[Docs] [txt|pdf] [draft-ietf-tn3270...] [Diff1] [Diff2]

Obsoleted by: 2355 PROPOSED STANDARD

Network Working Group                                          B. Kelly
Request for Comments: 1647                            Auburn University
Category: Standards Track                                     July 1994


                          TN3270 Enhancements

Status of this Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Abstract

   This document describes a protocol that more fully supports 3270
   devices than do the existing tn3270 practices.  Specifically, it
   defines a method of emulating both the terminal and printer members
   of the 3270 family of devices via Telnet; it provides for the ability
   of a Telnet client to request that it be assigned a specific device-
   name (also referred to as "LU name" or "network name"); finally, it
   adds support for a variety of functions such as the ATTN key, the
   SYSREQ key, and SNA response handling.

   This protocol would be negotiated and implemented under a new Telnet
   Option and would be unrelated to the Telnet 3270 Regime Option as
   defined in RFC 1041 [1].

TABLE OF CONTENTS

   1.  Introduction ...............................................  2
   2.  TN3270E OVERVIEW ...........................................  3
   3.  COMMAND NAMES AND CODES ....................................  4
   4.  COMMAND MEANINGS ...........................................  5
   5.  DEFAULT SPECIFICATION ......................................  6
   6.  MOTIVATION .................................................  7
   7.  TN3270E SUB-NEGOTIATION RULES ..............................  7
      7.1  DEVICE-TYPE Negotiation ................................  7
          7.1.1 Device Pools ......................................  8
          7.1.2 CONNECT Command ...................................  9
          7.1.3 ASSOCIATE Command ................................. 10
          7.1.4 Device Selection Rules ............................ 10
          7.1.5 Accepting a Request ............................... 11
          7.1.6 REJECT Command .................................... 12
      7.2  FUNCTIONS Negotiation .................................. 13
          7.2.1 Commands .......................................... 13



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          7.2.2 List of TN3270E Functions ......................... 14
   8.  TN3270E DATA MESSAGES ...................................... 15
      8.1  The TN3270E Message Header ............................. 16
          8.1.1 DATA-TYPE Field ................................... 16
          8.1.2 REQUEST-FLAG Field ................................ 17
          8.1.3 RESPONSE-FLAG Field ............................... 17
          8.1.4 SEQ-NUMBER Field .................................. 18
   9.  BASIC TN3270E .............................................. 18
      9.1  3270 Mode and NVT Mode ................................. 19
   10. DETAILS OF PROCESSING TN3270E FUNCTIONS .................... 20
      10.1 The SCS-CTL-CODES Function ............................. 20
      10.2 The DATA-STREAM-CTL Function ........................... 20
      10.3 The BIND-IMAGE Function ................................ 21
      10.4 The RESPONSES Function ................................. 22
         10.4.1 Response Messages ................................. 23
      10.5 The SYSREQ Function .................................... 26
         10.5.1 Background ........................................ 26
         10.5.2 TN3270E Implementation of SYSREQ .................. 27
   11. THE 3270 ATTN KEY .......................................... 28
   12. 3270 STRUCTURED FIELDS ..................................... 29
   13. IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES .................................. 29
      13.1 3270 Data Stream Notes ................................. 29
      13.2 Negotiation of the TN3270E Telnet Option ............... 30
      13.3 A "Keep-alive" Mechanism ............................... 30
      13.4 Examples ............................................... 31
   14. SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS .................................... 33
   15. REFERENCES ................................................. 33
   16. AUTHOR'S NOTE .............................................. 34
   17. AUTHOR'S ADDRESS ........................................... 34

1.  Introduction

   Currently, support for 3270 terminal emulation over Telnet is
   accomplished by the de facto standard of negotiating three separate
   Telnet Options - Terminal-Type [2], Binary Transmission [3], and End
   of Record [4].  Note that there is no RFC that specifies this
   negotiation as a standard.  RFC 1041 attempted to standardize the
   method of negotiating 3270 terminal support by defining the 3270
   Regime Telnet Option.  Very few developers and vendors ever
   implemented RFC 1041.

   This document will refer to the existing practice of negotiating
   these three Telnet Options before exchanging the 3270 data stream as
   "traditional tn3270".

   NOTE: Except where otherwise stated, this document does not
   distinguish between Telnet servers that represent SNA devices and
   those that represent non-SNA 3270 devices.



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   All references in this document to the 3270 data stream, 3270 data
   stream commands, orders, structured fields and the like rely on [5].
   References to SNA Request and Response Units rely on [6].  References
   to SNA versus non-SNA operation rely on [7].

   There are several shortcomings in traditional tn3270; among them are
   the following:

    - It provides no capability for Telnet clients to emulate the 328x
      class of printers.

    - There is no mechanism by which a Telnet client can request that
      a connection be associated with a given 3270 device-name.  This
      can be of importance when a terminal session is being
      established, since many host applications behave differently
      depending on the network name of the terminal.  In the case of
      printer emulation, this capability is an absolute necessity
      because a large number of host applications have some method of
      pre-defining printer destinations.

    - The 3270 ATTN and SYSREQ keys are not universally supported.

    - There is no support for the SNA positive/negative response
      process.  This is particularly important if printer emulation is
      to function properly, but is also useful for some terminal
      applications.  A positive response is used to indicate that
      the previously received data has been successfully processed.
      A negative response indicates some sort of error has occurred
      while processing the previously received data; this could be
      caused by the host application building a 3270 data stream that
      contains an invalid command, or by a mechanical error at the
      client side, among other things.

    - There is no mechanism by which the client can access the SNA
      Bind information.  The Bind image contains a detailed
      description of the session between the Telnet server and the
      host application.

    - There is no mechanism by which the server can determine whether
      a client supports 3270 structured fields, or a client can
      request that it receive them.

2.  TN3270E Overview

   In order to address these issues, this document proposes a new Telnet
   Option - TN3270E.  Telnet clients and servers would be free to
   negotiate support of the TN3270E option or not. If either side does
   not support TN3270E, traditional tn3270 can be used; otherwise, a



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   sub-negotiation will occur to determine what subset of TN3270E will
   be used on the session.  It is anticipated that a client or server
   capable of both types of 3270 emulation would attempt to negotiate
   TN3270E first, and only negotiate traditional tn3270 if the other
   side refuses TN3270E.

   Once a client and server have agreed to use TN3270E, negotiation of
   the TN3270E suboptions can begin.  The two major elements of TN3270E
   sub-negotiation are:

    - a device-type negotiation that is similar to, but somewhat
      more complicated than, the existing Telnet Terminal-Type Option.

    - the negotiation of a set of supported 3270 functions, such as
      printer data stream type (3270 data stream or SNA Character
      Stream), positive/negative response exchanges, device status
      information, and the passing of BIND information from server to
      client.

   Successful negotiation of these two suboptions signals the beginning
   of 3270 data stream transmission. In order to support several of the
   new functions in TN3270E, each data message must be prefixed by a
   header.  This header will contain flags and indicators that convey
   such things as positive and negative responses and what type of data
   follows the header (for example, 3270 data stream, SNA Character
   Stream, or device status information).

3.  Command Names and Codes

       TN3270E            40
         ASSOCIATE          00
         CONNECT            01
         DEVICE-TYPE        02
         FUNCTIONS          03
         IS                 04
         REASON             05
         REJECT             06
         REQUEST            07
         SEND               08

       Reason-codes
         CONN-PARTNER       00
         DEVICE-IN-USE      01
         INV-ASSOCIATE      02
         INV-DEVICE-NAME    03
         INV-DEVICE-TYPE    04
         TYPE-NAME-ERROR    05
         UNKNOWN-ERROR      06



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         UNSUPPORTED-REQ    07

       Function Names
         BIND-IMAGE         00
         DATA-STREAM-CTL    01
         RESPONSES          02
         SCS-CTL-CODES      03
         SYSREQ             04

4.  Command Meanings

   IAC WILL TN3270E

      The sender of this command is willing to send TN3270E
      information in subsequent sub-negotiations.

