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HISTORIC

Network Working Group                                            S. Kent
Request for Comments: 1108                            BBN Communications
Obsoletes: RFC 1038                                        November 1991


                       U.S. Department of Defense
               Security Options for the Internet Protocol


Status of this Memo

   This RFC specifies an IAB standards track protocol for the Internet
   community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements.
   Please refer to the current edition of the "IAB Official Protocol
   Standards" for the standardization state and status of this protocol.
   Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Abstract

   This RFC specifies the U.S. Department of Defense Basic Security
   Option and the top-level description of the Extended Security Option
   for use with the Internet Protocol.  This RFC obsoletes RFC 1038
   "Revised IP Security Option", dated January 1988.

1.  DoD Security Options Defined

   The following two internet protocol options are defined for use on
   Department of Defense (DoD) common user data networks:

   CF  CLASS  #  TYPE  LENGTH   DESCRIPTION

   1     0    2   130   var.    DoD Basic Security:  Used to carry the
                                classification level and protection
                                authority flags.


   1     0    5   133   var.    DoD Extended Security:  Used to carry
                                additional security information as
                                required by registered authorities.

   CF = Copy on Fragmentation

2.  DoD Basic Security Option

   This option identifies the U.S. classification level at which the
   datagram is to be protected and the authorities whose protection
   rules apply to each datagram.




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   This option is used by end systems and intermediate systems of an
   internet to:

        a.  Transmit from source to destination in a network standard
        representation the common security labels required by computer
        security models,

        b.  Validate the datagram as appropriate for transmission from
        the source and delivery to the destination,

        c.  Ensure that the route taken by the datagram is protected to
        the level required by all protection authorities indicated on
        the datagram.  In order to provide this facility in a general
        Internet environment, interior and exterior gateway protocols
        must be augmented to include security label information in
        support of routing control.

   The DoD Basic Security option must be copied on fragmentation.  This
   option appears at most once in a datagram.  Some security systems
   require this to be the first option if more than one option is
   carried in the IP header, but this is not a generic requirement
   levied by this specification.

   The format of the DoD Basic Security option is as follows:

      +------------+------------+------------+-------------//----------+
      |  10000010  |  XXXXXXXX  |  SSSSSSSS  |  AAAAAAA[1]    AAAAAAA0 |
      |            |            |            |         [0]             |
      +------------+------------+------------+-------------//----------+
        TYPE = 130     LENGTH   CLASSIFICATION         PROTECTION
                                     LEVEL              AUTHORITY
                                                          FLAGS

                    FIGURE 1.  DoD BASIC SECURITY OPTION FORMAT

2.1.  Type

   The value 130 identifies this as the DoD Basic Security Option.

2.2.  Length

   The length of the option is variable.  The minimum length of the
   option is 3 octets, including the Type and Length fields (the
   Protection Authority field may be absent).  A length indication of
   less than 3 octets should result in error processing as described in
   Section 2.8.1.





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2.3.  Classification Level

        Field Length:  One Octet

   This field specifies the (U.S.) classification level at which the
   datagram must be protected.  The information in the datagram must be
   protected at this level.  The field is encoded as shown in Table 1
   and the order of values in this table defines the ordering for
   comparison purposes.  The bit string values in this table were chosen
   to achieve a minimum Hamming distance of four (4) between any two
   valid values.  This specific assignment of classification level names
   to values has been defined for compatibility with security devices
   which have already been developed and deployed.

   "Reserved" values in the table must be treated as invalid until such
   time they are assigned to named classification levels in a successor
   to this document.  A datagram containing a value for this field which
   is either not in this table or which is listed as "reserved" is in
   error and must be processed according to the "out-of-range"
   procedures defined in section 2.8.1.

