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Versions: 00 01 02 03 RFC 4445

   Network Working Group                                        J. Welch
   Internet Draft                                 IneoQuest Technologies
   Intended Category:  Informational                            J. Clark
                                                           Cisco Systems
                                                            August, 2004


                      A Proposed Media Delivery Index
                          draft-welch-mdi-00.txt


Status of this Memo

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   This memo provides information for the Internet community.  It does
   not specify an Internet standard.  Distribution of this memo is
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   Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed to
   pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in
   this document or the extent to which any license under such rights
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   made any independent effort to identify any such rights.  Information
   on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC documents can be
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   By submitting this Internet-Draft, I accept the provisions of Section
   3 of RFC 3667.


Abstract

   This memo defines a Media Delivery Index (MDI) measurement which can
   be used as a diagnostic tool or a quality indicator for monitoring a
   network intended to transport streaming media such as MPEG video or
   other arrival time and packet loss sensitive information.  It
   provides an indication of traffic jitter, a measure of deviation from
   nominal flow rates, and data loss at-a-glance.  For instance, the MDI
   may be used as a reference in characterizing and comparing networks
   carrying constant bit rate streaming media. Included is a set of
   managed objects for SNMP-based management of IP media streams for
   which an MDI measurement is obtained.

   The Media Delivery Index measurement and MIB defined in this memo is
   intended for Information only.

Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [n14].

Introduction

   There has been considerable progress over the last several years in
   the development of methods to provide for QOS over packet switched
   networks to improve the delivery of streaming media and other time
   and packet loss sensitive applications such as [i1], [i5], [i6],
   [i7].  QOS is required for applications such as video transport to
   assure the availability of network bandwidth by providing upper
   limits on the number of flows admitted to a network as well as to
   bound the packet jitter introduced by the network.  These bounds are
   required to dimension a receiver`s buffer to properly display the
   video in real time without buffer overflow or underflow.

   Now that large scale implementations of such networks based on RSVP
   and Diffserv are undergoing trials [i3] and being specified by major
   service providers for the transport of streaming media such as MPEG
   video [i4], there is a need to easily diagnose issues and monitor the
   real time effectiveness of networks employing these QOS methods.
   Furthermore, due to the significant installed base of legacy networks
   without QOS methods, a delivery system`s transitional solution may be
   comprised of both networks with and without these methods thus
   increasing the difficulty in characterizing the dynamic behavior of


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   these networks.

   The purpose of this memo is to describe a set of measurements that
   can be used to derive a Media Delivery Index (MDI) which indicates
   the instantaneous and longer term behavior of networks carrying
   streaming media such as MPEG data.

   While this memo addresses monitoring MPEG Transport Stream (TS)
   packets [i8] over UDP, the general approach is expected to be
   applicable to other streaming media and protocols.

Media Delivery Index Overview

   The MDI provides a relative indicator of needed buffer depths at the
   consumer node due to packet jitter and network latency as well as an
   indication of lost packets.  By probing a streaming media network at
   various nodes and under varying load conditions, it is possible to
   quickly identify devices or locales which introduce significant
   jitter or packet loss to the packet stream. By monitoring a network
   continuously, deviations from nominal jitter or loss behavior can be
   used to indicate an impending or ongoing fault condition such as
   excessive load.  It is believed that the MDI provides the necessary
   information to detect all network induced MPEG video display
   impairments.  Other parameters may be required to troubleshoot and
   correct the impairments.

   The MDI is updated at the termination of selected time intervals
   spanning multiple packets which contain the streaming media (such as
   transport stream packets in the MPEG-2 case.)  The Maximums and
   Minimums of the MDI component values are captured over a measurement
   time.  The measurement time may range from just long enough to
   capture an anticipated network anomaly during a troubleshooting
   exercise to indefinitely long for a long term monitoring or
   logging application.

