[Docs] [txt|pdf] [Tracker] [Email] [Nits]

Versions: 00

Network Working Group                                        T. Wugofski
Internet-Draft                                    Openwave Systems, Inc.
Expires: March 15, 2004                               September 15, 2003


                            MMS URI Schemes
                    draft-wugofski-mms-uri-scheme-00

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other
   groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at http://
   www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This Internet-Draft will expire on March 15, 2004.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003). All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   This memo specifies URI (Universal Resource Identifier) schemes used
   in Multimedia Messaging, as specified by the 3GPP.

   The "mmsto" URI scheme is used to designate the MMS address of an
   individual or service. In its simplest form, an "mmsto" URI contains
   either an E.164 phone number or an Internet mail address.

   For greater functionality, because interaction with some resources
   may require message headers or message bodies to be specified as well
   as the MMS address, the "mmsto" URI scheme may optionally include MMS
   header fields and the message body.

   The "mms" URI scheme is used to designate an MMS message and the



Wugofski                 Expires March 15, 2004                 [Page 1]

Internet-Draft              MMS URI Schemes               September 2003


   sending of that message from the message originator.


















































Wugofski                 Expires March 15, 2004                 [Page 2]

Internet-Draft              MMS URI Schemes               September 2003


1. Requirements notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].














































Wugofski                 Expires March 15, 2004                 [Page 3]

Internet-Draft              MMS URI Schemes               September 2003


2. Introduction

2.1 3GPP Multimedia Messaging Service

   The 3GPP MMS TS 23.140 technical specification was produced by the
   3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).

   The 3GPP MMS TS 23.140 technical specification [3GPP23140] defines
   what the 3GPP refers to as the stage 2 and stage 3 description of the
   non-realtime Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS). Stage 2 identifies
   the functional capabilities and information flows needed to support
   the service described in stage 1 [3GPP22140].

   As MMS user agents and MMS messaging transports are becoming a
   standard component of mobile terminals, there is an increasing need
   for other Internet enabled components on the mobile terminal to
   leverage these capabilities

2.2 Universal Resource Identifiers

   One of the core specifications for identifying resources on the
   Internet is [RFC2396], specifying the syntax and semantics of a
   Universal Resource Identifier (URI).  The most important notion of
   URIs are "schemes", which define a framework within which resources
   can be identified (and possibly accessed).  URIs enable users to
   identify resources, and are used for very diverse schemes such as
   access protocols (HTTP, FTP), broadcast media (TV channels
   [RFC2838]), messaging (email [RFC2368]), or even telephone numbers
   (voice [RFC2806]).

   URIs are often confused with Universal Resource Names (URNs) and
   Uniform Resource Locators (URLs).  For the purpose of this memo, only
   the term URI will be used, referring to the most fundamental concept.
   The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has issued a note [W3C-URI]
   discussing the topic of URIs, URNs, and URLs in detail.

2.3 The Need for MMS URIs

   One important reason for universal access of the Web is the ability
   to access all information through unique interfaces -- making it easy
   and convenient to provide information as well as to consume it.

   One aspect of this integration is the support of user agents (in the
   case of the Web, commonly referred to as browsers) for multiple
   content formats (such as HTML, GIF, JPEG) and access schemes (such as
   HTTP, HTTP-S, FTP).

   The "mailto" URI scheme has proven to be very useful and popular



Wugofski                 Expires March 15, 2004                 [Page 4]

Internet-Draft              MMS URI Schemes               September 2003


   because most user agents support it by providing an email composition
   facility when the user activates (e.g., clicks on) the URI.

   In a similar manner, the "mmsto" URI scheme refers to the composition
   of an MMS message, and as such, should be supported by user agents
   with an MMS message composition facility.

   This is particularly useful on mobile phones where MMS applications
   are more predominant than email applications.

   In addition, mobile phones also use messaging as a means of service
   delivery. In this case, the "mms" URI scheme is used to represent an
   MMS message on the MM1 interface, as defined by [3GPP22140].

   Accordingly, the "mms" URI scheme should be supported by user agents
   by sending an MMS message without user composition.