   A classification level value from the Basic Security Option in a
   datagram may be checked for equality against any of the (assigned)
   values in Table 1 by performing a simple bit string comparison.
   However, because of the sparseness of the classification level
   encodings, range checks involving a value from this field must not be
   performed based solely using arithmetic comparisons (as such
   comparisons would encompass invalid and or unassigned values within
   the range).  The details of how ordered comparisons are performed for
   this field within a system is a local matter, subject to the
   requirements set forth in this paragraph.

                    Table 1.  Classification Level Encodings

                         Value              Name

                        00000001   -   (Reserved 4)
                        00111101   -   Top Secret
                        01011010   -   Secret
                        10010110   -   Confidential
                        01100110   -   (Reserved 3)
                        11001100   -   (Reserved 2)
                        10101011   -   Unclassified
                        11110001   -   (Reserved 1)







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2.4.  Protection Authority Flags

        Field Length:  Variable

   This field identifies the National Access Programs or Special Access
   Programs which specify protection rules for transmission and
   processing of the information contained in the datagram.  Note that
   protection authority flags do NOT represent accreditation
   authorities, though the semantics are superficially similar.  In
   order to maintain architectural consistency and interoperability
   throughout DoD common user data networks, users of these networks
   should submit requirements for additional Protection Authority Flags
   to DISA DISDB, Washington, D.C.  20305-2000, for review and approval.
   Such review and approval should be sought prior to design,
   development or deployment of any system which would make use of
   additional facilities based on assignment of new protection authority
   flags.  As additional flags are approved and assigned, they will be
   published, along with the values defined above, in the Assigned
   Numbers RFC edited by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).

        a.  Field Length: This field is variable in length.  The low-
        order bit (Bit 7) of each octet is encoded as "0" if it is the
        final octet in the field or as "1" if there are additional
        octets.  Initially, only one octet is required for this field
        (because there are fewer than seven authorities defined), thus
        the final bit of the first octet is encoded as "0".  However,
        minimally compliant implementations must be capable of
        processing a protection authority field consisting of at least 2
        octets (representing up to 14 protection authorities).
        Implementations existing prior to the issuance of this RFC, and
        which process fewer protection authority than specified here,
        will be considered minimally compliant so long as such
        implementations process the flags in accordance with the RFC.
        This field must be a minimally encoded representation, i.e., no
        trailing all-zero octets should be emitted.  If the length of
        this field as indicated by this extensible encoding is not
        consistent with the length field for the option, the datagram is
        in error and the procedure described in Section 2.8.1 must be
        followed.  (Figure 2 illustrates the relative significance of
        the bits within an octet).

                        0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7
                      +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
          High-order  |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |  Low-order
                      +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+

                         Figure 2.  Significance of Bits




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        b.  Source Flags: The first seven bits (Bits 0 through 6) in
        each octet are flags.  Each flag is associated with an
        authority.  Protection Authority flags currently assigned are
        indicated in Table 2.  The bit corresponding to an authority is
        "1" if the datagram is to be protected in accordance with the
        rules of that authority.  More than one flag may be present in a
        single instance of this option if the data contained in the
        datagram should be protected according to rules established by
        multiple authorities.  Table 3 identifies a point of contact for
        each of the authorities listed in Table 2.  No "unassigned" bits
        in this or other octets in the Protection Authority Field shall
        be considered valid Protection Authority flags until such time
        as such bits are assigned and the assignments are published in
        the Assigned Numbers RFC.  Thus a datagram containing flags for
        unassigned bits in this field for this option is in error and
        must be processed according to the "out-of-range" procedures
        defined in section 2.8.1.

        Two protection authority flag fields can be compared for
        equality (=) via simple bit string matching.  No relative
        ordering between two protection authority flag fields is
        defined.  Because these flags represent protection authorities,
        security models such as Bell-LaPadula do not apply to
        interpretation of this field.  However, the symbol "=<" refers
        to set inclusion when comparing a protection authority flag
        field to a set of such fields.  Means for effecting these tests
        within a system are a local matter, subject to the requirements
        set forth in this paragraph.