Media Delivery Index Components

   - Delay Factor (DF):  The maximum difference, observed at the end of
   each media stream packet, between the arrival of media data and the
   drain of media data, assuming the drain rate is the nominal constant
   traffic rate of media stream packet data.  If, at the sample time,
   the number of bytes received equals the number transmitted, the
   instantaneous flow rate balance will be zero, however the minimum DF
   will be a line packet's worth of media data as that is the minimum
   amount of data that must be buffered.  The DF is the maximum observed
   value of the flow rate imbalance.  This buffered media data in bytes
   is expressed in terms of how long it would take to drain (or fill)
   this data at the nominal constant traffic rate in milliseconds to
   obtain the DF.  The DF value MUST be updated and displayed at the end


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   of a selected time interval.  The selected time interval is chosen to
   be long enough to include a number of TS packets and will, therefore,
   vary based on the nominal constant traffic rate.  The Delay Factor
   indicates how long a data stream must be buffered (i.e. delayed) at
   its nominal constant bit rate to prevent packet loss.  Thus, it is
   also proportional to latency.  The DF`s max and min over the
   measurement period MAY also be displayed to show the worst case
   arrival time deviation, or jitter, relative to the nominal constant
   traffic rate in a measurement period.  It provides a dynamic flow
   rate balance indication with its max and min showing the worst
   excursions from balance.  To arrive at a bounded DF, the long term
   flow rate deviation (LFRD) must be 0, where LFRD is a running
   deviation of flow rate from expected nominal constant traffic rate
   over a measurement period.  A large positive or negative LFRD usually
   indicates a media stream source failure or misconfiguration and would
   cause the DF value to steadily increase from interval to interval.

   The Delay Factor gives a hint of the size of the buffer required at
   the next downstream node.  As a stream progresses, the variation of
   the Delay Factor indicates packet bunching (jitter).  Greater DF
   values also indicate more network latency to deliver a stream due to
   the need to prefill a receive buffer before beginning the drain to
   guarantee no underflow.   The DF is comprised of a fixed part based
   on packet size and a variable part based on the various network
   component switch elements` buffer utilization that comprise the
   switched network infrastructure [i2].

   - Media Loss Rate:  Lost or out of order Media packets counted over a
   selected time interval, where Media packets are packets carrying
   media information.  There may be 0 or more media packets in a single
   layer 2 network packet such as Ethernet.  For example, it is common
   to carry seven 188 Byte MPEG Transport Stream packets in a 1362 Byte
   Ethernet frame.  In such a case, a single Ethernet frame loss would
   result in 7 lost Media packets counted for the case where the 7 lost
   Media packets did not include null packets.

   Combining these quantities for presentation results in the MDI:

                                  DF:MLR

   Where:

                          DF is the Delay Factor
                        MLR is the Media Loss Rate

   At a receiving node, knowing its nominal constant drain bit rate, the
   DF`s max indicates the size of required buffer to accommodate packet
   jitter.  Or, in terms of Leaky Bucket [i9] parameters, DF indicates
   bucket size b expressed in time to transmit bucket traffic b, at the


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   given nominal constant traffic rate, r.  In the case where a known,
   well characterized receive node is separated from the data source by
   unknown or less well characterized nodes such as intermediate switch
   nodes, the MDI measured at intermediate data links provides a
   relative indication of the behavior of upstream traffic flow.  DF
   difference indications between one node and another in a data stream
   for a given constant interval of calculation can indicate local areas
   of traffic congestion or possibly misconfigured QOS flow
   specification(s) leading to greater filling of measurement point
   local device buffers, resultant flow rate deviations, and possible
   data loss.

   For a given MDI, if DF is high and/or the DF Max-Min captured over a
   significant measurement period is high, jitter has been detected but
   the longer term, average flow rate may be nominal.  This could be the
   result of a transient flow upset due to a coincident traffic stream
   unrelated to the flow of interest causing packet bunching.  A high DF
   may cause downstream buffer overflow or underflow or unacceptable
   latency even in the absence of lost data.

   Due to transient network failures or DF excursions, packets may be
   lost within the network.  The MLR component of the MDI shows this
   condition.

The Internet-Standard Management Framework

   For a detailed overview of the documents that describe the current
   Internet-Standard Management Framework, please refer to section 7 of
   RFC 3410 [i10].

   Managed objects are accessed via a virtual information store, termed
   the Management Information Base or MIB.  MIB objects are generally
   accessed through the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).
   Objects in the MIB are defined using the mechanisms defined in the
   Structure of Management Information (SMI).  This memo specifies a MIB
   module that is compliant to the SMIv2, which is described in STD 58,
   RFC 2578 [n11], STD 58, RFC 2579 [n12] and STD 58, RFC 2580 [n13].

