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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 RFC 5958

Network Working Group                                 Sean Turner, IECA
Internet Draft                                           April 12, 2010
Intended Status: Standard Track
Obsoletes: 5208 (once approved)
Expires: October 12, 2010



                          Asymmetric Key Packages
                  draft-turner-asymmetrickeyformat-05.txt


Abstract

   This document defines the syntax for private key information and a
   content type for it.  Private-key information includes a private key
   for a specified public-key algorithm and a set of attributes. The
   Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS), as defined in RFC 5652, can be
   used to digitally sign, digest, authenticate, or encrypt the
   asymmetric key format content type.  This document obsoletes RFC
   5208.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.  This document may contain material
   from IETF Documents or IETF Contributions published or made publicly
   available before November 10, 2008.  The person(s) controlling the
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   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 12, 2010.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors. All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document. Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

1. Introduction

   This document defines the syntax for private key information and a
   Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS) [RFC5652] content type for it.
   Private-key information includes a private key for a specified
   public-key algorithm and a set of attributes. The CMS can be used to
   digitally sign, digest, authenticate, or encrypt the asymmetric key
   format content type.  This document obsoletes PKCS#8 v1.2 [RFC5208].

1.1. Requirements Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

1.2. ASN.1 Syntax Notation

   The key package is defined using ASN.1 [X.680], [X.681], [X.682], and
   [X.683].

1.3. Summary of Updates to RFC 5208

   The following summarizes the updates to [RFC5208]:

   - Changed the name "PrivateKeyInfo" to "OneAsymmetricKey".  This
     reflects the addition of the public key field to allow both parts
     of the asymmetric key to be conveyed separately.  Not all
     algorithms will use both fields; however, the publicKey field was
     added for completeness.


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   - Defined Asymmetric Key Package CMS content type.

   - Removed redundant IMPLICIT from attributes.

   - Added publicKey to OneAsymmetricKey and updated the version number.

   - Added that PKCS#9 attributes may be supported.

   - Added discussion of compatibility with other private-key formats.

   - Added requirements for encoding rule set.

   - Changed imports from PKCS#5 to [RFCTBD1] and [RFCTBD2].

   - Replaced ALGORITHM-IDENTIFIER with ALGORITHM from [RFCTBD1].

   - Registers application/pkcs8 media type and .p8 file extension.

2. Asymmetric Key Package CMS Content Type

   The asymmetric key package CMS content type is used to transfer one
   or more plaintext asymmetric keys from one party to another.  An
   asymmetric key package MAY be encapsulated in one or more CMS
   protecting content types (see Section 4).  Earlier versions of this
   specification [RFC5208] did not specify a particular encoding rule
   set, but generators SHOULD use DER [X.690] and receivers SHOULD be
   prepared to handle BER [X.690] and DER [X.690].

   The asymmetric key package content type has the following syntax:

     ct-asymmetric-key-package CONTENT-TYPE ::=
       { AsymmetricKeyPackage IDENTIFIED BY id-ct-KP-aKeyPackage }

     id-ct-KP-aKeyPackage OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=
       { joint-iso-itu-t(2) country(16) us(840) organization(1)
         gov(101) dod(2) infosec(1) formats(2)
         key-package-content-types(78) 5
     }

     AsymmetricKeyPackage ::= SEQUENCE SIZE (1..MAX) OF OneAsymmetricKey











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     OneAsymmetricKey ::= SEQUENCE {
       version                   Version,
       privateKeyAlgorithm       PrivateKeyAlgorithmIdentifier,
       privateKey                PrivateKey,
       attributes            [0] Attributes OPTIONAL,
       ...,
       [[2: publicKey        [1] PublicKey OPTIONAL ]],
       ...
     }

     PrivateKeyInfo ::= OneAsymmetricKey

     -- PrivateKeyInfo is used by [P12]. If any items tagged as version
     -- 2 are used, the version must be v2, else the version should be
     -- v1. When v1, PrivateKeyInfo is the same as it was in [RFC5208].

     Version ::= INTEGER { v1(0), v2(1) } (v1, ..., v2, ... )

     PrivateKeyAlgorithmIdentifier ::= AlgorithmIdentifier
                                        { PUBLIC-KEY,
                                          { PrivateKeyAlgorithms } }

     PrivateKey ::= OCTET STRING
                        -- Content varies based on type of key. The
                        -- algorithm identifier dictates the format of
                        -- the key.

     PublicKey ::= BIT STRING
                        -- Content varies based on type of key. The
                        -- algorithm identifier dictates the format of
                        -- the key.