                      Table 2 - Protection Authority Bit Assignments

                                BIT
                               NUMBER     AUTHORITY

                                 0        GENSER

                                 1        SIOP-ESI

                                 2        SCI

                                 3        NSA

                                 4        DOE

                              5, 6        Unassigned

                                 7        Field Termination Indicator




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                Table 3 - Protection Authority Points of Contact

                AUTHORITY             POINT OF CONTACT

                GENSER                Designated Approving Authority
                                      per DOD 5200.28

                SIOP-ESI              Department of Defense
                                      Organization of the
                                      Joint Chiefs of Staff
                                      Attn: J6
                                      Washington, DC  20318-6000

                SCI                   Director of Central Intelligence
                                      Attn: Chairman, Information
                                      Handling Committee, Intelligence
                                      Community Staff
                                      Washington, D.C. 20505

                NSA                   National Security Agency
                                      9800 Savage Road
                                      Attn: T03
                                      Ft. Meade, MD 20755-6000

                DOE                   Department of Energy
                                      Attn:  DP343.2
                                      Washington, DC  20545

2.5.  System Security Configuration Parameters

   Use of the Basic Security Option (BSO) by an end or intermediate
   system requires that the system configuration include the parameters
   described below.  These parameters are critical to secure processing
   of the BSO, and thus must be protected from unauthorized
   modification.  Note that compliant implementations must allow a
   minimum of 14 distinct Protection Authority flags (consistent with
   the Protection Authority field size defined in Section 2.4) to be set
   independently in any parameter involving Protection Authority flag
   fields.

        a. SYSTEM-LEVEL-MAX: This parameter specifies the highest
        Classification Level (see Table 1) which may be present in the
        classification level field of the Basic Security Option in any
        datagram transmitted or received by the system.

        b. SYSTEM-LEVEL-MIN: This parameter specifies the lowest
        Classification Level (see Table 1) which may be present in the
        classification level field of the Basic Security Option in any



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        datagram transmitted by the system.

        c. SYSTEM-AUTHORITY-IN:  This parameter is a set, each member of
        which is a Protection Authority flag field.  The set enumerates
        all of the Protection Authority flag fields which may be present
        in the Protection Authority field of the Basic Security Option
        in any datagram received by this system.  A compliant
        implementation must be capable of representing at least 256
        distinct Protection Authority flag fields (each field must be
        capable of representing 14 distinct Protection Authority flags)
        in this set.  Each element of the enumerated set may be a
        combination of multiple protection authority flags.

        Set elements representing multiple Protection Authorities are
        formed by ORing together the flags that represent each
        authority.  Thus, for example, a set  element representing
        datagrams to be protected according to NSA and SCI rules might
        be represented as "00110000" while an element representing
        protection mandated by NSA, DOE and SIOP-ESI might be
        represented as "01011000".  (These examples illustrate 8-bit set
        elements apropos the minimal encodings for currently defined
        Protection Authority flags.  If additional flags are defined
        beyond the first byte of the Protection Authority Field, longer
        encodings for set elements may be required.)

        It is essential that implementations of the Internet Protocol
        Basic Security Option provide a convenient and compact way for
        system security managers to express which combinations of flags
        are allowed.  The details of such an interface are outside the
        scope of this RFC, however, enumeration of bit patterns is NOT a
        recommended interface.  As an alternative, one might consider a
        notation of the form COMB(GENSER,NSA,SCI)+COMB(SIOP-ESI,NSA,SCI)
        in which "COMB" means ANY combination of the flags referenced as
        parameters of the COMB function are allowed and "+" means "or".

        d. SYSTEM-AUTHORITY-OUT:  This parameter is a set, each member
        of which is a Protection Authority flag field.  The set
        enumerates all of the Protection Authority flag fields which may
        be present in the Protection Authority field of the Basic
        Security Option in any datagram transmitted by this system.  A
        compliant implementation must be capable of representing at
        least 256 distinct Protection Authority flag fields in this set.
        Explicit enumeration of all authorized Protection Authority
        field flags permits great flexibility, and in particular does
        not impose set inclusion restrictions on this parameter.

