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Internet Engineering Task Force                         F. Galiegue, Ed.
Internet-Draft
Intended status: Informational                               K. Zyp, Ed.
Expires: August 4, 2013                                    SitePen (USA)
                                                                G. Court
                                                        January 31, 2013


             JSON Schema: core definitions and terminology
                        draft-zyp-json-schema-04

Abstract

   JSON Schema defines the media type "application/schema+json", a JSON
   based format for defining the structure of JSON data.  JSON Schema
   provides a contract for what JSON data is required for a given
   application and how to interact with it.  JSON Schema is intended to
   define validation, documentation, hyperlink navigation, and
   interaction control of JSON data.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 4, 2013.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must



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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Conventions and Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  Core terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     3.1.  Property, item . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     3.2.  JSON Schema, keywords  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     3.3.  Empty schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     3.4.  Root schema, subschema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     3.5.  JSON Schema primitive types  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     3.6.  JSON value equality  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.7.  Instance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   4.  Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     4.1.  Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     4.2.  Hypermedia and linking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   5.  General considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     5.1.  Applicability to all JSON values . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     5.2.  Programming language independence  . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     5.3.  JSON Schema and HTTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     5.4.  JSON Schema and other protocols  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     5.5.  Mathematical integers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     5.6.  Extending JSON Schema  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     5.7.  Security considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   6.  The "$schema" keyword  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     6.1.  Purpose  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     6.2.  Customization  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   7.  URI resolution scopes and dereferencing  . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     7.1.  Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     7.2.  URI resolution scope alteration with the "id" keyword  . .  8
       7.2.1.  Valid values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
       7.2.2.  Usage  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       7.2.3.  Canonical dereferencing and inline dereferencing . . . 10
       7.2.4.  Inline dereferencing and fragments . . . . . . . . . . 11
     7.3.  Interoperability considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   8.  Recommended correlation mechanisms for use with the HTTP
       protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     8.1.  Correlation by means of the "Content-Type" header  . . . . 11
     8.2.  Correlation by means of the "Link" header  . . . . . . . . 12
   9.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   Appendix A.  ChangeLog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13




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1.  Introduction

   JSON Schema is a JSON media type for defining the structure of JSON
   data.  JSON Schema provides a contract for what JSON data is required
   for a given application and how to interact with it.  JSON Schema is
   intended to define validation, documentation, hyperlink navigation,
   and interaction control of JSON data.

   This specification defines JSON Schema core terminology and
   mechanisms; related specifications build upon this specification and
   define different applications of JSON Schema.

2.  Conventions and Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

   The terms "JSON", "JSON text", "JSON value", "member", "element",
   "object", "array", "number", "string", "boolean", "true", "false",
   and "null" in this document are to be interpreted as defined in RFC
   4627 [RFC4627].

3.  Core terminology

3.1.  Property, item

   When refering to a JSON Object, as defined by [RFC4627], the terms
   "member" and "property" may be used interchangeably.

   When refering to a JSON Array, as defined by [RFC4627], the terms
   "element" and "item" may be used interchangeably.

3.2.  JSON Schema, keywords

   A JSON Schema is a JSON document, and that document MUST be an
   object.  Object members (or properties) defined by JSON Schema (this
   specification, or related specifications) are called keywords, or
   schema keywords.

   A JSON Schema MAY contain properties which are not schema keywords.

3.3.  Empty schema

   An empty schema is a JSON Schema with no properties, or with
   properties which are not schema keywords.





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3.4.  Root schema, subschema

   This example of a JSON Schema has no subschemas:


   {
       "title": "root"
   }


   JSON Schemas can also be nested, as in this example:


   {
       "title": "root",
       "otherSchema": {
           "title": "nested",
           "anotherSchema": {
               "title": "alsoNested"
           }
       }
   }


   In this example, "nested" and "alsoNested" are subschemas, and "root"
   is a root schema.

3.5.  JSON Schema primitive types

   JSON Schema defines seven primitive types for JSON values:

   array  A JSON array.

   boolean  A JSON boolean.

   integer  A JSON number without a fraction or exponent part.

   number  Any JSON number.  Number includes integer.

   null  The JSON null value.

   object  A JSON object.

   string  A JSON string.