     Attributes ::= SET OF Attribute { { OneAsymmetricKeyAttributes } }

   The AsymmetricKeyPackage contains one or more OneAsymmetricKey
   elements.

   The syntax of OneAsymmetricKey accommodates a version number, an
   indication of the asymmetric algorithm to be used with the private
   key, a private key, optional keying material attributes (e.g.,
   userCertificate from [X.520]), and an optional public key.  In
   general, either the public key or the certificate will be present.
   In very rare cases will both the public key and the certificate be
   present as this includes two copies of the public key.
   OneAsymmetricKey is a renamed extension of the PrivateKeyInfo syntax
   defined in [RFC5208].  The new name better reflects the ability to
   carry both private and public key components.  Backwards
   compatibility with the original PrivateKeyInfo is preserved via
   version number.  The fields in OneAsymmetricKey are used as follows:


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   - version identifies the version of OneAsymmetricKey.  If publicKey
     is present, then version is set to v2 else version is set to v1.

   - privateKeyAlgorithm identifies the private-key algorithm and
     optionally contains parameters associated with the asymmetric key.
     The algorithm is identified by an object identifier (OID) and the
     format of the parameters depends on the OID, but the
     PrivateKeyAlgorithms information object set restricts the
     permissible OIDs. The value placed in privateKeyAlgorithmIdentifier
     is the value an originator would apply to indicate which algorithm
     is to be used with the private key.

   - privateKey is an OCTET STRING that contains the value of the
     private key.  The interpretation of the content is defined in the
     registration of the private-key algorithm.  For example, a DSA key
     is an INTEGER, an RSA key is represented as RSAPrivateKey as
     defined in [RFC3447], and an ECC key is represented as ECPrivateKey
     as defined in [RFCTBD4].

   - attributes is OPTIONAL.  It contains information corresponding to
     the public key (e.g., certificates).  The attributes field uses the
     class ATTRIBUTE which is restricted by the
     OneAsymmetricKeyAttributes information object set.
     OneAsymmetricKeyAttributes is an open ended set in this document.
     Others documents can constrain these values.  Attributes from
     [RFC2985] MAY be supported.

   - publicKey is OPTIONAL.  When present, it contains the public key
     encoded in a BIT STRING.  The structure within the bit string, if
     any, depends on the privateKeyAlgorithm. For example, a DSA key is
     an INTEGER. Note that RSA public keys are included in RSAPrivateKey
     (i.e., n and e are present), as per [RFC3447], and ECC public keys
     are included in ECPrivateKey (i.e., in the publicKey field), as per
     [RFCTBD4].

3. Encrypted Private Key Info

   This section gives the syntax for encrypted private-key information,
   which is used with [P12].

   Encrypted private-key information shall have ASN.1 type
   EncryptedPrivateKeyInfo:

     EncryptedPrivateKeyInfo ::= SEQUENCE {
       encryptionAlgorithm  EncryptionAlgorithmIdentifier,
       encryptedData        EncryptedData }





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     EncryptionAlgorithmIdentifier ::= AlgorithmIdentifier
                                        { CONTENT-ENCRYPTION,
                                          { KeyEncryptionAlgorithms } }

     EncryptedData ::= OCTET STRING

   The fields in EncryptedPrivateKeyInfo are used as follows:

   - encryptionAlgorithm identifies the algorithm under which the
     private-key information is encrypted.

   - encryptedData is the result of encrypting the private-key
     information  (i.e., the PrivateKeyInfo).

   The encryption process involves the following two steps:

   1. The private-key information is encoded, yielding an octet string.
      Generators SHOULD use DER [X.690] and receivers SHOULD be
      prepared to handle BER [X.690] and DER [X.690]

   2. The result of step 1 is encrypted with the secret key to give an
      octet string, the result of the encryption process.

4. Protecting the AsymmetricKeyPackage

   CMS protecting content types, [RFC5652] and [RFC5083], can be used to
   provide security to the AsymmetricKeyPackage:

   - SignedData can be used to apply a digital signature to the
     AsymmetricKeyPackage.

   - EncryptedData can be used to encrypt the AsymmetricKeyPackage with
     simple symmetric encryption, where the sender and the receiver
     already share the necessary encryption key.

   - EnvelopedData can be used to encrypt the AsymmetricKeyPackage with
     symmetric encryption, where the sender and the receiver do not
     share the necessary encryption key.