MIB Overview

   This MIB provides a set of objects required for the export of MDI
   metrics of IP streaming media streams.

MIB Definitions

   --
   -- Media Stream Monitor MIB
   --



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   MEDIA-MONITOR-MIB DEFINITIONS ::= BEGIN

   IMPORTS
       MODULE-IDENTITY,
       OBJECT-TYPE,
       Integer32,
       Unsigned32,
       mib-2,
       NOTIFICATION-TYPE,
       OBJECT-IDENTITY,
       IpAddress
           FROM SNMPv2-SMI                  -- RFC2578
       DisplayString
           FROM SNMPv2-TC
       MODULE-COMPLIANCE, OBJECT-GROUP,
       NOTIFICATION-GROUP
           FROM SNMPv2-CONF;                -- RFC2580

   mediaMonitorMIB MODULE-IDENTITY
       LAST-UPDATED "200404040000Z"         -- 04 April 2004

       ORGANIZATION " xx "
       CONTACT-INFO
         "IneoQuest Technologies, Inc.
              Postal: 170 Forbes Boulevard
                      Mansfield, MA, 02048
              Tel:    +1 508 618 0312
              E-mail: jim.welch@ineoquest.com"

       DESCRIPTION
           "The media Monitor MIB (MEDIA-MONITOR-MIB) provides
           Metrics for Monitoring IP streaming Media Flows."

        --  Revision history

        REVISION     "200404040000Z"         -- 04 April 2004
        DESCRIPTION
            "Initial version, published as RFC xxxx. (this RFC)"

       ::= { xxxx }

    -- Top level structure of the MIB

     mediaMonitorObjects    OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { mediaMonitorMIB 1 }

   ipMediaStreamMonitorTable OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      SEQUENCE OF IpMediaStreamMonitorEntry
       MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
       STATUS      current


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       DESCRIPTION
           "IP Stream Monitor Table. This table is indexed by the
           Stream Handle. This Table only shows the currently ACTIVE
           video Streams."
       ::= { mediaMonitorObjects 1 }

   ipMediaStreamMonitorEntry OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX IpMediaStreamMonitorEntry
       MAX-ACCESS not-accessible
       STATUS     current
       DESCRIPTION
            "IP Stream Monitor Table Entry."
       INDEX  { ipMediaStreamMonitorHandle }
       ::= { ipMediaStreamMonitorTable 1 }

   IpMediaStreamMonitorEntry ::= SEQUENCE {
       ipMediaStreamHandle
           Unsigned32,
       ipMediaStreamSourceIpAddress
           IpAddress,
       ipMediaStreamSourcePort
           Unsigned32,
       ipMediaStreamDestinationIpAddress
           IpAddress,
       ipMediaStreamDestinationPort
           Unsigned32,
       ipMediaStreamBitRate
           Unsigned32,
       ipMediaStreamInterval
           Unsigned32,
       ipMediaStreamStartTime
           DisplayString,
        ipMediaStreamMDIDelayFactor
           Unsigned32,
       ipMediaStreamMDILossRate
           Unsigned32,
       ipMediaStreamMDIDFThreshold
           Unsigned32,
       ipMediaStreamMDILRThreshold
           Unsigned32,
       ipMediaStreamMDIDFErrorIntervals
           Unsigned32
       ipMediaStreamMonitorMDIMLRErrorIntervals
           Unsigned32
           }

   ipMediaStreamHandle OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX  Unsigned32
       MAX-ACCESS read-only


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       STATUS     current
       DESCRIPTION
            "Table is indexed by stream Handle. The table has one row
            for each Media Stream detected from the Ip Interface.  The
            Stream Handle shall be a unique value for the life of the
            stream."
       ::= { ipMediaStreamMonitorEntry 1 }

   ipMediaStreamSourceIpAddress OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX     IpAddress
       MAX-ACCESS read-only
       STATUS     current
       DESCRIPTION
              "Source IpAddress for the Stream indexed by the Stream
              Handle."
       ::= { ipMediaStreamMonitorEntry 2 }

   ipMediaStreamSourcePort OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX   Unsigned32
       MAX-ACCESS read-only
       STATUS     current
       DESCRIPTION
              "The Source port for the Stream indexed by the Stream
              Handle."
       ::= { ipMediaStreamMonitorEntry 3 }

