imc.org> (send an email message with the
   word "subscribe" in the body).  More information on the mailing list
   along with a WWW archive of back messages is available at
   <http://www.imc.org/ietf-mta-filters/>.

0.2.     Known Issues

0.2.1.   Probable Extensions

   The following suggestions have been made, and will probably be
   addressed by extensions.

   An extension for regular expressions will be written.  While regular
   expressions are of questionable utility for most users, the
   programmers writing implementations desperately want regular
   expressions.

   "Detailed" addressing or "sub-addressing" (i.e., the "foo" in an
   address "tjs+foo@andrew.cmu.edu") is not handled, and will be moved
   to an extension for those systems that offer it.

   A vacation command has been requested for an extension.Vacation
   functionality isn't required by the draft because having vacation
   assumes you can store the addresses of people who have already
   received vacation notifications, which isn't always the case.  It is
   in a separate document for no particular reason.

   A suggestion was made to set IMAP flags on delivery (e.g., \Flagged,
   \Deleted, \Answered, \Seen).

   An "include" command is not included, but has been suggested for an
   extension.

0.2.2.   Known Bugs

   I have punted on multiple fileinto.

   The title of 2.10.1 is probably open for suggestions.  Given the
   existence of DSNs and the similarity of names, I'm not happy with it.



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   Some discussion on how many commands are allowed per command type,
   site-defined limits, etc., needs to be clarified; those parts that
   are discussed in the Security Considerations section need to be
   cleaned up.

0.3.     Noted Changes

0.3.1.   since -06

   Larry Greenfield supplied a rewrite of the grammar that separates
   things out into a tokenizer and a parser.  This grammar also allows
   UTF-8 characters in strings (previous versions limited characters to
   the 0x01-0x7F range).

   Steve Hole made a number of editorial suggestions that were taken.
   This includes discussing a tokenizer in 2.1 and renaming sections 3,
   4, and 5 ("Control Structures" became "Control Commands", "Actions"
   became "Action Commands", and "Tests" became "Test Commands").  Other
   uses of these terms in this document should have been changed to
   match, but I probably missed some.

   Lots of new rules were added to section 2.10, and should be reviewed
   carefully.  I think that they reflect consensus, but am not sure.

   Tokens are defined as being case insensitive.

   Envelope takes a COMPARATOR argument.

   ADDRESS-PART defaults to :all.

   Test "true" has been put back.  Truth was accidentally deleted.

   Gregory Sereda provided several examples, including a long one which
   has been inserted as section 9.

   The copyright date has been fixed and the copyright and I-D
   boilerplate updated with the latest and greatest from the IETF web
   site.

   Unnecessary brackets were remvoed around various syntax elements in
   section 2.7.

   Acknowledgments were moved further towards the end.

   Several other more minor fixes were made.






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0.3.2.   since -05

   Draft -05 was never published in the Internet-Drafts repository, but
   was circulated on the ietf-mta-filters@imc.org mailing list.

   All nits submitted by Greg Sereda are hopefully addressed.  Most of
   these were example bugs, but he also pointed out that types for
   arguments were under-specified and in several cases orders of
   arguments disagreed with the syntax.

   "Match keyword" was changed to "match type" as an editorial change.

   "Forward" was renamed to "redirect" because of the conflict between
   multiple meanings of "forward" in order to make it clear exactly what
   we meant.

   Limitation of one redirect per message should be removed.

   The types of arguments have been added to their syntax line.

   Added "require" back in a slightly different form.  "Require" is now
   an action (arbitrarily) and has been added to sec. 2.10 as well.

   Implementations are responsible for not allowing mail loops.

   All discussion of short-circuit evaluation has been removed.  On a
   related note, tests must not have side effects.

   Envelope is required to drop source routes.

   An address-matching primitive has been added.

0.3.3.   since -04

   Here are a list of changes from draft 04.  (It may not be complete.)

   * Concensus: i;ascii-casemap is required.

   * Consensus: i;ascii-casemap is the default.

   * Header name compares are always case-insensitive; the draft now
     says so.

   * Several examples were fixed, but it is likely that errors remain.

   * Bug: Section 7, remove reference to "support".

   * There are two namespaces  for extension names, one "vnd.", one



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     everything else, like MIME.

   * All XXXs have been removed, except for in IANA section.

   * Fileinto is optional, and discussion of local mail folders and POP3
     has been removed.

   * A non-present comparator is considered to be basically a syntax
     error.

   * Resent headers are not to be added by the "redirect" command.

   * Tagged arguments must follow the keyword, and may not be
     interspersed with positional arguments.

   * Envelope-matching commands are to be added with the syntax that
     Barry suggested.

   * Put back :matches match type.

   * What happens when an error occurs has been dropped.

   * Reject is now optional.

   * Implementations are encouraged to decode header charsets, and if
     they don't, are required to not do compares on 8-bit data.

























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1.      Introduction

   This memo documents a language that can be used to create filters for
   electronic mail. It is not tied to any particular operating system or
   mail architecture.  It requires the use of [IMAIL]-compliant
   messages, but should otherwise generalize to many systems.

   The language is powerful enough to be useful, but limited in power in
   order to allow for a safe server-side filtering system.  The
   intention is to make it impossible for users to do anything more
   complex (and dangerous) than write simple mail filters, along with
   facilitating GUI-based editors. The language is not Turing-complete,
   and provides no way to write a loop or a function.  Variables are not
   provided.

   Implementations of the language are expected to take place at time of
   final delivery, when the message is moved to the user-accessible
   mailbox.  In systems where the MTA does final delivery, such as
   traditional Unix mail, it is reasonable to sort when the MTA deposits
   mail into the user's mailbox.

   There are a number of reasons to use a filtering system.  Mail
   traffic for most users has been increasing due both to increased
   usage of e-mail, the emergence of unsolicited email as a form of
   advertising, and increased usage of mailing lists.

   Experience at Carnegie Mellon has shown that if a filtering system is
   made available to users, many will make use of it in order to file
   messages from specific users or mailing lists.  However, many others
   did not make use of the Andrew system's FLAMES filtering language
   [FLAMES] due to difficulty in setting it up.