   - AuthenticatedData can be used to protect the AsymmetricKeyPackage
     with message authentication codes, where key management information
     is handled in a manner similar to EnvelopedData.

   - AuthEnvelopedData can be used to protect the AsymmetricKeyPackage
     with algorithms that support authenticated encryption, where key
     management information is handled in a manner similar to
     EnvelopedData.




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5. Other Private-Key Format Considerations

   This document defines the syntax and the semantics for a content type
   that exchanges asymmetric private keys.  There are two other formats
   that have been used for the transport of asymmetric private keys:

   - Personal Information Exchange (PFX) Syntax Standard [P12], which is
     more commonly referred to as PKCS #12 or simply P12, is a transfer
     syntax for personal identity information, including private keys,
     certificates, miscellaneous secrets, and extensions.
     OneAsymmetricKey, PrivateKeyInfo, and EncryptedPrivateKeyInfo can
     be carried in a P12 message.  The private key information,
     OneAsymmetricKey and PrivateKeyInfo, are carried in the P12 keyBag
     BAG-TYPE.  EncryptedPrivateKeyInfo is carried in the P12
     pkcs8ShroudedKeyBag BAG-TYPE. In current implementations, the file
     extensions .pfx and .p12 can be used interchangeably.

   - Microsoft's private key proprietary transfer syntax.  The .pvk file
     extension is used for local storage.

   The .pvk and .p12/.pfx formats are not interchangeable; however,
   conversion tools exist to convert from one format to another.

   To extract the private key information from the AsymmetricKeyPackage,
   the encapsulating layers need to be removed.  At a minimum, the outer
   ContentInfo [RFC5652] layer needs to be removed.  If the
   AsymmetricKeyPackage is encapsulated in a SignedData [RFC5652], then
   the SignedData and EncapsulatedContentInfo layers [RFC5652] also need
   to be removed. The same is true for EnvelopedData, EncryptedData, and
   AuthenticatedData all from [RFC5652] as well as AuthEnvelopedData
   from [RFC5083].  Once all the outer layers are removed, there are as
   many sets of private key information as there are OneAsymmetricKey
   structures.  OneAsymmetricKey and PrivateKeyInfo are the same
   structure; therefore, either can be saved as a .p8 file or copied in
   to the P12 KeyBag BAG-TYPE.  Removing encapsulating security layers
   will invalidate any signature and may expose the key to unauthorized
   disclosure.

   .p8 files are sometimes PEM encoded.  When .p8 files are PEM encoded
   they use the .pem file extension.  PEM encoding is either the Base64
   encoding [RFC4648] of the DER encoded EncryptedPrivateKeyInfo
   sandwiched between:

   -----BEGIN ENCRYPTED PRIVATE KEY-----
   -----END ENCRYPTED PRIVATE KEY-----






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   or the Base64 encoding [RFC4648] of the DER encoded PrivateKeyInfo
   sandwiched between:

   -----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----
   -----END PRIVATE KEY-----

6. Security Considerations

   Protection of the private-key information is vital to public-key
   cryptography.  Disclosure of the private-key material to another
   entity can lead to masquerades.  The encryption algorithm used in the
   encryption process must be as 'strong' as the key it is protecting.

   The asymmetric key package contents are not protected.  This content
   type can be combined with a security protocol to protect the contents
   of the package.

7. IANA Considerations

   This specification defines a new media type that IANA is requested to
   add to the registry at:

     http://www.iana.org/assignments/media-types/application

7.1. Registration of media type application/pkcs8

     To: ietf-types@iana.org

     Subject: Registration of media type application/pkcs8

      Type name: application

      Subtype name: pkcs8

      Required parameters: None

      Optional parameters: None

      Encoding considerations: binary

      Security considerations: Carries a cryptographic private key

      Interoperability considerations:

           The PKCS#8 object inside this media type MUST be DER-encoded
           PrivateKeyInfo.

      Published specification: --THIS SPECIFICATION--



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   /** RFC EDITOR: Replace "--THIS SPECIFICATION--" with the RFC #
   assigned to this document.  **/

      Applications which use this media type:

        Any MIME-compliant transport

      Additional information:

        Magic number(s): None
        File extension(s): .p8
        Macintosh File Type Code(s):

      Person & email address to contact for further information:

        Sean Turner <turners@ieca.com>

      Restrictions on usage: none

      Author:

        Sean Turner <turners@ieca.com>

      Intended usage: COMMON

      Change controller:

        The IESG <iesg@ietf.org>

8. References

8.1. Normative References

   [RFC2119]   Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
               Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC4648]   Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data
               Encodings", RFC 4648, October 2006.