   The goal of this memo is to specify the "mmsto" and "mms" URI schemes
   so that user agents (such as Web browsers, MMS clients, and email
   clients) could start to support it.

   As with the "mailto" URI scheme, because interaction with some
   resources may require message headers or message bodies to be
   specified as well as the MMS address, both the "mmsto" and "mms" URI
   schemes may optionally include MMS header fields and the message
   body.

























Wugofski                 Expires March 15, 2004                 [Page 5]

Internet-Draft              MMS URI Schemes               September 2003


3. The mmsto URI Scheme

   Syntax definitions are given using the Augmented BNF for Syntax
   Specifications [RFC2234].

3.1 Applicability

   The "mmsto" URI scheme is intended for addressing an MMS message to
   certain recipients.  The functionality is quite similar to that of
   the "mailto" URL scheme [RFC2368], that can be used with a
   comma-separated list of email addresses.  In both cases, additional
   message parameters (such as the subject and message body) can be
   provided.

   How the MMS message is composed and subsequently sent to the MMS
   Relay/Server is outside the scope of this memo.  MMS messages can be
   sent over the GSM air interface, by using a modem and a suitable
   protocol, or by accessing services over other protocols, such as a
   Web service for sending MMS messages.

3.2 Formal Definition

   The "mmsto" URI is case-insensitive.  The syntax of an "mmsto" URI is
   formally described as follows, where the base syntax is taken from
   [RFC2396]:

      mmsto-uri = mmsto-scheme ":" scheme-specific-part

      mmsto-scheme = "mmsto"

      scheme-specific-part = [ to ] [ headers ]

      to =   1*( mms-recipient )

      headers = "?" header *( "&" header )

      header = hname "=" hvalue

      hname = *urlc

      hvalue = *urlc

   The "mms-recipient" is defined by the MM1 interface as specified in
   [3GPP23140].  A valid MMS recipient address can be either an E.164
   (MSISDN) or RFC822 address [RFC2822].

   The "hname" and "hvalue" are encodings of an MMS informational
   element name and value, unless a mapping already exists to RFC2822



Wugofski                 Expires March 15, 2004                 [Page 6]

Internet-Draft              MMS URI Schemes               September 2003


   [RFC2822], as specified in [3GPP23140].

3.3 The MMS Recipient

   The requirements for the MMS recipient address are defined by the MM1
   interface as specified in [3GPP23140].  A valid MMS recipient address
   can be a user address or a short code.  A user address is either a
   E.164 (MSISDN) or RFC822 address.

      mms-recipient = plmn-addr / rfc822-addr / asc-addr [","
             mms-recipient]

      plmn-addr = gstn-phone ["/TYPE=PLMN"]

      rfc822-addr = mailbox ["/TYPE=rfc822"]

      asc-addr = *urlc

   The "gstn-phone" is as specified in [RFC3601], allowing global as
   well as local telephone numbers.

   The "mailbox" is as specified in [RFC2822]. This means that it
   consists of zero or more comma-separated mail addresses, possibly
   including "phrase" and "comment" components.

   The "asc-addr" is a alphanumeric short code that is interpreted by
   the MMS infrastructure as specified in [3GPP23140].

   All URI reserved characters in "to" must be encoded: in particular
   parentheses, commas, and the percent sign ("%"), which commonly occur
   in "mailbox" syntax.

3.4 The MMS Headers

   MMS messages may contain a variety of headers as specified in
   [3GPP23140].  The "hvalue" and "hvalue" are encodings of MMS
   information element name and values, where the information element
   name has been hyphenated.

