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Network Working Group                                        C.Partridge
Request For Comment: 1024                                       BBN/NNSC
                                                              G. Trewitt
                                                                Stanford
                                                            October 1987

                       HEMS VARIABLE DEFINITIONS

STATUS OF THIS MEMO

   This memo assigns instruction codes, defines object formats and
   object semantics for use with the High-Level Monitoring and Control
   Language, defined in RFC-1023.

   This memo is provisional and the definitions are subject to change.
   Readers should confirm that they have the most recent version of the
   memo.

   The authors assume a working knowledge of the ISO data encoding
   standard, ASN.1, and a general understanding of the IP protocol
   suite.

   Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

INTRODUCTION

   In other memos [RFC-1021, RFC-1022] the authors have described a
   general system for monitoring and controlling network entities; this
   system is called the High-Level Entity Management System (HEMS).
   This system permits applications to read and write values in remote
   entities which support a simple query processor.

   In this memo we standardize the language instruction codes, the
   objects which can be read or written, and the meanings of any
   constants stored in the objects.  There are three parts to this
   standardization: (1) the assignment of an ASN.1 tag to each value,
   (2) the definition of the external representation of the value (e.g.,
   INTEGER, OCTETSTRING, etc.), and (3) the definition of the meaning,
   or semantics of a value (e.g., what types of packets a particular
   packet counter actually tracks).

   This definition is provisional, and the authors hope that it will be
   expanded and improved as the community becomes more experienced with
   HEMS.  Readers with suggestions for additional object definitions, or
   improved definitions are encouraged to contact the authors.






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RFC 1024                    HEMS Definitions                October 1987


MESSAGE FORMATS

   All HEMS values are conveyed between applications and entities using
   the High-Level Entity Management Protocol (HEMP) specified in RFC-
   1022.  All values specified in this memo are passed in the data
   sections of HEMP messages.  For all message types, the data section
   is a SEQUENCE of objects.  For requests, these objects are operations
   and their operands.  Replies contain a sequence of objects retrieved
   by a request.  Events contain an initial event object followed by an
   optional number of objects related to the event.

   Messages conforming to this memo should set the link field in the
   HEMP CommonHeader to 1, to indicate version 1 of HEMS.  The
   resourceId field should be set to NULL.


CONTROL LANGUAGE INSTRUCTIONS

   The HEMS Monitoring and Control Language defines a suite of
   operations which the query processor must be able to perform.  These
   operations and their operands are ASN.1 objects which are passed to
   the query processor over a network connection.  The operations and
   operands are sent in postfix form (the operation follows the
   operands). Operands are pushed onto a stack and are processed when
   the operation is encountered.

   To ensure that operations are easily recognized in the input stream,
   they are all encoded in a single application-specific type.  This
   type is shown below.

               Operation ::= [APPLICATION 1] IMPLICIT INTEGER {
                       reserved(0), get(1) begin(2), end(3),
                       get-match(4), get-attributes(5),
                       get-attributes-match(6), get-range(7),
                       set(8), set-match(9)
                   }

   When the query processor encounters an Operation object it consults
   the value to determine which operation is to be done (e.g., GET).

GENERAL COMMENTS ON OBJECTS STORED IN ENTITIES

   The High-Level Monitoring and Control Language requires the object
   space to have a tree-shaped type space.  Locating a particular object
   requires identifying that section of the tree in which the object
   resides.  (A more detailed explanation of the scheme is given in
   RFC-1023).




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   This memo defines a universal type space.  A subset of this type
   space is expected to be an appropriate type space for any entity
   (e.g., a gateway or a multi-user host).  The type space is divided
   into required and optional portions.  Implementors should implement
   the required portion of the type space plus that part of the optional
   type space which is appropriate for their particular entity.

   One problem with defining a universal type space is that certain
   interesting objects are not universal, but are instead very machine
   specific (for example, status registers on specialized hardware).  To
   allow implementors to retrieve such implementation-specific objects
   using the HEMS system, a special APPLICATION type is reserved for
   non-standard values.

   Putting objects in ASN.1 form implies an ability to map to and from
   ASN.1 format.  One of the design goals of this system has been to
   minimize the amount of ASN.1 compilation required by the query
   processor to reduce the expense of processing queries at entities.
   (This implies a certain willingness to force the applications
   querying entities to be more powerful).  We expect that most of the
   complex mapping will be done when objects are read; most writable
   objects have a simple format (e.g., an INTEGER, or OCTETSTRING).  As
   a result, we have made a heavy use of the ASN.1 SET type, which
   allows values to be presented in any order.  Applications which
   require particular fields in an object may use the template structure
   to specify particular fields to be retrieved, but this still permits
   the query processor to return the fields in whatever order is
   convenient.

   In addition to ease the problems of ASN.1 compilation, query
   processors are not required to reduce an INTEGER to the minimum
   number of octets as specified in ASN.1.  Applications should be
   prepared to receive INTEGERs which have leading octets with all zeros
   or ones.

   More generally, a design goal of HEMS was to try to limit the data
   processing done at the entity, and to place the burden of data
   reduction on the querying application.  As a result, the objects
   presented here are typically counters, or values which the entity has
   to compute already.  Object definitions which require the entity to
   do data reduction are not supported, although consideration might be
   given to making them optionally available.

   Finally, HEMS is required to support access by multiple network
   management centers or applications.  This constraint has some
   important consequences.  First, the SET operation cannot be applied
   to any Counter, since changing the value of a Counter may impair data
   acquisition by other centers.  More generally, there are questions



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   about competing or clashing SET requests from management centers.
   Currently HEMS does not provide any facilities for protecting against
   such requests.  If such facilities become necessary, the authors
   envision the enhancement of the object definitions to incorporate the
   idea of "owned" objects.


READING THE OBJECT DEFINITIONS

   Most of the rest of this memo is devoted to ennumerating the objects
   managed by the query processor.  Many of these objects are
   dictionaries, objects which reference other objects.  Defining
   dictionaries requires that we specify the class of objects they
   reference.

   Most significant objects, such as packet counts, reside at the leaves
   of the object data tree.  They need to be carefully defined to ensure
   that their meaning is consistent across all HEMS implementations.
   These values are defined using the following format:


   OBJECT:  This is the name of the object.

   Type:  This is the ASN.1 type of the object.

   Definition:  The meaning of the data the object contains.
           Implementations should ensure that their instance of
           the object fulfills this definition since an important
           feature of HEMS is that objects have consistent meaning
           across all machines.  It is better not to implement
           an object than to abuse its definition.

   Notes:  An optional section of the definition which is used
           to discuss issues not covered in other sections of
           this specification.

   Object Status:  An optional section of the definition which
           is used to indicate whether the object is required of all
           HEMS implementations, encouraged of HEMS implementations
           or simply considered useful.  Currently, there are four
           levels of status:

               Required:  The object is felt to provide critical
               information and must be included in a fully
               conforming HEMS implementation.

               Required On Condition:  The object is felt to
               provide critical information about an optional



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               feature of an IP entity (for example, support of
               the Transmission Control Protocol).  The object
               is required if the feature is implemented in the
               entity.

               Encouraged:  The object is felt to provide very
               useful management information and implementors
               are encouraged to implement it.

               Defined:  The object may be useful and has been
               defined so that all implementations of the object
               are consistent.

           If the object status is not specified, the object should
           be considered required.  If the parent dictionary is optional,
           then the object should be considered required if the parent
           dictionary is supported.

   Operations on Object:  The definition of how each monitoring
           and control operation acts on the object.  Many operations
           have the same effect on almost all values, so some
           default definitions are presented here.  In the absence
           of an operation specification, implementors should use
           the default operations defined here.

           BEGIN:  The default is for BEGIN to be defined for
               dictionaries, and an error if performed on leaf
               objects in the tree.

           CREATE:  The default is that CREATE is undefined.

           DELETE:  The default is that DELETE is undefined.

           END:  END is a stack operation and is defined for all objects.
               Note that END may fail if there is no object on the
               stack.


           GET-ATTRIBUTES:  The default is that GET-ATTRIBUTES is
               defined on the contents of all dictionaries specified
               in this memo.  The text description attributes
               are optional for values defined in this memo, but
               are required for implementation-specific objects.
               Any descriptions of object listed in this memo should
               cite this memo.  GET-ATTRIBUTES must be supported on
               all entity-specific values.  GET-ATTRIBUTES
               returns a Attributes object, which is defined in
               the well-known types section below.



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           GET-ATTRIBUTES-MATCH:  The default is that
               GET-ATTRIBUTES-MATCH is optionally defined on any
               object which supports GET-MATCH, and is an error
               otherwise.  The rules for attributes returned by
               GET-ATTRIBUTES-MATCH are the same as those for
               GET-ATTRIBUTES.

           GET:  The default definition of GET is to emit the operand
               specified is a leaf object, and if the operand is a
               dictionary, to recursively GET the entire dictionary and
               its subdictionaries.

           GET-MATCH:  Unless otherwise specified, GET-MATCH is not
               supported on an object.

           GET-RANGE:  Unless otherwise specified, GET-RANGE is not
               supported on an object.

           SET:  Unless otherwise specified, SET is not supported on an
               object.

           SET-MATCH:  Unless otherwise specified, SET-MATCH is not
               supported on an object.


ATTRIBUTES

   HEMS requires that remote applications be able to discover the
   meaning of an object by querying the entity in which the object is
   stored.  This is done through use of the GET-ATTRIBUTES operator,
   which causes an Attributes object to be returned to the application.
   The Attributes object is described below.

           Attributes ::= [APPLICATION 2] IMPLICIT SEQUENCE {
               tagASN1       [0] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
               valueFormat   [1] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
               longDesc      [2] IMPLICIT IA5String OPTIONAL,
               shortDesc     [3] IMPLICIT IA5String OPTIONAL,
               unitsDesc     [4] IMPLICIT IA5String OPTIONAL,
               precision     [5] IMPLICIT INTEGER OPTIONAL,
               properties    [6] IMPLICIT BITSTRING OPTIONAL,
           }

   The meanings of the various attributes are given below.

           tagASN1:  The ASN.1 tag for this object.
               This attribute is required.




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           valueFormat:  The underlying ASN.1 type of the object
               (e.g., SEQUENCE, or OCTETSTRING).  This attribute
               is required.

           longDesc:  A potentially lengthy text description which
               fully defines the object.  This attribute is optional
               for objects defined in this memo and required for
               entity-specific objects.

           shortDesc:  A short mnemonic string of less than 15 octets
               which is suitable for labelling the value on a display.
               This attribute is optional.

           unitsDesc:  A short string used for integer values to
               indicate the units in which the value is measured
               (e.g. "ms", "sec", "packets", etc).  This attribute
               is optional.

           precision:  For Counter objects, the value at which the
               Counter will roll-over.  Required for all Counter
               objects.

           properties:  A bitstring of boolean properties of the
               object.  If the bit is on, it has the given property.
               This attribute is optional.  The bits currently
               defined are:

                   0 -- If true, the difference between two values
                       of this object is significant. For example,
                       the changes in a packet count is always
                       significant, it always conveys information.
                       In this case, the 0 bit would be set.  On the
                       other hand, the difference between two readings
                       of a queue length may be meaningless.


IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFIC TYPES

   Each vendor or implementation specific value must be contained within
   an VendorSpecific object.  The format of the VendorSpecific object is
   shown below.

   Type:  VendorSpecific

            VendorSpecific ::= [APPLICATION 3] IMPLICIT SET of ANY






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   For a detailed discussion of the need for this type, see RFC 1023.

WELL-KNOWN TYPES

   There are some generally useful types which are defined across the
   system and are considered well-known.  These types support abstract
   notions that are frequently used in other definitions.

   TYPE: Error

           Error ::= [APPLICATION 0] IMPLICIT SEQUENCE {
               errorCode INTEGER,
               errorOffset INTEGER
               errorDescription IA5String,
           }

   The Error type is returned within reply messages when an error is
   countered.  The errorCode is a number specifying a general class of
   error.  The errorOffset is the octet in the query where the error was
   discovered.  Note that the query starts at the first octet (octet 0)
   of the HEMP data section.  The errorDescription is a text message
   explaining the error.  Note that the definition of this section is
   the same (except for the start of the offset) as that of the HEMP
   protocol error structure and the error codes have been selected to
   keep the code spaces distinct.  This is intended to ease the
   processing of error messages.  The defined errorCodes are:

               100 -- Any error not listed below.

               101 -- System error.  The query processor has failed
                   in some way.

               102 -- Format error.  An error has been detected in
                   the input stream.

               103 -- Stack error.  A stack overflow or underflow has
                   occurred.

               104 -- Instruction error.  The instruction is either
                   unknown, or not supported on the object to which
                   it has been applied.

               105 -- Operand error.  The wrong number of operands or
                   inappropriate operands have been given to an
                   instruction.






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   TYPE:  Counter

       Counter ::= [APPLICATION 4] IMPLICIT INTEGER

   The Counter type is an unsigned integer which is defined to roll-over
   to 0 when incremented past a certain value.  (The roll-over point may
   be found by examining the attributes for the particular counter.)
   Counter sizes should be chosen such that the counters will not roll
   over more than once every 24 hours.

   TYPE:  InstructionGroup

       InstructionGroup ::= [APPLICATION 5] IMPLICIT SEQUENCE
           of ANY

   An InstructionGroup is an encapsulated sequence of operands and
   operations.  It allows applications to encode queries as objects.

   TYPE:  Histogram

       Histogram ::= SET of HistEntry

       HistEntry ::= SEQUENCE {
           histValue INTEGER,
           histCount Counter
       }

   A Histogram associates a count, histCount, with a numeric value,
   histValue.  No meaning is placed on the count or value by this
   definition.  Each HistEntry may represent a simple map (e.g.,
   histCount instances of histValue), or a more complex relationship
   (e.g., a count of all values between this histValue and the next
   lowest histValue in the Histogram).  The meaning of the particular
   Histogram is given in the object definition.

   TYPE: TrafficMatrix

       TrafficMatrix ::= SET of TrafficEntry

       TrafficEntry ::= SEQUENCE {
           src IpAddress,
           dst IpAddress,
           count Counter
       }

   A TrafficMatrix measures traffic observed between two IP addresses.
   Typically it is used to count packets flowing through a gateway.




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   TYPE:  IpAddress

       IpAddress ::= OCTETSTRING

   The 4 octet IP address.  If the length of the string is less than 4
   then the missing octets are wildcarded.  A zero length string is a
   default address (e.g., for indicating default routes).


   TYPE: Fraction

       Fraction ::= INTEGER

   A Fraction is an integer representation of a fractional value.  It
   contains the numerator of a value as expressed over 256.  (For
   example dividing the Fraction by 256 gives the fractional value.)

   TYPE:  BootClock

       BootClock ::= INTEGER

   The time in milliseconds since the machine was last booted or reset.
   This value is always defined.

   TYPE:  localClock

       LocalClock ::= INTEGER

   The local system clock, measured in milliseconds since 00:00 1
   January 1900 UTC.  Assumed to be only a local estimate of the time.
   The value 0 is reserved for an uninitialized clock (For example, an
   uninitialized time-of-day chip.)


   TYPE:  NetClock

       NetClock ::= INTEGER

   A network synchronized clock, which is assumed to be synchronized
   across some part of a network.  The clock value is measured in
   milliseconds since 00:00 1 January 1900 UTC.  Specific information
   about the synchronization protocol is found in the system variable
   dictionary.  The value 0 is used to indicate an uninitialized clock.

   TYPE: TimeStamp

       TimeStamp ::= CHOICE {
           [0] BootClock



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           [1] localClock
           [2] NetClock
       }

   A TimeStamp, which was taken from the boot clock, system clock or the
   synchronized clock.  In general, a time of day is preferred to the
   time since boot, and a synchronized clock is preferred to an
   unsynchronized clock.  It is more useful to know that an event
   occurred at a particular time, than that it happened so many
   milliseconds after the machine booted.


OBJECT DEFINITIONS

The Root Dictionary

   In HEMS, all data is stored in dictionaries, where a dictionary is
   thought to represent a conceptual grouping of values.  The top-level
   dictionary is the root dictionary.  The form of the root dictionary
   for is shown below.

           RootDictionary ::= [APPLICATION 32] IMPLICIT SET {
               SystemVariables,
               EventControls OPTIONAL,
               Interfaces,
               IpNetworkLayer,
               IpRoutingTable,
               IpTransportLayer,
               IpApplications OPTIONAL
           }

The root dictionary is split into seven general dictionaries:

           - SystemVariables, which stores general system values such
           as the system clock, machine memory and system up/down
           status.

           - EventControls, which stores all objects necessary to
           observe and control the event generating mechanism in
           entities which support events.

           - interfaces, which contains all information on all
           the network interfaces and IP to physical address
           maps (ARP tables, X.25 Standard mappings, etc).

           - IpNetworkLayer, which contains information about the
           workings of the IP layer.  This includes information such
           as routing tables, general packet counts, and host-traffic



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           matrices.

           - IpRoutingTable, which contains information on how the
           machine routes packets.  It proved more useful to segregate
           routing information than to keep it stored with the network
           layer data.

           - IpTransportLayer, which stores information on the transport
           protocols that the entity supports.

           - IpApplications, which may store information about various
           internet applications such as the domain system.  This
           section is not required of HEMS entities.

   The next several sections define the values stored in the five
   dictionaries.


The SystemVariables Dictionary

   The SystemVariables dictionary stores objects which are not strictly
   protocol, network, or application specific.  Such objects include
   values such as the machine load, clocks and the processor status.
   The form of the dictionary is shown below.

   SystemVariables ::= [APPLICATION 33] IMPLICIT SET {
       referenceClock   [0] IMPLICIT TimeStamp,
       netClockInfo     [1] IMPLICIT SET OPTIONAL,
       processorLoad    [2] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
       entityState      [3] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
       kernelMemory     [4] IMPLICIT OCTETSTRING OPTIONAL,
       pktBuffers       [5] IMPLICIT INTEGER OPTIONAL,
       pktOctets        [6] IMPLICIT INTEGER OPTIONAL,
       pktBuffersFree   [7] IMPLICIT INTEGER OPTIONAL,
       pktOctetsFree    [8] IMPLICIT INTEGER OPTIONAL
       systemID         [9] IMPLICIT IA5STRING,
   }

   OBJECT:  SystemVariables

   Type:  SET

   Definition:  see above

   The objects in the dictionary are defined below.

   OBJECT:  referenceClock




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   Type:  TimeStamp

   Definition:  The system clock used for placing timestamps on
       information.  Use of a NetClock is encouraged.

   Operations on Object:  Defaults.

   Notes:  Cross-network clock adjustment is best handled by a proper
           time synchronization protocol, not through the use of SET.


   OBJECT:  netClockInfo

   Type:  SET

   Definition:  Detailed information on the referenceClock if the
       referenceClock is a NetClock.  The format of this
       information is shown below.

       netClockInfo ::= [1] IMPLICIT SET {
           estError INTEGER,
           refClockType INTEGER {
               unspecified(0), primary-reference(1),
               ntp-secondary-reference(2), secondary-reference(3),
               wristwatch(4)
             }
        }

        The estError is the estimated error in milliseconds.  The
        refClockType is a value indicating the type of reference
        clock consulted for network time  (the values are taken
        directly from the Network Time Protocol specification,
        RFC-958).

   Object Status:  Required if the referenceClock is a NetClock.


   OBJECT: processorLoad

   Type:  Fraction

   Definition:  A value, expressed as a Fraction, which indicates
           the current processing load on the entity.  A value of
           256 (= 1.0) is defined to be running at capacity.  It
           is recognized that this is an imprecise definition since
           capacity can be measured in several ways.  For example,
           a multiprocessor may still have plenty of capacity
           even if one processor is running at capacity,



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           or it may be at capacity because that processor is the
           master processor and handles all context switching.
           The idea is for remote applications to be able to get some
           sense of the current workload on the entity.  Also note
           that the time scale of the measurement should be small.
           A load measure that averages over the past 10 seconds
           is acceptable but a load measure that averages over the
           past 10 minutes is not.  Implementors should chose some
           mapping between system load and this scale such that 256
           represents a machine under severe strain.  (Note that this
           suggests that values greater than 256 may be returned in
           rare cases.)

   OBJECT:  entityState

   Type:  INTEGER

   Definition: An object which indicates the system state.  There are
         several defined object values.  Some values are read-only and
         can only be read from the object.  Over values are write-only
         and will never be read from the object. Over values are
         write-only and will never be read from the object.The values
         are:

           The read-only values are:

                   (0) -- reserved.

                   (1) -- running.  The entity is up and running.

                   (2) -- testing.  The entity is running some sort of
                       diagnostics which may affect its network
                       operation.

           The write-only values are:

                   (0) -- reserved.

                   (1) -- reset the entity.

                   (2) -- reboot the entity. This value is assumed to
                       cause a more aggressive recycling of the system
                       than reset, though this need not be the case.

                   (3) -- halt the entity.  This value stops the
                       entity.  It assumed to prevent the entity from
                       operating until it is manually restarted.  (I.e.
                       the halt takes the machine off the network).



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   Note:  The ability to change an entity's state requires very strong
      access controls.


   Operations on Object:  The defaults except as noted below.

       SET:  Optionally writes the value into the object.
             The message requesting the SET must be authenticated.

       SET-MATCH:  Optionally writes the value into the object
             if the current value is matched.

   OBJECT:  kernelMemory

   Type:  OCTETSTRING

   Definition:  A sequence of octets which represents the image of the
        kernel software running on the entity.  This facility is
        provided to allow remote network debugging.

        By kernel software, we mean that software which controls the
        operations and access to the hardware.  In particular, the kernel
        is expected to contain all network software up through the IP
        layer.

        Implementations which use lightweight processes or segmented
        images should consider providing some way to map their internal
        representation into a single contiguous stream of octets.

   Note:  Access control is required to read this object.

   Object Status:  Useful.

   Operations on Object:  The defaults except as noted below.

       GET-RANGE:  Emits the section of memory specified.

       GET:  Emits all of memory, but note that a GET on the system
           dictionary should *not* emit this object.