   [RFC5652]   Housley, R., "Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)", RFC
               5652, September 2009.

   [RFCTBD1]   Schaad, J., and P. Hoffman, "New ASN.1 Modules for PKIX",
               draft-ietf-pkix-new-asn1-08, work-in-progress.







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   /**
   RFC Editor: Please replace "TBD1" with the RFC number being assigned
   to the draft.  Please do this in both the references and the text.
   **/

   [RFCTBD2]   Schaad, J., and P. Hoffman, "New ASN.1 Modules for
               SMIME", draft-ietf-smime-new-asn1-07, work-in-progress.

   /**
   RFC Editor: Please replace "TBD2" with the RFC number being assigned
   to the draft.  Please do this in both the references and the text.
   **/

   [X.680]     ITU-T Recommendation X.680 (2002) | ISO/IEC 8824-1:2002.
               Information Technology - Abstract Syntax Notation One.

   [X.681]     ITU-T Recommendation X.681 (2002) | ISO/IEC 8824-2:2002.
               Information Technology - Abstract Syntax Notation One:
               Information Object Specification.

   [X.682]     ITU-T Recommendation X.682 (2002) | ISO/IEC 8824-3:2002.
               Information Technology - Abstract Syntax Notation One:
               Constraint Specification.

   [X.683]     ITU-T Recommendation X.683 (2002) | ISO/IEC 8824-4:2002.
               Information Technology - Abstract Syntax Notation One:
               Parameterization of ASN.1 Specifications.

   [X.690]     ITU-T Recommendation X.690 (2002) | ISO/IEC 8825-1:2002.
               Information Technology - ASN.1 encoding rules:
               Specification of Basic Encoding Rules (BER), Canonical
               Encoding Rules (CER) and Distinguished Encoding Rules
               (DER).

8.2. Informative References

   [P12]       RSA Laboratories, "PKCS #12 v1.0: Personal Information
               Exchange Syntax", June 1999.

   [RFC2985]   Nystrom, M., and B. Kaliski, "PKCS #9: Selected Object
               Classes and Attribute Types Version 2.0", RFC 2985,
               November 2000.

   [RFC3447]   Jonsson, J., and B. Kaliski, "Public-Key Cryptography
               Standards (PKCS) #1: RSA Cryptography Specifications
               Version 2.1", RFC 3447, February 2003.





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   [RFC5083]   Housley, R., "Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)
               Authenticated-Enveloped-Data Content Type", RFC 5083,
               November 2007.

   [RFC5208]   Kaliski, B., "PKCS #8: Private Key Information Syntax
               Standard Version 1.2", RFC 5208, May 2008.

   [X.520]     ITU-T Recommendation X.520 (2005) | ISO/IEC 9594-6:2005,
               Information technology - Open Systems Interconnection -
               The Directory: Selected attribute types.

   [RFCTBD4]   Turner, S., and D. Brown, "EC Private Key Info
               Structure", draft-turner-ecprivatekey-04, work-in-
               progress.

   /**
   RFC Editor: Please replace "TBD4" with the RFC number being assigned
   to the draft.  Please do this in both the references and the text.
   **/
































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APPENDIX A: ASN.1 Module

   This annex provides the normative ASN.1 definitions for the
   structures described in this specification using ASN.1 as defined in
   [X.680] through [X.683].

   AsymmetricKeyPackageModuleV1
     { iso(1) member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9)
       smime(16) modules(0) id-mod-asymmetricKeyPkgV1(50) }

   DEFINITIONS IMPLICIT TAGS ::=

   BEGIN

   -- EXPORTS ALL

   IMPORTS

   -- FROM New SMIME ASN.1 [RFCTBD2]

   CONTENT-TYPE
     FROM CryptographicMessageSyntax-2009
       { iso(1) member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9)
         smime(16) modules(0) cms-2004-02(41) }

   -- From New PKIX ASN.1 [RFCTBD1]

   Attribute{}, ATTRIBUTE
     FROM PKIX-CommonTypes-2009
       { iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6) internet(1)
         security(5) mechanisms(5) pkix(7) id-mod(0)
         id-mod-pkixCommon-02(57) }

   -- From New PKIX ASN.1 [RFCTBD1]

   AlgorithmIdentifier{}, ALGORITHM, PUBLIC-KEY, CONTENT-ENCRYPTION
     FROM AlgorithmInformation-2009
       { iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6) internet(1)
         security(5) mechanisms(5) pkix(7) id-mod(0)
         id-mod-algorithmInformation-02(58) }