   In addition to the "body" hname, the following headers SHOULD be
   supported:

      Message-class = "Message-Class" "=" ( Class-identifier |
             quoted-string )

      Class-identifier = "Personal" | "Advertisement" | "Informational"
             | "Auto"




Wugofski                 Expires March 15, 2004                 [Page 7]

Internet-Draft              MMS URI Schemes               September 2003


      Expiry-value = "Expiry" "=" ( HTTP-date | delta-seconds )

      Delivery-report = "Delivery-Report" "=" ( "Yes" | "No" )

      Priority = "Priority" "=" ( "Low" | "Normal" | "High" )

      Sender-visibility = "Sender-Visibility" "=" ( "Hide" | "Show" )

      Read-reply = "Read-Reply" "=" ( "Yes" | "No" )

      To-header = "to" "=" 1*( mms-recipient )

      Cc-header = "cc" "=" 1*( mms-recipient )

      Subject-header = "subject" "=" unstructured

   All URI reserved characters MUST be encoded.  8-bit characters in
   mailto URLs are forbidden. MIME encoded words (as defined in
   [RFC2047]) are permitted in header values, but not for any part of a
   "body" hname.

   Within "mmsto" URIs, the characters "?", "=", "&" are reserved.
   Because the "&" (ampersand) character is reserved in HTML, any
   "mmsto" URI that contains an ampersand must be spelled differently in
   HTML than in other contexts.  An "mmsto" URI that appears in an HTML
   document must use & instead of "&".

   Also note that it is legal to specify both "to" and an "hname" whose
   value is "to". That is,

      mmsto:addr1%2C%20addr2

      is equivalent to

      mmsto:?to=addr1%2C%20addr2

      is equivalent to

      mmsto:addr1?to=addr2

   8-bit characters in "mmsto" URLs are forbidden. MIME encoded words
   (as defined in [RFC2047] ) are permitted in header values, but not
   for any part of a "body" hname.

3.5 Parsing the mmsto URI

   An "mmsto" URI identifies an "internet resource" corresponding to the
   MMS mailbox specified in the address.  When additional headers are



Wugofski                 Expires March 15, 2004                 [Page 8]

Internet-Draft              MMS URI Schemes               September 2003


   supplied, the resource designated is the same address, but with an
   additional profile for accessing the resource.

   In current practice, resolving URIs and URLs such as those in the
   "http" scheme causes an immediate interaction between user agents and
   a host running an interactive server. In contrast, the "mmsto" URI
   has similar semantics as the "mailto" URL -- resolving the "mmsto"
   URI does not cause an immediate interaction. Rather, the user agent
   creates a message to the designated address with the various header
   fields set as default. The user can edit the message, send this
   message unedited, or choose not to send the message.

   The following list describes the steps for processing an "mmsto" URI:

   1.  The user agent MUST extract the plmn-addr, rfc822-addr, or short
       code of each "mms-recipient".  The user agent SHOULD ignore
       recipients with invalid syntax.

   2.  The user agent MUST extract each header ("hname" and "hvalue"
       pair) in order.

   3.  The user agent SHOULD NOT create the message if any of the
       headers are considered dangerous.  The user agent MAY also choose
       to create a message with only a subset of the headers given in
       the URI.  Only the headers specified in this memo are considered
       safe.

       The creator of an "mmsto" URI cannot expect the resolver of a URI
       to understand more than the "subject" and "body" headers. Clients
       that resolve "mmsto" URIs into multimedia messages MUST be able
       to correctly create MMS-compliant messages using the "subject"
       and "body" headers.

   4.  The user agent MUST provide some means of message composition,
       either by implementing this itself, or accessing a service or
       application providing message composition.















Wugofski                 Expires March 15, 2004                 [Page 9]

Internet-Draft              MMS URI Schemes               September 2003


4. The mms URI Scheme

   Syntax definitions are given using the Augmented BNF for Syntax
   Specifications [RFC2234].

4.1 Applicability

   The "mms" URI scheme is intended for addressing an MMS message to
   certain recipients.  The functionality is quite similar to that of
   the "mmsto" URI with one significant exception.

   Unlike the "mmsto" URI scheme, resolving an "mms" URI causes an
   immediate attempt to interact with a host running an interactive
   server -- much like the "http" scheme.