   OBJECT:  pktBuffers

   Type:  INTEGER

   Definition:  The total number of packet buffers in the entity.

   Object Status:  Required if the entity has a maximum number of
       buffers.  Note that most entities do have a limit (even if it



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       is for practical purposes, near infinite) and should return
       that limit.

   OBJECT:  pktOctets

   Type:  INTEGER

   Definition:  The maximum number of octets that can be buffered in the
       entity at any one time.

   Object Status:  Required if the entity has a maximum number of octets
       it can buffer.  Note that most entities do have a limit and
       should return that limit.


   OBJECT:  pktBuffersFree

   Type:  INTEGER

   Definition:  The number of packet buffers currently available.
       Subtracting pktBuffersFree from pktBuffers should give the
       number of buffers in use.

   Object Status:  Required if there is a limit on the number of
       buffers.


   OBJECT: pktOctetsFree

   Type: INTEGER

   Definition:  The number of octets currently available including those
       not used in allocated buffers.  Subtracting this value from
       pktOctets should give the number of octets in use.

       This object can be used to track how well the entity buffers its
       data.

       Object Status:  Required if there is a limit on the number of
       octets that can be buffered.


   OBJECT:  systemID

   Type:  IA5STRING

   Definition:  The text identification of the entity.  This value
       should include the full name of the vendor, the type of system,



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       and the version number of the hardware and software running on
       the entity.


The EventControls Dictionary

    The EventControls dictionary contains objects to control and
    monitor the delivery of event messages to operations centers.
    The format of this dictionary is shown below.


       EventControls ::= [APPLICATION 34] IMPLICIT SET OPTIONAL {
           lastEvent      [0] IMPLICIT OCTETSTRING OPTIONAL,
           eventMessageID [1] IMPLICIT Counter,
           eventCenters   [2] IMPLICIT SET of IpAddress,
           eventList      [3] IMPLICIT SET of eventEntry,
       }


    OBJECT: eventControls

    Type: SET

    Definition: See above.

    Object Status:  This object will be required in entities which
        support events, after the event definitions have been
        properly specified.  See discussion of the event formats
        at the end of this memo.

    A description of the fields in this dictionary are given below.


    OBJECT:  lastEvent

    Type:  OCTETSTRING

    Definition:  The last event message sent.

    Object Status: Implementation of this object is encouraged if the
        transport protocol used for events is unreliable (e.g., UDP).


    OBJECT:  eventMessageID


    Type:  Counter




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    Definition:  The HEMP MessageId to be used in the next event
        message.  Equals the number of events sent.

    OBJECT:  eventCenters

    Type:  SET of IpAddress

    Definition:  The list of IP addresses to which events are sent.
        This list receives all events.  For more selective event
        monitoring, centers should list themselves under the
        particular events of interest.

    Note:  If the SET operator is defined then use of some form of
        access control is recommended.

    Operations on Object: The defaults except as listed below.

        CREATE:  Adds an address to the list.  The new address may
            not be a broadcast address (it may be a multicast
            address).

        DELETE:  Deletes an address from the list.

        SET-MATCH:  Defined on the IP address.  Replaces the
            address with a new value.

        EMIT-MATCH:  Defined on the IP address.


    OBJECT:  eventList

    Type: SET of eventEntry

    Definition: An array of entries which contain objects which allow
        management centers to control how and when events are sent.
        (The contents of the eventEntry structure are explained below.)

The eventControls Dictionary:  eventList/eventEntry

    The eventEntry provides the necessary control objects to manage how
    a particular event is sent.  The format of the eventEntry is shown
    below.

            eventEntry ::= [0] IMPLICIT SET {
                eventID        [0] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                eventMode      [1] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                eventCount     [2] IMPLICIT Counter,
                threshold      [3] IMPLICIT Counter,



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                thresholdIncr  [4] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                eventExecution [5] IMPLICIT InstructionGroup OPTIONAL,
                eventCenters   [6] IMPLICIT SET of IpAddress
            }

    OBJECT:  eventEntry

    Type:  SET

    Definition:  See Above.


    OBJECT:  eventID

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The particular event ID.


    OBJECT:  eventMode

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  A control object which determines how and whether this
        event is sent.  The three modes are:

           0 -- unused.

           1 -- off.  The event is not sent.

           2 -- on.   The event is sent every time it occurs.

           3 -- threshold.  The event is sent every time the
                event count reaches the threshold.


    OBJECT:  eventCount

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The number of times this event has occurred.


    OBJECT:  threshold

    Type:  Counter





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    Definition: The event threshold.  If the eventMode is "threshold"
        then a event is sent every time the eventCount equals this
        value.

    Operations on Object:  The defaults except as noted below.

            SET:  Changes the threshold.

    OBJECT:  thresholdIncr

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The threshold increment.  Every time a event threshold
        is reached, the threshold value is incremented by this value
        (modulo the precision of the Counter) to find the new
        threshold.

    Operations on Object:  The defaults except as noted below.

            SET:  Changes the increment.


    OBJECT:  eventExecution

    Type:  InstructionGroup

    Definition:  A query to be executed whenever the event is actually
        sent.  Any data retrieved by this query is appended to the
        event message.

    Object Status:  Encouraged.

    Operations on Object:  The defaults except as noted below.

            SET:  Changes the buffer.


    OBJECT:  eventCenters

    Type:  SET

    Definition:  The IP addresses of the monitoring centers which wish
        to listen to this particular event.  Note that events should be
        sent to both these centers and the global list of event centers.

    Operations on Object:  The defaults except as noted below.

            CREATE:  Adds an address to the list of centers.



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            DELETE:  Deletes an address from the list.

            SET-MATCH:  Defined on the IP address.  Replaces the
                entry with a new value.

            EMIT-MATCH:  Defined on the IP address.


The Interfaces Dictionary

    The Interfaces dictionary a list of per-interface objects.  Since
    one of the fundamental goals of HEMS is to use generic interfaces
    across differing hardwares, all hardware interfaces are described by
    the same data structure, the InterfaceData.

         Interfaces ::= [APPLICATION 35] IMPLICIT SET OF InterfaceData

    OBJECT:  Interfaces

    Type:  SET

    Definition:  see above.


The Interfaces Dictionary: The InterfaceData structure.

    The InterfaceData structure contains all information on a particular
    interface.  The form of the structure is shown below.

            InterfaceData ::= [0] IMPLICIT SET {
                addresses         [0] IMPLICIT SET of IpAddress,
                mtu               [1] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                netMask           [2] IMPLICIT IpAddress,
                pktsIn            [3] IMPLICIT Counter,
                pktsOut           [4] IMPLICIT Counter,
                inputPktsDropped  [5] IMPLICIT Counter,
                outputPktsDropped [6] IMPLICIT Counter,
                bcastPktsIn       [7] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
                bcastPktsOut      [8] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
                mcastPktsIn       [9] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
                mcastPktsOut     [10] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
                inputErrors      [11] IMPLICIT Counter,
                outputErrors     [12] IMPLICIT Counter,
                outputQLen       [13] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                name             [14] IMPLICIT IA5String,
                status           [15] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                ifType           [16] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                mediaErrors      [17] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,



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                upTime           [18] IMPLICIT TimeStamp,
                broadcast        [19] IMPLICIT BITSTRING
                multicast        [20] IMPLICIT SET of BITSTRING,
                addressList      [21] IMPLICIT SET OPTIONAL,
            }

    OBJECT:  InterfaceData

    Type:  SET

    Definition:  see above.

    Operations on Object:  The defaults except as noted below.

        SET-MATCH:  This operation is optionally defined on the
            address field of the structure.  Only certain fields
            in this structure may be changed.  The fields which
            may be SET are indicated in the descriptions below.

        GET-MATCH:  Defined to emit information on the interface
            which matches the address given.

    The fields in the structure are defined below.


    OBJECT:  addresses

    Type:  SET of IpAddress

    Definition:  The IP addresses that the interface accepts.  Note that
        additional information on multicast addresses may be found in
        the IgmpValues dictionary.


    OBJECT:  mtu

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The maximum transmission unit of the device.


    OBJECT:  netMask

    Type:  IpAddress

    Definition:  The subnet mask, which is an address with all the
        network bits set to 1 and all the hosts bits set to 0.  Used to
        identify subnets.



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    OBJECT:  pktsIn

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The total number of packets received on this interface
        including those in error.


    OBJECT:  pktsOut

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The total number of packets that higher levels have
        attempted to send, including those that were not sent.


    OBJECT:  inputPktsDropped

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The number of good inbound packets dropped (presumably
        to free up buffer space).

    OBJECT:  outputPktsDropped

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The number of good outbound packets dropped (presumably
        to free up buffer space).

    OBJECT:  bcastPktsIn

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The number of broadcast packets received including
        those in error.

    Object Status:  Encouraged on interfaces that support broadcast.


    OBJECT:  bcastPktsOut

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The number of broadcast packets that higher levels
        attempted to send, including those that were not sent.

    Object Status:  Encouraged on interfaces that support broadcast.



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    OBJECT:  mcastPktsIn

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The number of multicast packets received including
        those in error.

    Object Status:  Encouraged on interfaces that support multicast.



    OBJECT:  mcastPktsOut

    Type:  Counter

    Definition: The number of multicast packets sent, including those
        that were not sent.

    Object Status:  Encouraged on interfaces that support multicast.


    OBJECT:  inputErrors

    Type:  Counter

    Definition: The number of inbound packets that could not be
        delivered.  The number of inbound packets delivered
        should equal inputPkts less this value and inputPktsDropped.

    OBJECT:  outputErrors

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The number of outbound packets that could not be
        transmitted because of errors.  The number of outbound
        packets placed on the network should equal outputPkts
        less this value and outputPktsDropped.

    OBJECT:  outputQLen

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The length of the output packet queue (in packets).


    OBJECT:  name

    Type:  IA5String



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    Definition:  A text string completely identifying the interface.
        This string should include the name of the manufacturer, the
        product name and the version of the hardware.

    OBJECT:  status

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The status of the object.  The status values are:

                0 -- reserved
                1 -- testing (the interface is in some test mode)
                2 -- down  (the interface is down)
                3 -- up  (the interface is up ready to pass packets)

    Note:  If set operations are defined, access control is required.

    Operations on Object:  The defaults except as noted below.

       SET:  Optionally defined to change the state of the interface.

    OBJECT:  ifType

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition: A flag which indicates the type of interface in use.  The
        currently defined types are:

                     0 -- reserved
                     1 -- 1822 HDH
                     2 -- 1822
                     3 -- FDDI
                     4 -- DDN X.25
                     5 -- RFC-877 X.25
                     6 -- StarLan
                     7 -- Proteon 10Mbit
                     8 -- Proteon 80Mbit
                     9 -- Ethernet
                    10 -- 802.3 Ethernet
                    11 -- 802.4 Token Bus
                    12 -- 802.5 Token Ring
                    13 -- Point-to-Point Serial

    OBJECT:  mediaErrors

    Type:  Counter





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    Definition:  A counter of media errors, such as collisions on
        Ethernets, token regeneration on token passing rings, or lost
        RFNMs on PSNs.

    Object Status:  Encouraged for interfaces to media which have such
        errors.