   ;

   KeyPackageContentTypes CONTENT-TYPE ::= {
     ct-asymmetric-key-package,
     ... -- Expect additional content types --
   }




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   ct-asymmetric-key-package CONTENT-TYPE ::=
     { AsymmetricKeyPackage IDENTIFIED BY id-ct-KP-aKeyPackage }

   id-ct-KP-aKeyPackage OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=
     { joint-iso-itu-t(2) country(16) us(840) organization(1)
         gov(101) dod(2) infosec(1) formats(2)
         key-package-content-types(78) 5
     }

   AsymmetricKeyPackage ::= SEQUENCE SIZE (1..MAX) OF OneAsymmetricKey

   OneAsymmetricKey ::= SEQUENCE {
     version                   Version,
     privateKeyAlgorithm       PrivateKeyAlgorithmIdentifier,
     privateKey                PrivateKey,
     attributes            [0] Attributes OPTIONAL,
     ...,
     [[2: publicKey        [1] PublicKey OPTIONAL ]],
     ...
   }

   PrivateKeyInfo ::= OneAsymmetricKey

   -- PrivateKeyInfo is used by [P12]. If any items tagged as version
   -- 2 are used, the version must be v2, else the version should be
   -- v1. When v1, PrivateKeyInfo is the same as it was in [RFC5208].

   Version ::= INTEGER {v1(0), v2(1)} (v1, ..., v2, ...)

   PrivateKeyAlgorithmIdentifier ::= AlgorithmIdentifier
                                      { PUBLIC-KEY,
                                        { PrivateKeyAlgorithms } }

   PrivateKey ::= OCTET STRING
                     -- Content varies based on type of key. The
                     -- algorithm identifier dictates the format of
                     -- the key.

   PublicKey ::= BIT STRING
                     -- Content varies based on type of key. The
                     -- algorithm identifier dictates the format of
                     -- the key.

   Attributes ::= SET OF Attribute { { OneAsymmetricKeyAttributes } }

   OneAsymmetricKeyAttributes ATTRIBUTE ::= {
     ... -- For local profiles
   }



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   -- An alternate representation that makes full use of ASN.1
   -- constraints follows.  Also note that PUBLIC-KEY needs to be
   -- imported from the new PKIX ASN.1 Algorithm Information module
   -- and PrivateKeyAlgorithms needs to be commented out.

   -- OneAsymmetricKey ::= SEQUENCE {
   --  version                  Version,
   --  privateKeyAlgorithm      SEQUENCE {
   --   algorithm                 PUBLIC-KEY.&id({PublicKeySet}),
   --    parameters               PUBLIC-KEY.&Params({PublicKeySet}
   --                               {@privateKeyAlgorithm.algorithm})
   --                               OPTIONAL}
   --  privateKey               OCTET STRING (CONTAINING
   --                             PUBLIC-KEY.&PrivateKey({PublicKeySet}
   --                             {@privateKeyAlgorithm.algorithm})),
   --  attributes           [0] Attributes OPTIONAL,
   --  ...,
   --  [[2: publicKey       [1] BIT STRING (CONTAINING
   --                             PUBLIC-KEY.&Params({PublicKeySet}
   --                             {@privateKeyAlgorithm.algorithm})
   --                             OPTIONAL,
   --  ...
   --    }

   EncryptedPrivateKeyInfo ::= SEQUENCE {
     encryptionAlgorithm  EncryptionAlgorithmIdentifier,
     encryptedData        EncryptedData }

   EncryptionAlgorithmIdentifier ::= AlgorithmIdentifier
                                       { CONTENT-ENCRYPTION,
                                         { KeyEncryptionAlgorithms } }

   EncryptedData ::= OCTET STRING -- Encrypted PrivateKeyInfo

   PrivateKeyAlgorithms ALGORITHM ::= {
     ... -- Extensible
   }

   KeyEncryptionAlgorithms ALGORITHM ::= {
     ... -- Extensible
   }

   END








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Acknowledgements

   Many thanks go out to the Burt Kaliski and Jim Randall at RSA.
   Without the prior version of the document, this one wouldn't exist.

   I'd also like to thank Pasi Eronen, Alfred Hoenes, Russ Housley, Jim
   Schaad, and Carl Wallace.

Author's Address

   Sean Turner
   IECA, Inc.
   3057 Nutley Street, Suite 106
   Fairfax, VA 22031
   USA

   Email: turners@ieca.com


































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