   The following configuration parameters are defined for each network
   port present on the system.  The term "port" is used here to refer



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   either to a physical device interface (which may represent multiple
   IP addresses) or to a single IP address (which may be served via
   multiple physical interfaces).  In general the former interpretation
   will apply and is consistent with the Trusted Network Interpretation
   of the Trusted Computer Systems Evaluation Criteria (TNI) concept of
   a "communications channel" or "I/O device."  However, the latter
   interpretation also may be valid depending on local system security
   capabilities.  Note that some combinations of port parameter values
   are appropriate only if the port is "single level," i.e., all data
   transmitted or received via the port is accurately characterized by
   exactly one Classification Level and Protection Authority Flag field.

        e. PORT-LEVEL-MAX: This parameter specifies the highest
        Classification Level (see Table 1) which may be present in the
        classification level field of the Basic Security Option in any
        datagram transmitted or received by the system via this network
        port.

        f. PORT-LEVEL-MIN: This parameter specifies the lowest
        Classification Level (see Table 1) which may be present in the
        classification level field of the Basic Security Option in any
        datagram transmitted by the system via this network port.

        g. PORT-AUTHORITY-IN:  This parameter is a set each member of
        which is a Protection Authority flag field.  The set enumerates
        all of the Protection Authority flag fields which may be present
        in the Protection Authority field of the Basic Security Option
        in any datagram received via this port.  A compliant
        implementation must be capable of representing at least 256
        distinct Protection Authority flag fields in this set.

        h. PORT-AUTHORITY-OUT:  This parameter is a set each member of
        which is a Protection Authority flag field.  The set enumerates
        all of the Protection Authority flag fields which may be present
        in the Protection Authority field of the Basic Security Option
        in any datagram transmitted via this port.  A compliant
        implementation must be capable of representing at least 256
        distinct Protection Authority flag fields in this set.

        i. PORT-AUTHORITY-ERROR:  This parameter is a single Protection
        Authority flag field assigned to transmitted ICMP error messages
        (see Section 2.8).  The PORT-AUTHORITY-ERROR value is selected
        from the set of values which constitute PORT-AUTHORITY-OUT.
        Means for selecting the PORT-AUTHORITY-ERROR value within a
        system are a local matter subject to local security policies.

        j. PORT-IMPLICIT-LABEL:  This parameter specifies a single
        Classification Level and a Protection Authority flag field



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        (which may be null) to be associated with all unlabelled
        datagrams received via the port.  This parameter is meaningful
        only if PORT-BSO-REQUIRED-RECEIVE = FALSE, otherwise receipt of
        an unlabelled datagram results in an error response.

        k. PORT-BSO-REQUIRED-RECEIVE:  This parameter is a boolean which
        indicates whether all datagrams received via this network port
        must contain a Basic Security Option.

        l. PORT-BSO-REQUIRED-TRANSMIT:  This parameter is a boolean
        which indicates whether all datagrams transmitted via this
        network port must contain a Basic Security Option.   If this
        parameter is set to FALSE, then PORT-BSO-REQUIRED-RECEIVE should
        also be set to FALSE (to avoid communication failures resulting
        from asymmetric labelling constraints).

   In every intermediate or end system, the following relationship must
   hold for these parameters for all network interfaces.  The symbol
   ">=" is interpreted relative to the linear ordering defined for
   security levels specified in Section 2.3 for the "LEVEL" parameters,
   and as set inclusion for the "AUTHORITY" parameters.