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3.6.  JSON value equality

   Two JSON values are said to be equal if and only if:

      both are nulls; or

      both are booleans, and have the same value; or

      both are strings, and have the same value; or

      both are numbers, and have the same mathematical value; or

      both are arrays, and:

         have the same number of items; and

         items at the same index are equal according to this definition;
         or

      both are objects, and:

         have the same set of property names; and

         values for a same property name are equal according to this
         definition.

3.7.  Instance

   An instance is any JSON value.  An instance may be described by one
   or more schemas.

   An instance may also be referred to as "JSON instance", or "JSON
   data".

4.  Overview

   This document proposes a new media type "application/schema+json" to
   identify JSON Schema for describing JSON data.  JSON Schemas are
   themselves written in JSON.  This, and related specifications, define
   keywords allowing to describe this data in terms of allowable values,
   textual descriptions and interpreting relations with other resources.
   The following sections are a summary of features defined by related
   specifications.

4.1.  Validation

   JSON Schema allows applications to validate instances, either non
   interactively or interactively.  For instance, an application may



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   collect JSON data and check that this data matches a given set of
   constraints; another application may use a JSON Schema to build an
   interactive interface in order to collect user input according to
   constraints described by JSON Schema.

4.2.  Hypermedia and linking

   JSON Schema provides a method for extracting link relations from
   instances to other resources, as well as describing interpretations
   of instances as multimedia data.  This allows JSON data to be
   interpreted as rich hypermedia documents, placed in the context of a
   larger set of related resources.

5.  General considerations

5.1.  Applicability to all JSON values

   It is acknowledged that an instance may be any valid JSON value as
   defined by [RFC4627].  As such, JSON Schema does not mandate that an
   instance be of a particular type: JSON Schema can describe any JSON
   value, including null.

5.2.  Programming language independence

   JSON Schema is programming language agnostic.  The only limitations
   are the ones expressed by [RFC4627] and those of the host programming
   language.

5.3.  JSON Schema and HTTP

   This specification acknowledges the role of HTTP [RFC2616] as the
   dominant protocol in use on the Internet, and the wealth of official
   specifications related to it.

   This specification uses a subset of these specifications to recommend
   a set of mechanisms, usable by this protocol, to associate JSON
   instances to one or more schemas.

5.4.  JSON Schema and other protocols

   JSON Schema does not define any semantics for the client-server
   interface for any other protocols than HTTP.  These semantics are
   application dependent, or subject to agreement between the parties
   involved in the use of JSON Schema for their own needs.







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5.5.  Mathematical integers

   It is acknowledged by this specification that some programming
   languages, and their associated parsers, use different internal
   representations for floating point numbers and integers, while others
   do not.

   As a consequence, for interoperability reasons, JSON values used in
   the context of JSON Schema, whether that JSON be a JSON Schema or an
   instance, SHOULD ensure that mathematical integers be represented as
   integers as defined by this specification.

5.6.  Extending JSON Schema

   Implementations MAY choose to define additional keywords to JSON
   Schema.  Save for explicit agreement, schema authors SHALL NOT expect
   these additional keywords to be supported by peer implementations.
   Implementations SHOULD ignore keywords they do not support.

5.7.  Security considerations

   Both schemas and instances are JSON values.  As such, all security
   considerations defined in RFC 4627 [RFC4627] apply.

6.  The "$schema" keyword

6.1.  Purpose

   The "$schema" keyword is both used as a JSON Schema version
   identifier and the location of a resource which is itself a JSON
   Schema, which describes any schema written for this particular
   version.

   This keyword MUST be located at the root of a JSON Schema.  The value
   of this keyword MUST be a URI [RFC3986] and a valid JSON Reference
   [json-reference]; this URI MUST be both absolute and normalized.  The
   resource located at this URI MUST successfully describe itself.  It
   is RECOMMENDED that schema authors include this keyword in their
   schemas.

   The following values are predefined:

   http://json-schema.org/schema#  JSON Schema written against the
      current version of the specification.