    OBJECT:  upTime

    Type:  TimeStamp

    Definition:  When the interface was put in its current state.


    OBJECT:  broadcast

    Type:  BITSTRING

    Definition:  Whether this interface has a physical broadcast
        address.

    Object Status:  Required if the interface has a broadcast adddress.


    OBJECT:  multicast

    Type:  SET of BITSTRING

    Definition: The set of hardware multicast addresses currently
        enabled on the device.

    Object Status:  Encouraged in interfaces which support multicast.



    OBJECT:  addressList

    Definition:  SET of addressMap

         addressMap ::= [0] IMPLICIT SET {
                 ipAddr     [0] IMPLICIT IpAddress
                 physAddr   [1] IMPLICIT BITSTRING
         }

    Definition:  Most interfaces maintain tables mapping physical
        network address to IP address.  An example is an ARP table.
        This table stores that map as a series of entries which map



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        IP addresses to the physical address.

    Object Status:  Required if the interface has to map IP addresses to
        physical addresses.

The IpNetworkLayer Dictionary

    The IpNetworkLayer dictionary contains all information about the IP
    Layer.  The format of the dictionary is shown below.

            IpNetworkLayer ::= [APPLICATION 36] IMPLICIT SET {
                gateway           [0] IMPLICIT BOOLEAN,
                inputPkts         [1] IMPLICIT Counter,
                inputErrors       [2] IMPLICIT Counter,
                inputPktsDropped  [3] IMPLICIT Counter,
                inputQLen         [4] IMPLICIT INTEGER OPTIONAL,
                outputPkts        [5] IMPLICIT Counter,
                outputErrors      [6] IMPLICIT Counter,
                outputPktsDropped [7] IMPLICIT Counter,
                outputQLen        [8] IMPLICIT INTEGER OPTIONAL,
                ipID              [9] IMPLICIT Counter,
                fragCreated       [10] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
                fragRcvd          [11] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
                fragDropped       [12] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
                pktsReassembled   [13] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
                pktsFragmented    [14] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
                htm               [15] IMPLICIT TrafficMatrix OPTIONAL,
                itm               [16] IMPLICIT TrafficMatrix OPTIONAL
            }

    OBJECT:  IpNetworkLayer

    Type:  SET

    Definition:  See above.


    The fields of the dictionary are defined below.


    OBJECT:  gateway

    Type:  BOOLEAN

    Definition: A boolean value which is true if the entity gateways
        packets.





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    OBJECT: inputPkts

    Type: Counter

    Definition: The total number of input packets received including
        those in error.


    OBJECT: inputErrors

    Type: Counter

    Definition:  The number of input packets discarded due to errors
        (unknown protocols, format errors, etc).


    OBJECT:  inputPktsDropped

    Type:  Counter

    Definition: The number of input packets dropped for lack of buffer
        space.


    OBJECT:  inputQLen

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The number of inbound packets currently waiting to be
        processed by the IP layer.

    Object Status:  Encouraged.


    OBJECT:  outputPkts

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The total number of outbound packets including both
        those packets presented to the IP layer by higher layers and
        packets which are gatewayed.


    OBJECT:  outputErrors

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The number of output packets discarded because of



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        errors (unable to route, format errors, etc).


    OBJECT:  outputPktsDropped

    Type: Counter

    Definition:  The number of output packets dropped for lack of
        buffer space.


    OBJECT:  outputQLen

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition: The number of outbound packets waiting to be processed
        by the IP layer.

    Object Status:  Encouraged.


    OBJECT:  ipID

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The next IP packet ID identifier to be used.  Note
        that in some implementations the transport layer may set the
        IP identifier, in which case this value is used if the IP
        identifier has not been set by the transport layer.

    OBJECT:  fragCreated

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The number of IP fragments created at this entity.
        (e.g., if an IP is split into three fragments at this entity,
        then this counter is incremented by three).

    Object Status:  Encouraged.


    OBJECT:  fragRcvd

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The number of IP fragments received at this entity.

    Object Status:  Encouraged.



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    OBJECT:  fragDropped

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The number of IP fragments discarded at this entity
        for whatever reason (timed out, errors, etc).

    Object Status:  Encouraged.


    OBJECT:  pktsReassembled

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The number of IP datagrams that have been reassembled
        at this entity.

    Object Status:  Encouraged


    OBJECT:  pktsFragmented

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The number of IP datagrams that have been fragmented
        at this entity.

    Object Status:  Encouraged.


    OBJECT:  htm

    Type:  TrafficMatrix

    Definition:  A host traffic matrix, mapping all traffic switched any
        pair of sources and destinations.  The count in each trafficEntry
        routeDst is expressed in packets.  Source routed IP packets
        should be logged as being between their source and the
        destination (i.e., they should not be treated as destined for
        this entity).

    Notes:  This information may be considered sensitive.

    Object Status:  Encouraged in gateways.



    OBJECT:  itm



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    Type:  TrafficMatrix

    Definition: An interface traffic matrix showing traffic switched
        between interfaces in an entity.  The source and destinations
        fields are the IP addresses of the interfaces between which
        the packet was switched.  The count in each trafficEntry is
        expressed in packets.

    Object Status: Useful.


The IpRoutingTable Dictionary

    The IpRoutingTable dictionary contains all routing information.
    Note that information about any routing protocols used to maintain
    the routing table is found under the entry for the routing protocol.
    The format of the routing dictionary is shown below.

    IpRoutingTable ::= [APPLICATION 37] IMPLICIT SET {
            routingProtocols [0] IMPLICIT OCTETSTRING,
            coreRouter       [1] IMPLICIT BOOLEAN,
            autoSys          [2] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
            metricUsed       [3] IMPLICIT OCTET,
                             [4] RoutingEntries,
    }

    OBJECT:  IpRoutingTable

    Type:  SET

    Definition:  See above.


    The objects contained in the dictionary are described below.

    OBJECT:  routingProtocols

    Type:  OCTETSTRING

    Definition: A sparse list of the routing protocols used to update
        the routing table (e.g., EGP and ICMP).  Each octet contains one
        of the following values:

                    0 -- anything not specified below.

                    1 -- local (non-protocol) information.  (E.g.
                        routing tables can be changed by hand).




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                    2 -- HEMS (was changed/set by a HEMS operation)

                    3 -- Internet Control Message Protocols, (i.e.
                        ICMP redirects).

                    4 --  Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP).

                    5 -- Gateway-to-Gateway Protocol (GGP).

                    6 -- Dissimilar Gateway Protocol (DGP).

                    7 -- HELO

                    8 -- RIP

                    9 -- Proprietary IGP

    OBJECT: coreRouter

    Type:  BOOLEAN

    Definition:  This value is set to true if this entity is a reference
        router for any other router (i.e., if it distributes any of its
        routes to other machines).


    OBJECT:  autoSys

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The autonomous system number of the autonomous system in
        which this entity resides.


    OBJECT:  metricUsed

    Type:  OCTET

    Definition: Classifies the routing metric used in the routing table
        entries.  The value should be chosen from the list of values for
        routingProtocols above, and indicates the metric definition used
        (e.g., this entity uses an EGP metric internally).


    OBJECT:  RoutingEntries

    Type:  SET of RoutingEntry




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    Definition:  The set of all routing entries.  The RoutingEntry is
        defined below.


The IpRoutingTable Dictionary: The RoutingEntry

    The RoutingEntry contains all information on a particular route.
    The format of the structure is shown below.

            RoutingEntry ::= [0] IMPLICIT SET {
                routeMetric     [0] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                routeDst        [1] IMPLICIT IpAddress,
                nextHop         [2] IMPLICIT IpAddress,
                routeAuthor     [3] IMPLICIT IpAddress OPTIONAL,
                routeproto      [4] IMPLICIT Octet OPTIONAL,
                routeTime       [5] TimeStamp,
                routeTOS        [6] IMPLICIT INTEGER OPTIONAL,
                valid           [7] IMPLICIT BOOLEAN
            }

    OBJECT:  RoutingEntry

    Type:  SET

    Definition:  See above.

    Operations on Object:  Defaults except as specified below.

        CREATE: Adds a new routing entry.  It should be confirmed
            that the entry is new.

        DELETE: Deletes a routing entry.

        GET-MATCH:  The match operator is defined on the routeDst
            field.  A match on an IpAddress is defined to be a
            search to find the route or routes which would be
            used to reach the IpAddress.  More than one route
            may be applicable, in which case all possible routes
            should be returned.

        SET-MATCH: Is optionally defined on the object.  A SET
            on an entire RoutingEntry replaces the entire entry
            with a new value.  Certain fields (indicated below)
            can also be changed using a SET-MATCH.

            The match operator is defined on the routeDst and
            routeTOS fields.  To SET a value, the match must be
            exact on the IP address (this is different from the



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            search definition for GET-MATCH).

            Note that support of the operator on an entity
            which uses a dynamic routing protocol such as
            GGP or EGP will require close coordination with
            the routing protocol to ensure consistent data.
            (Arguably, this facility should not be supported
            on such machines).

    The definitions of the fields in the RoutingEntry are given below.


    OBJECT:  routeMetric

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition: The routing metric on this route.  Note that the type of
        metric is defined in the metricUsed field of the IpRoutingTable
        dictionary.

    OBJECT: routeDst

    Type: IpAddress

    Definition:  The final destination that can be reached via this
        route.


    OBJECT:  nextHop

    Type:  IpAddress

    Definition:  The next hop to the final destination.


    OBJECT:  routeAuthor

    Type:  IpAddress

    Definition:  The IP address of the entity from which this route was
        *first* received.  That is, the first entity which stated that
        was reached via nextHop.  The default IpAddress should be used
        to indicate routes which originated on the entity.

    Object Status:  Encouraged.


    OBJECT:  routeProto



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    Type:  Octet

    Definition:  The routing protocol from which this route was learned.
        The value is taken from the list of values for routingProtocols
        above.

    Object Status:  Encouraged.


    OBJECT: routeTime

    Type:  TimeStamp

    Definition:  When this route was first received.

    Object Status:  Encouraged.


    OBJECT:  routeTOS

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The IP Type of Service which this routing entry serves.

    Object Status:  Required if type of service routing is supported.


    OBJECT:  valid

    Type:  BOOLEAN

    Definition:  Whether the route is active.  (Some machines retain
        routes which are no longer valid for various reasons.)

The IpTransportLayer Dictionary

    The IpTransportLayer Dictionary contains any information which
    pertains to transport protocols which use the IP protocol as the
    network protocol.  For ease of reference, the ASN.1 tag of each
    transport protocol's dictionary is the same as the assigned IP
    Protocol number.  The definition of the IpTransportLayer
    dictionary is shown below.  Note that dictionaries for many
    protocols are not yet defined.

    IpTransportLayer ::= [APPLICATION 38] IMPLICIT SET {
                [0] IMPLICIT ProtocolsSupported,
                [1] IMPLICIT IcmpValues,
                [2] IMPLICIT IgmpValues OPTIONAL,



Partridge & Trewitt                                            [Page 35]

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                [3] IMPLICIT GgpValues OPTIONAL,
                [7] IMPLICIT TcpValues OPTIONAL,
                [8] IMPLICIT EgpValues OPTIONAL,
                [17] IMPLICIT UdpValues OPTIONAL,
                [20] IMPLICIT HmpValues OPTIONAL,
                [27] IMPLICIT RdpValues OPTIONAL,
                [30] IMPLICIT NetbltValues OPTIONAL,
    }

    OBJECT:  IpTransportLayer

    Type:  SET

    Definition:  see above.