           SYSTEM-LEVEL-MAX >= PORT-LEVEL-MAX >=
                   PORT-LEVEL-MIN >= SYSTEM-LEVEL-MIN

           SYSTEM-AUTHORITY-IN >= PORT-AUTHORITY-IN
                            and
           SYSTEM-AUTHORITY-OUT >= PORT-AUTHORITY-OUT

2.6.  Configuration Considerations

   Systems which do not maintain separation for different security
   classification levels of data should have only trivial ranges for the
   LEVEL parameters, i.e., SYSTEM-LEVEL-MAX = PORT-LEVEL-MAX = PORT-
   LEVEL-MIN = SYSTEM-LEVEL-MIN.

   Systems which do maintain separation for different security
   classification levels of data may have non-trivial ranges for the
   LEVEL parameters, e.g., SYSTEM-LEVEL-MAX >= PORT-LEVEL-MAX >= PORT-
   LEVEL-MIN >= SYSTEM-LEVEL-MIN.

2.7.  Processing the Basic Security Option

   For systems implementing the Basic Security Option, the parameters
   PORT-BSO-REQUIRED-TRANSMIT and PORT-BSO-REQUIRED-RECEIVE are used to
   specify the local security policy with regard to requiring the
   presence of this option on transmitted and received datagrams,
   respectively, on a per-port basis.  Each datagram transmitted or



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   received by the system must be processed in accordance with the per-
   port and system-wide security parameters configured for the system.

   Systems which process only Unclassified data may or may not be
   configured to generate the BSO on transmitted datagrams.  Such
   systems also may or may not require a BSO to be present on received
   datagrams.  However, all systems must be capable of accepting
   datagrams containing this option, irrespective of whether the option
   is processed or not.

   In general, systems which process classified data must generate this
   option for transmitted datagrams.  The only exception to this rule
   arises in (dedicated or system high [DoD 5200.28]) networks where
   traffic may be implicitly labelled rather than requiring each
   attached system to generate explicit labels.  If the local security
   policy permits receipt of datagrams without the option, each such
   datagram is presumed to be implicitly labelled based on the port via
   which the datagram is received.  A per-port parameter (PORT-
   IMPLICIT-LABEL) specifies the label to be associated with such
   datagrams upon receipt.  Note that a datagram transmitted in response
   to receipt of an implicitly labelled datagram, may, based on local
   policy, require an explicit Basic Security Option.

2.7.1.  Handling Unclassified Datagrams

   If an unmarked datagram is received via a network port for which
   PORT-BSO-REQUIRED = FALSE and PORT-IMPLICIT-LABEL = UNCLASSIFIED (NO
   FLAGS), the datagram shall be processed as though no Protection
   Authority Flags were set.  Thus there are two distinct, valid
   representations for Unclassified datagrams to which no Protection
   Authority rules apply (an unmarked datagram as described here and a
   datagram containing an explicit BSO with Classification Level set to
   Unclassified and with no Protection Authority flags set).  Note that
   a datagram also may contain a Basic Security Option in which the
   Classification Level is Unclassified and one or more Protection
   Authority Field Flags are set.  Such datagrams are explicitly
   distinct from the equivalence class noted above (datagrams marked
   Unclassified with no Protection Authority field flags set and
   datagrams not containing a Basic Security Option).

2.7.2.  Input Processing

   Upon receipt of any datagram a system compliant with this RFC must
   perform the following actions.  First, if PORT-BSO-REQUIRED-RECEIVE =
   TRUE for this port, then any received datagram must contain a Basic
   Security Option and a missing BSO results in an ICMP error response
   as specified in Section 2.8.1.  A received datagram which contains a
   Basic Security Option must be processed as described below.  This



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   algorithm assumes that the IP header checksum has already been
   verified and that, in the course of processing IP options, this
   option has been encountered.  The value of the Classification Level
   field from the option will be designated "DG-LEVEL" and the value of
   the Protection Authority Flags field will be designated "DG-
   AUTHORITY."

   Step 1. Check that DG-LEVEL is a valid security classification level,
           i.e., it must be one of the (non-reserved) values from Table
           1.  If this test fails execute the out-of-range procedure in
           Section 2.8.1.