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   http://json-schema.org/hyper-schema#  JSON Schema written against the
      current version of the specification.

   http://json-schema.org/draft-04/schema#  JSON Schema written against
      this version.

   http://json-schema.org/draft-04/hyper-schema#  JSON Schema
      hyperschema written against this version.

   http://json-schema.org/draft-03/schema#  JSON Schema written against
      JSON Schema, draft v3 [json-schema-03].

   http://json-schema.org/draft-03/hyper-schema#  JSON Schema
      hyperschema written against JSON Schema, draft v3
      [json-schema-03].

6.2.  Customization

   When extending JSON Schema with custom keywords, schema authors
   SHOULD define a custom URI for "$schema".  This custom URI MUST NOT
   be one of the predefined values.

7.  URI resolution scopes and dereferencing

7.1.  Definition

   JSON Schema uses JSON Reference [json-reference] as a mechanism for
   schema addressing.  It extends this specification in two ways:

      JSON Schema offers facilities to alter the base URI against which
      a reference must resolve by the means of the "id" keyword;

      it defines a specific dereferencing mechanism extending JSON
      Reference to accept arbitrary fragment parts.

   Altering the URI within a schema is called defining a new resolution
   scope.  The initial resolution scope of a schema is the URI of the
   schema itself, if any, or the empty URI if the schema was not loaded
   from a URI.

7.2.  URI resolution scope alteration with the "id" keyword

7.2.1.  Valid values

   The value for this keyword MUST be a string, and MUST be a valid URI.
   This URI MUST be normalized, and SHOULD NOT be an empty fragment (#)
   or the empty URI.




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7.2.2.  Usage

   The "id" keyword (or "id", for short) is used to alter the resolution
   scope.  When an id is encountered, an implementation MUST resolve
   this id against the most immediate parent scope.  The resolved URI
   will be the new resolution scope for this subschema and all its
   children, until another id is encountered.

   When using "id" to alter resolution scopes, schema authors SHOULD
   ensure that resolution scopes are unique within the schema.

   This schema will be taken as an example:


   {
       "id": "http://x.y.z/rootschema.json#",
       "schema1": {
           "id": "#foo"
       },
       "schema2": {
           "id": "otherschema.json",
           "nested": {
               "id": "#bar"
           },
           "alsonested": {
               "id": "t/inner.json#a"
           }
       },
       "schema3": {
           "id": "some://where.else/completely#"
       }
   }


   Subschemas at the following URI-encoded JSON Pointer [json-pointer]s
   (starting from the root schema) define the following resolution
   scopes:

   # (document root)  http://x.y.z/rootschema.json#

   #/schema1  http://x.y.z/rootschema.json#foo

   #/schema2  http://x.y.z/otherschema.json#

   #/schema2/nested  http://x.y.z/otherschema.json#bar






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   #/schema2/alsonested  http://x.y.z/t/inner.json#a

   #/schema3  some://where.else/completely#

7.2.3.  Canonical dereferencing and inline dereferencing

   When resolving a URI against a resolution scope, an implementation
   may choose two modes of operation:

   canonical dereferencing  The implementation dereferences all resolved
      URIs.

   inline dereferencing  The implementation chooses to dereference URIs
      within the schema.

   Implementations MUST support canonical dereferencing, and MAY support
   inline dereferencing.

   For example, consider this schema:


   {
       "id": "http://my.site/myschema#",
       "definitions": {
           "schema1": {
               "id": "schema1",
               "type": "integer"
           },
           "schema2", {
               "type": "array",
               "items": { "$ref": "schema1" }
           }
       }
   }


   When an implementation encounters the "schema1" reference, it
   resolves it against the most immediate parent scope, leading to URI
   "http://my.site/schema1#".  The way to process this URI will differ
   according to the chosen dereferencing mode:

      if canonical dereferencing is used, the implementation will
      dereference this URI, and fetch the content at this URI;

      if inline dereferencing is used, the implementation will notice
      that URI scope "http://my.site/schema1#" is already defined within
      the schema, and choose to use the appropriate subschema.