   IAC WON'T TN3270E

      The sender of this command refuses to send TN3270E information.

   IAC DO TN3270E

      The sender of this command is willing to receive TN3270E
      information in subsequent sub-negotiations.

   IAC DON'T TN3270E

      The sender of this command refuses to receive TN3270E
      information.

   Note that while they are not explicitly negotiated, the equivalent of
   the Telnet Binary Transmission Option [3] and the Telnet End of
   Record Option [4] is implied in the negotiation of the TN3270E
   Option.  That is, a party to the negotiation that agrees to support
   TN3270E is automatically required to support bi-directional binary
   and EOR transmissions.

   IAC SB TN3270E SEND DEVICE-TYPE IAC SE

      Only the server may send this command.  This command is used to
      request that the client transmit a device-type and, optionally,
      device-name information.

   IAC SB TN3270E DEVICE-TYPE REQUEST <device-type>
          [CONNECT | ASSOCIATE <device-name>] IAC SE

      Only the client may send this command.  It is used in response
      to the server's SEND DEVICE-TYPE command, as well as to suggest



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      another device-type after the server has sent a DEVICE-TYPE
      REJECT command (see below).  This command requests emulation of
      a specific 3270 device type and model.  The REQUEST command may
      optionally include either the CONNECT or the ASSOCIATE command
      (but not both).  If present, CONNECT and ASSOCIATE must both be
      followed by <device-name>.  (See the section entitled
      "DEVICE-TYPE Negotiation" for more detailed information.)

   IAC SB TN3270E DEVICE-TYPE IS <device-type> CONNECT
          <device-name> IAC SE

      Only the server may send this command.  This command is used to
      accept a client's DEVICE-TYPE REQUEST command and to return the
      server-defined device-name.

   IAC SB TN3270E DEVICE-TYPE REJECT REASON <reason-code> IAC SE

      Only the server may send this command.  This command is used to
      reject a client's DEVICE-TYPE REQUEST command.

   IAC SB TN3270E FUNCTIONS REQUEST <function-list> IAC SE

      Either side may send this command.  This command is used to
      suggest a set of 3270 functions that will be supported on this
      session.  It is also sent as an implicit rejection of a previous
      FUNCTIONS REQUEST command sent by the other side (see the
      section entitled "FUNCTIONS Negotiation" for more information).
      Note that when used to reject a FUNCTIONS REQUEST command, the
      function-list must not be identical to that received in the
      previous REQUEST command.

   IAC SB TN3270E FUNCTIONS IS <function-list> IAC SE

      Either side may send this command.  This command is sent as a
      response to a FUNCTIONS REQUEST command and implies acceptance
      of the set of functions sent to it in the REQUEST command.  Note
      that the list of functions in the FUNCTIONS IS command must
      match the list that was received in the previous FUNCTIONS
      REQUEST command.

5.  Default Specification

   WON'T TN3270E

   DON'T TN3270E

   i.e., TN3270E will not be used.




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6.  Motivation

   See the section entitled "Introduction".

7.  TN3270E Sub-negotiation Rules

   All TN3270E commands and parameters are NVT ASCII strings in which
   upper and lower case are considered equivalent.

   Once it has been agreed that TN3270E will be supported, the first
   sub-negotiation must concern the DEVICE-TYPE (and possibly DEVICE-
   NAME) information.  Only after that has been successfully negotiated
   can the client and server exchange FUNCTIONS information.  Only after
   both DEVICE-TYPE and FUNCTIONS have been successfully negotiated can
   3270 data stream transmission occur.

   7.1 DEVICE-TYPE Negotiation

      Device-type (and device-name) negotiation begins when the server
      transmits the DEVICE-TYPE SEND command to the client.  The client
      responds with the DEVICE-TYPE REQUEST command, which must include
      a device-type and may include a device-name request.

      Valid device-types are:

       terminals: IBM-3278-2  IBM-3278-2-E  (24 row x 80 col display)
                  IBM-3278-3  IBM-3278-3-E  (32 row x 80 col display)
                  IBM-3278-4  IBM-3278-4-E  (43 row x 80 col display)
                  IBM-3278-5  IBM-3278-5-E  (27 row x 132 col display)
                  IBM-DYNAMIC            (no pre-defined display size)

        printers: IBM-3287-1

      Note that the use of '3278' and '3287' is NOT intended to exclude
      any particular device capabilities; they are used here only
      because they are commonly known designations for a terminal and a
      printer member of the 3270 family of devices.  The intention is to
      simplify the device-type negotiation (in comparison to traditional
      tn3270) by minimizing the number of possible device-types, and by
      breaking the association of a specific piece of IBM hardware with
      a related set of data stream capabilities.  For example,
      negotiation of device-type IBM-3278-2-E does NOT in and of itself
      preclude the use of any of the functions associated with a
      physical 3279 model S2B.  A client's ability to support the more
      advanced functions of the 3270 data stream will be indicated not
      by negotiation of an IBM device type and model number, but rather
      by the combination of Read Partition Query and Query Reply.




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      All of the terminal device-types support a "primary" display size
      of 24 rows by 80 columns.  The "-3", "-4" and "-5" types each
      support an "alternate" display size as noted in the above list.
      The IBM-DYNAMIC device-type implies no pre-defined alternate
      display size; this value will be passed from the client to host
      applications as part of the Query Reply structured field, and it
      can represent any display size the client and the host application
      can support.

      Terminal device-types with the "-E" suffix should only be
      negotiated by clients that are willing to support some subset of
      the 3270 "extended data stream".  This usually includes at a
      minimum support for extended colors and highlighting, but may also
      include a number of other functions, such as graphics capability,
      alternate character sets, and partitions.

      Clients that negotiate a terminal device-type with the "-E" suffix
      or the DYNAMIC type, as well as those that negotiate a printer
      device-type, must be able to accept and respond to a Read
      Partition Query command (see the section entitled "3270 Structured
      Fields").  This allows the client to indicate to host applications
      which subsets of the 3270 extended data stream the client is
      willing to support.

      In a VTAM/SNA environment, negotiation of IBM-DYNAMIC as the
      device-type should result in a Bind in which the Presentation
      Services Usage screen field (the eleventh byte in the logmode's
      PSERVIC field) is set to 0x03, indicating that the alternate
      screen size will be determined by the Query Reply (Usable Area)

      7.1.1 Device Pools

         An explanation of the CONNECT and ASSOCIATE commands first
         requires a discussion of the organization of terminal and
         printer device pools that the server maintains and from which
         it selects device-names to assign to session requests.  (The
         terms "device-name", "LU name" and "network name" can be
         considered interchangeable in this document.)  Also, for the
         purposes of this discussion, the term "generic session request"
         will be used to describe a request for a session by a Telnet
         client (either traditional or TN3270E) that does not include a
         request for a specific device-name.  The term "specific session
         request" will be used to describe a request for a session by a
         TN3270E client that includes a request for a specific device-
         name (either via CONNECT or ASSOCIATE).

         As is the case with traditional tn3270, the TN3270E server must
         maintain a set of terminal device-names.  A generic request for



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         a terminal session would result in the server selecting any
         available device-name from this pool.  The server, however, may
         also maintain a separate pool of terminal device-names which
         can only be used to satisfy specific terminal session requests.
         This is to ensure that a terminal device that has some
         significance to host applications (and is therefore likely to
         be the target of a specific session request) is not
         "accidentally" assigned to a generic request and winds up
         associated with a client that has no use for it.  Note that the
         reverse situation is allowed.  That is, a specific terminal
         session request could ask for a device-name that happens to be
         in the "generic terminal pool".

         For each terminal device (in both the "generic" and the
         "specific" pools), the TN3270E server could also have defined a
         "partner" or "paired" printer device.  There should be a
         unique, one-to-one mapping between a terminal and its
         associated printer.  The reasoning behind such a configuration
         is to allow for those host applications that produce printed
         output bound for a printer whose device-name is determined by
         the device-name of the terminal that initiated the print
         request.  These printer devices can only be assigned to
         specific printer session requests that use the ASSOCIATE
         command (see below).