   Because of the expectation that users will make use of filtering if
   it is offered and easy to use, this language has been made simple
   enough to allow many users to make use of it, but rich enough that it
   can be used productively.  However, it is expected that GUI-based
   editors will be the preferred way of editing filters for a large
   number of users.

1.1.     Conventions Used in This Document

   In the sections of this document that discuss the requirements of
   various keywords and operators, the following conventions have been
   adopted.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "CAN", and
   "MAY" in this document are to be interpreted as defined in
   [KEYWORDS].



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   Each section on a command (test, action, or control structure) has a
   line labeled "Syntax:".  This line describes the syntax of the
   command, including its name and its arguments.  Required arguments
   are listed inside angle brackets ("<" and ">").  Optional arguments
   are listed inside square brackets ("[" and "]").  Each argument is
   followed by its type, so "<key: string>" represents an argument
   called "key" that is a string.  Literal strings are represented with
   double-quoted strings.  Alternatives are separated with slashes, and
   parenthesis are used for grouping, similar to [ABNF].

   In the "Syntax" line, there are three special pieces of syntax that
   are frequently repeated, MATCH-TYPE, COMPARATOR, and ADDRESS-PART.
   These are discussed in sections 2.7.1, 2.7.3, and 2.7.4,
   respectively.

   The formal grammar for these commands in section 10 and is the
   authoritative reference on how to construct commands, but the formal
   grammar does not specify the order, semantics, number or types of
   arguments to commands, nor the legal command names.  The intent is to
   allow for extension without changing the grammar.

1.2.     Example mail messages

   The following mail messages will be used throughout this document  in
   examples.

   Message A
   -----------------------------------------------------------
   Date: Tue, 1 Apr 1997 09:06:31 -0800 (PST)
   From: coyote@desert.org
   To: roadrunner@birdseed.org
   Subject: I have a present for you

   Look, I'm sorry about the whole anvil thing, and I really
   didn't mean to try and drop it on you from the top of the
   cliff.  I want to try to make it up to you.  I've got some
   great birdseed over here at my place--top of the line
   stuff--and if you come by, I'll have it all wrapped up
   for you.  I'm really sorry for all the problems I've caused
   for you over the years, but I know we can work this out.
   --
   Wile E. Coyote       "Super Genius"        coyote@znic.net
   -----------------------------------------------------------








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   Message B
   -----------------------------------------------------------
   From: youcouldberich!@reply-by-postal-mail.invalid
   Sender: b1ff@de.res.frobnitzm.edu
   To: rube@landru.melon.net
   Date:  Mon, 31 Mar 1997 18:26:10 -0800
   Subject: $$$ YOU, TOO, CAN BE A MILLIONAIRE! $$$

   YOU MAY HAVE ALREADY WON TEN MILLION DOLLARS, BUT I DOUBT
   IT!  SO JUST POST THIS TO SIX HUNDRED NEWSGROUPS!  IT WILL
   GUARANTEE THAT YOU GET AT LEAST FIVE RESPONSES WITH MONEY!
   MONEY! MONEY! COLD HARD CASH!  YOU WILL RECEIVE OVER
   $20,000 IN LESS THAN TWO MONTHS!  AND IT'S LEGAL!!!!!!!!!
   !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!111111111!!!!!!!11111111111!!1  JUST
   SEND $5 IN SMALL, UNMARKED BILLS TO THE ADDRESSES BELOW!
   -----------------------------------------------------------

2.      Design

2.1.     Form of the Language

   The language consists of a set of commands.   Each command consists
   of a set of tokens delimited by whitespace.   The first token is the
   command string followed by zero or more arguments.  Arguments may be
   literal data, tags, blocks of commands, or test commands.

   The language is represented in UTF-8, as specified in [UTF-8].

   Tokens in the ASCII range are considered case-insensitive.

2.2.     Whitespace

   Whitespace is used to separate tokens.  Whitespace is made up of
   tabs, newlines (CRLF, never just CR or LF), and the space character.
   The amount of whitespace used is not significant.

2.3.     Comments

   Comments begin with a "#" character that is not contained within a
   string and continue until the next CRLF.  Comments are semantically
   equivalent to whitespace and are permitted to be used anyplace that
   whitespace is (with one exception in multi-line strings, as described
   in the grammar).

   Example:  if size :over 100K { # this is a comment
                discard;
             }




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2.4.     Literal Data

   Literal data means data that is not executed, merely evaluated "as
   is", to be used as arguments to commands.  Literal data is limited to
   numbers and strings.

2.4.1.   Numbers

   Numbers are given as ordinary decimal numbers.  However, those
   numbers that have a tendency to be fairly large, such as message
   sizes, MAY have a "K", "M", or "G" appended to indicate a multiple of
   a base-two number.  To be comparable with the power-of-two-based
   versions of SI units that computers frequently use, K specifies kilo,
   or 1,024 (2^10) times the value of the number; M specifies mega, or
   1,048,576 (2^20) times the value of the number; and G specifies giga,
   or 1,073,741,824 (2^30) times the value of the number.

   Implementations MUST provide 31 bits of magnitude in numbers, but may
   provide more.

   Negative, fractional, and decimal numbers are not permitted  by  this
   specification.

2.4.2.   Strings

   Scripts involve large numbers of strings, as they are used for
   pattern matching, addresses, and textual bodies, etc.  Typically,
   short quoted strings suffice for most uses, but a more convenient
   form is provided for longer strings such as bodies of messages.

   A quoted string starts and ends with a single double quote (the <">
   character, ASCII 34).  A backslash ("\", ASCII 92) inside of a quoted
   string is followed by either another backslash or a double quote.
   This two-character sequence represents a single backslash or double-
   quote within the string, respectively.

   Other escape sequences may be permitted depending on context.  An
   undefined escape sequence (such as "\a" in a context where "a" has no
   special meaning) is interpreted as if there were no backslash (in
   this case, "\a" is just "a").