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7.2.4.  Inline dereferencing and fragments

   When using inline dereferencing, a resolution scope may lead to a URI
   which has a non empty fragment part which is not a JSON Pointer, as
   in this example:


   {
       "id": "http://some.site/schema#",
       "not": { "$ref": "#inner" },
       "definitions": {
           "schema1": {
               "id": "#inner",
               "type": "boolean"
           }
       }
   }


   An implementation choosing to support inline dereferencing SHOULD be
   able to use this kind of reference.  Implementations choosing to use
   canonical dereferencing, however, are not required to support it.

7.3.  Interoperability considerations

   Inline dereferencing can produce canonical URIs which differ from the
   canonical URI of the root schema.  Schema authors SHOULD ensure that
   implementations using canonical dereferencing obtain the same content
   as implementations using inline dereferencing.

   Extended JSON References using fragments which are not JSON Pointers
   are not dereferenceable by implementations choosing not to support
   inline dereferencing.  This kind of reference is defined for
   backwards compatibility, and SHOULD NOT be used in new schemas.

8.  Recommended correlation mechanisms for use with the HTTP protocol

   It is acknowledged by this specification that the majority of
   interactive JSON Schema processing will be over HTTP.  This section
   therefore gives recommendations for materializing an instance/schema
   correlation using mechanisms currently available for this protocol.
   An instance is said to be described by one (or more) schema(s).

8.1.  Correlation by means of the "Content-Type" header

   It is RECOMMENDED that a MIME type parameter by the name of "profile"
   be appended to the "Content-Type" header of the instance being
   processed.  If present, the value of this parameter MUST be a valid



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   URI, and this URI SHOULD resolve to a valid JSON Schema.  The MIME
   type MUST be "application/json", or any other subtype.

   An example of such a header would be:


   Content-Type: application/my-media-type+json;
             profile=http://example.com/my-hyper-schema#


8.2.  Correlation by means of the "Link" header

   When using the "Link" header, the relation type used MUST be
   "describedBy", as defined by RFC 5988, section 5.3 [RFC5988].  The
   target URI of the "Link" header MUST be a valid JSON Schema.

   An example of such a header would be:


   Link: <http://example.com/my-hyper-schema#>; rel="describedBy"


9.  IANA Considerations

   The proposed MIME media type for JSON Schema is defined as follows:

      type name: application;

      subtype name: schema+json.

10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]         Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
                     Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

10.2.  Informative References

   [RFC2616]         Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
                     Masinter, L., Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee,
                     "Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1",
                     RFC 2616, June 1999.

   [RFC3986]         Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter,
                     "Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic
                     Syntax", STD 66, RFC 3986, January 2005.




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   [RFC4627]         Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for
                     JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627,
                     July 2006.

   [RFC5988]         Nottingham, M., "Web Linking", RFC 5988,
                     October 2010.

   [json-reference]  Bryan, P. and K. Zyp, "JSON Reference (work in
                     progress)", September 2012, <http://tools.ietf.org/
                     html/draft-pbryan-zyp-json-ref-03>.

   [json-pointer]    Bryan, P. and K. Zyp, "JSON Pointer (work in
                     progress)", September 2012, <http://tools.ietf.org/
                     html/draft-ietf-appsawg-json-pointer-07>.

   [json-schema-03]  Court, G. and K. Zyp, "JSON Schema, draft 3",
                     September 2012, <http://tools.ietf.org/html/
                     draft-zyp-json-schema-03>.

Appendix A.  ChangeLog

   draft-00

      *  Initial draft.

      *  Salvaged from draft v3.

      *  Mandate the use of JSON Reference, JSON Pointer.

      *  Define the role of "id".  Define URI resolution scope.

      *  Add interoperability considerations.

Authors' Addresses

   Francis Galiegue (editor)

   EMail: fgaliegue@gmail.com













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   Kris Zyp (editor)
   SitePen (USA)
   530 Lytton Avenue
   Palo Alto, CA 94301
   USA

   Phone: +1 650 968 8787
   EMail: kris@sitepen.com


   Gary Court
   Calgary, AB
   Canada

   EMail: gary.court@gmail.com




































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