         In addition, the TN3270E server may also maintain a pool of
         printer device-names that are not associated with any terminal.
         These printer devices can only be assigned to specific printer
         session requests that use the CONNECT command (see below).
         This allows for those host applications that generate printed
         output bound for a printer whose device-name is determined by
         something other than the device-name of the terminal that
         initiated the print request (for example, when the userid of
         the person signed on to a terminal determines the print
         destination).

         Finally, it is possible that a pool of printer device-names
         could be maintained and used only to satisfy generic requests
         for printers.

      7.1.2 CONNECT Command

         CONNECT is used by the client to request that the server assign
         a specific device-name to this Telnet session; it may be used
         when requesting either a terminal or a printer session.  The
         specified device-name must not conflict with the device-type;
         e.g., if the client requests DEVICE-TYPE IBM-3287-1 (a printer)
         and specifies CONNECT T1000001, but T1000001 is defined at the



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         host as a terminal, then the server should deny the request.
         Further, if the requested device-name is already associated
         with some other Telnet session, or if it is not defined to the
         server, the server should deny the request.

      7.1.3 ASSOCIATE Command

         ASSOCIATE can be used by the client only when requesting a
         DEVICE-TYPE that represents a printer. The ASSOCIATE command
         requests that this session be assigned the device-name of the
         printer that is paired with the terminal named in the request.
         If the device-type does not represent a printer, or if the
         device-name is not that of a terminal, then the server should
         deny the request.  It is anticipated that the device-name
         specified in this request would be one returned by the server
         when accepting a previous terminal session request (see the IS
         command below).  Since no means of authentication has been
         provided for, it is possible that the printer paired with the
         terminal specified in the ASSOCIATE command has already been
         assigned to some other Telnet session; in this case, the server
         should deny the request.

      7.1.4 Device Selection Rules

         To summarize, assume a TN3270E server has the following device
         pools defined to it (device-names that begin with a "T" are
         terminal devices; those that begin with a "P" are printers):

          Generic Terminal Pool              Specific Terminal Pool
          ---------------------              ----------------------
          TG000001 <--> PTG00001             TS000001 <--> PTS00001
          TG000002 <--> PTG00002             TS000002 <--> PTS00002
          TG000003 <--> PTG00003             TS000003 <--> PTS00003

          Generic Printer Pool               Specific Printer Pool
          --------------------               ----------------------
               PG000001                            PS000001
               PG000002                            PS000002
               PG000003                            PS000003

         Note that the only pool that absolutely must be defined to the
         server is the generic terminal pool.  The absence of other
         pools (or of partner printers for a terminal pool) simply means
         that the server is unable to satisfy as wide a variety of
         requests as would be possible if all pools were defined to it.

         Given the above configuration, the following rules apply:




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         - a generic terminal request can only be satisfied from the
           generic terminal pool (device-names TG000001 - TG000003).

         - a specific terminal request (allowable only via the CONNECT
           command) can be satisfied from either the generic or the
           specific terminal pool, although it is anticipated that the
           majority of such requests would ask for terminals in the
           specific terminal pool (TS000001 - TS000003).

         - a generic printer request can only be satisfied from the
           generic printer pool (device-names PG000001 - PG000003).

         - a specific printer request may come in one of two forms:

           via ASSOCIATE: the request can only be satisfied using the
                          partner of the specified terminal, which
                          may be in the generic or the specific
                          terminal pool; therefore, devices in the
                          ranges PTG00001 - PTG00003 and PTS00001 -
                          PTS00003 can be used to satisfy the request.

           via CONNECT:   the request can be satisfied either from
                          the generic or the specific printer pools
                          (although, as with specific terminal requests,
                          it is likely that most such requests will name
                          printers in the specific printer pool); this
                          request cannot be satisfied with the partner
                          printer of a terminal in either the specific or
                          the generic terminal pools.

      7.1.5 Accepting a Request

         The server must accept the client's request or deny it as a
         whole - it cannot, for example, accept the DEVICE-TYPE request
         but deny the CONNECT portion.

         If the server wishes to accept the request, it sends back the
         DEVICE-TYPE IS command confirming the requested device-type and
         the CONNECT command specifying the device-name of the terminal
         or printer assigned to this Telnet session.  This device-name
         may be the one directly requested (via CONNECT) by the client,
         the one indirectly requested (via ASSOCIATE) by the client, or
         one chosen by the server if the client specified neither
         CONNECT nor ASSOCIATE.







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      7.1.6 REJECT Command

         If the server wishes to deny the request, it sends back the
         DEVICE-TYPE REJECT command with one of the following reason-
         codes:

         Reason code name         Explanation
         ----------------         -----------------------------------
         INV-DEVICE-TYPE          The server does not support the
                                  requested device-type.

         INV-DEVICE-NAME          The device-name specified in the
                                  CONNECT or ASSOCIATE command is
                                  not known to the server.

         DEVICE-IN-USE            The requested device-name is
                                  already associated with another
                                  Telnet session.

         TYPE-NAME-ERROR          The requested device-name is
                                  incompatible with the requested
                                  device-type (such as terminal/
                                  printer mismatch).

         UNSUPPORTED-REQ          The server is unable to satisfy
                                  the type of request sent by the
                                  client; e.g., a specific terminal
                                  or printer was requested but the
                                  server does not have such a pool of
                                  device-names defined to it, or the
                                  ASSOCIATE command was used but no
                                  partner printers are defined to the
                                  server.

         INV-ASSOCIATE            The client used the ASSOCIATE
                                  command and either the device-type
                                  is not a printer or the device-name
                                  is not a terminal.

         CONN-PARTNER             The client used the CONNECT command
                                  to request a specific printer but
                                  the device-name requested is the
                                  partner to some terminal.

         UNKNOWN-ERROR            Any other error in device type or
                                  name processing has occurred.





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         The process of negotiating a device-type and device-name that
         are acceptable to both client and server may entail several
         iterations of DEVICE-TYPE REQUEST and DEVICE-TYPE REJECT
         commands.  The client should make use of the reason-code
         specified by the server in any DEVICE-TYPE REJECT command(s) to
         minimize the amount of negotiation necessary.  For example, if
         the client initially requests that it be assigned a specific
         terminal device-name via the CONNECT command, and the server
         rejects the request with a reason-code of UNSUPPORTED-REQ, the
         client should make no further specific terminal requests in the
         negotiations.  If at any point in the process either side
         wishes to "bail out," it can simply send a WON'T (or DON'T)
         TN3270E command to the other side.  At this point both sides
         are free to negotiate other Telnet options (including
         traditional tn3270).

   7.2 FUNCTIONS Negotiation

      Once the DEVICE-TYPE negotiation has successfully completed (i.e,
      when the client receives the DEVICE-TYPE IS command), the client
      should initiate the FUNCTIONS negotiation by sending the \.
      FUNCTIONS REQUEST command to the server.  After this initial
      REQUEST command, both sides are free to transmit FUNCTIONS REQUEST
      and FUNCTIONS IS commands as needed.

      7.2.1 Commands

         The FUNCTIONS REQUEST command contains a list of the 3270
         functions that the sender would like to see supported on this
         session.  All functions not in the list are to be considered
         unsupported.  The function-list consists of a string of 2-byte
         entries separated from one another by a single space character.
         The list is terminated by the IAC code that precedes the SE
         command.  Functions may appear in any order in the list.

         Upon receipt of a FUNCTIONS REQUEST command, the recipient has
         two choices:

       - it may respond in the positive (meaning it agrees to support
         all functions in the list, and not to transmit any data
         related to functions not in the list).  To do this, it sends
         the FUNCTIONS IS command with the function-list exactly as it
         was received.  At this point, FUNCTIONS negotiation has
         successfully completed.

       - it may respond in the negative by sending a FUNCTIONS
         REQUEST command in which the function-list differs from the
         one it received (and not simply in the order of appearance



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         of functions in the list; at least one function must have
         been added to, or removed from, the list).