   Non-printing characters such as tabs, CR and LF, and control
   characters are permitted in strings.  NUL (ASCII 0) is not allowed in
   strings.

   For entering larger amounts of text, such as an email message, a
   multi-line form is allowed.  It starts with the keyword "text:",
   followed by a CRLF, and ends with the sequence of a CRLF, a single



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   period, and another CRLF.  In order to allow the message to begin
   lines with a single-dot, lines are dot-stuffed.  That is, when
   composing a message body, an extra `.' is added before each line
   which begins with a `.'.  When the server interprets the script,
   these extra dots are removed.

   Note that a comment or whitespace may occur in between the "text:"
   and the CRLF, but not within the string itself.

2.4.2.1. String Lists

   When matching patterns, it is frequently convienent to match against
   groups of strings instead of single strings.  For this reason, a list
   of strings is allowed in many tests, implying that if the test is
   true using any one of the strings, then the test is true.
   Implementations are encouraged to use short-circuit evaluation in
   these cases.

   For instance, the test `header :contains ["To", "Cc"]
   ["me@frobnitzm.edu", "me00@landru.melon.edu"]' is true if either the
   To header or Cc header of the input message contains either of the
   e-mail addresses "me@frobnitzm.edu" or "me00@landru.melon.edu".

   Conversely, in any case where a list of strings would be appropriate,
   a single string is allowed without being a member of a list: it is
   equivalent to a list with a single member.  This means that the test
   `exists "To"' is equivalent to the test `exists ["To"]'.

2.4.2.2. Headers

   Headers are a subset of strings.  In the Internet Message
   Specification [IMAIL], each header line is allowed to have whitespace
   nearly anywhere in the line, including after the field name and
   before the subsequent colon.  Extra spaces between the header name
   and the ":" in a header field are ignored.

   A header name never contains a colon.  The "From" header refers to a
   line beginning "From:" (or "From   :", etc.).  No header will match
   the string "From:" due to the trailing colon.

2.4.2.3. Addresses

   A number of commands call for email addresses, which are also a
   subset of strings.  These addresses must be compliant with [IMAIL].
   Implementations MUST ensure that the addresses are syntactically
   valid, but need not ensure that they are actually deliverable.





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2.5.     Tests

   Tests are given as arguments to commands in order to control how the
   run.  Generally, a test is used to decide if a block of code should
   be evaluated.

   Tests MUST NOT have side effects.  That is, a test must not make
   changes to state.  No tests in this specification have side effects,
   and side effects are forbidden in extensions as well.

   The rationale for this is that tests with side effects impair
   readability and maintainability and are difficult to represent in a
   graphic interface to generating scripts, so side effects have been
   confined to actions where they are clearer.

2.5.1.   Test Lists

   Some tests (allof and anyof, which implement logical and and or,
   respectively) need to take more than a single test as an argument.
   The test-list syntax element provides a way of grouping tests.

   Example:  if anyof (not exists ["From", "Date"],
                   header :contains "from" "fool@znic.edu") {
                discard;
             }

2.6.     Arguments

   In order to specify what to do, most commands take arguments.  There
   are three types of arguments: positional, tagged, and optional.

2.6.1.   Positional Arguments

   Positional arguments are given to a command which discerns their
   meaning based on their order.  When a command takes positional
   arguments, all positional arguments must be supplied, and must be in
   the order prescribed.

2.6.2.   Tagged Arguments

   This document provides for tagged arguments in the style of
   CommonLISP.  These are also similar to flags given to commands in
   most command-line systems.

   A tagged argument is an an argument for a command that begins with
   ":", and consists of a tag naming the argument, such as ":contains".
   This argument means that zero or more of the next tokens have some
   particular meaning, depending on the argument.  These next tokens may



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   be numbers or strings, but are never blocks.

   So tagged arguments are similar to positional arguments, except that
   instead of the meaning being derived from the command, it is derived
   from the tag.

   Tagged arguments must appear before positional arguments, but they
   may appear in any order.  For convenience, this is not expressed in
   the syntax definitions with commands, but they still may be reordered
   arbitrarily provided they appear before positional arguments.  Tagged
   arguments may be mixed with optional arguments.

   To keep the language simple, tagged arguments should not take tagged
   arguments as arguments.

2.6.3.   Optional Arguments

   Optional arguments are exactly like tagged arguments except that they
   may be left out, in which case a default value is implied.  Because
   optional arguments tend to result in shorter scripts, they have been
   used far more than tagged arguments.

   One particularly noteworthy case is the ":comparator" argument, which
   allows the user to specify which [ACAP] comparator will be used to
   compare two strings, since different languages may impose different
   orderings on UTF-8 [UTF-8] characters.

2.6.4.   Types of Arguments

   Abstractly, arguments may be literal data, tests, or blocks of
   commands.  In this way, an "if" control structure is merely a command
   that happens to take a test and a block as arguments and may execute
   the block of code.

   However, this abstraction is ambiguous from a parsing standpoint.
   The grammar in section 9.2 presents a parsable version of this:
   arguments are string-lists, numbers, and tags, which may be followed
   by a test or a test-list, which may be followed by a block of
   commands.  No more than one test or test list, nor more than one
   block of commands, may be used, and commands that end with blocks of
   commands do not end with semicolons.

2.7.     String Comparison

   When matching one string against another, there are a number of ways
   of performing the match.  These are accomplished with three types of
   matches:  exact match, a substring match, and a wildcard glob-style
   match.  In order to provide for matches between character sets and



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   case insensitivity, Sieve borrows ACAP's comparator registry.

   However, when a string is being used to represent the name of a
   header, the comparator is never user-specified.  Header comparisons
   are always done in a case-insensitive manner, since this is the way
   things are specified in the message specification [IMAIL].  That is,
   header-name comparisons are always done with the "i;ascii-casemap"
   comparator.

2.7.1.   Match Type

   There are three allowed match types describing the allowed match in
   this draft: they are ":is", ":contains", and ":matches".  Match type
   are supplied to those commands which allow them to specify whether
   the match is to be a complete match or not.

