[Docs] [txt|pdf] [draft-ietf-pppext...] [Diff1] [Diff2]

Obsoleted by: 1994 PROPOSED STANDARD

Network Working Group                                           B. Lloyd
Request for Comments: 1334                                           L&A
                                                              W. Simpson
                                                              Daydreamer
                                                            October 1992


                      PPP Authentication Protocols

Status of this Memo

   This RFC specifies an IAB standards track protocol for the Internet
   community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements.
   Please refer to the current edition of the "IAB Official Protocol
   Standards" for the standardization state and status of this protocol.
   Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Abstract

   The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) [1] provides a standard method of
   encapsulating Network Layer protocol information over point-to-point
   links.  PPP also defines an extensible Link Control Protocol, which
   allows negotiation of an Authentication Protocol for authenticating
   its peer before allowing Network Layer protocols to transmit over the
   link.

   This document defines two protocols for Authentication: the Password
   Authentication Protocol and the Challenge-Handshake Authentication
   Protocol.  This memo is the product of the Point-to-Point Protocol
   Working Group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).
   Comments on this memo should be submitted to the ietf-ppp@ucdavis.edu
   mailing list.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction ...............................................    2
   1.1 Specification Requirements .................................    2
   1.2 Terminology ................................................    3
   2. Password Authentication Protocol ............................    3
   2.1 Configuration Option Format ................................    4
   2.2 Packet Format ..............................................    5
   2.2.1 Authenticate-Request .....................................    5
   2.2.2 Authenticate-Ack and Authenticate-Nak ....................    7
   3. Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol..................    8
   3.1 Configuration Option Format ................................    9
   3.2 Packet Format ..............................................   10
   3.2.1 Challenge and Response ...................................   11
   3.2.2 Success and Failure ......................................   13



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   SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS ........................................   14
   REFERENCES .....................................................   15
   ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...............................................   16
   CHAIR'S ADDRESS ................................................   16
   AUTHOR'S ADDRESS ...............................................   16

1.  Introduction

   PPP has three main components:

      1. A method for encapsulating datagrams over serial links.

      2. A Link Control Protocol (LCP) for establishing, configuring,
         and testing the data-link connection.

      3. A family of Network Control Protocols (NCPs) for establishing
         and configuring different network-layer protocols.

   In order to establish communications over a point-to-point link, each
   end of the PPP link must first send LCP packets to configure the data
   link during Link Establishment phase.  After the link has been
   established, PPP provides for an optional Authentication phase before
   proceeding to the Network-Layer Protocol phase.

   By default, authentication is not mandatory.  If authentication of
   the link is desired, an implementation MUST specify the
   Authentication-Protocol Configuration Option during Link
   Establishment phase.

   These authentication protocols are intended for use primarily by
   hosts and routers that connect to a PPP network server via switched
   circuits or dial-up lines, but might be applied to dedicated links as
   well.  The server can use the identification of the connecting host
   or router in the selection of options for network layer negotiations.

   This document defines the PPP authentication protocols.  The Link
   Establishment and Authentication phases, and the Authentication-
   Protocol Configuration Option, are defined in The Point-to-Point
   Protocol (PPP) [1].

1.1.  Specification Requirements

   In this document, several words are used to signify the requirements
   of the specification.  These words are often capitalized.

   MUST
      This word, or the adjective "required", means that the definition
      is an absolute requirement of the specification.



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   MUST NOT
      This phrase means that the definition is an absolute prohibition
      of the specification.

   SHOULD
      This word, or the adjective "recommended", means that there may
      exist valid reasons in particular circumstances to ignore this
      item, but the full implications should be understood and carefully
      weighed before choosing a different course.

   MAY
      This word, or the adjective "optional", means that this item is
      one of an allowed set of alternatives.  An implementation which
      does not include this option MUST be prepared to interoperate with
      another implementation which does include the option.

1.2.  Terminology

   This document frequently uses the following terms:

   authenticator
      The end of the link requiring the authentication.  The
      authenticator specifies the authentication protocol to be used in
      the Configure-Request during Link Establishment phase.

   peer
      The other end of the point-to-point link; the end which is being
      authenticated by the authenticator.

   silently discard
      This means the implementation discards the packet without further
      processing.  The implementation SHOULD provide the capability of
      logging the error, including the contents of the silently
      discarded packet, and SHOULD record the event in a statistics
      counter.