    The objects in the dictionary are defined below.

The IpTransportLayer Dictionary:  ProtocolsSupported

    OBJECT:  protocolsSupported

    Type:  OCTETSTRING

    Definition: Sparse list of transport protocols supported.  Each
        octet in the OCTETSTRING contains the IP protocol number of a
        supported protocol.  For the purposes of this definition, an
        entity supports a protocol if it both contains software to
        makes it possible for the protocol to be used in
        communications with the entity, AND the entity keeps the
        required values (if any) defined in this memo for that protocol.


The IpTransportLayer Dictionary: IcmpValues

    The IcmpValues dictionary is a subdictionary of the IpTransportLayer
    dictionary which tracks the workings of the Internet Control Message
    Protocol, defined in RFC-792.  The form of the dictionary is shown
    below.
            IcmpValues ::= SET {
                inputPktCount   [0] IMPLICIT Counter,
                inputPktErrors  [1] IMPLICIT Counter,
                inputPktDeliver [2] IMPLICIT Counter,
                inputPktTypes   [3] IMPLICIT Histogram OPTIONAL,
                outputPktCount  [4] IMPLICIT Counter,
                outputPktErrors [5] IMPLICIT Counter,
                outputPktTypes  [6] IMPLICIT Histogram OPTIONAL,
                icmpTraffic     [7] IMPLICIT TrafficMatrix OPTIONAL,
                ipID            [8] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL



Partridge & Trewitt                                            [Page 36]

RFC 1024                    HEMS Definitions                October 1987


            }

    OBJECT:  IcmpValues

    Type:  SET

    Definition:  see above.

    The objects in the dictionary are defined below.


    OBJECT:  inputPktCount

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The total number of ICMP packets received (including
        those in error).



    OBJECT:  inputPktErrors

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The number of ICMP packets received which proved to
        have errors (bad checksums, bad length etc).  Subtracting this
        value from the inputPktCount field should give the number of
        valid ICMP packets received.


    OBJECT:  inputPktDeliver

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The number of valid ICMP packets which were
        successfully processed (e.g., delivered to the higher
        protocol).


    OBJECT:  inputPktTypes

    Type:  Histogram

    Definition:  A histogram of ICMP messages types and codes received,
        not including those messages that proved to contain errors.
        The histogram histValue field contains a 16-bit value which is
        the the (ICMP type * 256) + ICMP code, and the histCount field
        contains the number of valid messages containing this



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RFC 1024                    HEMS Definitions                October 1987


        type/code pair which have been received.

        The message type and code values are those defined in RFC-792
        (e.g., the Time Exceeded Message with a code of "fragment
        reassembly time exceeded" is (11 * 256) + 1 = 2817).

    Object Status:  Useful.

    Operations on Object:  The defaults except as listed below:

        GET-MATCH:  Match is defined on the value of the histValue
            field.

    OBJECT:  outputPktCount

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The total number of ICMP packets that the entity
        attempted to send (including those that failed due to lack of
        buffers, a missing route or other transient transmission
        problems).


    OBJECT:  outputPktErrors

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The number of ICMP packets which the entity could not
        send due to transmission problems such as the lack of buffers, a
        missing route or other transient transmission problems.  This
        value is not required to include errors which the ICMP layer
        could not reasonably be expected to detect such as damage to the
        packet in transit.  Subtracting this value from the PktCount
        field should give the number of ICMP packets the entity believes
        it successfully sent.



    OBJECT:  outputPktTypes

    Type:  Histogram

    Definition:  A histogram of ICMP messages types and codes sent,
        including those messages that later failed to be transmitted.
        The histogram histValue field contains a 16-bit value which is
        the the (ICMP type * 256) + ICMP code, and the histCount field
        contains the number of valid messages containing this type/code
        pair which have been sent.



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RFC 1024                    HEMS Definitions                October 1987


        The message type and code values are those defined in RFC-792
        (e.g., the Time Exceeded Message with a code of "fragment
        reassembly time exceeded" is (11 * 256) + 1 = 2817).


    Object Status:  Useful.

    Operations on Object:  The defaults except as listed below:

            GET-MATCH:  Match is defined on the value of the histValue
                field.

    OBJECT:  icmpTraffic

    Type:  TrafficMatrix

    Definition:  All ICMP traffic which has originated on this machine.
        The source address in the traffic matrix should be the interface
        from which the packet was sent.  The destination is the address
        to which the packet is to finally be delivered (not an
        intermediate hop).

    Object Status:  Useful.


    OBJECT:  ipID

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The next IP packet ID identifier to be used by the ICMP
        code.

    Object Status:  Required if the ICMP code generates its own IP
        identifiers.



The IpTransportLayer Dictionary: IgmpValues

    IgmpValues ::= SET {
        conformance     [0] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
        inputPktCount   [1] IMPLICIT Counter,
        inputPktErrors  [2] IMPLICIT Counter,
        inputPktTypes   [3] IMPLICIT Histogram OPTIONAL,
        outputPktCount  [4] IMPLICIT Counter,
        outputPktErrors [5] IMPLICIT Counter,
        outputPktTypes  [6] IMPLICIT Histogram OPTIONAL,
        igmpTraffic     [7] IMPLICIT TrafficMatrix OPTIONAL



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RFC 1024                    HEMS Definitions                October 1987


        igmpGroups      [8] IMPLICIT SET of IgmpGroupEntry,
        ipID            [9] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
       }

    OBJECT:  IgmpValues

    Type:  SET

    Definition:  The dictionary of information on the Internet Group
        Management Protocol (RFC-988).

    Object Status:  Required in hosts which support IGMP.

    The objects stored in this dictionary are defined below.


    OBJECT:  conformance

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The level of conformance with RFC-988.  The conformance
        levels are:

               0 -- Level 0.  No support for IP multicasting

               1 -- Level 1.  Support for sending but not receiving
                    multicast datagrams.

               2 -- Level 2.  Full support for IP multicasting.

        These values are taken directly from RFC-988.


    OBJECT:  inputPktCount

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The number of IGMP packets received including those
        that proved to be in error.

    OBJECT:  inputPktErrors

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The number of IGMP packets received which proved to
        be in error.  This value subtracted from inputPktCount should
        give the number of valid IGMP packets received.




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RFC 1024                    HEMS Definitions                October 1987


    OBJECT:  inputPktTypes

    Type:  Histogram

    Definition:  A histogram of IGMP messages types and codes sent,
        including those messages that later failed to be transmitted.
        The histogram histValue field contains a 16-bit value which
        is the the (IGMP type * 256) + IGMP code, and the histCount
        field contains the number of valid messages containing this
        type/code pair which have been sent.

        The type and code values are taken from RFC-988.


    OBJECT:  outputPktCount

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The total number of IGMP packets that the entity
        attempted to send (including those that failed due to lack
        of buffers, a missing route or other transient transmission
        problems).

    OBJECT:  outputPktErrors

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The number of IGMP packets which the entity could not
        send due to transmission problems such as the lack of buffers,
        a missing route or other transient transmission problems.
        This value is not required to include errors which the IGMP
        layer could not reasonably be expected to detect such as damage
        to the packet in transit.  Subtracting this value from the
        outputPktCount field should give the number of IGMP packets
        the entity believes it successfully sent.

    OBJECT:  outputPktTypes

    Type:  Histogram

    Definition:  A histogram of IGMP messages types and codes sent,
        including those messages that later failed to be transmitted.
        The histogram histValue field contains a 16-bit value which is
        the the (IGMP type * 256) + IGMP code, and the histCount field
        contains the number of valid messages containing this type/code
        pair which have been sent.

        The type and code values are taken from RFC-988.



Partridge & Trewitt                                            [Page 41]

RFC 1024                    HEMS Definitions                October 1987


    OBJECT: igmpTraffic

    Type: TrafficMatrix

    Definition:  All IGMP traffic which has originated on this machine.
        The source address in the traffic matrix should be the interface
        from which the packet was sent.  The destination is the address
        to which the packet is to finally be delivered (not an
        intermediate hop).

    Object Status: Useful.



    OBJECT: igmpGroups

    Type: SET

    Definition:  The various igmpGroups of which this host is aware.
        This is stored as a set of IgmpGroupEntry.  The format of an
        IgmpGroupEntry is shown below.

                    IgmpGroupEntry ::= [0] SET {
                        groupAddress      [0] IMPLICIT IpAddress,
                        groupAccessKey    [1] IMPLICIT OCTETSTRING,
                        groupAgent        [2] IMPLICIT BOOLEAN,
                    }

        The groupAddress is the multicast IP address.  The
        groupAccessKey is the 8 octet key -- this key may be
        confidential and should only be available to authorized querying
        entities.  The groupAgent field is true if this entity is an
        agent for the multicast group.

    OBJECT:  ipID

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The next IP packet ID identifier to be used by the IGMP
        code.

    Object Status:  Required if the IGMP code generates its own IP
        identifiers.








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RFC 1024                    HEMS Definitions                October 1987


The IpTransportLayer Dictionary:  GgpValues

    The definition of the GgpValues dictionary is left for further
    study.

The IpTransportLayer Dictionary:  TcpValues

    The TcpValues dictionary is a subdictionary of the IpTransportLayer
    dictionary which tracks the workings of the Transmission Control
    Protocol, defined in RFC-793.  The definitions of several objects in
    this dictionary refer to definitions in RFC-793.  The form of the
    dictionary is shown below.


            TcpValues ::= SET {
                          [0] IMPLICIT TcpParam
                          [1] IMPLICIT TcpStats OPTIONAL,
              tcpConnData [2] IMPLICIT SET of TcpConn,
            }

    OBJECT:  TcpValues

    Type:  IMPLICIT SET

    Definition:  see above.

    Object Status:  Required if the entity supports TCP.

    The objects in the dictionary are defined in the next few sections.


The IpTransportLayer Dictionary: TcpValues/TcpParam

    The TcpParam dictionary contains information about certain
    parameters such as round-trip timer estimation constants which are
    managed on a per-machine basis.  The form of the dictionary is shown
    below.

            TcpParam ::= SET {
                tcpRtoA       [0] IMPLICIT IA5String,
                tcpRtoParam   [1] IMPLICIT SET of RtoParam,
                ipID          [2] IMPLICIT Counter,
                tcpRtoMin     [3] IMPLICIT INTEGER OPTIONAL,
                tcpRtoMax     [4] IMPLICIT INTEGER OPTIONAL,
                tcpMaxSegSiz  [5] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                tcpMaxConn    [6] IMPLICIT INTEGER OPTIONAL,
                tcpMaxWindow  [7] IMPLICIT INTEGER OPTIONAL,
            }



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    OBJECT:  tcpParam

    Type:  SET

    Definition:  see above.


    The definition of the objects in the tcpParam dictionary are given
    below.