   ipMediaStreamDestinationIpAddress OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX     IpAddress
       MAX-ACCESS read-only
       STATUS     current
       DESCRIPTION
              "Destination IpAddress for the Stream indexed by the
              Stream Handle."
       ::= { ipMediaStreamMonitorEntry 4 }

   ipMediaStreamDestinationPort OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX    Unsigned32
       MAX-ACCESS read-only
       STATUS     current
       DESCRIPTION
              "The Destination port for the Stream indexed by the
              Stream Handle."
       ::= { ipMediaStreamMonitorEntry 5 }

   ipMediaStreamBitRate OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX   Unsigned32
       MAX-ACCESS read-only
       STATUS     current
       DESCRIPTION


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              "The nominal Bit Rate of the Media Stream in bits/second."
       ::= { ipMediaStreamMonitorEntry 6 }

   ipMediaStreamInterval OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX   Unsigned32
       MAX-ACCESS read-only
       STATUS     current
       DESCRIPTION
              "The number indicates the minimum Interval in seconds for
              a good MDI Measurement. The Interval is based on the
              current Bit Rate of the Stream.  The minimum interval
              should be chosen such that at least 10 IP packets occur
              per interval.  This value defaults to 1 second and the
              Interval is typically configured to 1 second unless the
              above criteria is not met."
       ::= { ipMediaStreamMonitorEntry 7 }

   ipMediaStreamStartTime OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX     DisplayString
       MAX-ACCESS read-only
       STATUS     current
       DESCRIPTION
              "The Timestamp shows the Real time at which the stream was
              detected.  The Timestamp format is YYYY/MM/DD/HH/MM/SS."
       ::= { ipMediaStreamMonitorEntry 8 }

   ipMediaStreamMDIDelayFactor OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX  Unsigned32
       MAX-ACCESS read-only
       STATUS     current
       DESCRIPTION
              "This object displays the Media Delivery Index Delay
              Factor parameter in units of milliseconds.  This parameter
              indicates the burstiness of the stream."
       ::= { ipMediaStreamMonitorEntry 9 }

   ipMediaStreamMDILossRate OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX Unsigned32
       MAX-ACCESS read-only
       STATUS     current
       DESCRIPTION
              "This object displays the Media Delivery Index Media Loss
              Rate in packets/sec. This parameter indicates rate of
              lost media packets of the of the  stream."
       ::= { ipMediaStreamMonitorEntry 10 }

   ipMediaStreamMDIDFThreshold OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX  Unsigned32
       MAX-ACCESS  read-write


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       STATUS current
       DESCRIPTION
              "The Threshold for Media Delivery Index Delay Factor in
              milliSeconds.  The default value is set to 0 indicating
              that it is invalid until configured."
       ::= { ipMediaStreamMonitorEntry 11 }

   ipMediaStreamMDILRThreshold OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX  Unsigned32
       MAX-ACCESS  read-write
       STATUS current
       DESCRIPTION
              "The Threshold for Media Delivery Loss Rate
              in Packets/second. The default value is set to 0xffffffff
              indicating that it is invalid until configured."
       ::= { ipMediaStreamMonitorEntry 12 }

   ipMediaStreamMDIDFErrorIntervals OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX   Unsigned32
       MAX-ACCESS read-only
       STATUS     current
       DESCRIPTION
              "The number indicates the number of MDI DF Threshold
              (ipMediaStreamMonitorMDIDFThreshold) Crossed Intervals
              during the life of a stream. This shall be 0 and invalid
              until the MDI DF Thresholds are configured."
       ::= { ipMediaStreamMonitorEntry 13 }

   ipMediaStreamMDIMLRErrorIntervals OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX   Unsigned32
       MAX-ACCESS read-only
       STATUS     current
       DESCRIPTION
              "The number indicates the number of MDI MLR Threshold
              (ipMediaStreamMDILRThreshold)Crossed Intervals
              during the life of a stream. This shall be 0 and invalid
              until the MDI MLR Thresholds are configured."
       ::= { ipMediaStreamMonitorEntry 14 }

   END



Summary

   The MDI combines the Delay Factor which indicates potential for
   impending data loss and Media Loss Rate as the indicator of lost
   data.  By monitoring the DF and MLR and their min and max excursions
   over a measurement period and at multiple strategic locations in a


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   network, traffic congestion or device impairments may be detected and
   isolated for a network carrying streaming media content.  The
   included MIB provides a set of objects required for the export of MDI
   metrics of IP streaming media streams.