2.  Password Authentication Protocol

   The Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) provides a simple method
   for the peer to establish its identity using a 2-way handshake.  This
   is done only upon initial link establishment.

   After the Link Establishment phase is complete, an Id/Password pair
   is repeatedly sent by the peer to the authenticator until
   authentication is acknowledged or the connection is terminated.

   PAP is not a strong authentication method.  Passwords are sent over
   the circuit "in the clear", and there is no protection from playback



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   or repeated trial and error attacks.  The peer is in control of the
   frequency and timing of the attempts.

   Any implementations which include a stronger authentication method
   (such as CHAP, described below) MUST offer to negotiate that method
   prior to PAP.

   This authentication method is most appropriately used where a
   plaintext password must be available to simulate a login at a remote
   host.  In such use, this method provides a similar level of security
   to the usual user login at the remote host.

      Implementation Note: It is possible to limit the exposure of the
      plaintext password to transmission over the PPP link, and avoid
      sending the plaintext password over the entire network.  When the
      remote host password is kept as a one-way transformed value, and
      the algorithm for the transform function is implemented in the
      local server, the plaintext password SHOULD be locally transformed
      before comparison with the transformed password from the remote
      host.

2.1.  Configuration Option Format

   A summary of the Authentication-Protocol Configuration Option format
   to negotiate the Password Authentication Protocol is shown below.
   The fields are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     |     Authentication-Protocol   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type

      3

   Length

      4

   Authentication-Protocol

      c023 (hex) for Password Authentication Protocol.

   Data

      There is no Data field.



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2.2.  Packet Format

   Exactly one Password Authentication Protocol packet is encapsulated
   in the Information field of a PPP Data Link Layer frame where the
   protocol field indicates type hex c023 (Password Authentication
   Protocol).  A summary of the PAP packet format is shown below.  The
   fields are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Code      |  Identifier   |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    Data ...
   +-+-+-+-+

   Code

      The Code field is one octet and identifies the type of PAP packet.
      PAP Codes are assigned as follows:

         1       Authenticate-Request
         2       Authenticate-Ack
         3       Authenticate-Nak

   Identifier

      The Identifier field is one octet and aids in matching requests
      and replies.

   Length

      The Length field is two octets and indicates the length of the PAP
      packet including the Code, Identifier, Length and Data fields.
      Octets outside the range of the Length field should be treated as
      Data Link Layer padding and should be ignored on reception.

   Data

      The Data field is zero or more octets.  The format of the Data
      field is determined by the Code field.

2.2.1.  Authenticate-Request

   Description

      The Authenticate-Request packet is used to begin the Password
      Authentication Protocol.  The link peer MUST transmit a PAP packet



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      with the Code field set to 1 (Authenticate-Request) during the
      Authentication phase.  The Authenticate-Request packet MUST be
      repeated until a valid reply packet is received, or an optional
      retry counter expires.

      The authenticator SHOULD expect the peer to send an Authenticate-
      Request packet.  Upon reception of an Authenticate-Request packet,
      some type of Authenticate reply (described below) MUST be
      returned.

         Implementation Note: Because the Authenticate-Ack might be
         lost, the authenticator MUST allow repeated Authenticate-
         Request packets after completing the Authentication phase.
         Protocol phase MUST return the same reply Code returned when
         the Authentication phase completed (the message portion MAY be
         different).  Any Authenticate-Request packets received during
         any other phase MUST be silently discarded.

         When the Authenticate-Nak is lost, and the authenticator
         terminates the link, the LCP Terminate-Request and Terminate-
         Ack provide an alternative indication that authentication
         failed.

   A summary of the Authenticate-Request packet format is shown below.
   The fields are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Code      |  Identifier   |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Peer-ID Length|  Peer-Id ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Passwd-Length |  Password  ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Code

      1 for Authenticate-Request.

   Identifier

      The Identifier field is one octet and aids in matching requests
      and replies.  The Identifier field MUST be changed each time an
      Authenticate-Request packet is issued.






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   Peer-ID-Length

      The Peer-ID-Length field is one octet and indicates the length of
      the Peer-ID field.

   Peer-ID

      The Peer-ID field is zero or more octets and indicates the name of
      the peer to be authenticated.

   Passwd-Length

      The Passwd-Length field is one octet and indicates the length of
      the Password field.

   Password

      The Password field is zero or more octets and indicates the
      password to be used for authentication.

2.2.2.  Authenticate-Ack and Authenticate-Nak

   Description

      If the Peer-ID/Password pair received in an Authenticate-Request
      is both recognizable and acceptable, then the authenticator MUST
      transmit a PAP packet with the Code field set to 2 (Authenticate-
      Ack).

      If the Peer-ID/Password pair received in a Authenticate-Request is
      not recognizable or acceptable, then the authenticator MUST
      transmit a PAP packet with the Code field set to 3 (Authenticate-
      Nak), and SHOULD take action to terminate the link.

   A summary of the Authenticate-Ack and Authenticate-Nak packet format
   is shown below.  The fields are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Code      |  Identifier   |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Msg-Length   |  Message  ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-

   Code

      2 for Authenticate-Ack;



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      3 for Authenticate-Nak.

   Identifier

      The Identifier field is one octet and aids in matching requests
      and replies.  The Identifier field MUST be copied from the
      Identifier field of the Authenticate-Request which caused this
      reply.

   Msg-Length

      The Msg-Length field is one octet and indicates the length of the
      Message field.

   Message

      The Message field is zero or more octets, and its contents are
      implementation dependent.  It is intended to be human readable,
      and MUST NOT affect operation of the protocol.  It is recommended
      that the message contain displayable ASCII characters 32 through
      126 decimal.  Mechanisms for extension to other character sets are
      the topic of future research.

3.  Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol

   The Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) is used to
   periodically verify the identity of the peer using a 3-way handshake.
   This is done upon initial link establishment, and MAY be repeated
   anytime after the link has been established.

   After the Link Establishment phase is complete, the authenticator
   sends a "challenge" message to the peer.  The peer responds with a
   value calculated using a "one-way hash" function.  The authenticator
   checks the response against its own calculation of the expected hash
   value.  If the values match, the authentication is acknowledged;
   otherwise the connection SHOULD be terminated.

   CHAP provides protection against playback attack through the use of
   an incrementally changing identifier and a variable challenge value.
   The use of repeated challenges is intended to limit the time of
   exposure to any single attack.  The authenticator is in control of
   the frequency and timing of the challenges.

   This authentication method depends upon a "secret" known only to the
   authenticator and that peer.  The secret is not sent over the link.
   This method is most likely used where the same secret is easily
   accessed from both ends of the link.




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      Implementation Note: CHAP requires that the secret be available in
      plaintext form.  To avoid sending the secret over other links in
      the network, it is recommended that the challenge and response
      values be examined at a central server, rather than each network
      access server.  Otherwise, the secret SHOULD be sent to such
      servers in a reversably encrypted form.

   The CHAP algorithm requires that the length of the secret MUST be at
   least 1 octet.  The secret SHOULD be at least as large and
   unguessable as a well-chosen password.  It is preferred that the
   secret be at least the length of the hash value for the hashing
   algorithm chosen (16 octets for MD5).  This is to ensure a
   sufficiently large range for the secret to provide protection against
   exhaustive search attacks.

   The one-way hash algorithm is chosen such that it is computationally
   infeasible to determine the secret from the known challenge and
   response values.

   The challenge value SHOULD satisfy two criteria: uniqueness and
   unpredictability.  Each challenge value SHOULD be unique, since
   repetition of a challenge value in conjunction with the same secret
   would permit an attacker to reply with a previously intercepted
   response.  Since it is expected that the same secret MAY be used to
   authenticate with servers in disparate geographic regions, the
   challenge SHOULD exhibit global and temporal uniqueness.  Each
   challenge value SHOULD also be unpredictable, least an attacker trick
   a peer into responding to a predicted future challenge, and then use
   the response to masquerade as that peer to an authenticator.
   Although protocols such as CHAP are incapable of protecting against
   realtime active wiretapping attacks, generation of unique
   unpredictable challenges can protect against a wide range of active
   attacks.

   A discussion of sources of uniqueness and probability of divergence
   is included in the Magic-Number Configuration Option [1].

3.1.  Configuration Option Format

   A summary of the Authentication-Protocol Configuration Option format
   to negotiate the Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol is shown
   below.  The fields are transmitted from left to right.









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    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     |     Authentication-Protocol   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   Algorithm   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type

      3

   Length

      5

   Authentication-Protocol

      c223 (hex) for Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol.

   Algorithm

      The Algorithm field is one octet and indicates the one-way hash
      method to be used.  The most up-to-date values of the CHAP
      Algorithm field are specified in the most recent "Assigned
      Numbers" RFC [2].  Current values are assigned as follows:

         0-4     unused (reserved)
         5       MD5 [3]

3.2.  Packet Format

   Exactly one Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol packet is
   encapsulated in the Information field of a PPP Data Link Layer frame
   where the protocol field indicates type hex c223 (Challenge-Handshake
   Authentication Protocol).  A summary of the CHAP packet format is
   shown below.  The fields are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Code      |  Identifier   |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    Data ...
   +-+-+-+-+






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   Code

      The Code field is one octet and identifies the type of CHAP
      packet.  CHAP Codes are assigned as follows:

         1       Challenge
         2       Response
         3       Success
         4       Failure

   Identifier

      The Identifier field is one octet and aids in matching challenges,
      responses and replies.

   Length

      The Length field is two octets and indicates the length of the
      CHAP packet including the Code, Identifier, Length and Data
      fields.  Octets outside the range of the Length field should be
      treated as Data Link Layer padding and should be ignored on
      reception.

   Data

      The Data field is zero or more octets.  The format of the Data
      field is determined by the Code field.

3.2.1.  Challenge and Response

   Description

      The Challenge packet is used to begin the Challenge-Handshake
      Authentication Protocol.  The authenticator MUST transmit a CHAP
      packet with the Code field set to 1 (Challenge).  Additional
      Challenge packets MUST be sent until a valid Response packet is
      received, or an optional retry counter expires.

      A Challenge packet MAY also be transmitted at any time during the
      Network-Layer Protocol phase to ensure that the connection has not
      been altered.

      The peer SHOULD expect Challenge packets during the Authentication
      phase and the Network-Layer Protocol phase.  Whenever a Challenge
      packet is received, the peer MUST transmit a CHAP packet with the
      Code field set to 2 (Response).

      Whenever a Response packet is received, the authenticator compares



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      the Response Value with its own calculation of the expected value.
      Based on this comparison, the authenticator MUST send a Success or
      Failure packet (described below).

         Implementation Note: Because the Success might be lost, the
         authenticator MUST allow repeated Response packets after
         completing the Authentication phase.  To prevent discovery of
         alternative Names and Secrets, any Response packets received
         having the current Challenge Identifier MUST return the same
         reply Code returned when the Authentication phase completed
         (the message portion MAY be different).  Any Response packets
         received during any other phase MUST be silently discarded.

         When the Failure is lost, and the authenticator terminates the
         link, the LCP Terminate-Request and Terminate-Ack provide an
         alternative indication that authentication failed.

   A summary of the Challenge and Response packet format is shown below.
   The fields are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Code      |  Identifier   |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Value-Size   |  Value ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Name ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Code

      1 for Challenge;

      2 for Response.

   Identifier

      The Identifier field is one octet.  The Identifier field MUST be
      changed each time a Challenge is sent.

      The Response Identifier MUST be copied from the Identifier field
      of the Challenge which caused the Response.

   Value-Size

      This field is one octet and indicates the length of the Value
      field.



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   Value

      The Value field is one or more octets.  The most significant octet
      is transmitted first.

      The Challenge Value is a variable stream of octets.  The
      importance of the uniqueness of the Challenge Value and its
      relationship to the secret is described above.  The Challenge
      Value MUST be changed each time a Challenge is sent.  The length
      of the Challenge Value depends upon the method used to generate
      the octets, and is independent of the hash algorithm used.

      The Response Value is the one-way hash calculated over a stream of
      octets consisting of the Identifier, followed by (concatenated
      with) the "secret", followed by (concatenated with) the Challenge
      Value.  The length of the Response Value depends upon the hash
      algorithm used (16 octets for MD5).

   Name

      The Name field is one or more octets representing the
      identification of the system transmitting the packet.  There are
      no limitations on the content of this field.  For example, it MAY
      contain ASCII character strings or globally unique identifiers in
      ASN.1 syntax.  The Name should not be NUL or CR/LF terminated.
      The size is determined from the Length field.

      Since CHAP may be used to authenticate many different systems, the
      content of the name field(s) may be used as a key to locate the
      proper secret in a database of secrets.  This also makes it
      possible to support more than one name/secret pair per system.

3.2.2.  Success and Failure

   Description

      If the Value received in a Response is equal to the expected
      value, then the implementation MUST transmit a CHAP packet with
      the Code field set to 3 (Success).

      If the Value received in a Response is not equal to the expected
      value, then the implementation MUST transmit a CHAP packet with
      the Code field set to 4 (Failure), and SHOULD take action to
      terminate the link.

   A summary of the Success and Failure packet format is shown below.
   The fields are transmitted from left to right.




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    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Code      |  Identifier   |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Message  ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-

   Code

      3 for Success;

      4 for Failure.

   Identifier

      The Identifier field is one octet and aids in matching requests
      and replies.  The Identifier field MUST be copied from the
      Identifier field of the Response which caused this reply.

   Message

      The Message field is zero or more octets, and its contents are
      implementation dependent.  It is intended to be human readable,
      and MUST NOT affect operation of the protocol.  It is recommended
      that the message contain displayable ASCII characters 32 through
      126 decimal.  Mechanisms for extension to other character sets are
      the topic of future research.  The size is determined from the
      Length field.

Security Considerations

      Security issues are the primary topic of this RFC.

      The interaction of the authentication protocols within PPP are
      highly implementation dependent.  This is indicated by the use of
      SHOULD throughout the document.

      For example, upon failure of authentication, some implementations
      do not terminate the link.  Instead, the implementation limits the
      kind of traffic in the Network-Layer Protocols to a filtered
      subset, which in turn allows the user opportunity to update
      secrets or send mail to the network administrator indicating a
      problem.

      There is no provision for re-tries of failed authentication.
      However, the LCP state machine can renegotiate the authentication
      protocol at any time, thus allowing a new attempt.  It is



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      recommended that any counters used for authentication failure not
      be reset until after successful authentication, or subsequent
      termination of the failed link.

      There is no requirement that authentication be full duplex or that
      the same protocol be used in both directions.  It is perfectly
      acceptable for different protocols to be used in each direction.
      This will, of course, depend on the specific protocols negotiated.

      In practice, within or associated with each PPP server, there is a
      database which associates "user" names with authentication
      information ("secrets").  It is not anticipated that a particular
      named user would be authenticated by multiple methods.  This would
      make the user vulnerable to attacks which negotiate the least
      secure method from among a set (such as PAP rather than CHAP).
      Instead, for each named user there should be an indication of
      exactly one method used to authenticate that user name.  If a user
      needs to make use of different authentication method under
      different circumstances, then distinct user names SHOULD be
      employed, each of which identifies exactly one authentication
      method.

      Passwords and other secrets should be stored at the respective
      ends such that access to them is as limited as possible.  Ideally,
      the secrets should only be accessible to the process requiring
      access in order to perform the authentication.

      The secrets should be distributed with a mechanism that limits the
      number of entities that handle (and thus gain knowledge of) the
      secret.  Ideally, no unauthorized person should ever gain
      knowledge of the secrets.  It is possible to achieve this with
      SNMP Security Protocols [4], but such a mechanism is outside the
      scope of this specification.

      Other distribution methods are currently undergoing research and
      experimentation.  The SNMP Security document also has an excellent
      overview of threats to network protocols.

References

   [1] Simpson, W., "The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)", RFC 1331,
       Daydreamer, May 1992.

   [2] Reynolds, J., and J. Postel, "Assigned Numbers", RFC 1340,
       USC/Information Sciences Institute, July 1992.






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   [3] Rivest, R., and S. Dusse, "The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm", MIT
       Laboratory for Computer Science and RSA Data Security, Inc.  RFC
       1321, April 1992.

   [4] Galvin, J., McCloghrie, K., and J. Davin, "SNMP Security
       Protocols", Trusted Information Systems, Inc., Hughes LAN
       Systems, Inc., MIT Laboratory for Computer Science, RFC 1352,
       July 1992.

Acknowledgments

   Some of the text in this document is taken from RFC 1172, by Drew
   Perkins of Carnegie Mellon University, and by Russ Hobby of the
   University of California at Davis.

   Special thanks to Dave Balenson, Steve Crocker, James Galvin, and
   Steve Kent, for their extensive explanations and suggestions.  Now,
   if only we could get them to agree with each other.

Chair's Address

   The working group can be contacted via the current chair:

      Brian Lloyd
      Lloyd & Associates
      3420 Sudbury Road
      Cameron Park, California 95682

      Phone: (916) 676-1147

      EMail: brian@lloyd.com

Author's Address

   Questions about this memo can also be directed to:

      William Allen Simpson
      Daydreamer
      Computer Systems Consulting Services
      P O Box 6205
      East Lansing, MI  48826-6205

      EMail: Bill.Simpson@um.cc.umich.edu








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