   These are used as tagged arguments to tests that perform string
   comparison.  Exactly one of them is necessary for a command.

   The ":contains" version describes a substring match.  If the value
   argument contains the key argument as a substring, the match is true.
   For instance, the string "frobnitzm" contains "frob" and "nit", but
   not "fbm".  The null key ("") is contained in all values.

   The ":is" version describes an absolute match; if the contents of the
   first string are absolutely the same as the contents of the second
   string, they match.  Only the string "frobnitzm" is the string
   "frobnitzm".  The null key only ":is" the null value.

   The ":matches" version specifies a wildcard match using the
   characters "*" and "?".  "*" matches any number of characters, and
   "?" matches a single character.  "?" and "*" may be escaped as "\?"
   and "\*" in strings to match against those characters.

   In order to specify what type of match is supposed to happen,
   commands that support matching take optional tagged arguments
   ":matches", ":is", and ":contains".  Commands default to using ":is"
   matching.  Note that these modifiers may interact with comparators;
   in particular, some comparators are not suitable for matching with
   ":contains" or ":matches".  It is an error to use a comparator with
   ":contains" or ":matches" that is not compatible with it.

   For convenience, the "MATCH-TYPE" syntax element is defined  here  as
   follows:

   Syntax:   ":is" / ":contains" / ":matches"





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2.7.2.   Comparisons Across Character Sets

   All Sieve scripts are represented in UTF-8, but messages may involve
   a number of character sets.  In order for comparisons to work across
   character sets, implementations SHOULD implement the following
   behavior:

      Implementations decode header charsets to UTF-8.  Two strings are
      considered equal if their UTF-8 representations are identical.
      Implementations should decode charsets represented in the forms
      specified by [MIME] for both message headers and bodies.
      Implementations must be capable of decoding US-ASCII, ISO-8859-1,
      the ASCII subset of ISO-8859-* character sets, and UTF-8.

   If implementations fail to support the above behavior, they MUST
   conform to the following:

      No two strings can be considered equal if one contains octets
      greater than 127.

2.7.3.   Comparators

   In order to allow for language-independent, case-independent matches,
   the match type may be coupled with a comparator name.  Comparators
   are described for [ACAP]; a registry is defined for ACAP, and this
   specification uses that registry.

   ACAP defines multiple comparator types.  Only equality types are used
   in this specification.

   All implementations MUST support the "i;octet" comparator (simply
   compares octets) and the "i;ascii-casemap" comparator (which treats
   uppercase and lowercase English characters as the same).  If left
   unspecified, the default is "i;ascii-casemap".

   Some comparators may not be usable with substring matches; that is,
   they may only work with ":is".  It is an error to try and use a
   comparator with ":matches" or ":contains" that is not compatible with
   it.

   A comparator is specified with commands that support matching by the
   ":comparator" option.  This option is followed by a string providing
   the name of the comparator to be used.  For convenience, the syntax
   of a comparator is abbreviated to "COMPARATOR", and (repeated in
   several tests) is as follows:

   Syntax:   ":comparator" <comparator-name: string>




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   So in this example,

   Example:  if header :contains :comparator "i;octet" "Subject"
                "MAKE MONEY FAST" {
                   discard;
             }


   would discard any message with subjects like "You can MAKE MONEY
   FAST", but not "You can Make Money Fast", since the comparator used
   is not case-sensitive.

   If a comparator is not known to an implementation, it is treated in
   the same way as an error.

   Both ":matches" and ":contains" match type are compatible with the
   "i;octet" and "i;ascii-casemap" comparators and may be used with
   them.

2.7.4.   Comparisons Against Addresses

   Addresses are probably one of the most frequent representations as
   strings.  Because these are structured and being able to compare
   against the local-part or the domain of an address is useful, some
   tests that act exclusively on addresses take an additional optional
   argument that specifies what the test acts on.

   These optional arguments are ":localpart", ":domain", and ":all",
   which act on the local-part (left-side), the domain part (right-
   side), and the whole address.

   The kind of comparison is done, such as whether or not the comparison
   done is case-insensitive, is specified as a comparator argument to
   the test.

   If an optional address-part is omitted, there is an impled default of
   ":all".

   For convenience, the "ADDRESS-PART" syntax element is defined here as
   follows:

   Syntax:   ":localpart" / ":domain" / ":all"


2.8.     Blocks

   Blocks are sets of commands enclosed within curly braces.  Blocks are
   supplied to commands so that the commands can implement control



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   commands.

   A control structure is a command that happens to take a test and a
   block as one of its argument; depending on the result of the test
   supplied as another argument, it runs the code in the block some
   number.  (Note that by the commands supplied in the specification,
   there are no loops, so the control structures supplied--if, elsif,
   and else--run a block either once or not at all.)

2.9.     Commands

   Sieve scripts are sequences of commands.  Commands can take any of
   the tokens above as arguments, and arguments may be either tagged or
   positional arguments.

   There are three kinds of commands, test commands, action commands,
   and control commands.

   The simplest is an action command.  An action command is an
   identifier followed by zero or more arguments, terminated by a
   semicolon.  Action commands do not take tests or blocks as arguments.

   A control command is similar, but it takes a test as an argument, and
   ends with a block instead of a semicolon.

   A test command is used as part of a control command.  It is used to
   specify whether or not the block of code given to the control command
   is executed.

2.10.    Evaluation

2.10.1.  Mutually Exclusive Delivery Actions

   Actions that do not affect delivery status can be used multiple times
   and in any combination with each other.  In the base draft, these
   actions are "fileinto" and "redirect".

   Only one action that affects delivery status may be taken.  An
   attempt to run more than one such action leads to a run-time error,
   which has undefined behavior.  In the base draft, these actions are
   "keep", "discard", and "reject".

2.10.2.  Implicit Keep

   Previous experience with filtering systems suggests that cases tend
   to be missed in scripts.  To prevent massive errors, Sieve has an
   "implicit keep".