   Step 2. Check that PORT-LEVEL-MAX >= DG-LEVEL.  If this test fails,
           execute out-of-range procedure specified in Section 2.8.2.

   Step 3. Check that DG-AUTHORITY =< PORT-AUTHORITY-IN.  If this test
           fails, execute out-of-range procedure specified in Section
           2.8.2.

2.7.3.  Output Processing

   Any system which implements the Basic Security Option must adhere to
   a fundamental rule with regard to transmission of datagrams, i.e., no
   datagram shall be transmitted with a Basic Security Option the value
   of which is outside of the range for which the system is configured.
   Thus for every datagram transmitted by a system the following must
   hold: PORT-LEVEL-MAX >= DG-LEVEL >= PORT-LEVEL-MIN and DG-AUTHORITY
   =< PORT-AUTHORITY-OUT.  It is a local matter as to what procedures
   are followed by a system which detects at attempt to transmit a
   datagram for which these relationships do not hold.

   If a port is configured to allow both labelled and unlabelled
   datagrams (PORT-BSO-REQUIRED-TRANSMIT = FALSE) to be transmitted, the
   question arises as to whether a label should be affixed.  In
   recognition of the lack of widespread implementation or use of this
   option, especially in unclassified networks, this RFC recommends that
   the default be transmission of unlabelled datagrams.  If the
   destination requires all datagrams to be labelled on input, then it
   will respond with an ICMP error message (see Section 2.8.1) and the
   originator can respond by labelling successive packets transmitted to
   this destination.

   To support this mode of operation, a system which allows transmission
   of both labelled and unlabelled datagrams must maintain state
   information (a cache) so that the system can associate the use of
   labels with specific destinations, e.g., in response to receipt of an
   ICMP error message as specified in Section 2.8.1.  This requirement
   for maintaining a per-destination cache is very much analogous to



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   that imposed for processing the IP source route option or for
   maintaining first hop routing information (RFC 1122).  This RFC does
   not specify which protocol module must maintain the per-destination
   cache (e.g., IP vs.  TCP or UDP) but security engineering constraints
   may dictate an IP implementation in trusted systems.  This RFC also
   does not specify a cache maintenance algorithm, though use of a timer
   and activity flag may be appropriate.

2.8.  Error Procedures

   Datagrams received with errors in the Basic Security Option or which
   are out of range for the network port via which they are received,
   should not be delivered to user processes.  Local policy will specify
   whether logging and/or notification of a system security officer is
   required in response to receipt of such datagrams.  The following are
   the least restrictive actions permitted by this protocol.  Individual
   end or intermediate systems, system administrators, or protection
   authorities may impose more stringent restrictions on responses and
   in some instances may not permit any response at all to a datagram
   which is outside the security range of a host or system.

   In all cases, if the error is triggered by receipt of an ICMP, the
   ICMP is discarded and no response is permitted (consistent with
   general ICMP processing rules).

2.8.1.Parameter Problem Response

   If a datagram is received with no Basic Security Option and the
   system security configuration parameters require the option on the
   network port via which the datagram was received, an ICMP Parameter
   Problem Missing Option (Type = 12, Code = 1) message is transmitted
   in response.  The Pointer field of the ICMP should be set to the
   value "130" to indicate the type of option missing.  A Basic Security
   Option is included in the response datagram with Clearance Level set
   to PORT-LEVEL-MIN and Protection Authority Flags set to PORT-
   AUTHORITY-ERROR.

   If a datagram is received in which the Basic Security Option is
   malformed (e.g., an invalid Classification Level Protection Authority
   Flag field), an ICMP Parameter Problem (Type = 12, Code = 0) message
   is transmitted in response.  The pointer field is set to the
   malformed Basic Security Option.  The Basic Security Option is
   included in the response datagram with Clearance Level set to PORT-
   LEVEL-MIN and Protection Authority Flags set to PORT-AUTHORITY-ERROR.