4.2 Formal Definition

   The "mms" URI is case-insensitive.  The syntax of an "mms" URI is
   formally described as follows, where the base syntax is taken
   [RFC2396]:

      mms-uri = mms-scheme ":" scheme-specific-part

      mms-scheme = "mms"

   As with the "mmsto" URI scheme, the "mms" URI scheme supports the
   inclusion of headers.  The following headers SHOULD be supported:

      Expiry-value = "Expiry" "=" ( HTTP-date | delta-seconds )

      To-header = "to" "=" 1*( mms-recipient )

      Subject-header = "subject" "=" unstructured

   The "mms" URI scheme supports fewer headers than the "mmsto" URI
   scheme because the user may not be able to view the result of
   resolving the "mms" URI before the message is sent, and thus the
   "mms" URI scheme is more amenable to abuse.

   In all other respects, the "mms" URI formal definition is the same as
   the "mmsto" formal definition defined above.

4.3 Parsing the mms URI

   An "mms" URI identifies an "internet resource" corresponding to the
   MMS mailbox specified in the address.  When additional headers are
   supplied, the resource designated is the same address, but with an
   additional profile for accessing the resource.



Wugofski                 Expires March 15, 2004                [Page 10]

Internet-Draft              MMS URI Schemes               September 2003


   Resolving an "mms" URI causes an immediate interaction between the
   user agent and a host running an interactive server -- much like the
   "http" scheme.  The user agent creates and attempts to send a message
   to the designated address.

   The following list describes the steps for processing an "mms" URI:

   1.  The user agent MUST extract the plmn-addr, rfc822-addr, or short
       code of each "mms-recipient".  The user agent SHOULD ignore
       recipients with invalid syntax

   2.  The user agent MUST extract each header ("hname" and "hvalue"
       pair) in order.

   3.  The user agent SHOULD NOT create the message if any of the
       headers are considered dangerous.  The user agent MAY also choose
       to create a message with only a subset of the headers given in
       the URI.  Only the headers specified in this memo are considered
       safe.

       The creator of an "mmsto" URI cannot expect the resolver of a URI
       to understand more than the "subject" and "body" headers. Clients
       that resolve "mmsto" URIs into multimedia messages MUST be able
       to correctly create MMS-compliant messages using the "subject"
       and "body" headers.

   4.  The user agent MUST attempt to send the message.

   5.  If the message cannot be sent, the user agent SHOULD provide a
       mechanism for the user to resend the message.  Additionally, the
       user agent MAY provide some means of message composition, either
       by implementing this itself, or accessing a service or
       application providing message composition.


















Wugofski                 Expires March 15, 2004                [Page 11]

Internet-Draft              MMS URI Schemes               September 2003


5. Security Considerations

   The "mmsto" and "mms" URI schemes can be used to send a multimedia
   message from one user to another, and thus can introduce many
   security concerns.  MMS messages can be logged at the originating
   site, the recipient site, and intermediary sites along the delivery
   path. If the messages are not encoded, they can also be read at any
   of those sites.

   An "mmsto" URI provides a template for a message that can be sent by
   a user agent. The contents of that template may be opaque or
   difficult to read by the user at the time of specifying the URI.
   Thus, a user agent should never send a message based on an "mmsto"
   URI without first showing the user the full message that will be sent
   (including all headers that were specified by the "mmsto" URI), fully
   decoded, and asking the user for approval to send the message. The
   user agent should also make it clear that the user is about to send
   an MMS message, since the user may not be aware that this is the
   result of a "mmsto" URL.

   The "mms" URI scheme provides a similiar capability for creating and
   sending opaque MMS messages.  Since the "mms" URI scheme requires an
   immediate attempt to send the message to the recipient, the user is
   not normally given the opportunity to review the message.  However,
   if any of the headers in an MMS message based on the "mms" URI scheme
   are deemed unsafe, the user must be made aware of this and be able to
   review prior to sending the message. The user agent should also make
   it clear that the user is about to send an MMS message, since the
   user may not be aware that this is the result of a "mms" URL.  This
   is especially true when sending an MMS message generates a charging
   event (i.e., the user is going to have to pay for it).