         To avoid endlessly looping, neither party should add to the
         function-list it receives any function that it has previously
         added and that the other side has removed.

         The process of sending FUNCTIONS REQUEST commands back and
         forth continues until one side receives a function-list it is
         willing to live with.  It uses the FUNCTIONS IS command to
         accept the list, and, once this command is received by the
         other side, all necessary negotiation has been completed.  At
         this point, 3270 data stream transmission can begin.

         Note that it is possible that the function-list agreed to is
         null; this is referred to as "basic TN3270E".  See the section
         entitled "Basic TN3270E" for more information.

      7.2.2 List of TN3270E Functions

         The following list briefly describes the 3270 functions that
         may be negotiated in the function-list:

         Function Name       Description
         -------------       -----------
         SCS-CTL-CODES       (Printer sessions only).  Allows the use
                             of the SNA Character Stream (SCS) and SCS
                             control codes on the session.  SCS is
                             used with LU type 1 SNA sessions.

         DATA-STREAM-CTL     (Printer sessions only).  Allows the use
                             of the standard 3270 data stream.  This
                             corresponds to LU type 3 SNA sessions.

         RESPONSES           Provides support for positive and
                             negative response handling.  Allows the
                             server to reflect to the client any and
                             all definite, exception, and no response
                             requests sent by the host application.

         BIND-IMAGE          Allows the server to send the SNA Bind
                             image and Unbind notification to the
                             client.

         SYSREQ              Allows the client and server to emulate
                             some (or all, depending on the server) of
                             the functions of the SYSREQ key in an SNA
                             environment.



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         See the section entitled "Details of Processing TN3270E
         Functions" for a more detailed explanation of the meaning and
         use of these functions.

8.  TN3270E Data Messages

   3270 device communications are generally understood to be block
   oriented in nature.  That is, each partner buffers data until an
   entire "message" has been built, at which point the data is sent to
   the other side.  The "outbound message" (from host to device)
   consists of a 3270 command and a series of buffer orders, buffer
   addresses, and data, while the "inbound message" contains only buffer
   orders, addresses and data.  The end of a message is understood to be
   the last byte transmitted (note that this discussion disregards SNA
   chaining).  The Telnet EOR command is used to delimit these natural
   blocks of 3270 data within the Telnet data stream.

   In TN3270E, each 3270 message must be prefixed with a TN3270E header,
   which consists of five bytes and whose format is defined below (see
   the section entitled "The TN3270E Message Header").

   A "data message" in TN3270E therefore has the following construction:

          <TN3270E Header><data><IAC EOR>

   It should be noted that it is possible that, for certain message
   types, there is no data portion present.  In this case, the TN3270E
   data message consists of:

          <TN3270E Header><IAC EOR>

   If either side wishes to transmit the decimal value 255 and have it
   interpreted as data, it must "double" this byte.  In other words, a
   single occurrence of decimal 255 will be interpreted by the other
   side as an IAC, while two successive bytes containing decimal 255
   will be treated as one data byte with a value of decimal 255.

   It is strongly recommended that Telnet commands (other than IAC IAC)
   should be sent between TN3270E data messages, with no header and no
   trailing IAC EOR.  If a TN3270E data message containing either IAC IP
   (to be interpreted as 3270 Attention) or IAC AO (to be interpreted as
   SYSREQ) is received, the receiver should defer processing the command
   until the 3270 data has been processed (see the appropriate sections
   for discussion of 3270 Attention and SYSREQ).  If a TN3270E data
   message containing any other IAC-command sequence (other than IAC
   IAC) is received, it is implementation dependent when the IAC-command
   sequence will be processed, but it must be processed.  The receiver
   may process it immediately, which in effect causes it to be processed



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   as if it had been received before the current TN3270E data message,
   or the processing may be deferred until after the current TN3270E
   data message has been processed.  It is because of this ambiguity
   that the presence of Telnet commands within a TN3270E data message
   (i.e., between the header and the trailing IAC EOR) is not
   recommended; neither clients nor servers should send such data.

   8.1 The TN3270E Message Header

      As stated earlier, each data message in TN3270E must be prefixed
      by a header, which consists of five bytes and is formatted as
      follows:

      -----------------------------------------------------------
      | DATA-TYPE | REQUEST-FLAG | RESPONSE-FLAG |  SEQ-NUMBER  |
      -----------------------------------------------------------
         1 byte        1 byte         1 byte         2 bytes

      8.1.1 DATA-TYPE Field

         The DATA-TYPE field indicates how the data portion of the
         message is to be interpreted by the receiver.  Possible values
         for the DATA-TYPE field are:

         Data-type Name   Code                Meaning
         --------------   ----   ---------------------------------
         3270-DATA        0x00   The data portion of the message
                                 contains only the 3270 data stream.

         SCS-DATA         0x01   The data portion of the message
                                 contains SNA Character Stream data.

         RESPONSE         0x02   The data portion of the message
                                 constitutes device-status information
                                 and the RESPONSE-FLAG field indicates
                                 whether this is a positive or negative
                                 response (see below).

         BIND-IMAGE       0x03   The data portion of the message is
                                 the SNA bind image from the session
                                 established between the server and the
                                 host application.

         UNBIND           0x04   The data portion of the message is
                                 an Unbind reason code.

         NVT-DATA         0x05   The data portion of the message is to
                                 be interpreted as NVT data.



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         REQUEST          0x06   There is no data portion present in
                                 the message.  Only the REQUEST-FLAG
                                 field has any meaning.

         SSCP-LU-DATA     0x07   The data portion of the message is
                                 data from the SSCP-LU session.

      8.1.2 REQUEST-FLAG Field

         The REQUEST-FLAG field only has meaning when the DATA-TYPE
         field has a value of REQUEST; otherwise, the REQUEST-FLAG field
         must be ignored by the receiver and should be set to 0x00 by
         the sender.  Possible values for the REQUEST-FLAG field are:

         Request-Flag Name   Code                Meaning
         -----------------   ----   ---------------------------------
         ERR-COND-CLEARED    0x00   The client sends this to the server
                                    when some previously encountered
                                    printer error condition has been
                                    cleared.  (See the section entitled
                                    "The RESPONSES Function" below.)

      8.1.3 RESPONSE-FLAG Field

         The RESPONSE-FLAG field only has meaning for certain values of
         the DATA-TYPE field.  For DATA-TYPE field values of 3270-DATA
         and SCS-DATA, the RESPONSE-FLAG is an indication of whether or
         not the sender of the data expects to receive a response.  In
         this case the possible values of RESPONSE-FLAG are:

         Response-Flag Name  Code                Meaning
         ------------------  ----   ---------------------------------
         NO-RESPONSE         0x00   The sender does not expect the
                                    receiver to respond either
                                    positively or negatively to this
                                    message.  The receiver must
                                    therefore not send any response
                                    to this data-message.

         ERROR-RESPONSE      0x01   The sender only expects the
                                    receiver to respond to this message
                                    if some type of error occurred, in
                                    which case a negative response must
                                    be sent by the receiver.

         ALWAYS-RESPONSE     0x02   The sender expects the receiver to
                                    respond negatively if an error
                                    occurs, or positively if no errors



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                                    occur.  One or the other must
                                    always be sent by the receiver.

         For a DATA-TYPE field value of RESPONSE, the RESPONSE-FLAG is
         an actual response to a previous data message (which must by
         definition have had a DATA-TYPE of either 3270-DATA or SCS-DATA
         and a RESPONSE-FLAG value of either ERROR-RESPONSE or ALWAYS-
         RESPONSE).  In this case the possible values of RESPONSE-FLAG
         are:

         Response-Flag Name  Code                Meaning
         ------------------  ----   ---------------------------------
         POSITIVE-RESPONSE   0x00   The previous message was received
                                    and executed successfully with
                                    no errors.

         NEGATIVE-RESPONSE   0x01   The previous message was received
                                    but an error(s) occurred while
                                    processing it.

         Accompanying status information will be found in the data
         portion of the message.

         For any other values of the DATA-TYPE field, the RESPONSE-FLAG
         field must be ignored by the receiver and should be set to 0x00
         by the sender.