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2.8.2.  Out-Of-Range Response

   If a datagram is received which is out of range for the network port
   on which it was received, an ICMP Destination Unreachable
   Communication Administratively Prohibited (Type = 3, Code = 9 for net
   or Code = 10 for host) message is transmitted in response.  A Basic
   Security Option is included in the response datagram with Clearance
   Level set to PORT-LEVEL-MIN and Protection Authority Flags set to
   PORT-AUTHORITY-ERROR.

2.9.  Trusted Intermediary Procedure

   Certain devices in an internet may act as intermediaries to validate
   that communications between two hosts are authorized.  This decision
   is based on the knowledge of the accredited security levels of the
   hosts and the values in the DoD Basic Security Option.  These devices
   may receive IP datagrams which are in range for the intermediate
   device, but are not within the accredited range either for the source
   or for the destination.  In the former case, the datagram should be
   treated as described above for an out-of-range option.  In the latter
   case, an ICMP Destination Unreachable Communication Administratively
   Prohibited (Type = 3, Code = 9 for net or Code = 10 for host)
   response should be transmitted. The security range of the network
   interface on which the reply will be sent determines whether a reply
   is allowed and at what level it will be sent.

3.  DoD Extended Security Option

   This option permits additional security labelling information, beyond
   that present in the Basic Security Option, to be supplied in an IP
   datagram to meet the needs of registered authorities.  Note that
   information which is not labelling data or which is meaningful only
   to the end systems (not intermediate systems) is not appropriate for
   transmission in the IP layer and thus should not be transported using
   this option.  This option must be copied on fragmentation.  Unlike
   the Basic Option, this option may appear multiple times within a
   datagram, subject to overall IP header size constraints.

   This option may be present only in conjunction with the Basic
   Security Option, thus all systems which support Extended Security
   Options must also support the Basic Security Option.  However, not
   all systems which support the Basic Security Option need to support
   Extended Security Options and support for these options may be
   selective, i.e., a system need not support all Extended Security
   Options.

   The top-level format for this option is as follows:




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             +------------+------------+------------+-------//-------+
             |  10000101  |  000LLLLL  |  AAAAAAAA  |  add sec info  |
             +------------+------------+------------+-------//-------+
              TYPE = 133      LENGTH     ADDITIONAL      ADDITIONAL
                                        SECURITY INFO     SECURITY
                                         FORMAT CODE        INFO

                   FIGURE 3.  DoD EXTENDED SECURITY OPTION FORMAT

3.1.  Type

   The value 133 identifies this as the DoD Extended Security Option.

3.2.  Length.

   The length of the option, which includes the "Type" and "Length"
   fields, is variable.  The minimum length of the option is 3 octets.

3.3.  Additional Security Info Format Code

        Length:  1 Octet

   The value of the Additional Security Info Format Code identifies the
   syntax and semantics for a specific "Additional Security Information"
   field.  For each Additional Security Info Format Code, an RFC will be
   published to specify the syntax and to provide an algorithmic
   description of the processing required to determine whether a
   datagram carrying a label specified by this Format Code should be
   accepted or rejected.  This specification must be sufficiently
   detailed to permit vendors to produce interoperable implementations,
   e.g., it should be comparable to the specification of the Basic
   Security Option provided in this RFC.  However, the specification
   need not include a mapping from the syntax of the option to human
   labels if such mapping would cause distribution of the specification
   to be restricted.

   In order to maintain the architectural consistency of DoD common user
   data networks, and to maximize interoperability, each activity should
   submit its plans for the definition and use of an Additional Security
   Info Format Code to DISA DISDB, Washington, D.C.  20305-2000 for
   review and approval.  DISA DISDB will forward plans to the Internet
   Activities Board for architectural review and, if required, a cleared
   committee formed by the IAB will be constituted for the review
   process.  Once approved, the Internet Assigned Number authority will
   assign an Additional Security Info Format Code to the requesting
   activity, concurrent with publication of the corresponding RFC.