    OBJECT:  tcpRtoA

    Type:  IA5String

    Definition:  The TCP retransmission timeout algorithm used.  The
        algorithm is expressed as one or more equations to generate
        a target value, "RTO[N]", which is the retransmission timeout
        for packet "N".  Expressions should use well understood
        symbols such as * for multiplication and / for division, and
        parentheses to indicate precedence.  Variables should begin
        with an upper case character.  Multiple equations should be
        separated by semi-colons.  Comments should be in braces (i.e.,
        {}).  Constants should begin with a lower case character.  In
        addition to "RTO[N]" the symbol "S[N]" is defined to mean the
        round-trip sample for packet N.  Using this syntax, the
        algorithm in RFC-793 would be expressed as:

                RTO[N] = SRTT[N] * beta ;
                SRTT[N] = ( S[N-1] * alpha) + (SRTT[N-1] * (1 - alpha))

    Note:  The syntax probably needs to be refined so that it can be
       parsed and interpreted by a program.  This is left for future
       study.


    OBJECT:  tcpRtoParam

    Type:  SET of RtoParam

    Definition:  The list of the values of the constants used by the
        retransmission timeout algorithm.  The format of the RtoParam
        structure is shown below.

        RtoParam ::= SEQUENCE {
            name IA5String,
            value Fraction
        }




Partridge & Trewitt                                            [Page 44]

RFC 1024                    HEMS Definitions                October 1987


        The name is the name of the constant as expressed in the
        tcpRtoA (e.g., "beta").

    OBJECT:  ipID

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The next IP packet ID identifier to be used by the TCP
        code.

    Object Status:  Required if the TCP code generates its own IP
        identifiers.

    OBJECT:  tcpRtoMin

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The minimum value the TCP implementation permits for
        the retransmission timeout (RTO), measured in milliseconds.

    Note:  If the SET operation is optionally defined, access control
       must be exercised.

    Object Status:  Required if the implementation uses the suggested
        algorithm in RFC-793 or if the implementation sets any limits
        on the minimum RTO.

    Operations on Object:  The defaults except as listed below:

        SET:  Optionally defined to change the value.  Implementations
           should confirm that the new value is less than tcpRtoMax.


    OBJECT:  tcpRtoMax

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The maximum value the TCP implementation permits for
        the retransmission timeout (RTO), measured in milliseconds.

    Note:  If the SET operation is optionally defined, access control
       must be exercised.

    Object Status:  Required if the implementation uses the suggested
        algorithm in RFC-793 or if the implementation sets any limits
        on the maximum RTO.

    Operations on Object:  The defaults except as listed below:



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RFC 1024                    HEMS Definitions                October 1987


    SET:  Optionally defined to change the value.  Implementations
         should confirm that the new value is greater than tcpRtoMax,
         and that the value is large (i.e., several seconds).


    OBJECT:  tcpMaxSegSiz

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The maximum segment size used by this implementation.

    Object Status:  Required if the entity sets an upper limit on the
        MTU.  (Some implementations have no constraints, but chose an
        MTU from external constraints such as the maximum MTU of the
        network interface in use.)


    OBJECT:  tcpMaxConn

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  An optional value, which must be present if the entity
        has a limit on the total number of TCP connections it can support.

    Object Status:  Required if the entity sets limits.

    Note:  If the SET operation is defined, access control must be
        exercised.

    Operations on Object:  The defaults except as listed below:

        SET:  Optionally defined to change the value.  If the
            new value is less than the number of currently
            open connections, implementations are *not* required
            to close existing connections, but may not open
            any additional ones.


    OBJECT:  tcpMaxWindow

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  An optional value, which must be present if the entity
        places a fixed upper limit on the size of any connection's TCP
        window (i.e., if the maximum window size is not per connection
        configurable).

    Object Status:  Required if the entity sets limits.



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    Note:  If the SET operation is defined, access control must be
        exercised.

    Operations on Object:  The defaults except as listed below:

            SET:  Optionally defined to change the value.  The new
                value must be at least the size of one maximum
                TCP segment.

The IpTransportLayer Dictionary: TcpValues/TcpStats

    The TcpStats dictionary stores general information about the
    workings of the TCP layer.  The form of the dictionary is shown
    below.

            TcpStats ::= SET {
                 connAttempts     [0] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
                 connOpened       [1] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
                 connAccepted     [2] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
                 connClosed       [3] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
                 connAborted      [4] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
                 connAbortedInfo  [5] IMPLICIT Histogram OPTIONAL,
                 octetsIn         [6] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
                 octetsOut        [7] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
                 octetsInDup      [8] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
                 octetsRetrans    [9] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
                 inputPkts       [10] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
                 retransPkts     [11] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
                 outputPkts      [12] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
                 dupPkts         [13] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,

            }

    OBJECT:  TcpStats

    Type:  SET

    Definition:  See above.

    Object Status:  Encouraged.

    The definition of the fields in the dictionary are given below.


    OBJECT:  connAttempts

    Type:  Counter




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RFC 1024                    HEMS Definitions                October 1987


    Definition:  The number of connection attempts that have been made
        from this host.  This includes pending attempts.

    Object Status:  Encouraged.


    OBJECT:  connOpened

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The number of connection attempts from this host which
        successfully generated an open connection.  This includes
        currently open connections.

    Object Status:  Encouraged.


    OBJECT:  connAccepted

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The number of connections accepted by listening peers
        on this entity.  This includes currently open connections.

    Object Status:  Encouraged.


    OBJECT:  connClosed

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The number of connections which were properly closed.

    Object Status:  Encouraged.


    OBJECT:  connAborted

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The number of connections which were aborted.  Note
        that if implementations trace how the connection was aborted,
        they are encouraged to use the connAbortedInfo histogram.

    Object Status:  Encouraged.


    OBJECT:  connAbortedInfo



Partridge & Trewitt                                            [Page 48]

RFC 1024                    HEMS Definitions                October 1987


    Type:  Histogram

    Definition:  The number of connections which were aborted by type of
        abort.  The histValue is one of the codes listed below.  The
        histCount is the number of connections aborted for this reason.
        The histValues codes are:

                    0 -- an abort condition not specified below
                    1 -- remote abort
                    2 -- local application abort
                    3 -- local protocol level abort

    Object Status:  Useful


    OBJECT:  octetsIn

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The total number of TCP octets (not including
        duplicates) received at this entity.

    Object Status:  Required if TcpStats is implemented.


    OBJECT:  octetsOut

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The total number of TCP octets (not including
        retransmissions) sent from this entity.

    Object Status:  Required if TcpStats is implemented.


    OBJECT:  octetsInDup

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The total number of TCP octets received which were
        duplicates.

    Object Status:  Required if TcpStats is implemented.


    OBJECT:  octetsReTrans

    Type:  Counter



Partridge & Trewitt                                            [Page 49]

RFC 1024                    HEMS Definitions                October 1987


    Definition:  The total number of TCP octets which have been
        retransmitted.

    Object Status:  Required if TcpStats is implemented.


    OBJECT:  inputPkts

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The total number of valid packets received, including
        those on current connections.

    Object Status:  Useful.


    OBJECT:  retransPkts

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The total number of packets retransmitted.

    Object Status:  Useful.


    OBJECT:  outputPkts

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The total number of packets sent.

    Object Status:  Useful.


    OBJECT:  dupPkts

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The number of packets received which contained only
        data already received.

    Object Status:  Useful.









Partridge & Trewitt                                            [Page 50]

RFC 1024                    HEMS Definitions                October 1987


The IpTransportLayer Dictionary: TcpValues/TcpConn

    The tcpConnData field in the TcpValues dictionary is a set of
    TcpConn, where each TcpConn contains information on a particular TCP
    connection.  The definition of TcpConn is shown below.

                TcpConn ::= SET {
                    localPort       [0] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                    localAddress    [1] IMPLICIT IpAddress,
                    foreignPort     [2] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                    foreignAddress  [3] IMPLICIT IpAddress,
                    state           [4] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                    snduna          [5] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                    sndnxt          [6] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                    sndwnd          [7] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                    congwnd         [8] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                    rcvnxt          [9] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                    rcvwnd         [10] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                    srtt           [11] IMPLICIT INTEGER OPTIONAL,
                    lastrtt        [12] IMPLICIT INTEGER OPTIONAL,
                    maxSegSize     [13] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                    octetsSent     [14] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
                    octetsRXmit    [15] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
                    octetsRcvd     [16] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
                    octetDups      [17] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
                    octetPastWin   [18] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
                    segSizes       [19] IMPLICIT Histogram OPTIONAL,
            }

    The set of TCP connections can be searched in a number of ways based
    on the local and foreign addresses (including the port number).
    Individual values of a connection cannot be retrieved without a
    search.

    OBJECT:  TcpConn

    Type:  SET

    Definition:  The per TCP connection data.

    Operations on Object:  The defaults except as listed below:

          GET-MATCH:  Defined on any combination of values of
              localAddress,  localPort, foreignAddress and
              foreignPort.  Returns all connections which match
              the template.  (For example, GET-MATCH on a
              particular foreignAddress returns all connections
              to that address.)



Partridge & Trewitt                                            [Page 51]

RFC 1024                    HEMS Definitions                October 1987


    The definitions of the fields of the tcpConn structure are given
    below.

    OBJECT:  localPort

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The local port number of this connection.

    Operations on Object: Defaults.  Note that MATCH operators may be
        applied to this object to locate information on a particular TCP
        connection.


    OBJECT:  localAddress

    Type:  IpAddress

    Definition:  The local IP address of this connection.  May be the
        default IP address defined above.  This value may not be valid
        in certain states.

    Operations on Object:  Defaults.  Note that MATCH operators may be
        applied to this object to locate information on a particular
        TCP connection.

    OBJECT:  foreignPort

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The foreign port number of this connection.  This value
        may be meaningless if the local peer is in certain states (e.g.,
        LISTEN).

    Operations on Object:  Defaults.  Note that MATCH operators may be
       applied to this object to locate information on a particular TCP
       connection.


    OBJECT:  foreignAddress

    Type:  IpAddress

    Definition:  The foreign IP address of this connection.  This value
        may be meaningless if the local peer is in certain states (e.g.,
        LISTEN).

    Operations on Object: Defaults.  Note that MATCH operators may be



Partridge & Trewitt                                            [Page 52]

RFC 1024                    HEMS Definitions                October 1987


        applied to this object to locate information on a particular
        TCP connection.

    OBJECT:  state

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The current state of the local peer.  The values
        corresponding to the different states are: close(0), listen(1),
        syn-sent(2), syn-received(3), established(4), close-wait(5),
        fin-wait-1(6), closing(7), last-ack(8), fin-wait-2(9),
        time-wait(10).  Implementations must map internal
        representations of the state into these values.


    OBJECT:  snduna

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The SND.UNA value as defined in RFC-793.


    OBJECT:  sndnxt

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The SND.NXT value as defined in RFC-793.


    OBJECT:  sndwnd

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The SND.WND value as defined in RFC-793.


    OBJECT:  congwnd

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The congestion window.  This value is less than or
        equal to sndwnd.  If less than sndwnd, then congestion
        control is in effect and congwnd is the reduced send window
        size in use.