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   An implicit keep is performed if a message is not written to a
   mailbox, redirected to a new address, or explicitly thrown out.  That
   is, if a fileinto, a keep, a redirect, or a discard is performed, an
   implicit keep is not.

   For instance, with any of the short messages offered above, the
   following script produces no actions.

   Example:  if size :over 500K { discard; }

   As a result, the implicit keep would be taken.

2.10.3.  Message Uniqueness in a Mailbox

   Implementations SHOULD NOT write a message to a mailbox where a copy
   of it already exists, even if a script explicitly asks for a message
   to be written to a mailbox twice.

   The test for equality of two messages is not defined by this memo.

2.10.4.  Limits on Numbers of Actions

   Site policy may limit numbers of actions taken.  In the event that a
   policy limits the number of actions taken on a particular message,
   the actions that are generated first in a script should be followed.

2.10.5.  Extensions and Optional Features

   Because of the differing capabilities of many mail systems, several
   features of this specification have been specified as optional.
   Before any of these extensions can be used, they must be declared
   with the "require" action.

   If an extension is not enabled with "require", implementations MUST
   treat it as if they did not support it at all.

   If a script does not understand an extension declared with require,
   the script must not be used at all.


   Note:  The reason for this restriction is that prior experiences with
          languages such as LISP and Tcl suggest that this is a workable
          way of noting that a given script uses an extension.

          Experience with languages such as PostScript that have
          extension mechanisms that allow a script to include
          information on how to work around a lack of an extension
          suggest that such mechanisms do not work well in practice.



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3.      Control Commands

   In order for a script to do more than one set of actions, control
   structures are needed.  In Sieve, a control structure is a command
   that takes a block as an argument.

   In this document, only "if" is provided.  There are three pieces to
   if: "if", "elsif", and "else".

   Syntax:   if <test1: test> <block1: block>

   Syntax:   elsif <test2: test> <block2: block>

   Syntax:   else <block>

   The semantics are similar to any other programming language this
   appears in.  When the interpreter sees an "if", it evaluates the test
   associated with it.  If the test is true, it executes the block
   associated with it.

   If the test of the "if" is false, it evaluates the test of the first
   "elsif" (if any).  If the test of "elsif" is true, it runs the
   elsif's block.  An elsif may be followed by an elsif, in which case,
   the interpreter repeats this process until it runs out of elsifs.

   When the interpreter runs out of elsifs, there may be an "else" case.
   If there is, and none of the if or elsif tests were true, the
   interpreter runs the else case.

   This provides a way of performing exactly one of the blocks in the
   chain.

   In the following example, both Message A and B are dropped.

   Example:  require "fileinto";
             if header :contains "from" "coyote" {
                discard;
             } elsif header :contains ["subject"] ["$$$"] {
                discard;
             } else {
                fileinto "INBOX";
             }









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   In the script below, when run over message A, redirects  the  message
   to  acm@frobnitzm.edu;  message  B,  to postmaster@frobnitzm.edu; any
   other message is redirected to field@frobnitzm.edu.

   Example:  if header :contains ["From"] ["coyote"] {
                redirect "acm@frobnitzm.edu";
             } elsif header :contains "Subject" "$$$" {
                redirect "postmaster@frobnitzm.edu";
             } else {
                redirect "field@frobnitzm.edu";
             }
   Note that this definition prohibits the "... else if ..." sequence
   used by C.  This is intentional, because this construct produces a
   shift-reduce conflict.

4.      Action Commands

   This document supplies six actions that may be taken on a message:
   keep, fileinto, redirect, reject, discard, and stop.

4.1.     Action reject

   Syntax:   reject <reason: string>

   The optional "reject" action resends the message to the sender,
   wrapping it in a "reject" form, noting that it was rejected by the
   recipient.  In the following script, message A is rejected and
   returned to the sender.

   Example:  require "reject";
             if header :contains "from" "coyote@znic.net" {
                reject "I am not taking mail from you, and I don't want
                your birdseed, either!";
             }

















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   A reject message MUST takes the form of a failed DSN as specified  by
   [DSN].    The  human-readable  portion  of  the  message,  the  first
   component of the DSN, contains the human readable message  describing
   the  error,  although  it SHOULD contain additional text alerting the
   original sender that mail was refused by a filter.  This part of  the
   DSN might appear as follows:

   ------------------------------------------------------------
   Message was refused by recipient's mail filtering program.
   Reason given was as follows:

   I am not taking mail from you, and I don't want your
   birdseed, either!
   ------------------------------------------------------------

   The action-value field as defined in the DSN specification MUST be
   "failed".

   A rejected message may not be filed, redirected, or kept.  A message
   that triggers a "reject" action is never allowed to be kept by the
   user, and the "reject" overrides all other actions.

   A message may only be rejected once.

   Because some implementations cannot implement the reject command, it
   is optional.  The capability string to be used with the require
   command is "reject".

4.2.     Action fileinto

   Syntax:   fileinto <folder: string>

   The "fileinto" action drops the message into a named folder.
   Implementations SHOULD support fileinto, but in some environments
   this may be impossible.

   The capability string for use with the require command is "fileinto".

   In the following script, message A is filed into folder
   "INBOX.harassment".

   Example:  require "fileinto";
             if header :contains ["from"] "coyote" {
                fileinto "INBOX.harassment";
             }






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4.3.     Action redirect

   Syntax:   redirect <address: string>

   The "redirect" action is used to send the message to another user at
   a supplied address, as a mail forwarding feature does.  The
   "redirect" action makes no changes to the message body or headers,
   and only modifies the envelope recipient.

   The redirect command performs an MTA-style "forward"--that is, what
   you get from a .forward file using sendmail under UNIX.  The address
   on the SMTP envelope is replaced with the one on the redirect command
   and the message is sent back out.  (This is not an MUA-style forward,
   which creates a new message with a different sender and message ID,
   wrapping the old message in a new one.)  The redirect command does
   not add Resent-* headers.