      8.1.4 SEQ-NUMBER Field

         The SEQ-NUMBER field is only used when the RESPONSES function
         has been agreed to.  It contains a 2 byte binary number, and is
         used to correlate positive and negative responses to the data
         messages for which they were intended.  See the section
         entitled "The RESPONSES Function" for further information.
         When the RESPONSES function is not agreed to, this field should
         always be set to 0x0000 by the sender and ignored by the
         receiver.

9.  Basic TN3270E

   As has been stated earlier, whether or not the use of each of the
   TN3270E functions is allowed on a session is negotiated when the
   connection is established.  It is possible that none of the functions
   are agreed to (in this case, the function-list in the FUNCTIONS
   REQUEST and FUNCTIONS IS commands is null).  This mode of operation
   is referred to as "basic TN3270E".  Note that, since neither the
   SCS-CTL-CODES function nor the DATA-STREAM-CTL function is agreed to,
   basic TN3270E refers to terminal sessions only.



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   Basic TN3270E requires the support of only the following TN3270E
   header values:

          Header field         Value
          ------------         -----
           DATA-TYPE          3270-DATA
           DATA-TYPE          NVT-DATA

   The REQUEST-FLAG, RESPONSE-FLAG and SEQ-NUMBER fields are not used in
   basic TN3270E.

   9.1 3270 Mode and NVT Mode

      At any given time, a TN3270E connection can be considered to be
      operating in either "3270 mode" or "NVT mode".  In 3270 mode, each
      party may send data messages with the DATA-TYPE flag set to 3270-
      DATA; sending a DATA-TYPE flag set to NVT-DATA constitutes a
      request to switch modes.  In NVT mode, each party may send data
      messages with the DATA-TYPE flag set to NVT-DATA; sending 3270-
      DATA is a request to switch modes.  The connection is initially in
      3270 mode when TN3270E operation is successfully negotiated.  When
      a party receives a message with a DATA-TYPE different from the
      mode it is operating in, the mode of operation for the connection
      is switched.  Switching modes results in the client performing the
      equivalent of a 3270 Erase/Reset operation, as described in [5],
      using the default partition (screen) size.  The server cannot
      assume the client preserves any attributes of the previous
      environment across a mode switch.

      Note that even when sending NVT-DATA, each side should buffer data
      until an entire message is built (for the client, this would
      normally mean until the user presses Enter).  At that point, a
      complete TN3270E data message should be built to transmit the NVT
      data.

      Typically, NVT data is used by a server to interact with the user
      of a client.  It allows the server to do this using a simple NVT
      data stream, instead of requiring a 3270 data stream.  An example
      would be a server which displays a list of 3270 applications to
      which it can connect the client.  The server would use NVT data to
      display the list and read the user's choice.  Then the server
      would connect to the application, and begin the exchange of 3270
      data between the application and the client.








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10.  Details of Processing TN3270E Functions

   Agreement by both parties to a specific function in the FUNCTIONS
   REQUEST function-list implies agreement by each party to support a
   related set of values in the TN3270E header.  It also implies a
   willingness to adhere to the rules governing the processing of data
   messages with regard to the agreed upon function.  Either party that
   fails to accept header values associated either with agreed upon
   functions or with basic TN3270E, or attempts to use header values
   associated with a function that is not a part of basic TN3270E and
   was not agreed upon, will be considered non-conforming and in
   violation of the protocol.  The following sections detail for each
   TN3270E function the associated header values and processing rules.

   10.1 The SCS-CTL-CODES Function

      This function can only be supported on a 3270 printer session.

      Agreement to support this function requires that the party support
      the following TN3270E header values:

          Header field         Value
          ------------         -----
           DATA-TYPE          SCS-DATA

      A client representing a printer device uses this function to
      indicate its willingness to accept a data stream that includes SCS
      control codes.  For the purposes of NVT mode versus 3270 mode,
      SCS-DATA should be treated exactly like 3270-DATA (i.e., it can
      cause a switch from NVT mode to 3270 mode).

      When a printer device-type has been negotiated, either the SCS-
      CTL-CODES function or the DATA-STREAM-CTL function, or both, must
      be negotiated.  This enables the server to know when it should and
      should not accept a session with a host application on behalf of
      the client.  If only the SCS-CTL-CODES function is agreed to, then
      the server will not establish sessions with host applications that
      would send 3270 data stream control.  If both SCS-CTL-CODES and
      DATA-STREAM-CTL are agreed to, then the server will establish
      sessions both with host applications that would send SCS control
      codes and with those that would send 3270 orders.

   10.2 The DATA-STREAM-CTL Function

      This function can only be supported on a 3270 printer session.

      Agreement to support this function requires that the party support
      the following TN3270E header values:



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          Header field         Value
          ------------         -----
           DATA-TYPE          3270-DATA

      A client representing a printer device uses this function to
      indicate its willingness to accept a data stream that includes
      3270 orders and attributes.

      When a printer device-type has been negotiated, either the SCS-
      CTL-CODES function or the DATA-STREAM-CTL function, or both, must
      be negotiated.  This enables the server to know when it should and
      should not accept a session with a host application on behalf of
      the client.  If only the DATA-STREAM-CTL function is agreed to,
      then the server will not establish sessions with host applications
      that would send SCS control codes in a data stream.  If both SCS-
      CTL-CODES and DATA-STREAM-CTL are agreed to, then the server will
      establish sessions both with host applications that would send SCS
      control codes and with those that would send 3270 orders.

   10.3 The BIND-IMAGE Function

      This function can only be supported when the TN3270E server
      represents SNA terminals and printers.

      Agreement to support this function requires that the party support
      the following TN3270E header values:

          Header field         Value
          ------------         -----
           DATA-TYPE          BIND-IMAGE
           DATA-TYPE          UNBIND
           DATA-TYPE          SSCP-LU-DATA

      When BIND-IMAGE is in effect, the server must inform the client
      when an SNA session has been established with a host application,
      and when such a session has been terminated.  It uses DATA-TYPE
      values of BIND-IMAGE and UNBIND to convey this information.

      When establishing an SNA session on behalf of a client, the server
      will receive a Bind RU from the host application.  It will also
      receive a Start Data Traffic RU.  Once both of these have been
      responded to positively by the server, it must then inform the
      client of the presence of this session by sending it a data
      message with the DATA-TYPE flag set to BIND-IMAGE.  The data
      portion of this message must contain the bind image exactly as it
      was received in the Bind RU that the server accepted on behalf of
      the client.




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      When an SNA session between the server and a host application is
      terminated, the server should send a data message to the client
      with the DATA-TYPE flag set to UNBIND.  If the server was notified
      of the session termination via an SNA Unbind RU, it should include
      the Unbind reason code in the data portion of the message it sends
      to the client.  If the server itself requested the SNA session
      termination (for example, as part of SYSREQ key processing), it
      should set the data portion of the UNBIND message to 0x01,
      indicating "normal end of session".

      Another aspect of the BIND-IMAGE function alters the allowable
      DATA-TYPE flag values slightly from the behavior described in the
      section entitled "Basic TN3270E".  When BIND-IMAGE is in effect,
      data messages with DATA-TYPE set to 3270-DATA or SCS-DATA are not
      allowed before the first BIND-IMAGE is received by the client;
      only SSCP-LU-DATA or NVT-DATA can be used to transmit user-
      oriented data.  The same applies to data messages exchanged after
      an UNBIND is sent and before another BIND-IMAGE is received by the
      client.  Once the client receives a BIND-IMAGE data message, the
      allowable DATA-TYPE values include 3270-DATA and/or SCS-DATA,
      depending on whether a terminal or printer device-type was
      negotiated, and whether a printer client agreed to DATA-STREAM-CTL
      or SCS-CTL-CODES, or both.  (See the section entitled "The SYSREQ
      Function" for further discussion of the SSCP-LU session in an SNA
      environment.)

   10.4 The RESPONSES Function

      This function can be supported for both terminal and printer
      sessions connected to both SNA and non-SNA servers.

      Agreement to support this function requires that the party support
      the following TN3270E header values:

          Header field         Value
          ------------         -----
           DATA-TYPE          RESPONSE
           DATA-TYPE          REQUEST
           RESPONSE-FLAG      -all values-
           REQUEST-FLAG       ERR-COND-CLEARED
           SEQ-NUMBER         binary values from 0-32767

      Whenever a data message is sent with a DATA-TYPE of either SCS-
      DATA or 3270-DATA, the sender must set the RESPONSE-FLAG field to
      either NO-RESPONSE, ERROR-RESPONSE, or ALWAYS-RESPONSE.  It is
      anticipated that the client side will normally set RESPONSE-FLAG
      to NO-RESPONSE.  The server, if it represents an SNA device,
      should set RESPONSE-FLAG to reflect the response value set in the



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      RH of the RU that generated this data message - Definite Response
      resulting in a RESPONSE-FLAG value of ALWAYS-RESPONSE, Exception
      Response resulting in ERROR-RESPONSE being set, and No Response
      causing a setting of NO-RESPONSE.  A non-SNA server should set
      RESPONSE-FLAG to ERROR-RESPONSE.

      In addition, the sender must keep a count of the messages with a
      DATA-TYPE of 3270-DATA or SCS-DATA that it sends on a given
      session.  This counter should start at zero for the first such
      message, and be incremented by one for each subsequent message.
      If the counter reaches the maximum of 32767, it should be
      restarted at zero.  The sender should place this value in the
      SEQ-NUMBER field of the TN3270E header before it sends the
      message.  Note that the SEQ-NUMBER field must be set regardless of
      the value of the RESPONSE-FLAG field.

      10.4.1 Response Messages

         Whenever a data message with a DATA-TYPE of either SCS-DATA or
         3270-DATA is received, the receiver must attempt to process the
         data in the data portion of the message, then determine whether
         or not it should send a data message with a DATA-TYPE of
         RESPONSE.  If the data message it has just processed had a
         RESPONSE-FLAG value of NO-RESPONSE, or if it had a value of
         ERROR-RESPONSE and there were no errors encountered while
         processing the data, then no RESPONSE type message should be
         sent.  Otherwise, a data message should be sent in which the
         header DATA-TYPE field is set to RESPONSE, and in which the
         SEQ-NUMBER field is a copy of the SEQ-NUMBER field from the
         message to which this response corresponds.  The RESPONSE-FLAG
         field in this header must have a value of either POSITIVE-
         RESPONSE or NEGATIVE-RESPONSE.  A POSITIVE-RESPONSE should be
         sent if the previously processed message's header specified
         ALWAYS-RESPONSE and no errors were encountered in processing
         the data.  A NEGATIVE-RESPONSE should be sent when

          1) the previously processed message specified ERROR-RESPONSE
             or ALWAYS-RESPONSE and

          2) some kind of error occurred while processing the data.

         Normally only the client will be constructing and sending these
         RESPONSE messages.  A negative response sent by the client to
         the server is the equivalent of a Unit Check Status [7].  All
         references to device status and sense codes in this section
         rely on [7].





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         The data portion of a RESPONSE message must consist of one byte
         of binary data.  The value of this byte gives a more detailed
         account of the results of having processed the previously
         received data message.  The possible values for this byte are:

           For a RESPONSE-FLAG value of POSITIVE-RESPONSE -

             Value            Meaning
             -----            -------
             0x00      Successful completion (when sent by the client,
                       this is equivalent to "Device End").

           For a RESPONSE-FLAG value of NEGATIVE-RESPONSE -

             Value            Meaning
             -----            -------
             0x00      An invalid 3270 command was received
                       (equivalent to "Command Reject").

             0x01      Printer is not ready (equivalent to
                       "Intervention Required").

             0x02      An illegal 3270 buffer address or order
                       sequence was received (equivalent to
                       "Operation Check").

             0x03      Printer is powered off or not connected
                       (equivalent to "Component Disconnected").

         When the server receives any of the above responses, it should
         pass along the appropriate information to the host application.
         The appropriate information is determined by whether the server
         represents an SNA or a non-SNA device.

         An SNA server should pass along a POSITIVE-RESPONSE from the
         client as an SNA positive Response Unit to the host
         application.  It should translate a NEGATIVE-RESPONSE from the
         client into an SNA negative Response Unit in which the Sense
         Data Indicator bit is on and which contains one of the
         following sense codes:











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             RESPONSE-FLAG        Equivalent        SNA Sense Code
             -------------        ----------        --------------
                 0x00           Command Reject        0x10030000

                 0x01        Intervention Required    0x08020000

                 0x02           Operation Check       0x10050000

                 0x03        Component Disconnected   0x08310000

         A non-SNA server should pass along a POSITIVE-RESPONSE from the
         client by setting the Device End Status bit on.  It should
         reflect a NEGATIVE-RESPONSE from the client by setting the Unit
         Check Status Bit on, and setting either the Command Reject,
         Intervention Required, or Operation Check Sense bit on when
         responding to the Sense command.

         In the case of Intervention Required or Component Disconnected
         being passed by the server to the host application, the host
         would normally refrain from sending any further data to the
         printer.  If and when the error condition at the client has
         been resolved, the client must send to the server a data
         message whose header DATA-TYPE field is set to REQUEST, and
         whose REQUEST-FLAG is set to ERR-COND-CLEARED.  Note that this
         message has no data portion.  Upon receipt of this message, the
         server should pass along the appropriate information to the
         host application so that it may resume sending printer output.
         Again, the form of this information depends on whether the
         server represents an SNA or a non-SNA device.

         An SNA server should reflect an ERR-COND-CLEARED to the host
         application by sending an SNA LUSTAT RU with one of the
         following sense codes:

          - if the previous error condition was an Intervention
            Required, the server should send sense code 0x00010000

          - if the previous error condition was Component
            Disconnected, the server should send sense code 0x082B0000

         A non-SNA server should set the corresponding bits in the
         Ending Status and Sense Condition bytes.









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   10.5 The SYSREQ Function

      This function can only be supported when the TN3270E server
      represents SNA devices.

      Agreement to support this function requires that the party support
      the following TN3270E header values:

          Header field         Value
          ------------         -----
           DATA-TYPE          SSCP-LU-DATA

      The 3270 SYSREQ key can be useful in an SNA environment when the
      ATTN key is not sufficient to terminate a process.  (See the
      section entitled "The 3270 ATTN Key" for more information.)

      10.5.1 Background

         In SNA, there is a session between the host application (the
         PLU, or Primary Logical Unit) and the TN3270E server
         representing the client (the SLU, or Secondary Logical Unit).
         This is referred to as the PLU-SLU session, and it is the one
         on which normal communications flow.  There is also a session
         between the host telecommunications access method (the SSCP, or
         System Services Control Point) and the SLU, and it is referred
         to as the SSCP-LU session.  This session is used to carry
         various control information and is normally transparent to the
         user; normal 3270 data stream orders are not allowed in this
         data.  For more information, refer to [7].

         The terminal display and keyboard are usually "owned" by the
         PLU-SLU session, meaning any data the user types is sent to the
         host application.  The SYSREQ key is used to toggle ownership
         of the keyboard and display between the PLU-SLU session and the
         SSCP-LU session.  In other words, the user is able to press
         SYSREQ and then communicate directly with the host SSCP.  The
         user may then enter any valid Unformatted Systems Services
         commands, which are defined in the USS table associated with
         the SLU.  The most common USS command users employ is "LOGOFF,"
         which requests that the SSCP immediately terminate the PLU-SLU
         session.  The usual reason for requesting such an action is
         that the host application (the PLU) has stopped responding
         altogether.

         Whenever the keyboard and display are owned by the SSCP-LU
         session, no data is allowed to flow in either direction on the
         PLU-SLU session.  Once "in" the SSCP-LU session, the user may
         decide to switch back to the PLU-SLU session by again pressing



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         the SYSREQ key.

      10.5.2 TN3270E Implementation of SYSREQ

         The design of some TN3270E servers allows them to fully support
         the SYSREQ key because they are allowed to send USS commands on
         the SSCP-LU session.  Other TN3270E servers operate in an
         environment which does not allow them to send USS commands to
         the SSCP; this makes full support of the SYSREQ key impossible.
         For such servers, TN3270E provides for emulation of a minimal
         subset of functions, namely, for the sequence of pressing
         SYSREQ and typing LOGOFF that many users employ to immediately
         terminate the PLU-SLU session.

         The Telnet Abort Output (AO) command is the mechanism used to
         implement SYSREQ key support in TN3270E because, in a real SNA
         session, once the user presses the SYSREQ key, the host
         application is prevented from sending any more output to the
         terminal (unless the user presses SYSREQ a second time), but
         the user's process continues to execute.

         In order to implement SYSREQ key support, TN3270E clients that
         have agreed to the SYSREQ function should provide a key (or
         combination of keys) that is identified as mapping to the 3270
         SYSREQ key.  When the user presses this key(s), the client
         should transmit a Telnet AO command to the server.

         Upon receipt of the AO command, a TN3270E server that has
         agreed to the SYSREQ function should enter what will be loosely
         termed "suspended mode" for the connection.  If a server that
         has not agreed to the SYSREQ function receives an AO command,
         it should simply ignore it.  Any attempt by the host
         application to send data to the client while the connection is
         "suspended" should be responded to by the server with a
         negative response, sense code 0x082D, indicating an "LU Busy"
         condition.  The server should not transmit anything to the
         client on behalf of the host application.  While the connection
         is "suspended," any data messages (except TN3270E responses)
         exchanged between the client and server should have the DATA-
         TYPE flag set to SSCP-LU-DATA.

         At this point, the behavior of the server depends upon whether
         or not it is allowed to send USS commands on the SSCP-LU
         session.  Servers that have this ability should simply act as a
         vehicle for passing USS commands and responses between the
         client and the SSCP.





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         Servers that are not allowed to send USS commands on the SSCP-
         LU session should behave as follows:

      - if the user transmits the string LOGOFF (upper or lower case),
        the server should send an Unbind SNA RU to the host
        application.  This will result in termination of the PLU-SLU
        session.  If the BIND-IMAGE function was agreed upon, then
        the server should also send a data message to the client with
        the DATA-TYPE flag set to UNBIND and the data portion set to
        0x01.

      - if the user transmits anything other than LOGOFF, the server
        should respond with the string "COMMAND UNRECOGNIZED" to the
        client.  The server should not send anything to the host
        application on behalf of the client.

         Regardless of which kind of server is present (i.e., whether or
         not it may send USS commands on the SSCP-LU session), while the
         connection is suspended, the user may press the "SYSREQ" key
         again.  This will result in the transmission of another AO to
         the server.  The server should then send to the host
         application an LUSTAT RU with a value of 0x082B indicating
         "presentation space integrity lost".  The server will then
         "un-suspend" the Telnet connection to the client, meaning it
         will allow the host application to once again send data to the
         client.

11.  The 3270 ATTN Key

   The 3270 ATTN key is interpreted by many host applications in an SNA
   environment as an indication that the user wishes to interrupt the
   execution of the current process.  The Telnet Interrupt Process (IP)
   command was defined expressly for such a purpose, so it is used to
   implement support for the 3270 ATTN key.  This requires two things:

       - TN3270E clients should provide as part of their keyboard
         mapping a single key or a combination of keys that map to
         the 3270 ATTN key.  When the user presses this key(s), the
         client should transmit a Telnet IP command to the server.

       - TN3270E servers should translate the IP command received from
         a TN3270E client into the appropriate form and pass it along
         to the host application as an ATTN key.  In other words, the
         server representing an SLU in an SNA session should send
         a SIGNAL RU to the host application.






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   The ATTN key is not supported in a non-SNA environment; therefore, a
   TN3270E server representing non-SNA 3270 devices should ignore any
   Telnet IP commands it receives from a client.

12.  3270 Structured Fields

   3270 structured fields provide a much wider range of features than
   "old-style" 3270 data, such as support for graphics, partitions and
   IPDS printer data streams. It would be unreasonable to expect all
   TN3270E clients to support all possible structured field functions,
   yet there must be a mechanism by which those clients that are capable
   of supporting some or all structured field functions can indicate
   their wishes.

   The design of 3270 structured fields provides a convenient means to
   convey the level of support (including no support) for the various
   structured field functions.  This mechanism is the Read Partition
   Query command, which is sent from the host application to the device.
   The device responds with a Query Reply structured field(s) listing
   which, if any, structured field functions it supports.

   The Query Reply is also used to indicate some device capabilities
   which do not require the use of structured fields, such as extended
   color support and extended highlighting capability.  Most host
   applications will use Read Partition Query to precisely determine a
   device's capabilities when there has been some indication that the
   device supports the "extended data stream".

   Therefore, all TN3270E clients that negotiate a terminal device-type
   that contains a "-E" suffix, the DYNAMIC terminal type, or a printer
   device-type, must be able to respond to a Read Partition Query
   command.  Note that these clients must support both the Read
   Partition Query (Type 02), and all forms of the Read Partition Query
   List (Type 03).

13.  Implementation Guidelines

   13.1 3270 Data Stream Notes

      Implementors of TN3270E clients should note that the command codes
      for the various 3270 Read and Write commands have different values
      depending on how the server is connected to the host (local versus
      remote, SNA versus non-SNA).  Clients should be coded to check for
      the various possible values if they wish to be compatible with the
      widest range of servers.  See [7] for further details.






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   13.2 Negotiation of the TN3270E Telnet Option

      Since TN3270E is a Telnet Option governed by [8], both client and
      server are free to attempt to initiate negotiation of TN3270E by
      sending a DO TN3270E command.  However, just as is usually the
      case with the Telnet DO TERMINAL-TYPE, it is anticipated that the
      server will normally be the one sending the DO TN3270E, and the
      client will be responding with a WILL or a WON'T TN3270E.

   13.3 A "Keep-alive" Mechanism

      In many environments, it is very helpful to have in place a
      mechanism that allows timely notification of the loss of a 3270
      session.  TN3270E does not require that any form of keep-alive
      mechanism be employed by either clients or servers, but
      implementors wishing to support such a mechanism should consider
      the following guidelines.

      There are at least two possible means of providing a keep-alive
      mechanism in TN3270E: the Telnet IAC NOP command [8], and the
      Telnet DO TIMING-MARK option [9].  Both methods have their
      advantages and disadvantages.  It is recommended that TN3270E
      clients and servers that support keep-alives should accept both
      NOPs and TIMING-MARKs, and that both sides should always respond
      to TIMING-MARKs.

      Note that both clients and servers could be configured to
      "actively" implement keep-alives.  That is, both sides could send
      a TIMING-MARK or a NOP in order to determine whether or not the
      partner is still alive.  Alternatively, network administrators may
      wish to configure only one side to send TIMING-MARKs or NOPs; in
      this case, the other side would be a "passive" participant which
      simply responds to the keep-alives it receives.

      Implementors who want their code to be capable of being an
      "active" keep-alive participant should make their client or server
      configurable so that administrators can set which, if any, keep-
      alive mechanism should be employed, and how often the NOP or
      TIMING-MARK should be sent on each session.

      Upon failure of a session on which keep-alives are used, both
      parties should make the proper notifications.  A client should
      give the user some indication of the failure, such as an error
      code in the Operator Information Area of the screen.  A server
      should notify the host application that the session has been
      terminated, for example by sending an UNBIND with type CLEANUP in
      an SNA environment.




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   13.4 Examples

      The following example shows a TN3270E-capable server and a
      traditional tn3270 client establishing a connection:

        Server:  IAC DO TN3270E
        Client:  IAC WON'T TN3270E
        Server:  IAC DO TERMINAL-TYPE
        Client:  IAC WILL TERMINAL-TYPE
        Server:  IAC SB TERMINAL-TYPE SEND IAC SE
        Client:  IAC SB TERMINAL-TYPE IS IBM-3278-2 IAC SE
        Server:  IAC DO EOR IAC WILL EOR
        Client:  IAC WILL EOR IAC DO EOR
        Server:  IAC DO BINARY IAC WILL BINARY
        Client:  IAC WILL BINARY IAC DO BINARY
           (3270 data stream is exchanged)

      The following example shows a TN3270E-capable server and a
      TN3270E-capable client establishing a generic pool (non-specific)
      terminal session:

        Server:  IAC DO TN3270E
        Client:  IAC WILL TN3270E
        Server:  IAC SB TN3270E SEND DEVICE-TYPE IAC SE
        Client:  IAC SB TN3270E DEVICE-TYPE REQUEST IBM-3278-2 IAC SE
        Server:  IAC SB TN3270E DEVICE-TYPE IS IBM-3278-2 CONNECT
                        anyterm IAC SE
        Client:  IAC SB TN3270E FUNCTIONS REQUEST RESPONSES IAC SE
        Server:  IAC SB TN3270E FUNCTIONS IS RESPONSES IAC SE
           (3270 data stream is exchanged)

      The following example shows a TN3270E-capable server and a
      TN3270E-capable client establishing a terminal session where the
      client requests a specific device-name:

        Server:  IAC DO TN3270E
        Client:  IAC WILL TN3270E
        Server:  IAC SB TN3270E SEND DEVICE-TYPE IAC SE
        Client:  IAC SB TN3270E DEVICE-TYPE REQUEST IBM-3278-5-E
                        CONNECT myterm IAC SE
        Server:  IAC SB TN3270E DEVICE-TYPE IS IBM-3278-5-E CONNECT
                        myterm IAC SE
        Client:  IAC SB TN3270E FUNCTIONS REQUEST RESPONSES
                        BIND-IMAGE IAC SE
        Server:  IAC SB TN3270E FUNCTIONS IS RESPONSES BIND-IMAGE
                        IAC SE
           (3270 data stream is exchanged)




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      The following example shows a TN3270E-capable server and a
      TN3270E-capable client attempting to establish a terminal session;
      multiple attempts are necessary because the device-name initially
      requested by the client is already in use:

        Server:  IAC DO TN3270E
        Client:  IAC WILL TN3270E
        Server:  IAC SB TN3270E SEND DEVICE-TYPE IAC SE
        Client:  IAC SB TN3270E DEVICE-TYPE REQUEST IBM-3278-5
                        CONNECT myterm IAC SE
        Server:  IAC SB TN3270E DEVICE-TYPE REJECT REASON
                        DEVICE-IN-USE IAC SE
        Client:  IAC SB TN3270E DEVICE-TYPE REQUEST IBM-3278-2
                        CONNECT herterm IAC SE
        Server:  IAC SB TN3270E DEVICE-TYPE IS IBM-3278-2 CONNECT
                        herterm IAC SE
        Client:  IAC SB TN3270E FUNCTIONS REQUEST RESPONSES IAC SE
        Server:  IAC SB TN3270E FUNCTIONS IS RESPONSES IAC SE
           (3270 data stream is exchanged)

      The following example shows a TN3270E-capable server and a
      TN3270E-capable client establishing a printer session where the
      client requests a specific device-name, and where some amount of
      3270 function negotiation is required before an agreement is
      reached:

        Server:  IAC DO TN3270E
        Client:  IAC WILL TN3270E
        Server:  IAC SB TN3270E SEND DEVICE-TYPE IAC SE
        Client:  IAC SB TN3270E DEVICE-TYPE REQUEST IBM-3287-1 CONNECT
                        myprt IAC SE
        Server:  IAC SB TN3270E DEVICE-TYPE IS IBM-3287-1 CONNECT
                        myprt IAC SE
        Client:  IAC SB TN3270E FUNCTIONS REQUEST DATA-STREAM-CTL IAC
        Server:  IAC SB TN3270E FUNCTIONS REQUEST DATA-STREAM-CTL
                        RESPONSES IAC SE
        Client:  IAC SB TN3270E FUNCTIONS REQUEST DATA-STREAM-CTL IAC
        Server:  IAC SB TN3270E FUNCTIONS IS DATA-STREAM-CTL IAC SE
           (3270 data stream is exchanged)

      The following example shows a TN3270E-capable server and a
      TN3270E-capable client establishing first a generic terminal
      session, then a printer session where the "partner" printer for
      the assigned terminal is requested:

        Server:  IAC DO TN3270E
        Client:  IAC WILL TN3270E
        Server:  IAC SB TN3270E SEND DEVICE-TYPE IAC SE



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        Client:  IAC SB TN3270E DEVICE-TYPE REQUEST IBM-3278-2 IAC SE
        Server:  IAC SB TN3270E DEVICE-TYPE IS IBM-3278-2 CONNECT
                        termXYZ IAC SE
        Client:  IAC SB TN3270E FUNCTIONS REQUEST RESPONSES IAC SE
        Server:  IAC SB TN3270E FUNCTIONS IS RESPONSES IAC SE
           (3270 data stream is exchanged)
             .            .
             .            .
           (user decides to request a printer session,
            so client again connects to Telnet port on server)
        Server:  IAC DO TN3270E
        Client:  IAC WILL TN3270E
        Server:  IAC SB TN3270E SEND DEVICE-TYPE IAC SE
        Client:  IAC SB TN3270E DEVICE-TYPE REQUEST IBM-3287-1
                        ASSOCIATE termXYZ IAC SE
        Server:  IAC SB TN3270E DEVICE-TYPE IS IBM-3287-1 CONNECT
                        termXYZ's-prt IAC SE
        Client:  IAC SB TN3270E FUNCTIONS REQUEST SCS-CTL-CODES
                        RESPONSES IAC SE
        Server:  IAC SB TN3270E FUNCTIONS IS SCS-CTL-CODES RESPONSES
                        IAC SE
           (3270 data stream is exchanged)

14.  Security Considerations

   Security issues are not addressed in this document.  It is
   anticipated that once authentication mechanisms have become well
   established, use of them can be made by TN3270E.  One of the
   important uses of authentication would be to answer the question of
   whether or not a given user should be allowed to "use" a specific
   terminal or printer device-name.

15.  References

   [1] Rekhter, J., "Telnet 3270 Regime Option", RFC 1041, IBM
       Corporation, January 1988.

   [2] VanBokkelen, J., "Telnet Terminal-Type Option", RFC 1091, FTP
       Software, Inc., February 1989.

   [3] Postel, J., and J. Reynolds, "Telnet Binary Transmission", STD
       27, RFC 856, USC/Information Sciences Institute, May 1983.

   [4] Postel, J., "Telnet End of Record Option", RFC 885, USC/
       Information Sciences Institute, December 1983.

   [5] "3270 Information Display System - Data Stream Programmer's
       Reference", publication number GA24-0059, IBM Corporation.



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   [6] "SNA Formats", publication number GA27-3136, IBM Corporation.

   [7] "3174 Establishment Controller Functional Description",
       publication number GA23-0218, IBM Corporation.

   [8] Postel, J., and J. Reynolds, "Telnet Protocol Specification", STD
       8, RFC 854, USC/Information Sciences Institute, May 1983.

   [9] Postel, J., and J. Reynolds, "Telnet Timing Mark Option", STD 31,
       RFC 860, USC/Information Sciences Institute, May 1983.

16.  Author's Note

   Portions of this document were drawn from the following sources:

    - A White Paper written by Owen Reddecliffe, WRQ Corporation,
      October 1991.

    - Experimental work on the part of Cleve Graves and Michelle
      Angel, OpenConnect Systems, 1992 - 1993.

    - Discussions at the 1993 IETF meetings.

    - Discussions on the "TN3270E" list, 1993-94.

17. Author's Address

   Bill Kelly
   Division of University Computing
   144 Parker Hall
   Auburn University, AL  36849

   Phone: (205) 844-4512
   EMail: kellywh@mail.auburn.edu

















Kelly                                                          [Page 34]


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