    OBJECT:  rcvnxt

    Type:  INTEGER



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RFC 1024                    HEMS Definitions                October 1987


    Definition:  The RCV.NXT value as defined in RFC-793.


    OBJECT:  rcvwnd

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The RCV.WND value as defined in RFC-793.


    OBJECT:  srtt

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The smoothed round-trip time in milliseconds.

    Object Status:  Required if the implementation maintains a smoothed
        round-trip time.


    OBJECT:  lastrtt

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The last round-trip time sample taken in milliseconds.

    Object Status:  Encouraged.


    OBJECT:  maxSegSize

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The maximum segment size that can be used on this
        connection.


    OBJECT:  octetsSent

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The total number of octets transmitted since the
        connection was opened, not including retransmissions.  Can
        alternatively be thought of as the current length of the
        stream.

    Object Status:  Encouraged.




Partridge & Trewitt                                            [Page 54]

RFC 1024                    HEMS Definitions                October 1987


    OBJECT:  octetsRXmit

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The total number of octets retransmitted since the
        connection was opened.  This plus octetsSent should give the
        total number of octets sent.

    Object Status:  Encouraged.


    OBJECT:  octetsRcvd

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The number of octets received since the connection was
        opened, not including duplicates received.  The receiver's
        version of octetsSent.

    Object Status:  Encouraged.


    OBJECT:  octetDups

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The total number of octets received since the
        connection was opened which were redundant (i.e., they had been
        previously received).

    Object Status:  Encouraged.


    OBJECT:  octetPastWin

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The number of segments which contained data beyond
        the upper edge of the receive window.

    Object Status:  Encouraged


    OBJECT:  segSizes

    Type:  Histogram

    Definition:  A histogram of the sizes of the packets sent on the



Partridge & Trewitt                                            [Page 55]

RFC 1024                    HEMS Definitions                October 1987


        connection (useful for catching cases of silly-window syndrome).
        This histogram is an range histogram, measuring the number of
        segments whose size fell into a give range.  The histogram
        histValue field contains a segment size, and the histCount
        field contains the number of segments between this size and
        the next largest size.

    Object Status:  Useful.

The IpTransportLayer Dictionary: EgpValues

    The EgpValues dictionary stores information about the workings of
    the Exterior Gateway Protocol, defined in RFC-904.  The format of
    the dictionary is shown below.

            EgpValues ::= SET {
                egpState  [0] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                          [1] IMPLICIT EgpParam,
                          [2] IMPLICIT EgpStats OPTIONAL,
              egpPeerData [3] IMPLICIT SET of EgpPeer
            }


    OBJECT:  EgpValues

    Type:  SET

    Definition:  See above.

    Object Status:  Required in entities which support EGP.

    The definitions of the subdictionaries of this dictionary are given
    below.


    OBJECT:  egpState

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The state of the EGP system.  The state values are:

                        0 -- Idle
                        1 -- Acquisition
                        2 -- Down
                        3 -- Up
                        4 -- Cease

    These values are taken directly from RFC-904.



Partridge & Trewitt                                            [Page 56]

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The IpTransportLayer Dictionary: EgpValues/EgpParam

    The EgpParam dictionary stores the various EGP parameters.  The
    format of the dictionary is shown below.

            EgpParam ::= SET {
                p1    [0] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                p2    [1] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                p3    [2] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                p4    [3] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                p5    [4] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                ipID  [5] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL
            }

    OBJECT:  EgpParam

    Type:  SET

    Definition:  See above.

    The definition of the fields of the dictionary are given below.  All
    the definitions are taken from RFC-904.


    OBJECT:  p1

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  Minimum interval acceptable between successive Hello
        commands received.

    Operations on Object:  The defaults except as noted below.

        SET:  The set command is optionally defined on this object.

    OBJECT:  p2

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  Minimum interval acceptable between successive Poll
        commands received.

    Operations on Object:  The defaults except as noted below.

        SET:  The set command is optionally defined on this object.


    OBJECT:  p3



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    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  Interval between Request or Cease command
        retransmissions.

    Operations on Object:  The defaults except as noted below.

        SET:  The set command is optionally defined on this object.


    OBJECT:  p4

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  Interval during which state variables are maintained in
        the absence of commands or response in the Down and Up states.

    Operations on Object:  The defaults except as noted below.

    SET:  The set command is optionally defined on this object.


    OBJECT:  p5

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  Interval during which state variables are maintained in
        the absence of commands or response in the Acquisition and Cease
        states.

    Operations on Object:  The defaults except as noted below.

        SET:  The set command is optionally defined on this object.


    OBJECT: ipID

    Type: Counter

    Definition:  The next IP packet ID identifier to be used by the EGP
        code.

    Object Status: Required if the EGP code generates its own IP
        identifiers.


The IpTransportLayer Dictionary: EgpValues/EgpStats




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    The EgpStats dictionary keeps statistics about the use of EGP on
    this entity.  The form of the dictionary is shown below.

            EgpStats ::= SET {
                inputPktCount   [1] IMPLICIT Counter,
                inputPktErrors  [2] IMPLICIT Counter,
                inputPktTypes   [3] IMPLICIT Histogram OPTIONAL,
                outputPktCount  [4] IMPLICIT Counter,
                outputPktErrors [5] IMPLICIT Counter,
                outputPktTypes  [6] IMPLICIT Histogram OPTIONAL,
                egpTraffic      [7] IMPLICIT TrafficMatrix OPTIONAL
            }


    OBJECT:  EgpStats

    Type:  SET

    Definition:  See above.


    The definitions of the objects in this dictionary are given below.


    OBJECT:  inputPktCount

    Type: Counter

    Definition:  The number of EGP packets received including those that
        proved to be in error.


    OBJECT:  inputPktErrors

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The number of EGP packets received which proved to be
        in error.  This value subtracted from inputPktCount should give
        the number of valid EGP packets received.


    OBJECT:  inputPktTypes

    Type:  Histogram

    Definition:  A histogram of types of valid EGP messages received.
        The histogram histValue field contains the message type number,
        and the histCount field contains the number of messages of



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        this type which have been received.

    Object Status:  Useful.


    OBJECT:  outputPktCount

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The total number of EGP packets that the entity
        attempted to send (including those that failed due to lack of
        buffers, a missing route or other transient transmission
        problems).

    OBJECT:  outputPktErrors

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The number of EGP packets which the entity could not
        send due to transmission problems such as the lack of buffers,
        a missing route or other transient transmission problems.
        This value is not required to include errors which the EGP
        layer could not reasonably be expected to detect such as
        damage to the packet in transit.  Subtracting this value from
        the outputPktCount field should give the number of EGP packets
        the entity believes it successfully sent.


    OBJECT:  outputPktTypes

    Type:  Histogram

    Definition:  A histogram of EGP messages types sent, including those
        that later failed to be transmitted.  The histogram histValue
        field contains the message type number, and the histCount field
        contains the number of messages of this type which have been sent.

    Object Status:  Useful.



    OBJECT:  egpTraffic

    Type:  TrafficMatrix

    Definition:  All EGP traffic which has originated on this machine.
        The source address in the traffic matrix should be the interface
        from which the packet was sent.  The destination is the address



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        to which the packet is to finally be delivered (not an
        intermediate hop).

    Object Status:  Useful.


The IpTransportLayer Dictionary: EgpValues/EgpPeer

    The egpPeerData field of the EgpValues dictionary is a set of
    EgpPeer structures which contain the state variables for a
    particular EGP neighbor.  The form of the EgpPeer structure is shown
    below.

            EgpPeer ::= SET {
                r       [0] IMPLICIT Counter,
                s       [1] IMPLICIT Counter,
                t1      [2] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                t2      [3] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                t3      [4] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                m       [5] IMPLICIT BOOLEAN,
                timer1  [6] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                timer2  [7] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                timer3  [8] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                addr    [9] IMPLICIT IpAddress
            }


    OBJECT:  EgpPeer

    Type:  SET

    Definition:  The state information for a given EGP neighbor.

    The definition of each field is given below.


    OBJECT:  r

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The receive sequence number as defined in RFC-904.


    OBJECT:  s

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The send sequence number as defined in RFC-904.



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    OBJECT:  t1

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The interval between Hello command retransmissions as
        defined in RFC-904.

    OBJECT:  t2

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The interval between Poll command retransmissions as
        defined in RFC-904.

    OBJECT:  t3

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The interval during which neighbor-reachability
        indications are counted, as defined in RFC-904.

    OBJECT:  m

    Type:  BOOLEAN

    Definition:  The Hello Polling mode.  True if in active mode, false
        if in passive mode.

    Operations on Object:  The defaults except as noted below.

        SET:  Optionally defined to change the Hello Polling mode.

    OBJECT:  timer1

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The value of timer 1 as defined in RFC-904.


    OBJECT:  timer2

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The value of timer 2 as defined in RFC-904.


    OBJECT:  timer3




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    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The value of timer 3 as defined in RFC-904.


    OBJECT:  addr

    Type:  IpAddress

    Definition:  The IP address of the neighbor.

The IpTransportLayer Dictionary: UdpValues

    The UdpValues dictionary stores all information on the User Datagram
    Protocol, defined in RFC-768.  The format of the dictionary is shown
    below.

            UdpValues ::= [17] IMPLICIT SET OPTIONAL {
                ipID        [0] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
                            [1] IMPLICIT UdpStats,
                udpPortData [2] IMPLICIT SET of udpPort
            }

    OBJECT:  UdpValues

    Type:  SET

    Definition:  See above.

    Object Status:  Implementation of this dictionary is required if
        the entity supports UDP.

    The fields of this dictionary are given below.

    OBJECT:  ipID

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The next IP packet ID identifier to be used by the UDP
        code.

    Object Status:  Required if the UDP code generates its own IP
        identifiers.


The IpTransportLayer Dictionary: UdpValues/UdpStats

    The UdpStats dictionary stores general information about the



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    behavior of the UDP protocol on the entity.  The format of the
    dictionary is shown below.

            UdpStats ::= SET {
                inputPkts       [0] IMPLICIT Counter,
                inputPktErrors  [1] IMPLICIT Counter,
                outputPkts      [2] IMPLICIT Counter,
            }

    OBJECT:  UdpStats

    Type:  SET

    Definition:  See above.

    Object Status:  Encouraged.

    The fields in this dictionary are defined below.


    OBJECT:  inputPkts

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The total number of UDP packets received at this entity
        including any errors.

    Object Status:  Required if the UdpStats dictionary is implemented.


    OBJECT:  inputPktsErrors

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The number of UDP packets which could not be delivered
        because of format errors, data corruption or because there was no
        application at the destination port.

    Object Status:  Required if the UdpStats dictionary is implemented.


    OBJECT:  outputPkts

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The total number of UDP segments sent from this entity.

    Object Status:  Required if the UdpStats dictionary is implemented.