   An MMS user agent should provide mechanisms that allow complete
   disclosure to the user of what is or will be sent; it should disclose
   not only the message destination, but also any headers. Unrecognized
   headers, or headers with values inconsistent with those the MMS
   client would normally send should be especially suspect, especially
   in the case of messages based on the "mms" URI scheme. MIME headers
   (MIME- Version, Content-*) are most likely inappropriate, as are
   those relating to routing (From, Bcc, etc.)

   Note that some headers are inherently unsafe to include in a message
   generated from a URI. For example, headers such as "From:", "Bcc:",
   and so on, should never be interpreted from a URI. In general, the
   fewer headers interpreted from the URI, the less likely it is that a
   sending agent will create an unsafe message.





Wugofski                 Expires March 15, 2004                [Page 12]

Internet-Draft              MMS URI Schemes               September 2003


6. IANA Considerations

   There are no IANA considerations.
















































Wugofski                 Expires March 15, 2004                [Page 13]

Internet-Draft              MMS URI Schemes               September 2003


References

   [3GPP22140]
              3GPP, "Multimedia Messaging Service; Stage 1", 3GPP
              22.140-610, March 2003.

   [3GPP23140]
              3GPP, "Multimedia Messaging Service; Stage 2", 3GPP
              23.140-610, March 2003.

   [RFC2047]  Moore, K., "MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)
              Part Three: Message Header Extensions for Non-ASCII Text",
              RFC 2047, November 1996.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2234]  Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", RFC 2234, November 1997.

   [RFC2368]  Hoffman, P., Masinter, L. and J. Zawinski, "The mailto URL
              scheme", RFC 2368, July 1998.

   [RFC2396]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R. and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax", RFC 2396,
              August 1998.

   [RFC2806]  Vaha-Sipila, A., "URLs for Telephone Calls", RFC 2806,
              April 2000.

   [RFC2822]  Resnick, P., "Internet Message Format", RFC 2822, April
              2001.

   [RFC2838]  Zigmond, D. and M. Vickers, "Uniform Resource Identifiers
              for Television Broadcasts", RFC 2838, May 2000.

   [RFC3601]  Allocchio, C., "Text String Notation for Dial Sequences
              and Global Switched Telephone Network (GSTN) / E.164
              Addresses", RFC 3601, September 2003.

   [W3C-URI]  W3C/IETF URI Planning Interest Group, "URIs, URLs, and
              URNs: Clarifications and Recommendations 1.0", W3C Note
              21, September 2001.








Wugofski                 Expires March 15, 2004                [Page 14]

Internet-Draft              MMS URI Schemes               September 2003


Author's Address

   Ted Wugofski
   Openwave Systems, Inc.
   1400 Seaport Boulevard
   Redwood City, CA  94063
   US

   Phone: +1 817 737 4533
   EMail: ted.wugofski@openwave.com
   URI:   http://www.openwave.com/








































Wugofski                 Expires March 15, 2004                [Page 15]

Internet-Draft              MMS URI Schemes               September 2003


Intellectual Property Statement

   The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
   intellectual property or other rights that might be claimed to
   pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in
   this document or the extent to which any license under such rights
   might or might not be available; neither does it represent that it
   has made any effort to identify any such rights. Information on the
   IETF's procedures with respect to rights in standards-track and
   standards-related documentation can be found in BCP-11. Copies of
   claims of rights made available for publication and any assurances of
   licenses to be made available, or the result of an attempt made to
   obtain a general license or permission for the use of such
   proprietary rights by implementors or users of this specification can
   be obtained from the IETF Secretariat.

   The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
   copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
   rights which may cover technology that may be required to practice
   this standard. Please address the information to the IETF Executive
   Director.


Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003). All Rights Reserved.

   This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
   others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
   or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
   and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
   kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
   included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this
   document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
   the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
   Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
   developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
   copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
   followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
   English.

   The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
   revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assignees.

   This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
   TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
   BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION



Wugofski                 Expires March 15, 2004                [Page 16]

Internet-Draft              MMS URI Schemes               September 2003


   HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
   MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


Acknowledgement

   Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
   Internet Society.











































Wugofski                 Expires March 15, 2004                [Page 17]


Html markup produced by rfcmarkup 1.107, available from http://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcmarkup/