[Docs] [txt|pdf] [draft-ietf-snmpv2...] [Diff1] [Diff2]

Obsoleted by: 1905 PROPOSED STANDARD

          Network Working Group                                  J. Case
          Request for Comments: 1448                 SNMP Research, Inc.
                                                           K. McCloghrie
                                                      Hughes LAN Systems
                                                                 M. Rose
                                            Dover Beach Consulting, Inc.
                                                           S. Waldbusser
                                              Carnegie Mellon University
                                                              April 1993
          
          
                               Protocol Operations
                               for version 2 of the
                   Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2)
          
          
          Status of this Memo
          
          This RFC specifes an IAB standards track protocol for the
          Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions
          for improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the
          "IAB Official Protocol Standards" for the standardization
          state and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo
          is unlimited.
          
          
          Table of Contents
          
          1 Introduction ..........................................    2
          1.1 A Note on Terminology ...............................    2
          2 Overview ..............................................    3
          2.1 Roles of Protocol Entities ..........................    3
          2.2 Management Information ..............................    3
          2.3 Access to Management Information ....................    4
          2.4 Retransmission of Requests ..........................    4
          2.5 Message Sizes .......................................    5
          2.6 Transport Mappings ..................................    6
          3 Definitions ...........................................    7
          4 Protocol Specification ................................   12
          4.1 Common Constructs ...................................   12
          4.2 PDU Processing ......................................   12
          4.2.1 The GetRequest-PDU ................................   13
          4.2.2 The GetNextRequest-PDU ............................   15
          4.2.2.1 Example of Table Traversal ......................   16
          4.2.3 The GetBulkRequest-PDU ............................   18
          4.2.3.1 Another Example of Table Traversal ..............   21
          4.2.4 The Response-PDU ..................................   22
          4.2.5 The SetRequest-PDU ................................   23
          4.2.6 The SNMPv2-Trap-PDU ...............................   26
          4.2.7 The InformRequest-PDU .............................   27
          
          
          
          
          
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          RFC 1448        Protocol Operations for SNMPv2      April 1993
          
          
          5 Acknowledgements ......................................   29
          6 References ............................................   33
          7 Security Considerations ...............................   35
          8 Authors' Addresses ....................................   35
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
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          RFC 1448        Protocol Operations for SNMPv2      April 1993
          
          
          1.  Introduction
          
          A network management system contains: several (potentially
          many) nodes, each with a processing entity, termed an agent,
          which has access to management instrumentation; at least one
          management station; and, a management protocol, used to convey
          management information between the agents and management
          stations.  Operations of the protocol are carried out under an
          administrative framework which defines both authentication and
          authorization policies.
          
          Network management stations execute management applications
          which monitor and control network elements.  Network elements
          are devices such as hosts, routers, terminal servers, etc.,
          which are monitored and controlled through access to their
          management information.
          
          Management information is viewed as a collection of managed
          objects, residing in a virtual information store, termed the
          Management Information Base (MIB).  Collections of related
          objects are defined in MIB modules.  These modules are written
          using a subset of OSI's Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1)
          [1], termed the Structure of Management Information (SMI) [2].
          
          The management protocol, version 2 of the Simple Network
          Management Protocol, provides for the exchange of messages
          which convey management information between the agents and the
          management stations.  The form of these messages is a message
          "wrapper" which encapsulates a Protocol Data Unit (PDU).  The
          form and meaning of the "wrapper" is determined by an
          administrative framework which defines both authentication and
          authorization policies.
          
          It is the purpose of this document, Protocol Operations for
          SNMPv2, to define the operations of the protocol with respect
          to the sending and receiving of the PDUs.
          
          
          1.1.  A Note on Terminology
          
          For the purpose of exposition, the original Internet-standard
          Network Management Framework, as described in RFCs 1155, 1157,
          and 1212, is termed the SNMP version 1 framework (SNMPv1).
          The current framework is termed the SNMP version 2 framework
          (SNMPv2).
          
          
          
          
          
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          RFC 1448        Protocol Operations for SNMPv2      April 1993
          
          
          2.  Overview
          
          2.1.  Roles of Protocol Entities
          
          A SNMPv2 entity may operate in a manager role or an agent
          role.
          
          A SNMPv2 entity acts in an agent role when it performs SNMPv2
          management operations in response to received SNMPv2 protocol
          messages (other than an inform notification) or when it sends
          trap notifications.
          
          A SNMPv2 entity acts in a manager role when it initiates
          SNMPv2 management operations by the generation of SNMPv2
          protocol messages or when it performs SNMPv2 management
          operations in response to received trap or inform
          notifications.
          
          A SNMPv2 entity may support either or both roles, as dictated
          by its implementation and configuration.  Further, a SNMPv2
          entity can also act in the role of a proxy agent, in which it
          appears to be acting in an agent role, but satisfies
          management requests by acting in a manager role with a remote
          entity.  The use of proxy agents and the transparency
          principle that defines their behavior is described in [3].
          
          
          2.2.  Management Information
          
          The term, variable, refers to an instance of a non-aggregate
          object type defined according to the conventions set forth in
          the SMI [2] or the textual conventions based on the SMI [4].
          The term, variable binding, normally refers to the pairing of
          the name of a variable and its associated value.  However, if
          certain kinds of exceptional conditions occur during
          processing of a retrieval request, a variable binding will
          pair a name and an indication of that exception.
          
          A variable-binding list is a simple list of variable bindings.
          
          The name of a variable is an OBJECT IDENTIFIER which is the
          concatenation of the OBJECT IDENTIFIER of the corresponding
          object-type together with an OBJECT IDENTIFIER fragment
          identifying the instance.  The OBJECT IDENTIFIER of the
          corresponding object-type is called the OBJECT IDENTIFIER
          
          
          
          
          
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          RFC 1448        Protocol Operations for SNMPv2      April 1993
          
          
          prefix of the variable.
          
          
          2.3.  Access to Management Information
          
          Three types of access to management information are provided
          by the protocol.  One type is a request-response interaction,
          in which a SNMPv2 entity, acting in a manager role, sends a
          request to a SNMPv2 entity, acting in an agent role, and the
          latter SNMPv2 entity then responds to the request.  This type
          is used to retrieve or modify management information
          associated with the managed device.
          
          A second type is also a request-response interaction, in which
          a SNMPv2 entity, acting in a manager role, sends a request to
          a SNMPv2 entity, also acting in a manager role, and the latter
          SNMPv2 entity then responds to the request.  This type is used
          to notify a SNMPv2 entity, acting in a manager role, of
          management information associated with another SNMPv2 entity,
          also acting in a manager role.
          
          The third type of access is an unconfirmed interaction, in
          which a SNMPv2 entity, acting in an agent role, sends a
          unsolicited message, termed a trap, to a SNMPv2 entity, acting
          in a manager role, and no response is returned.  This type is
          used to notify a SNMPv2 entity, acting in a manager role, of
          an exceptional situation, which has resulted in changes to
          management information associated with the managed device.
          
          
          2.4.  Retransmission of Requests
          
          For all types of request in this protocol, the receiver is
          required under normal circumstances, to generate and transmit
          a response to the originator of the request.  Whether or not a
          request should be retransmitted if no corresponding response
          is received in an appropriate time interval, is at the
          discretion of the application originating the request.  This
          will normally depend on the urgency of the request.  However,
          such an application needs to act responsibly in respect to the
          frequency and duration of re-transmissions.
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
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          RFC 1448        Protocol Operations for SNMPv2      April 1993
          
          
          2.5.  Message Sizes
          
          The maximum size of a SNMPv2 message is limited the minimum
          of:
          
          (1)  the maximum message size which the destination SNMPv2
               entity can accept; and,
          
          (2)  the maximum message size which the source SNMPv2 entity
               can generate.
          
          The former is indicated by partyMaxMessageSize[5] of the
          destination party.  The latter is imposed by implementation-
          specific local constraints.
          
          Each transport mapping for the SNMPv2 indicates the minimum
          message size which a SNMPv2 implementation must be able to
          produce or consume.  Although implementations are encouraged
          to support larger values whenever possible, a conformant
          implementation must never generate messages larger than
          allowed by the receiving SNMPv2 entity.
          
          One of the aims of the GetBulkRequest-PDU, specified in this
          protocol, is to minimize the number of protocol exchanges
          required to retrieve a large amount of management information.
          As such, this PDU type allows a SNMPv2 entity acting in a
          manager role to request that the response be as large as
          possible given the constraints on message sizes.  These
          constraints include the limits on the size of messages which
          the SNMPv2 entity acting in an agent role can generate, and
          the SNMPv2 entity acting in a manager role can receive.
          
          However, it is possible that such maximum sized messages may
          be larger than the Path MTU of the path across the network
          traversed by the messages.  In this situation, such messages
          are subject to fragmentation.  Fragmentation is generally
          considered to be harmful [6], since among other problems, it
          leads to a decrease in the reliability of the transfer of the
          messages.  Thus, a SNMPv2 entity which sends a
          GetBulkRequest-PDU must take care to set its parameters
          accordingly, so as to reduce the risk of fragmentation.  In
          particular, under conditions of network stress, only small
          values should be used for max-repetitions.
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
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          RFC 1448        Protocol Operations for SNMPv2      April 1993
          
          
          2.6.  Transport Mappings
          
          It is important to note that the exchange of SNMPv2 messages
          requires only an unreliable datagram service, with every
          message being entirely and independently contained in a single
          transport datagram.  Specific transport mappings and encoding
          rules are specified elsewhere [7].  However, the preferred
          mapping is the use of the User Datagram Protocol [8].
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
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          RFC 1448        Protocol Operations for SNMPv2      April 1993
          
          
          3.  Definitions
          
               SNMPv2-PDU DEFINITIONS ::= BEGIN
          
               IMPORTS
                   ObjectName, ObjectSyntax, Integer32
                       FROM SNMPv2-SMI;
          
          
               -- protocol data units
          
               PDUs ::=
                   CHOICE {
                       get-request
                           GetRequest-PDU,
          
                       get-next-request
                           GetNextRequest-PDU,
          
                       get-bulk-request
                           GetBulkRequest-PDU,
          
                       response
                           Response-PDU,
          
                       set-request
                           SetRequest-PDU,
          
                       inform-request
                           InformRequest-PDU,
          
                       snmpV2-trap
                           SNMPv2-Trap-PDU
                   }
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
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               -- PDUs
          
               GetRequest-PDU ::=
                   [0]
                       IMPLICIT PDU
          
               GetNextRequest-PDU ::=
                   [1]
                       IMPLICIT PDU
          
               Response-PDU ::=
                   [2]
                       IMPLICIT PDU
          
               SetRequest-PDU ::=
                   [3]
                       IMPLICIT PDU
          
               -- [4] is obsolete
          
               GetBulkRequest-PDU ::=
                   [5]
                       IMPLICIT BulkPDU
          
               InformRequest-PDU ::=
                   [6]
                       IMPLICIT PDU
          
               SNMPv2-Trap-PDU ::=
                   [7]
                       IMPLICIT PDU
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
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               max-bindings
                   INTEGER ::= 2147483647
          
               PDU ::=
                   SEQUENCE {
                       request-id
                           Integer32,
          
                       error-status            -- sometimes ignored
                           INTEGER {
                               noError(0),
                               tooBig(1),
                               noSuchName(2),   -- for proxy compatibility
                               badValue(3),     -- for proxy compatibility
                               readOnly(4),     -- for proxy compatibility
                               genErr(5),
                               noAccess(6),
                               wrongType(7),
                               wrongLength(8),
                               wrongEncoding(9),
                               wrongValue(10),
                               noCreation(11),
                               inconsistentValue(12),
                               resourceUnavailable(13),
                               commitFailed(14),
                               undoFailed(15),
                               authorizationError(16),
                               notWritable(17),
                               inconsistentName(18)
                           },
          
                       error-index            -- sometimes ignored
                           INTEGER (0..max-bindings),
          
                       variable-bindings   -- values are sometimes ignored
                           VarBindList
                   }
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
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          RFC 1448        Protocol Operations for SNMPv2      April 1993
          
          
               BulkPDU ::=                     -- MUST be identical in
                   SEQUENCE {                  -- structure to PDU
                       request-id
                           Integer32,
          
                       non-repeaters
                           INTEGER (0..max-bindings),
          
                       max-repetitions
                           INTEGER (0..max-bindings),
          
                       variable-bindings       -- values are ignored
                           VarBindList
                   }
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
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          RFC 1448        Protocol Operations for SNMPv2      April 1993
          
          
               -- variable binding
          
               VarBind ::=
                   SEQUENCE {
                       name
                           ObjectName,
          
                       CHOICE {
                           value
                               ObjectSyntax,
          
                           unSpecified         -- in retrieval requests
                                   NULL,
          
                                               -- exceptions in responses
                           noSuchObject[0]
                                   IMPLICIT NULL,
          
                           noSuchInstance[1]
                                   IMPLICIT NULL,
          
                           endOfMibView[2]
                                   IMPLICIT NULL
                       }
                   }
          
          
               -- variable-binding list
          
               VarBindList ::=
                   SEQUENCE (SIZE (0..max-bindings)) OF
                       VarBind
          
          
               END
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
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          RFC 1448        Protocol Operations for SNMPv2      April 1993
          
          
          4.  Protocol Specification
          
          
          4.1.  Common Constructs
          
          The value of the request-id field in a Response-PDU takes the
          value of the request-id field in the request PDU to which it
          is a response.  By use of the request-id value, a SNMPv2
          application can distinguish the (potentially multiple)
          outstanding requests, and thereby correlate incoming responses
          with outstanding requests.  In cases where an unreliable
          datagram service is used, the request-id also provides a
          simple means of identifying messages duplicated by the
          network.  Use of the same request-id on a retransmission of a
          request allows the response to either the original
          transmission or the retransmission to satisfy the request.
          However, in order to calculate the round trip time for
          transmission and processing of a request-response transaction,
          the SNMPv2 application needs to use a different request-id
          value on a retransmitted request.  The latter strategy is
          recommended for use in the majority of situations.
          
          A non-zero value of the error-status field in a Response-PDU
          is used to indicate that an exception occurred to prevent the
          processing of the request.  In these cases, a non-zero value
          of the Response-PDU's error-index field provides additional
          information by identifying which variable binding in the list
          caused the exception.  A variable binding is identified by its
          index value.  The first variable binding in a variable-binding
          list is index one, the second is index two, etc.
          
          SNMPv2 limits OBJECT IDENTIFIER values to a maximum of 128
          sub-identifiers, where each sub-identifier has a maximum value
          of 2**32-1.
          
          
          4.2.  PDU Processing
          
          It is mandatory that all SNMPv2 entities acting in an agent
          role be able to generate the following PDU types: Response-PDU
          and SNMPv2-Trap-PDU; further, all such implementations must be
          able to receive the following PDU types: GetRequest-PDU,
          GetNextRequest-PDU, GetBulkRequest-PDU, and SetRequest-PDU.
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
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          RFC 1448        Protocol Operations for SNMPv2      April 1993
          
          
          It is mandatory that all SNMPv2 entities acting in a manager
          role be able to generate the following PDU types: GetRequest-
          PDU, GetNextRequest-PDU, GetBulkRequest-PDU, SetRequest-PDU,
          InformRequest-PDU, and Response-PDU; further, all such
          implementations must be able to receive the following PDU
          types: Response-PDU, SNMPv2-Trap-PDU, InformRequest-PDU;
          
          In the elements of procedure below, any field of a PDU which
          is not referenced by the relevant procedure is ignored by the
          receiving SNMPv2 entity.  However, all components of a PDU,
          including those whose values are ignored by the receiving
          SNMPv2 entity, must have valid ASN.1 syntax and encoding.  For
          example, some PDUs (e.g., the GetRequest-PDU) are concerned
          only with the name of a variable and not its value.  In this
          case, the value portion of the variable binding is ignored by
          the receiving SNMPv2 entity.  The unSpecified value is defined
          for use as the value portion of such bindings.
          
          For all generated PDUs, the message "wrapper" to encapsulate
          the PDU is generated and transmitted as specified in [3].  The
          size of a message is limited only by constraints on the
          maximum message size, either a local limitation or the limit
          associated with the message's destination party, i.e., it is
          not limited by the number of variable bindings.
          
          On receiving a management communication, the procedures
          defined in Section 3.2 of [3] are followed.  If these
          procedures indicate that the PDU contained within the message
          "wrapper" is to be processed, then the SNMPv2 context
          associated with the PDU defines the object resources which are
          visible to the operation.
          
          
          4.2.1.  The GetRequest-PDU
          
          A GetRequest-PDU is generated and transmitted at the request
          of a SNMPv2 application.
          
          Upon receipt of a GetRequest-PDU, the receiving SNMPv2 entity
          processes each variable binding in the variable-binding list
          to produce a Response-PDU.  All fields of the Response-PDU
          have the same values as the corresponding fields of the
          received request except as indicated below.  Each variable
          binding is processed as follows:
          
          
          
          
          
          
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          RFC 1448        Protocol Operations for SNMPv2      April 1993
          
          
          (1)  If the variable binding's name does not have an OBJECT
               IDENTIFIER prefix which exactly matches the OBJECT
               IDENTIFIER prefix of any variable accessible by this
               request, then its value field is set to `noSuchObject'.
          
          (2)  Otherwise, if the variable binding's name does not
               exactly match the name of a variable accessible by this
               request, then its value field is set to `noSuchInstance'.
          
          (3)  Otherwise, the variable binding's value field is set to
               the value of the named variable.
          
          If the processing of any variable binding fails for a reason
          other than listed above, then the Response-PDU is re-formatted
          with the same values in its request-id and variable-bindings
          fields as the received GetRequest-PDU, with the value of its
          error-status field set to `genErr', and the value of its
          error-index field is set to the index of the failed variable
          binding.
          
          Otherwise, the value of the Response-PDU's error-status field
          is set to `noError', and the value of its error-index field is
          zero.
          
          The generated Response-PDU is then encapsulated into a
          message.  If the size of the resultant message is less than or
          equal to both a local constraint and the maximum message size
          of the request's source party, it is transmitted to the
          originator of the GetRequest-PDU.
          
          Otherwise, an alternate Response-PDU is generated.  This
          alternate Response-PDU is formatted with the same value in its
          request-id field as the received GetRequest-PDU, with the
          value of its error-status field set to `tooBig', the value of
          its error-index field set to zero, and an empty variable-
          bindings field.  This alternate Response-PDU is then
          encapsulated into a message.  If the size of the resultant
          message is less than or equal to both a local constraint and
          the maximum message size of the request's source party, it is
          transmitted to the originator of the GetRequest-PDU.
          Otherwise, the resultant message is discarded.
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
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          RFC 1448        Protocol Operations for SNMPv2      April 1993
          
          
          4.2.2.  The GetNextRequest-PDU
          
          A GetNextRequest-PDU is generated and transmitted at the
          request of a SNMPv2 application.
          
          Upon receipt of a GetNextRequest-PDU, the receiving SNMPv2
          entity processes each variable binding in the variable-binding
          list to produce a Response-PDU.  All fields of the Response-
          PDU have the same values as the corresponding fields of the
          received request except as indicated below.  Each variable
          binding is processed as follows:
          
          (1)  The variable is located which is in the lexicographically
               ordered list of the names of all variables which are
               accessible by this request and whose name is the first
               lexicographic successor of the variable binding's name in
               the incoming GetNextRequest-PDU.  The corresponding
               variable binding's name and value fields in the
               Response-PDU are set to the name and value of the located
               variable.
          
          (2)  If the requested variable binding's name does not
               lexicographically precede the name of any variable
               accessible by this request, i.e., there is no
               lexicographic successor, then the corresponding variable
               binding produced in the Response-PDU has its value field
               set to 'endOfMibView', and its name field set to the
               variable binding's name in the request.
          
          If the processing of any variable binding fails for a reason
          other than listed above, then the Response-PDU is re-formatted
          with the same values in its request-id and variable-bindings
          fields as the received GetNextRequest-PDU, with the value of
          its error-status field set to `genErr', and the value of its
          error-index field is set to the index of the failed variable
          binding.
          
          Otherwise, the value of the Response-PDU's error-status field
          is set to `noError', and the value of its error-index field is
          zero.
          
          The generated Response-PDU is then encapsulated into a
          message.  If the size of the resultant message is less than or
          equal to both a local constraint and the maximum message size
          of the request's source party, it is transmitted to the
          
          
          
          
          
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          RFC 1448        Protocol Operations for SNMPv2      April 1993
          
          
          originator of the GetNextRequest-PDU.
          
          Otherwise, an alternate Response-PDU is generated.  This
          alternate Response-PDU is formatted with the same values in
          its request-id field as the received GetNextRequest-PDU, with
          the value of its error-status field set to `tooBig', the value
          of its error-index field set to zero, and an empty variable-
          bindings field.  This alternate Response-PDU is then
          encapsulated into a message.  If the size of the resultant
          message is less than or equal to both a local constraint and
          the maximum message size of the request's source party, it is
          transmitted to the originator of the GetNextRequest-PDU.
          Otherwise, the resultant message is discarded.
          
          
          4.2.2.1.  Example of Table Traversal
          
          An important use of the GetNextRequest-PDU is the traversal of
          conceptual tables of information within a MIB.  The semantics
          of this type of request, together with the method of
          identifying individual instances of objects in the MIB,
          provides access to related objects in the MIB as if they
          enjoyed a tabular organization.
          
          In the protocol exchange sketched below, a SNMPv2 application
          retrieves the media-dependent physical address and the
          address-mapping type for each entry in the IP net-to-media
          Address Translation Table [9] of a particular network element.
          It also retrieves the value of sysUpTime [9], at which the
          mappings existed.  Suppose that the agent's IP net-to-media
          table has three entries:
          
            Interface-Number  Network-Address  Physical-Address  Type
          
                   1            10.0.0.51     00:00:10:01:23:45  static
                   1             9.2.3.4      00:00:10:54:32:10  dynamic
                   2            10.0.0.15     00:00:10:98:76:54  dynamic
          
          The SNMPv2 entity acting in a manager role begins by sending a
          GetNextRequest-PDU containing the indicated OBJECT IDENTIFIER
          values as the requested variable names:
          
              GetNextRequest ( sysUpTime,
                               ipNetToMediaPhysAddress,
                               ipNetToMediaType )
          
          
          
          
          
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          RFC 1448        Protocol Operations for SNMPv2      April 1993
          
          
          The SNMPv2 entity acting in an agent role responds with a
          Response-PDU:
          
              Response (( sysUpTime.0 =  "123456" ),
                        ( ipNetToMediaPhysAddress.1.9.2.3.4 =
                                                   "000010543210" ),
                        ( ipNetToMediaType.1.9.2.3.4 =  "dynamic" ))
          
          The SNMPv2 entity acting in a manager role continues with:
          
              GetNextRequest ( sysUpTime,
                               ipNetToMediaPhysAddress.1.9.2.3.4,
                               ipNetToMediaType.1.9.2.3.4 )
          
          The SNMPv2 entity acting in an agent role responds with:
          
              Response (( sysUpTime.0 =  "123461" ),
                        ( ipNetToMediaPhysAddress.1.10.0.0.51 =
                                                    "000010012345" ),
                        ( ipNetToMediaType.1.10.0.0.51 =  "static" ))
          
          The SNMPv2 entity acting in a manager role continues with:
          
              GetNextRequest ( sysUpTime,
                               ipNetToMediaPhysAddress.1.10.0.0.51,
                               ipNetToMediaType.1.10.0.0.51 )
          
          The SNMPv2 entity acting in an agent role responds with:
          
              Response (( sysUpTime.0 =  "123466" ),
                        ( ipNetToMediaPhysAddress.2.10.0.0.15 =
                                                     "000010987654" ),
                        ( ipNetToMediaType.2.10.0.0.15 =  "dynamic" ))
          
          The SNMPv2 entity acting in a manager role continues with:
          
              GetNextRequest ( sysUpTime,
                               ipNetToMediaPhysAddress.2.10.0.0.15,
                               ipNetToMediaType.2.10.0.0.15 )
          
          As there are no further entries in the table, the SNMPv2
          entity acting in an agent role responds with the variables
          that are next in the lexicographical ordering of the
          accessible object names, for example:
          
          
          
          
          
          
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              Response (( sysUpTime.0 =  "123471" ),
                        ( ipNetToMediaNetAddress.1.9.2.3.4 =
                                                         "9.2.3.4" ),
                        ( ipRoutingDiscards.0 =  "2" ))
          
          This response signals the end of the table to the SNMPv2
          entity acting in a manager role.
          
          
          4.2.3.  The GetBulkRequest-PDU
          
          A GetBulkRequest-PDU is generated and transmitted at the
          request of a SNMPv2 application.  The purpose of the
          GetBulkRequest-PDU is to request the transfer of a potentially
          large amount of data, including, but not limited to, the
          efficient and rapid retrieval of large tables.
          
          Upon receipt of a GetBulkRequest-PDU, the receiving SNMPv2
          entity processes each variable binding in the variable-binding
          list to produce a Response-PDU with its request-id field
          having the same value as in the request.  Processing begins by
          examining the values in the non-repeaters and max-repetitions
          fields.  If the value in the non-repeaters field is less than
          zero, then the value of the field is set to zero.  Similarly,
          if the value in the max-repetitions field is less than zero,
          then the value of the field is set to zero.
          
          For the GetBulkRequest-PDU type, the successful processing of
          each variable binding in the request generates zero or more
          variable bindings in the Response-PDU.  That is, the one-to-
          one mapping between the variable bindings of the GetRequest-
          PDU, GetNextRequest-PDU, and SetRequest-PDU types and the
          resultant Response-PDUs does not apply for the mapping between
          the variable bindings of a GetBulkRequest-PDU and the
          resultant Response-PDU.
          
          The values of the non-repeaters and max-repetitions fields in
          the request specify the processing requested.  One variable
          binding in the Response-PDU is requested for the first N
          variable bindings in the request and M variable bindings are
          requested for each of the R remaining variable bindings in the
          request.  Consequently, the total number of requested variable
          bindings communicated by the request is given by N + (M * R),
          where N is the minimum of: a) the value of the non-repeaters
          field in the request, and b) the number of variable bindings
          
          
          
          
          
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          in the request; M is the value of the max-repetitions field in
          the request; and R is the maximum of: a) number of variable
          bindings in the request - N, and b)  zero.
          
          The receiving SNMPv2 entity produces a Response-PDU with up to
          the total number of requested variable bindings communicated
          by the request.  The request-id shall have the same value as
          the received GetBulkRequest-PDU.
          
          If N is greater than zero, the first through the (N)-th
          variable bindings of the Response-PDU are each produced as
          follows:
          
          (1)  The variable is located which is in the lexicographically
               ordered list of the names of all variables which are
               accessible by this request and whose name is the first
               lexicographic successor of the variable binding's name in
               the incoming GetBulkRequest-PDU.  The corresponding
               variable binding's name and value fields in the
               Response-PDU are set to the name and value of the located
               variable.
          
          (2)  If the requested variable binding's name does not
               lexicographically precede the name of any variable
               accessible by this request, i.e., there is no
               lexicographic successor, then the corresponding variable
               binding produced in the Response-PDU has its value field
               set to `endOfMibView', and its name field set to the
               variable binding's name in the request.
          
          If M and R are non-zero, the (N + 1)-th and subsequent
          variable bindings of the Response-PDU are each produced in a
          similar manner.  For each iteration i, such that i is greater
          than zero and less than or equal to M, and for each repeated
          variable, r, such that r is greater than zero and less than or
          equal to R, the (N + ( (i-1) * R ) + r)-th variable binding of
          the Response-PDU is produced as follows:
          
          (1)  The variable which is in the lexicographically ordered
               list of the names of all variables which are accessible
               by this request and whose name is the (i)-th
               lexicographic successor of the (N + r)-th variable
               binding's name in the incoming GetBulkRequest-PDU is
               located and the variable binding's name and value fields
               are set to the name and value of the located variable.
          
          
          
          
          
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          (2)  If there is no (i)-th lexicographic successor, then the
               corresponding variable binding produced in the Response-
               PDU has its value field set to `endOfMibView', and its
               name field set to either the last lexicographic
               successor, or if there are no lexicographic successors,
               to the (N + r)-th variable binding's name in the request.
          
          While the maximum number of variable bindings in the
          Response-PDU is bounded by N + (M * R), the response may be
          generated with a lesser number of variable bindings (possibly
          zero) for either of two reasons.
          
          (1)  If the size of the message encapsulating the Response-PDU
               containing the requested number of variable bindings
               would be greater than either a local constraint or the
               maximum message size of the request's source party, then
               the response is generated with a lesser number of
               variable bindings.  This lesser number is the ordered set
               of variable bindings with some of the variable bindings
               at the end of the set removed, such that the size of the
               message encapsulating the Response-PDU is approximately
               equal to but no greater than the minimum of the local
               constraint and the maximum message size of the request's
               source party.  Note that the number of variable bindings
               removed has no relationship to the values of N, M, or R.
          
          (2)  The response may also be generated with a lesser number
               of variable bindings if for some value of iteration i,
               such that i is greater than zero and less than or equal
               to M, that all of the generated variable bindings have
               the value field set to the `endOfMibView'.  In this case,
               the variable bindings may be truncated after the (N + (i
               * R))-th variable binding.
          
          If the processing of any variable binding fails for a reason
          other than listed above, then the Response-PDU is re-formatted
          with the same values in its request-id and variable-bindings
          fields as the received GetBulkRequest-PDU, with the value of
          its error-status field set to `genErr', and the value of its
          error-index field is set to the index of the failed variable
          binding.
          
          Otherwise, the value of the Response-PDU's error-status field
          is set to `noError', and the value of its error-index field to
          zero.
          
          
          
          
          
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          The generated Response-PDU (possibly with an empty variable-
          bindings field) is then encapsulated into a message.  If the
          size of the resultant message is less than or equal to both a
          local constraint and the maximum message size of the request's
          source party, it is transmitted to the originator of the
          GetBulkRequest-PDU.  Otherwise, the resultant message is
          discarded.
          
          
          4.2.3.1.  Another Example of Table Traversal
          
          This example demonstrates how the GetBulkRequest-PDU can be
          used as an alternative to the GetNextRequest-PDU.  The same
          traversal of the IP net-to-media table as shown in Section
          4.2.2.1 is achieved with fewer exchanges.
          
          The SNMPv2 entity acting in a manager role begins by sending a
          GetBulkRequest-PDU with the modest max-repetitions value of 2,
          and containing the indicated OBJECT IDENTIFIER values as the
          requested variable names:
          
              GetBulkRequest [ non-repeaters = 1, max-repetitions = 2 ]
                              ( sysUpTime,
                                ipNetToMediaPhysAddress,
                                ipNetToMediaType )
          
          The SNMPv2 entity acting in an agent role responds with a
          Response-PDU:
          
              Response (( sysUpTime.0 =  "123456" ),
                        ( ipNetToMediaPhysAddress.1.9.2.3.4 =
                                                   "000010543210" ),
                        ( ipNetToMediaType.1.9.2.3.4 =  "dynamic" ),
                        ( ipNetToMediaPhysAddress.1.10.0.0.51 =
                                                    "000010012345" ),
                        ( ipNetToMediaType.1.10.0.0.51 =  "static" ))
          
          The SNMPv2 entity acting in a manager role continues with:
          
              GetBulkRequest [ non-repeaters = 1, max-repetitions = 2 ]
                              ( sysUpTime,
                                ipNetToMediaPhysAddress.1.10.0.0.51,
                                ipNetToMediaType.1.10.0.0.51 )
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
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          The SNMPv2 entity acting in an agent role responds with:
          
              Response (( sysUpTime.0 =  "123466" ),
                        ( ipNetToMediaPhysAddress.2.10.0.0.15 =
                                                   "000010987654" ),
                        ( ipNetToMediaType.2.10.0.0.15 =
                                                        "dynamic" ),
                        ( ipNetToMediaNetAddress.1.9.2.3.4 =
                                                        "9.2.3.4" ),
                        ( ipRoutingDiscards.0 =  "2" ))
          
          This response signals the end of the table to the SNMPv2
          entity acting in a manager role.
          
          
          4.2.4.  The Response-PDU
          
          The Response-PDU is generated by a SNMPv2 entity only upon
          receipt of a GetRequest-PDU, GetNextRequest-PDU,
          GetBulkRequest-PDU, SetRequest-PDU, or InformRequest-PDU, as
          described elsewhere in this document.
          
          If the error-status field of the Response-PDU is non-zero, the
          value fields of the variable bindings in the variable binding
          list are ignored.
          
          If both the error-status field and the error-index field of
          the Response-PDU are non-zero, then the value of the error-
          index field is the index of the variable binding (in the
          variable-binding list of the corresponding request) for which
          the request failed.  The first variable binding in a request's
          variable-binding list is index one, the second is index two,
          etc.
          
          A compliant SNMPv2 entity acting in a manager role must be
          able to properly receive and handle a Response-PDU with an
          error-status field equal to `noSuchName', `badValue', or
          `readOnly'.  (See Section 3.1.2 of [10].)
          
          Upon receipt of a Response-PDU, the receiving SNMPv2 entity
          presents its contents to the SNMPv2 application which
          generated the request with the same request-id value.
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
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          4.2.5.  The SetRequest-PDU
          
          A SetRequest-PDU is generated and transmitted at the request
          of a SNMPv2 application.
          
          Upon receipt of a SetRequest-PDU, the receiving SNMPv2 entity
          determines the size of a message encapsulating a Response-PDU
          with the same values in its request-id, error-status, error-
          index and variable-bindings fields as the received
          SetRequest-PDU.  If the determined message size is greater
          than either a local constraint or the maximum message size of
          the request's source party, then an alternate Response-PDU is
          generated, transmitted to the originator of the SetRequest-
          PDU, and processing of the SetRequest-PDU terminates
          immediately thereafter.  This alternate Response-PDU is
          formatted with the same values in its request-id field as the
          received SetRequest-PDU, with the value of its error-status
          field set to `tooBig', the value of its error-index field set
          to zero, and an empty variable-bindings field.  This alternate
          Response-PDU is then encapsulated into a message.  If the size
          of the resultant message is less than or equal to both a local
          constraint and the maximum message size of the request's
          source party, it is transmitted to the originator of the
          SetRequest-PDU.  Otherwise, the resultant message is
          discarded.  Regardless, processing of the SetRequest-PDU
          terminates.
          
          Otherwise, the receiving SNMPv2 entity processes each variable
          binding in the variable-binding list to produce a Response-
          PDU.  All fields of the Response-PDU have the same values as
          the corresponding fields of the received request except as
          indicated below.
          
          The variable bindings are conceptually processed as a two
          phase operation.  In the first phase, each variable binding is
          validated; if all validations are successful, then each
          variable is altered in the second phase.  Of course,
          implementors are at liberty to implement either the first, or
          second, or both, of the these conceptual phases as multiple
          implementation phases.  Indeed, such multiple implementation
          phases may be necessary in some cases to ensure consistency.
          
          The following validations are performed in the first phase on
          each variable binding until they are all successful, or until
          one fails:
          
          
          
          
          
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          (1)  If the variable binding's name specifies a variable which
               is not accessible by this request, then the value of the
               Response-PDU's error-status field is set to `noAccess',
               and the value of its error-index field is set to the
               index of the failed variable binding.
          
          (2)  Otherwise, if the variable binding's name specifies a
               variable which does not exist and could not ever be
               created, then the value of the Response-PDU's error-
               status field is set to `noCreation', and the value of its
               error-index field is set to the index of the failed
               variable binding.
          
          (3)  Otherwise, if the variable binding's name specifies a
               variable which exists but can not be modified no matter
               what new value is specified, then the value of the
               Response-PDU's error-status field is set to
               `notWritable', and the value of its error-index field is
               set to the index of the failed variable binding.
          
          (4)  Otherwise, if the variable binding's value field
               specifies, according to the ASN.1 language, a type which
               is inconsistent with that required for the variable, then
               the value of the Response-PDU's error-status field is set
               to `wrongType', and the value of its error-index field is
               set to the index of the failed variable binding.
          
          (5)  Otherwise, if the variable binding's value field
               specifies, according to the ASN.1 language, a length
               which is inconsistent with that required for the
               variable, then the value of the Response-PDU's error-
               status field is set to `wrongLength', and the value of
               its error-index field is set to the index of the failed
               variable binding.
          
          (6)  Otherwise, if the variable binding's value field contains
               an ASN.1 encoding which is inconsistent with that field's
               ASN.1 tag, then: the value of the Response-PDU's error-
               status field is set to `wrongEncoding', and the value of
               its error-index field is set to the index of the failed
               variable binding.
          
          (7)  Otherwise, if the variable binding's value field
               specifies a value which could under no circumstances be
               assigned to the variable, then: the value of the
          
          
          
          
          
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               Response-PDU's error-status field is set to `wrongValue',
               and the value of its error-index field is set to the
               index of the failed variable binding.
          
          (8)  Otherwise, if the variable binding's name specifies a
               variable which does not exist but can not be created not
               under the present circumstances (even though it could be
               created under other circumstances), then the value of the
               Response-PDU's error-status field is set to
               `inconsistentName', and the value of its error-index
               field is set to the index of the failed variable binding.
          
          (9)  Otherwise, if the variable binding's value field
               specifies a value that could under other circumstances be
               assigned to the variable, but is presently inconsistent,
               then the value of the Response-PDU's error-status field
               is set to `inconsistentValue', and the value of its
               error-index field is set to the index of the failed
               variable binding.
          
          (10) Otherwise, if the assignment of the value specified by
               the variable binding's value field to the specified
               variable requires the allocation of a resource which is
               presently unavailable, then: the value of the Response-
               PDU's error-status field is set to `resourceUnavailable',
               and the value of its error-index field is set to the
               index of the failed variable binding.
          
          (11) If the processing of the variable binding fails for a
               reason other than listed above, then the value of the
               Response-PDU's error-status field is set to `genErr', and
               the value of its error-index field is set to the index of
               the failed variable binding.
          
          (12) Otherwise, the validation of the variable binding
               succeeds.
          
          At the end of the first phase, if the validation of all
          variable bindings succeeded, then:
          
          The value of the Response-PDU's error-status field is set to
          `noError' and the value of its error-index field is zero.
          
          For each variable binding in the request, the named variable
          is created if necessary, and the specified value is assigned
          
          
          
          
          
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          to it.  Each of these variable assignments occurs as if
          simultaneously with respect to all other assignments specified
          in the same request.  However, if the same variable is named
          more than once in a single request, with different associated
          values, then the actual assignment made to that variable is
          implementation-specific.
          
          If any of these assignments fail (even after all the previous
          validations), then all other assignments are undone, and the
          Response-PDU is modified to have the value of its error-status
          field set to `commitFailed', and the value of its error-index
          field set to the index of the failed variable binding.
          
          If and only if it is not possible to undo all the assignments,
          then the Response-PDU is modified to have the value of its
          error-status field set to `undoFailed', and the value of its
          error-index field is set to zero.  Note that implementations
          are strongly encouraged to take all possible measures to avoid
          use of either `commitFailed' or `undoFailed' - these two
          error-status codes are not to be taken as license to take the
          easy way out in an implementation.
          
          Finally, the generated Response-PDU is encapsulated into a
          message, and transmitted to the originator of the SetRequest-
          PDU.
          
          
          4.2.6.  The SNMPv2-Trap-PDU
          
          A SNMPv2-Trap-PDU is generated and transmitted by a SNMPv2
          entity acting in an agent role when an exceptional situation
          occurs.
          
          The destination(s) to which a SNMPv2-Trap-PDU is sent is
          determined by consulting the aclTable [5] to find all entries
          satisfying the following conditions:
          
          (1)  The value of aclSubject refers to the SNMPv2 entity.
          
          (2)  The value of aclPrivileges allows for the SNMPv2-Trap-
               PDU.
          
          (3)  aclResources refers to a SNMPv2 context denoting local
               object resources, and the notification's administratively
               assigned name is present in the corresponding MIB view.
          
          
          
          
          
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               (That is, the set of entries in the viewTable [5] for
               which the instance of viewIndex has the same value as the
               aclResources's contextViewIndex, define a MIB view which
               contains the notification's administratively assigned
               name.)
          
          (4)  If the OBJECTS clause is present in the invocation of the
               corresponding NOTIFICATION-TYPE macro, then the
               correspondent variables are all present in the MIB view
               corresponding to aclResource.
          
          Then, for each entry satisfying these conditions, a SNMPv2-
          Trap-PDU is sent from aclSubject with context aclResources to
          aclTarget.  The instance of snmpTrapNumbers [11] corresponding
          to aclTarget is incremented, and is used as the request-id
          field of the SNMPv2-Trap-PDU.  Then, the variable-bindings
          field are constructed as:
          
          (1)  The first variable is sysUpTime.0 [9].
          
          (2)  The second variable is snmpTrapOID.0 [11], which contains
               the administratively assigned name of the notification.
          
          (3)  If the OBJECTS clause is present in the invocation of the
               corresponding NOTIFICATION-TYPE macro, then each
               corresponding variable is copied, in order, to the
               variable-bindings field.
          
          (4)  At the option of the SNMPv2 entity acting in an agent
               role, additional variables may follow in the variable-
               bindings field.
          
          
          4.2.7.  The InformRequest-PDU
          
          An InformRequest-PDU is generated and transmitted at the
          request an application in a SNMPv2 entity acting in a manager
          role, that wishes to notify another application (in a SNMPv2
          entity also acting in a manager role) of information in the
          MIB View of a party local to the sending application.
          
          The destination(s) to which an InformRequest-PDU is sent is
          determined by inspecting the snmpEventNotifyTable [12], or as
          specified by the requesting application.  The first two
          variable bindings in the variable binding list of an
          
          
          
          
          
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          InformRequest-PDU are sysUpTime.0 [9] and snmpEventID.i [12]
          respectively.  If the OBJECTS clause is present in the
          invocation of the corresponding NOTIFICATION-TYPE macro, then
          each corresponding variable, as instantiated by this
          notification, is copied, in order, to the variable-bindings
          field.
          
          Upon receipt of an InformRequest-PDU, the receiving SNMPv2
          entity determines the size of a message encapsulating a
          Response-PDU with the same values in its request-id, error-
          status, error-index and variable-bindings fields as the
          received InformRequest-PDU.  If the determined message size is
          greater than either a local constraint or the maximum message
          size of the request's source party, then an alternate
          Response-PDU is generated, transmitted to the originator of
          the InformRequest-PDU, and processing of the InformRequest-PDU
          terminates immediately thereafter.  This alternate Response-
          PDU is formatted with the same values in its request-id field
          as the received InformRequest-PDU, with the value of its
          error-status field set to `tooBig', the value of its error-
          index field set to zero, and an empty variable-bindings field.
          This alternate Response-PDU is then encapsulated into a
          message.  If the size of the resultant message is less than or
          equal to both a local constraint and the maximum message size
          of the request's source party, it is transmitted to the
          originator of the InformRequest-PDU.  Otherwise, the resultant
          message is discarded.  Regardless, processing of the
          InformRequest-PDU terminates.
          
          Otherwise, the receiving SNMPv2 entity:
          
          (1)  presents its contents to the appropriate SNMPv2
               application;
          
          (2)  generates a Response-PDU with the same values in its
               request-id and variable-bindings fields as the received
               InformRequest-PDU, with the value of its error-status
               field is set to `noError' and the value of its error-
               index field is zero; and
          
          (3)  transmits the generated Response-PDU to the originator of
               the InformRequest-PDU.
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
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          5.  Acknowledgements
          
          This document is based, in part, on RFC 1157.  The mechanism
          for bulk retrieval is influenced by many experiments,
          including RFC1187 and also Greg Satz's work on SNMP over TCP.
          
          Finally, the comments of the SNMP version 2 working group are
          gratefully acknowledged:
          
               Beth Adams, Network Management Forum
               Steve Alexander, INTERACTIVE Systems Corporation
               David Arneson, Cabletron Systems
               Toshiya Asaba
               Fred Baker, ACC
               Jim Barnes, Xylogics, Inc.
               Brian Bataille
               Andy Bierman, SynOptics Communications, Inc.
               Uri Blumenthal, IBM Corporation
               Fred Bohle, Interlink
               Jack Brown
               Theodore Brunner, Bellcore
               Stephen F. Bush, GE Information Services
               Jeffrey D. Case, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
               John Chang, IBM Corporation
               Szusin Chen, Sun Microsystems
               Robert Ching
               Chris Chiotasso, Ungermann-Bass
               Bobby A. Clay, NASA/Boeing
               John Cooke, Chipcom
               Tracy Cox, Bellcore
               Juan Cruz, Datability, Inc.
               David Cullerot, Cabletron Systems
               Cathy Cunningham, Microcom
               James R. (Chuck) Davin, Bellcore
               Michael Davis, Clearpoint
               Mike Davison, FiberCom
               Cynthia DellaTorre, MITRE
               Taso N. Devetzis, Bellcore
               Manual Diaz, DAVID Systems, Inc.
               Jon Dreyer, Sun Microsystems
               David Engel, Optical Data Systems
               Mike Erlinger, Lexcel
               Roger Fajman, NIH
               Daniel Fauvarque, Sun Microsystems
               Karen Frisa, CMU
          
          
          
          
          
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          RFC 1448        Protocol Operations for SNMPv2      April 1993
          
          
               Shari Galitzer, MITRE
               Shawn Gallagher, Digital Equipment Corporation
               Richard Graveman, Bellcore
               Maria Greene, Xyplex, Inc.
               Michel Guittet, Apple
               Robert Gutierrez, NASA
               Bill Hagerty, Cabletron Systems
               Gary W. Haney, Martin Marietta Energy Systems
               Patrick Hanil, Nokia Telecommunications
               Matt Hecht, SNMP Research, Inc.
               Edward A. Heiner, Jr., Synernetics Inc.
               Susan E. Hicks, Martin Marietta Energy Systems
               Geral Holzhauer, Apple
               John Hopprich, DAVID Systems, Inc.
               Jeff Hughes, Hewlett-Packard
               Robin Iddon, Axon Networks, Inc.
               David Itusak
               Kevin M. Jackson, Concord Communications, Inc.
               Ole J. Jacobsen, Interop Company
               Ronald Jacoby, Silicon Graphics, Inc.
               Satish Joshi, SynOptics Communications, Inc.
               Frank Kastenholz, FTP Software
               Mark Kepke, Hewlett-Packard
               Ken Key, SNMP Research, Inc.
               Zbiginew Kielczewski, Eicon
               Jongyeoi Kim
               Andrew Knutsen, The Santa Cruz Operation
               Michael L. Kornegay, VisiSoft
               Deirdre C. Kostik, Bellcore
               Cheryl Krupczak, Georgia Tech
               Mark S. Lewis, Telebit
               David Lin
               David Lindemulder, AT&T/NCR
               Ben Lisowski, Sprint
               David Liu, Bell-Northern Research
               John Lunny, The Wollongong Group
               Robert C. Lushbaugh Martin, Marietta Energy Systems
               Michael Luufer, BBN
               Carl Madison, Star-Tek, Inc.
               Keith McCloghrie, Hughes LAN Systems
               Evan McGinnis, 3Com Corporation
               Bill McKenzie, IBM Corporation
               Donna McMaster, SynOptics Communications, Inc.
               John Medicke, IBM Corporation
               Doug Miller, Telebit
          
          
          
          
          
          Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                  [Page 30]
          

          RFC 1448        Protocol Operations for SNMPv2      April 1993
          
          
               Dave Minnich, FiberCom
               Mohammad Mirhakkak, MITRE
               Rohit Mital, Protools
               George Mouradian, AT&T Bell Labs
               Patrick Mullaney, Cabletron Systems
               Dan Myers, 3Com Corporation
               Rina Nathaniel, Rad Network Devices Ltd.
               Hien V. Nguyen, Sprint
               Mo Nikain
               Tom Nisbet
               William B. Norton, MERIT
               Steve Onishi, Wellfleet Communications, Inc.
               David T. Perkins, SynOptics Communications, Inc.
               Carl Powell, BBN
               Ilan Raab, SynOptics Communications, Inc.
               Richard Ramons, AT&T
               Venkat D. Rangan, Metric Network Systems, Inc.
               Louise Reingold, Sprint
               Sam Roberts, Farallon Computing, Inc.
               Kary Robertson, Concord Communications, Inc.
               Dan Romascanu, Lannet Data Communications Ltd.
               Marshall T. Rose, Dover Beach Consulting, Inc.
               Shawn A. Routhier, Epilogue Technology Corporation
               Chris Rozman
               Asaf Rubissa, Fibronics
               Jon Saperia, Digital Equipment Corporation
               Michael Sapich
               Mike Scanlon, Interlan
               Sam Schaen, MITRE
               John Seligson, Ultra Network Technologies
               Paul A. Serice, Corporation for Open Systems
               Chris Shaw, Banyan Systems
               Timon Sloane
               Robert Snyder, Cisco Systems
               Joo Young Song
               Roy Spitier, Sprint
               Einar Stefferud, Network Management Associates
               John Stephens, Cayman Systems, Inc.
               Robert L. Stewart, Xyplex, Inc. (chair)
               Kaj Tesink, Bellcore
               Dean Throop, Data General
               Ahmet Tuncay, France Telecom-CNET
               Maurice Turcotte, Racal Datacom
               Warren Vik, INTERACTIVE Systems Corporation
               Yannis Viniotis
          
          
          
          
          
          Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                  [Page 31]
          

          RFC 1448        Protocol Operations for SNMPv2      April 1993
          
          
               Steven L. Waldbusser, Carnegie Mellon Universitty
               Timothy M. Walden, ACC
               Alice Wang, Sun Microsystems
               James Watt, Newbridge
               Luanne Waul, Timeplex
               Donald E. Westlake III, Digital Equipment Corporation
               Gerry White
               Bert Wijnen, IBM Corporation
               Peter Wilson, 3Com Corporation
               Steven Wong, Digital Equipment Corporation
               Randy Worzella, IBM Corporation
               Daniel Woycke, MITRE
               Honda Wu
               Jeff Yarnell, Protools
               Chris Young, Cabletron
               Kiho Yum, 3Com Corporation
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                  [Page 32]
          

          RFC 1448        Protocol Operations for SNMPv2      April 1993
          
          
          6.  References
          
          [1]  Information processing systems - Open Systems
               Interconnection - Specification of Abstract Syntax
               Notation One (ASN.1), International Organization for
               Standardization.  International Standard 8824, (December,
               1987).
          
          [2]  Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M., and Waldbusser, S.,
               "Structure of Management Information for version 2 of the
               Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2)", RFC 1442,
               SNMP Research, Inc., Hughes LAN Systems, Dover Beach
               Consulting, Inc., Carnegie Mellon University, April 1993.
          
          [3]  Galvin, J., and McCloghrie, K., "Administrative Model for
               version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol
               (SNMPv2)", RFC 1445, Trusted Information Systems, Hughes
               LAN Systems, April 1993.
          
          [4]  Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M., and Waldbusser, S.,
               "Textual Conventions for version 2 of the the Simple
               Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2)", RFC 1443, SNMP
               Research, Inc., Hughes LAN Systems, Dover Beach
               Consulting, Inc., Carnegie Mellon University, April 1993.
          
          [5]  McCloghrie, K., and Galvin, J., "Party MIB for version 2
               of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2)", RFC
               1447, Hughes LAN Systems, Trusted Information Systems,
               April 1993.
          
          [6]  C. Kent, J. Mogul, Fragmentation Considered Harmful,
               Proceedings, ACM SIGCOMM '87, Stowe, VT, (August 1987).
          
          [7]  Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M., and Waldbusser, S.,
               "Transport Mappings for version 2 of the Simple Network
               Management Protocol (SNMPv2)", RFC 1449, SNMP Research,
               Inc., Hughes LAN Systems, Dover Beach Consulting, Inc.,
               Carnegie Mellon University, April 1993.
          
          [8]  Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768,
               USC/Information Sciences Institute, August 1980.
          
          [9]  McCloghrie, K., and Rose, M., "Management Information
               Base for Network Management of TCP/IP-based internets:
               MIB-II", STD 17, RFC 1213, March 1991.
          
          
          
          
          
          Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                  [Page 33]
          

          RFC 1448        Protocol Operations for SNMPv2      April 1993
          
          
          [10] Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M., and Waldbusser, S.,
               "Coexistence between version 1 and version 2 of the
               Internet-standard Network Management Framework", RFC
               1452, SNMP Research, Inc., Hughes LAN Systems, Dover
               Beach Consulting, Inc., Carnegie Mellon University, April
               1993.
          
          [11] Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M., and Waldbusser, S.,
               "Management Information Base for version 2 of the Simple
               Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2)", RFC 1450, SNMP
               Research, Inc., Hughes LAN Systems, Dover Beach
               Consulting, Inc., Carnegie Mellon University, April 1993.
          
          [12] Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M., and Waldbusser, S.,
               "Manager-to-Manager Management Information Base", RFC
               1451, SNMP Research, Inc., Hughes LAN Systems, Dover
               Beach Consulting, Inc., Carnegie Mellon University, April
               1993.
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          
          Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                  [Page 34]
          

          RFC 1448        Protocol Operations for SNMPv2      April 1993
          
          
          7.  Security Considerations
          
          Security issues are not discussed in this memo.
          
          
          8.  Authors' Addresses
          
               Jeffrey D. Case
               SNMP Research, Inc.
               3001 Kimberlin Heights Rd.
               Knoxville, TN  37920-9716
               US
          
               Phone: +1 615 573 1434
               Email: case@snmp.com
          
          
               Keith McCloghrie
               Hughes LAN Systems
               1225 Charleston Road
               Mountain View, CA  94043
               US
          
               Phone: +1 415 966 7934
               Email: kzm@hls.com
          
          
               Marshall T. Rose
               Dover Beach Consulting, Inc.
               420 Whisman Court
               Mountain View, CA  94043-2186
               US
          
               Phone: +1 415 968 1052
               Email: mrose@dbc.mtview.ca.us
          
               Steven Waldbusser
               Carnegie Mellon University
               4910 Forbes Ave
               Pittsburgh, PA  15213
               US
          
               Phone: +1 412 268 6628
               Email: waldbusser@cmu.edu
          
          
          
          
          
          
          Case, McCloghrie, Rose & Waldbusser                  [Page 35]
          

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