   A simple script can be used for redirecting:

   Example:  redirect "bart@frobnitzm.edu";


4.4.     Action keep

   Syntax:   keep

   The "keep" action is whatever action is taken in lieu of all other
   actions, if no filtering happens at all; generally, this simply means
   to file the message into the user's main mailbox.  This command
   provides a way to execute this action without needing to know the
   name of the user's main mailbox, providing a way to call it without
   needing to understand the user's setup, or the underlying mail
   system.

   Example:  if size :under 1M { keep; } else { discard; }

4.5.     Action stop

   Syntax:   stop

   The "stop" action ends all processing.  If no actions have been
   executed, then the keep action is taken.

4.6.     Action discard

   Syntax:   discard




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   Discard drops the message.  In the following script, any mail from
   "idiot@frobnitzm.edu" is thrown out.

   Example:  if header :contains ["from"] ["idiot@frobnitzm.edu"] {
                discard;
             }

   Discard takes no arguments.

   While an important part of this language, "discard" has the potential
   to create serious problems for users: a student leaving themselves
   logged in to a machine in a computer lab may find their script
   changed to just "discard".  In order to protect users in this
   situation (along with similar situations), implementations MAY keep
   messages destroyed by a script for an indefinite period, and MAY
   disallow scripts that throw out all mail.

4.7.     Action require

   Syntax:   require <capabilities: string-list>

   The require action notes that a script makes use of an certain
   extension.  Such a declaration is required to use the extension, as
   discussed in section 2.10.5.  Multiple capabilities can be declared
   with a single require.

   Example:  require ["fileinto", "reject"];

5.      Test Commands

   Tests are used in conditionals to decide which part(s) of the
   conditional to execute.

5.1.     Test address

   Syntax:   address [ADDRESS-PART] [COMPARATOR] [MATCH-TYPE]
             <header-list: string-list> <key-list: string-list>


   The address test matches Internet addresses out of structured headers
   that contain addresses.  It returns true if any header contains any
   key in the specified part of the address, as modified by the
   comparator and the match keyword.

   Like envelope and header, this test returns true if any combination
   of the header-list and key-list arguments match.

   Internet email addresses [IMAIL] have the somewhat awkward



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   characteristic that the mailbox-part to the left of the at-sign is
   considered case sensitive, and the domain-part to the right of the
   at-sign is case insensitive.  The "address" command does not deal
   with this itself, but provides the ADDRESS-PART argument for allowing
   users to deal with it.

   The address primitive never acts on the phrase part of an email
   address, nor on comments within that address.  It also never acts on
   group names, although it does act on the addresses within the group
   construct.

   Implementations MUST restrict the address test to headers that
   contain addresses, but MUST include at least From, To, Cc, Bcc,
   Sender, Resent-From, Resent-To, and SHOULD include any other header
   that utilizes an "address-list" structured header body.


   Example:  if address :is :all "from" "tim@example.com" {
                discard;

5.2.     Test allof

   Syntax:   allof ( <test1: test>, <test2: test>, ..., <testN: test> )

   The allof test preforms a logical AND on the tests supplied to it.

   Example:  allof (false, false)  =>   false
             allof (false, true)   =>   false
             allof (true,  true)   =>   true

   The allof test takes as its argument a test-list.

5.3.     Test anyof

   Syntax:   anyof ( <test1: test> , <test2: test> , ..., <testN:  test>
             )

   The anyof test preforms a logical OR on the tests supplied to it.

   Example:  anyof (false, false)  =>   false
             anyof (false, true)   =>   true
             anyof (true,  true)   =>   true

5.4.     Test envelope

   Syntax:   envelope [COMPARATOR] [ADDRESS-PART] [MATCH-TYPE]
             <envelope-part: string-list> <key-list: string-list>




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   The "envelope" test is true if the specified part of the SMTP (or
   equivalent) envelope matches the specified key.

   If one of the envelope-part strings is (case insensitive) "from",
   then matching occurs against the FROM address used in the SMTP MAIL
   command.

   If one of the envelope-part strings is (case insensitive) "to", then
   matching occurs against the TO address used in the SMTP RCPT command
   that resulted in this message getting delivered to this user.  Note
   that only the most recent TO is avaliable.

   The envelope-part is a string list and may contain both "from" and
   "to", in which case the strings specified in the key-list are matched
   against both parts of the envelope.

   Like address and header, this test returns true if any combination of
   the envelope-part and key-list arguments is true.

   All tests against envelopes MUST drop source routes.

   If a protocol other than SMTP is used for message transport,
   implementations are expected to adapt this command, mapping the
   "from" and "to" envelope parts to the appropriate parts of the
   envelope.


   Example:  require "envelope";
             if envelope :all :is "from" "tim@example.com" {
                discard;
             }

5.5.     Test exists

   Syntax:   exists <header-names: string-list>

   The "exists" test is true if the headers listed in the header-names
   argument exist within the message.  All of the headers must exist or
   the test is false.

   The following example throws out mail that doesn't have a From header
   and a Date header.

   Example:  if not exists ["From","Date"] {
                discard;
             }





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5.6.     Test false

   Syntax:   false

   The "false" test always evaluates to false.
5.7.     Test header

   Syntax:   header [COMPARATOR] [MATCH-TYPE]
             <header-names: string-list> <key-list: string-list>

   The "header" test evaluates to true if the any header name matches
   any key.  The type of match is specified by the optional match
   argument, which defaults to ":is" if not specified, as specified in
   section 2.6.

   Like address and envelope, this test returns true if any combination
   of the string-list and key-list arguments match.

   If a header listed in the header-names argument exists,  it  contains
   the  null  key ("").  However, if the named header is not present, it
   does not contain the null key. So if a message contained the header

           X-Caffeine: C8H10N4O2

   these tests on that header evaluate as follows:

           header :is ["X-Caffeine"] [""]         => false
           header :contains ["X-Caffeine"] [""]   => true

5.8.     Test not

   Syntax:   not <test>

   The "not" test takes some other test as an argument, and yields the
   opposite result.