Security Considerations


   The measurements identified in this document do not directly affect
   the security of a network or user.  Actions taken in response to
   these measurements which may affect the available bandwidth of the
   network or availability of a service is out of scope for this
   document.



Normative References

   n1. K. McCloghrie, D. Perkins, J. Schoenwaelder, J. Case, J. Rose, M.
      and S. Waldbusser, 'Structure of Management Information Version 2
      (SMIv2)', STD 58, RFC 2578, April 1999.
   n2. K. McCloghrie, D. Perkins, J. Schoenwaelder, J. Case, J. Rose, M.
      and S. Waldbusser, 'Textual Conventions for SMIv2', STD 58, RFC
      2579, April 1999.
   n3. K. McCloghrie, D. Perkins, J. Schoenwaelder, J. Case, J. Rose, M.
      and S. Waldbusser, 'Conformance Statements for SMIv2', STD 58, RFC
      2580, April 1999.
   n4. S. Bradner, 'Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
      Levels', BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

Informative References

   i1. R. Braden et al., `Resource Reservation Protocol ` Version 1
      Functional Specification`, RFC 2205, 1997.
   i2. C. Partridge, `A Proposed Flow Specification`, RFC 1363, 1992.
   i3. R. Fellman, `Hurdles to Overcome for Broadcast Quality Video
      Delivery over IP` VidTranS 2002.
   i4. CableLabs `PacketCable Dynamic Quality-of-Service Specification`,
      PKT-SP-DQOS-I06-030415, 2003.
   i5. S. Shenker, C. Partridge, R. Guerin, `Specification of Guaranteed
      Quality of Service`, RFC 2212, 1997.
   i6. J. Wroclawski, `Specification of the Controlled-Load Network
      Element Service`, RFC 2211, 1997.
   i7. R. Braden, D. Clark, S. Shenker, `Integrated Services in the
      Internet Architecture: an Overview` RFC 1633, 1994.
   i8. ISO/IEC 13818-1 (MPEG-2 Systems)
   i9. V. Raisanen, `Implementing Service Quality in IP Networks`, John
      Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2003.


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   i10. J. Case, R. Mundy, D. Partain, B. Stewart, 'Introduction and
      Applicability Statements for Internet Standard Management
      Framework', RFC 3410, 2002.

Acknowledgments

   The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Marc Todd and
   Jesse Beeson of IneoQuest Technologies, Inc., Bill Trubey and John
   Carlucci of Time Warner Cable, Nishith Sinha of Cox Communications,
   Ken Chiquoine of SeaChange International, Phil Proulx of Bell Canada,
   Dr Paul Stallard of TANDBERG Television, Gary Hughes of Broadbus
   Technologies, Brad Medford of SBC Laboratories, John Roy of Adelphia
   Communications, Cliff Mercer, PhD of Kasenna, Mathew Ho of Rogers
   Cable, and Irl Duling of Optinel Systems for reviewing and evaluating
   early drafts of this document and implementations for MDI.

Authors' Address

   James Welch
   IneoQuest Technologies, Inc
   170 Forbes Blvd
   Mansfield, Massachusetts 02048
   508 618 0312
   Jim.Welch@ineoquest.com

   James Clark
   Cisco Systems, Inc
   500 Northridge Road
   Suite 800
   Atlanta, Georgia 30350
   678 352 2726
   jiclark@cisco.com

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society 2004.  This document is subject to
   the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and except
   as set forth therein, the authors retain all their rights.

Disclaimer

   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
   'AS IS' basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
   OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
   ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
   INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE
   INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
   WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.'



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Intellectual Property

   The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
   Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed to
   pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in
   this document or the extent to which any license under such rights
   might or might not be available; nor does it represent that it has
   made any independent effort to identify any such rights.  Information
   on the ISOC's procedures with respect to rights in ISOC Documents can
   be found in BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any
   assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result of an
   attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of
   such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this
   specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository at
   http://www.ietf.org/ipr.

   The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
   copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
   rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement
   this standard.  Please address the information to the IETF at ietf-
   ipr@ietf.org.




























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