   Note: The bit assignments for the Protection Authority flags of the



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RFC 1108                U.S. DOD Security Option           November 1991


   Basic Security Option have no relationship to the "Additional
   Security Info Format Code" of this option.

3.4.  Additional Security Information.

        Length:  Variable

   The Additional Security Info field contains the additional security
   labelling information specified by the "Additional Security Info
   Format Code" of the Extended Security Option.  The syntax and
   processing requirements for this field are specified by the
   associated RFC as noted above.  The minimum length of this field is
   zero.

3.5.  System Security Configuration Parameters

   Use of the Extended Security Option requires that the intermediate or
   end system configuration accurately reflect the security parameters
   associated with communication via each network port (see Section 2.5
   as a guide).  Internal representation of the security parameters
   implementation dependent.  The set of parameters required to support
   processing of the Extended Security Option is a function of the set
   of Additional Security Info Format Codes supported by the system.
   The RFC which specifies syntax and processing rules for a registered
   Additional Security Info Format Code will specify the additional
   system security parameters required for processing an Extended
   Security Option relative to that Code.

3.6.  Processing Rules

   Any datagram containing an Extended Security Option must also contain
   a Basic Security Option and receipt of a datagram containing the
   former absent the latter constitutes an error.  If the length
   specified by the Length field is inconsistent with the length
   specified by the variable length encoding for the Additional Security
   Info field, the datagram is in error.  If the datagram is received in
   which the Additional Security Info Format Code contains a non-
   registered value, the datagram is in error.  Finally, if the
   Additional Security Info field contains data inconsistent with the
   defining RFC for the Additional Security Info Format Code, the
   datagram is in error.  In any of these cases, an ICMP Parameter
   Problem response should be sent as per Section 2.8.1.  Any additional
   error processing rules will be specified in the defining RFC for this
   Additional Security Info Format Code.

   If the additional security information contained in the Extended
   Security Option indicates that the datagram is within range according
   to the security policy of the system, then the datagram should be



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RFC 1108                U.S. DOD Security Option           November 1991


   accepted for further processing.  Otherwise, the datagram should be
   rejected and the procedure specified in Section 2.8.2 should be
   followed (with the Extended Security Option values set apropos the
   Additional Security Info Format Code port security parameters).

   As with the Basic Security Option, it will not be possible in a
   general internet environment for intermediate systems to provide
   routing control for datagrams based on the labels contained in the
   Extended Security Option until such time as interior and exterior
   gateway routing protocols are enhanced to process such labels.

References

   [DoD 5200.28]  Department of Defense Directive 5200.28, "Security
                  Requirements for Automated Information Systems," 21
                  March 1988.

Security Considerations

   The focus of this RFC is the definition of formats and processing
   conventions to support security labels for data contained in IP
   datagrams, thus a variety of security issues must be considered
   carefully when making use of these options.  It is not possible to
   address all of the security considerations which affect correct
   implementation and use of these options, however the following
   paragraph highglights some of these issues.

   Correct implementation and operation of the software and hardware
   which processes these options is essential to their effective use.
   Means for achieving confidence in such correct implementation and
   operation are outside of the scope of this RFC.  The options
   themselves incorporate no facilities to ensure the integrity of the
   security labels in transit (other than the IP checksum mechanism),
   thus appropriate technology must be employed whenever datagrams
   containing these options transit "hostile" communication
   environments.  Careful, secure management of the configuration
   variables associated with each system making use of these options is
   essential if the options are to provide the intended security
   functionality.












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RFC 1108                U.S. DOD Security Option           November 1991


Author's Address

   Stephen Kent
   BBN Communications
   150 CambridgePark Drive
   Cambridge, MA  02140

   Phone: (617) 873-3988

   Email: kent@bbn.com









































Kent                                                           [Page 17]


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