5.9.     Test size

   Syntax:   size <":over" / ":under"> <limit: number>

   The "size" test deals with the size of a message.  It takes either a
   tagged argument of ":over" or ":under", followed by a number
   representing the size of the message.

   If the argument is ":over", and the size of the message is greater
   than the number provided, the test is true; otherwise, it is false.

   If the argument is ":under", and the size of the message is less than



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   the number provided, the test is true; otherwise, it is false.

   One of ":over" or ":under" must be specified.

   The size of a message is defined to be the number of octets from the
   initial header until the last character in the message body.

5.10.    Test true

   Syntax:   true

   The "true" test always evaluates to true.

6.      Extensibility

   New control structures, actions, and tests can be added to the
   language.  Sites must make these features known to their users; this
   document does not define a way to discover the list of extensions
   supported by the server.

   Any extensions to this language MUST define a capability string that
   uniquely identifies that extension.  If a new version of an extension
   changes the functionality of a previously defined extension, it MUST
   use a different name.

   In a situation where there is a submission protocol and an extension
   advertisement mechanism aware of the details of this language,
   scripts submitted can be checked against the mail server to prevent
   use of an extension that that the server does not support.

   Extensions should state how they interact with constraints defined in
   section 2.10 (for instance, whether they cancel the implicit keep, or
   if they change delivery status).

6.1.     Capability String

   Capability strings are typically short strings describing what
   capabilities are supported by the server.

   Capability strings beginning with "vnd." represent vendor-defined
   extensions.  Such extensions are not defined by Internet standards or
   RFCs, but are still registered with IANA in order to prevent
   conflicts.  Extensions starting with "vnd." should be followed by the
   name of the vendor, such as "vnd.acme.rocket-sled".

   The following capability strings are defined by this document:

   envelope    The string "envelope" indicates that the implementation



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               supports the "envelope" command.

   fileinto    The string "fileinto" indicates that the implementation
               supports the "fileinto" command.

   reject      The string "reject" indicates that the implementation
               supports the "reject" command.

   comparator- The string "comparator-elbonia" is provided if the
               implementation supports the "elbonia" comparator.
               Therefore, all implementations have at least the
               "comparator-i;octet" capability.

6.2.     Registry

   In order to provide a standard set of extensions, a registry is
   provided by IANA.  Capability names may be registered on a first-
   come, first-served basis.  Extensions designed for interoperable use
   should be defined as standards track or IESG approved experimental
   RFCs.

   To: XXX@XXX.XXX
   Subject: Registration of new Sieve extension

   Capability name:
   Capability keyword:
   Capability arguments:
   Standards Track/IESG-approved experimental RFC number:
   Person and email address to contact for further information:

6.3.     Capability Transport

   As the range of mail systems that this draft is intended to apply to
   is quite large, a method of advertising which capabilities an
   implementation supports is difficult due to the wide range of
   possible implementations.  Such a mechanism, however, should have the
   following properties.

   (1)  The implementation can advertise the complete set of extensions
        that it supports.


7.      Transmission

   The MIME type for a Sieve script is "application/sieve".






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   The registration of this type for RFC 2048 requirements is as
   follows:

        Subject: Registration of MIME media type application/sieve

        MIME media type name: application
        MIME subtype name: sieve
        Required parameters: none
        Optional parameters: none
        Encoding considerations: Most sieve scripts will be textual,
           written in UTF-8.  When non-7bit characters are used,
           quoted-printable would be appropriate for transport systems
           that require 7bit encoding.
        Security considerations: Discussed in section 10 of RFC XXXX.
        Interoperability considerations: Discussed in section 2.10.5
           of RFC XXXX.
        Published specification: RFC XXXX.
        Applications which use this media type: sieve-enabled mail servers
        Additional information:
          Magic number(s):
          File extension(s): .siv
          Macintosh File Type Code(s):
        Person & email address to contact for further information:
           See the discussion list at ietf-mta-filters@imc.org.
        Intended usage:
           COMMON
        Author/Change controller:
           See Author information in RFC XXXX.

8.      Parsing

   The Sieve grammar is seperated into tokens and a seperate grammar as
   most programming languages are.

8.1.     Lexical Tokens

   Sieve scripts are encoded in UTF-8.  The following assumes a valid
   UTF-8 encoding; special characters in Sieve scripts are all ASCII.

   The following are tokens in Sieve:
           - identifiers
           - tags
           - numbers
           - quoted strings
           - multi-line strings
           - other separators

   Blanks, horizonal tabs, newlines, formfeeds, and comments ("white



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   space") are ignored except as they separate tokens.  Some white space
   is required to separate otherwise adjacent tokens and in specific
   places in the multi-line strings.

   The other separators are single individual characters, and are
   mentioned explicitly in the grammar.

   The lexical structure of sieve is defined in the following BNF (as
   described in [ABNF]):

   CHAR-NOT-DOT = (%x01-2d / %x2f-%xff)

   CHAR-NOT-CRLF = (%x01-09 / %x0b-%x0c / %x0e-%xff)

   comment = "#" *CHAR-NOT-CRLF CRLF

   identifier = (ALPHA / "_") *(ALPHA DIGIT "_")

   tag = ":" identifier

   number = 1*DIGIT [QUANTIFIER]

   QUANTIFIER = "K" / "M" / "G"

   quoted-string = DQUOTE *CHAR DQUOTE         ;; in general,  CHAR
   inside a string maps to CHAR         ;; so         ;; note that
   newlines and other characters are all allowed strings

   multi-line = "text:" *(SP / HTAB) (comment / CRLF)
           *((1*CHAR-NOT-DOT *CHAR CRLF) / ("." 1*CHAR-NOT-DOT *CHAR
   CRLF) /           (".." *CHAR CRLF) / CRLF)         "." CRLF
           ;; note when used,         ;; a leading ".." on a line is
   mapped to ".".

   white-space = 1*(SP / CRLF / HTAB) / comment

8.2.     Grammar

   The following is the grammar of Sieve after it has been lexical
   interpreted.  No white space or comments appear below.  The start
   symbol is "start".

   argument = string-list / number / tag

   arguments = *argument [test / test-list]

   block = "{" commands "}"




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   command = identifier arguments ( ";" / block )

   commands = *command

   start = commands

   string = quoted-string / multi-line

   string-list = "[" string *("," string) "]" / string         ;; if
   there is only a single string, the brackets are optional

   test = identifier arguments

   test-list = "(" test *("," test) ")"

9.      Extended Example

   The following is an extended example of a Sieve script.  Note that it
   does not make use of the implicit keep.