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The IpTransportLayer Dictionary: UdpValues/udpPortData

    The udpPortData structure stores information about individual UDP
    applications.  The udpPortData is represented as a set of records,
    udpPorts, which track the behavior of individual ports.  The format
    of both structures are shown below.

            udpPortData    [1] IMPLICIT SET of UdpPort

            UdpPort ::=  [0] IMPLICIT SET {
                localAddress     [0] IMPLICIT IpAddress,
                localPort        [1] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                foreignAddress   [2] IMPLICIT IpAddress OPTIONAL,
                foreignPort      [3] IMPLICIT INTEGER OPTIONAL,
                maxPktSize       [4] IMPLICIT INTEGER,
                pktsRcvd         [5] IMPLICIT Counter,
                octetRcvd        [6] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
                pktsSent         [7] IMPLICIT Counter,
                octetSent        [8] IMPLICIT Counter OPTIONAL,
            }

    OBJECT:  udpPortData

    Type:  SET of udpPort

    Definition:  See above.


    OBJECT:  UdpPort

    Type:  SET

    Definition:  See above.

    Operations on Object: The defaults except as noted below.

        GET-MATCH.  Defined on any combination of the values of
            localAddress, localPort, foreignAddress and foreignPort.
            Returns all ports which match the template.

    The meaning of the individual fields of the udpPort record are given
    below.


    OBJECT:  localAddress

    Type:  IpAddress




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    Definition:  The local IP address of the port.  May be the default
        IP address if records are accepted from any interface.


    OBJECT:  localPort

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The local port number.


    OBJECT:  foreignAddress

    Type:  IpAddress

    Definition:  Some UDP implementations permit applications to specify
        the remote address from which packets will be accepted.  In such
        implementations, this field may be used to return the remote IP
        address.  If this value is set to the default IP address, then
        packets from any host are accepted.  The default IP address
        indicates that the application has not specified the remote
        address (but could if it chose).

    Object Status:  Required in entities which permit applications to
        specify the remote address.


    OBJECT:  foreignPort

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  Some UDP implementations permit applications to specify
        the remote address from which packets will be accepted.  In such
        implementations, this field may be used to return the remote
        port.  If this value is set to 0, packets from any remote port
        are accepted.

    Object Status:  Required in entities which permit applications to
        specify the remote port.

    OBJECT:  maxPktSize

    Type:  INTEGER

    Definition:  The maximum UDP packet size, if any, supported by this
        host.

    Object Status:  Required if there is a limit on the UDP packet size.



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    OBJECT:  pktsRcvd

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The total number of packets received on this port during
        the lifetime of this application (i.e., application which opened
        this port).


    OBJECT:  octetsRcvd

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The total number of octets received at this port.


    OBJECT:  pktsSent

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The total number of packets sent on this port during the
        lifetime of this application (i.e., the application which opened
        this port).


    OBJECT:  octetsSent

    Type:  Counter

    Definition:  The total number of octets sent on this port during the
        lifetime of this application (i.e., the application which opened
        this port).


The IpTransportLayer Dictionary:  HmpValues

     The HmpValues dictionary stores all information on the Host
     Monitoring Protocol, defined in RFC-869.  Since HEMS is designed to
     replace HMP, the definition of this dictionary has been deferred
     until a clear need for it is demonstrated.


The IpTransportLayer Dictionary:  RdpValues

     The RdpValues dictionary stores all information on the Reliable
     Data Protocol (RDP).  Since RDP is currently being tested and
     revised, the definition of this dictionary is left for further
     study.



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The IpTransportLayer Dictionary:  NetbltValues

     The NetbltValues dictionary stores all information on the Network
     Block Transfer protocol.  Since Netblt is currently being tested
     and revised, the definition of this dictionary is left for further
     study.


The IpApplications Dictionary

     The IpApplications dictionary stores information about networking
     applications whose operations may affect the proper operation of
     the network.  Examples of such applications might be domain
     nameservers or distributed routing agents (such as gated or
     routed).  The definition of this dictionary is left for further
     study.


NOTES ON RETRIEVAL OF OBJECTS

     It is assumed in this system that the query processor is only one
     of many concurrently running processes on an entity, and that the
     operations of the other processes may affect the values of the
     objects managed by the query processor.  To permit this
     concurrency, the query processor is not required to keep the values
     frozen during the execution of a query.  As a result, related
     values may change during the course of the query's execution.
     Applications should be prepared for this possibility.

     In several places, specific mathematical relations between objects
     have been specified, for example, that object X minus object Y
     should yield some well-defined value.  Note that in many cases,
     objects X and Y are roll-over counters, in which case these
     relations are only valid modulo the precision of the counter.  This
     is acceptable.  The relationships are only intended to clarify the
     association between objects.


EVENTS

     In the remainder of this memo we present the format and definition
     of event messages which are unsolicited updates sent from entities
     to management centers.

     This section needs much further work.  The authors provide this
     section to illustrate how the trap mechanism works.  However, much
     more research must be done into the questions of what events need
     to be reported, and what information they must carry with them



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     before this section can be completed.  The authors welcome any
     advice from the community on this subject.


Format of Event Messages

     Event messages have the same format as replies; they are a sequence
     of objects.  The only difference between a event message and a
     regular reply to a query is that the event message is labelled as a
     event in the HEMP message header and the first object in the event
     message is a special event leader describing the event.  All
     objects after the event message are standard objects stored by the
     entity which might be useful to a monitoring center in
     understanding the machine state which caused the event.  Each event
     has a certain number of objects that it must return.  Additional
     objects may be returned by loading instructions into the
     eventExecution buffer of the relevant eventEntry.

     The format of the event leader is shown below:

             EventLeader ::= [APPLICATION 1024] IMPLICIT SEQUENCE {
                 eventCode INTEGER,
                 eventIndex INTEGER,
                 eventThreshold INTEGER,
                 eventTime TimeStamp,
                 eventDescr IA5STRING
             }


     The eventCode is a number which indicates the type of event.  The
     eventCodes are defined below.

     The eventIndex is an implementation specific value.  It is
     considered good practice to make sure that a particular event is
     only generated in one place.  It may be the case that certain HEMS
     generic events (for example, "no buffer space") may be generated by
     more than one place in an entity's code.  To allow implementors and
     network managers to determine where the event is actually being
     generated, implementors should make sure that a distinct eventIndex
     is assigned to each location in the code that generates a
     particular event.

     The eventThreshold is the value of the event threshold when the
     event was sent.

     The eventTime indicates when the trap was generated.

     The eventDescr is a text string which describes the event.  This



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     description should explain the general problem (e.g., "no buffer
     space") and may also, optionally, include additional information
     about why this particular event was generated (e.g., "could not
     send ICMP redirect").


Event Definitions

     The remainder of this memo presents a few generic events, which are
     presented for illustration only.  Implementors interested in
     supporting events should contact the authors to help work out a
     more comprehensive set of definitions.

     The format of the event definitions is:

     EVENT CODE:  The event code number.

     Definition:  Defines the event.

         Related Objects: The list of related objects which *must* be
         returned following the event header.  All objects should be
         returned as fully qualified objects (with ASN.1 codes tracing
         a complete path from the root object dictionary).  If no
         objects are specified, then no related objects are required.

     Event Status:  Events are either required of all conforming
             implementations, required if the entity supports a
             particular feature (e.g., TCP events) or optional.

     Notes: Any additional notes about the event.


List of Events


         The next few event codes are for system (as opposed to more
         network oriented) events.

         EVENT CODE:  0

         Definition:  Unused


         EVENT CODE:  1

         Definition:  The entity has rebooted.

         Related Objects:   An INTEGER which is the highest HEMP



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             messageID reached by the trap system before the system
             crashed.

         EVENT CODE:  2

         Definition:  The entity is about to go into test mode.


         EVENT CODE:  3

         Definition:  The entity is about to reset.


         EVENT CODE:  4

         Definition:  The entity is about to reboot.


         EVENT CODE:  5

         Definition:  The entity is about to halt.


         EVENT CODE:  6

         Definition:  The system is close to depleting its packet buffer
             space.

         Event Status:  optional


         EVENT CODE:  7

         Definition:  The system has depleted its packet buffer space.


         EVENT CODE:  8

         Definition:  The system has depleted a non-packet buffer space.

         Note:  The two trap codes above do not deal neatly with
             systems which have multiple buffer pools, each of which
             may be depleted separately, with very different effects
             on the entity.


         The next set of event codes apply to events related to network
         interfaces.



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         EVENT CODE:  1024

         Definition:  The given interface has just come up.

         Related Objects:  The InterfaceData structure for the
             interface.

         EVENT CODE:  1025

         Definition:  The given interface has just been taken down.

         Related Objects:  The InterfaceData structure for the
             interface.

         EVENT CODE:  1026

         Definition:  The given interface has just gone into test mode.

         Related Objects:  The InterfaceData structure for the
             interface.

         The next set of event codes are used to report IP-level errors.


         EVENT CODE:  2048

         Definition:  Unable to route IP packet.


         EVENT CODE:  2049

         Definition:  Bad IP checksum.


         EVENT CODE:  2050

         Definition:  An IP packet with a bad header was received (for
             example, with a broadcast or multicast IP address as the
             source, or the wrong IP version number, or a header length
             which is too short).

         Related Objects:  Should return the IP header of the packet.
             Note that an IP header type has not yet been defined.


         EVENT CODE:  2051

         Definition:  Packet for unsupported IP transport protocol.



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         Related Objects:  Should return the IP header of the packet.
             Note that an IP header type has not yet been defined.


         EVENT CODE:  2052

         Definition:  A stunted IP packet was received (smaller than
             the IP length says it should be).

         Related Objects:  Should return the IP header of the packet.
             Note that an IP header type has not yet been defined.


         EVENT CODE:  2053

         Definition:  An oversize IP packet was received (larger than
             the IP length says it should be).

         Related Objects:  Should return the IP header of the packet.
             Note that an IP header type has not yet been defined.


         EVENT CODE:  2054

         Definition:  A good IP packet was discarded (usually to free
             up buffer space).

         Related Objects:  Should return the IP header of the packet.
             Note that an IP header type has not yet been defined.


         EVENT CODE:  2055

         Definition:  An IP packet's time-to-live as expired.

         Related Objects:  Should return the IP header of the packet.
             Note that an IP header type has not yet been defined.


         EVENT CODE:  2056

         Definition:  This IP fragment has timed out.

         Related Objects:  Should return the header of the fragment.
             Note that an IP header type has not yet been defined.






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AREAS FOR FURTHER STUDY

     There are several parts of this document that could use additional
     study.  Comments from readers are welcome.

     The whole event system needs thorough examination.  It is not clear
     that the event control mechanism strikes the proper balance between
     sufficient flexibility to allow monitoring centers to customize
     their event stream, and keeping the basic mechanism simple.
     Further, the problem of defining generic events for all entities is
     an immense task.  Finally, the system of appending required values
     after traps, followed by optional values read from the data tree
     feels a bit cumbersome.  It would be nice if all values were in the
     same data space.

     Several readers have suggested it might make more sense to keep TCP
     connection parameters on a per-connection basis rather than
     globally.

     The method for specifying the TCP round-trip time algorithm needs
     to be refined.  The expression syntax should be sufficiently
     general that all round-trip-time-related algorithms (e.g., those
     for time or routing protocols) can be expressed in it.

     Much more research could be done into what information needs to be
     gathered to effectively monitor a network.

























Partridge & Trewitt                                            [Page 74]


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