   #
   # Example Sieve Filter
   # Declare any optional features or extension used by the script
   #
   require ["fileinto", "reject"];

   #
   # Reject any large messages
   #
   if size :over 1M
           {
           reject text:
   Please do not send me large attachments.
   Put your file on a server and send me the URL.
   Thank you.
   ;
           stop;
           }

   #
   # Handle messages from known mailing lists
   # Move messages from IETF filter discussion list to filter folder
   #
   if header :is "Sender" "owner-ietf-mta-filters@imc.org"
           {
           fileinto "filter";  # move to "filter" folder
           }




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   #
   # Keep all messages from within my company
   #
   elsif address :domain :is "From" "company.com"
           {
           keep;               # keep in "In" folder
           }
   #
   # Move broadcast messages from lists unknown to "spam" folder
   #
   elsif not address :all :contains
          ["To", "Cc", "Bcc"] "me@company.com"
           {
           # If message header does not contain my address,
           # it's from a list.
           fileinto "spam";   # move to "spam" folder
           }
   else
           {
           # Move all other (non-company) mail to "personal"
           # folder.
           fileinto "personal";
           }

10.     Security Considerations

   Users must get their mail.  It is imperative that whatever method
   implementations use to store the user-defined filtering scripts be
   secure.

   It is equally important that implementations sanity-check the user's
   scripts, and not allow users to create on-demand mailbombs.  For
   instance, an implementation that allows a user to reject or redirect
   multiple times to a single message might also allow a user to create
   a mailbomb triggered by mail from a specific user.

   Therefore, an implementation SHOULD only allow one "reject" per
   message processed, and MAY limit the number of redirect actions
   taken.  An implementation MUST refuse to redirect a message to
   itself.

   Several commands, such as "discard", "redirect", and "fileinto" allow
   for actions to be taken that are potentially very dangerous.

   In order to prevent mail loops, implementations must prevent messages
   from passing through a given user twice.





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11.     Acknowledgments

   I am very thankful to Chris Newman for his support and his ABNF
   syntax checker, to John Myers and Steve Hole for outlining the
   requirements for the original drafts, to Larry Greenfield for nagging
   me about the grammar and finally fixing it, to Greg Sereda for
   repeatedly fixing and providing examples, and to Rob Earhart for an
   early implementation and a great deal of help.  I am also indebted to
   all of the readers of the ietf-mta-filters@imc.org mailing list.

12.     Author's Address

   Tim Showalter
   Carnegie Mellon University
   5000 Forbes Avenue
   Pittsburgh, PA 15213

   E-Mail: tjs+@andrew.cmu.edu

































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Appendix A.  References

   [ABNF] Crocker,  D.,  and  P.  Overell,  "Augmented  BNF  for  Syntax
   Specifications:   ABNF", Internet Mail Consortium, RFC 2234, November
   1997.

   [DSN] Moore, K., and G. Vaudreuil, "An Extensible Message Format  for
   Delivery Status Notifications", RFC 1894, January 1996.

   [FLAMES] Borenstein, N, and C. Thyberg,  "Power,  Ease  of  Use,  and
   Cooperative  Work  in a Practical Multimedia Message System", Int. J.
   of Man-Machine Studies, April, 1991.  Reprinted in Computer-Supported
   Cooperative  Work  and  Groupware,  Saul  Greenberg, editor, Harcourt
   Brace Jovanovich, 1991.   Reprinted  in  Readings  in  Groupware  and
   Computer-Supported  Cooperative  Work, Ronald Baecker, editor, Morgan
   Kaufmann, 1993.

   [KEYWORDS] Bradner, S., "Key  words  for  use  in  RFCs  to  Indicate
   Requirement Levels", RFC 2119, Harvard University, March 1997.

   [IMAP] Crispin, M.,  "Internet  Message  Access  Protocol  -  version
   4rev1", RFC 2060, University of Washington, December 1996.

   [IMAIL] Crocker, D., "Standard for the Format of ARPA  Internet  Text
   Messages", STD 11, RFC 822, University of Delaware, August 1982.

   [MIME] Freed, N., and  N.  Borenstein,  "Multipurpose  Internet  Mail
   Extensions  (MIME)  Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies", RFC
   2045, Innosoft and First Virtual, November 1996.

   [SMTP] Postel, J., "Simple Mail Transfer Protocol", STD 10, RFC  821,
   USC/Information Sciences Institute, August 1982.

   [UTF-8] Yergeau, F. "UTF-8, a transformation format  of  Unicode  and
   ISO 10646", RFC 2044, Alis Technologies, October 1996.
















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Appendix B.  Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society 1999. All Rights Reserved.

   This document and translations of it may be copied and  furnished  to
   others,  and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
   or assist in its implementation may be  prepared,  copied,  published
   and  distributed,  in  whole  or  in part, without restriction of any
   kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
   included  on  all  such  copies  and derivative works.  However, this
   document itself may not be modified in any way, such as  by  removing
   the  copyright  notice or references to the Internet Society or other
   Internet  organizations,  except  as  needed  for  the   purpose   of
   developing  Internet  standards  in  which  case  the  procedures for
   copyrights  defined  in  the  Internet  Standards  process  must   be
   followed,  or  as  required to translate it into languages other than
   English.

   The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will  not  be
   revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.

   This document and the information contained herein is provided on  an
   "AS  IS"  basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
   TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS  OR  IMPLIED,  INCLUDING
   BUT  NOT  LIMITED  TO  ANY  WARRANTY  THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION
   HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS  OR  ANY  IMPLIED  WARRANTIES  OF
   MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
























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