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Obsoleted by: 6350 PROPOSED STANDARD
Errata Exist
Network Working Group                                         F. Dawson
Request for Comments: 2426                Lotus Development Corporation
Category: Standards Track                                      T. Howes
                                                Netscape Communications
                                                         September 1998


                      vCard MIME Directory Profile

Status of this Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1998).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   This memo defines the profile of the MIME Content-Type [MIME-DIR] for
   directory information for a white-pages person object, based on a
   vCard electronic business card. The profile definition is independent
   of any particular directory service or protocol. The profile is
   defined for representing and exchanging a variety of information
   about an individual (e.g., formatted and structured name and delivery
   addresses, email address, multiple telephone numbers, photograph,
   logo, audio clips, etc.). The directory information used by this
   profile is based on the attributes for the person object defined in
   the X.520 and X.521 directory services recommendations. The profile
   also provides the method for including a [VCARD] representation of a
   white-pages directory entry within the MIME Content-Type defined by
   the [MIME-DIR] document.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY" and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC 2119].











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Table of Contents

   Overview.........................................................3
   1. THE VCARD MIME DIRECTORY PROFILE REGISTRATION.................4
   2. MIME DIRECTORY FEATURES.......................................5
    2.1 PREDEFINED TYPE USAGE ......................................5
     2.1.1 BEGIN and END Type ......................................5
     2.1.2 NAME Type ...............................................5
     2.1.3 PROFILE Type ............................................5
     2.1.4 SOURCE Type .............................................5
    2.2 PREDEFINED TYPE PARAMETER USAGE ............................6
    2.3 PREDEFINED VALUE TYPE USAGE ................................6
    2.4 EXTENSIONS TO THE PREDEFINED VALUE TYPES ...................6
     2.4.1 BINARY ..................................................6
     2.4.2 VCARD ...................................................6
     2.4.3 PHONE-NUMBER ............................................7
     2.4.4 UTC-OFFSET ..............................................7
    2.5 STRUCTURED TYPE VALUES .....................................7
    2.6 LINE DELIMITING AND FOLDING ................................8
   3. VCARD PROFILE FEATURES........................................8
    3.1 IDENTIFICATION TYPES .......................................8
     3.1.1 FN Type Definition ......................................8
     3.1.2 N Type Definition .......................................9
     3.1.3 NICKNAME Type Definition ................................9
     3.1.4 PHOTO Type Definition ..................................10
     3.1.5 BDAY Type Definition ...................................11
    3.2 DELIVERY ADDRESSING TYPES .................................11
     3.2.1 ADR Type Definition ....................................11
     3.2.2 LABEL Type Definition ..................................13
    3.3 TELECOMMUNICATIONS ADDRESSING TYPES .......................13
     3.3.1 TEL Type Definition ....................................14
     3.3.2 EMAIL Type Definition ..................................15
     3.3.3 MAILER Type Definition .................................15
    3.4 GEOGRAPHICAL TYPES ........................................16
     3.4.1 TZ Type Definition .....................................16
     3.4.2 GEO Type Definition ....................................16
    3.5 ORGANIZATIONAL TYPES ......................................17
     3.5.1 TITLE Type Definition ..................................17
     3.5.2 ROLE Type Definition ...................................18
     3.5.3 LOGO Type Definition ...................................18
     3.5.4 AGENT Type Definition ..................................19
     3.5.5 ORG Type Definition ....................................20
    3.6 EXPLANATORY TYPES .........................................20
     3.6.1 CATEGORIES Type Definition .............................20
     3.6.2 NOTE Type Definition ...................................21
     3.6.3 PRODID Type Definition .................................21
     3.6.4 REV Type Definition ....................................22
     3.6.5 SORT-STRING Type Definition ............................22



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     3.6.6 SOUND Type Definition ..................................23
     3.6.7 UID Type Definition ....................................24
     3.6.8 URL Type Definition ....................................25
     3.6.9 VERSION Type Definition ................................25
    3.7 SECURITY TYPES ............................................25
     3.7.1 CLASS Type Definition ..................................26
     3.7.2 KEY Type Definition ....................................26
    3.8 EXTENDED TYPES ............................................27
   4. FORMAL GRAMMAR...............................................27
   5. DIFFERENCES FROM VCARD V2.1..................................37
   6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.............................................39
   7. AUTHORS' ADDRESSES...........................................39
   8. SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS......................................39
   9. REFERENCES...................................................40
   10. FULL COPYRIGHT STATEMENT....................................42

Overview

   The [MIME-DIR] document defines a MIME Content-Type for holding
   different kinds of directory information. The directory information
   can be based on any of a number of directory schemas. This document
   defines a [MIME-DIR] usage profile for conveying directory
   information based on one such schema; that of the white-pages type of
   person object.

   The schema is based on the attributes for the person object defined
   in the X.520 and X.521 directory services recommendations. The schema
   has augmented the basic attributes defined in the X.500 series
   recommendation in order to provide for an electronic representation
   of the information commonly found on a paper business card. This
   schema was first defined in the [VCARD] document. Hence, this [MIME-
   DIR] profile is referred to as the vCard MIME Directory Profile.

   A directory entry based on this usage profile can include traditional
   directory, white-pages information such as the distinguished name
   used to uniquely identify the entry, a formatted representation of
   the name used for user-interface or presentation purposes, both the
   structured and presentation form of the delivery address, various
   telephone numbers and organizational information associated with the
   entry. In addition, traditional paper business card information such
   as an image of an organizational logo or identify photograph can be
   included in this person object.

   The vCard MIME Directory Profile also provides support for
   representing other important information about the person associated
   with the directory entry. For instance, the date of birth of the
   person; an audio clip describing the pronunciation of the name
   associated with the directory entry, or some other application of the



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   digital sound; longitude and latitude geo-positioning information
   related to the person associated with the directory entry; date and
   time that the directory information was last updated; annotations
   often written on a business card; Uniform Resource Locators (URL) for
   a website; public key information. The profile also provides support
   for non-standard extensions to the schema. This provides the
   flexibility for implementations to augment the current capabilities
   of the profile in a standardized way. More information about this
   electronic business card format can be found in [VCARD].

1.  The vCard Mime Directory Profile Registration

   This profile is identified by the following [MIME-DIR] registration
   template information. Subsequent sections define the profile
   definition.

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME profile VCARD

   Profile name: VCARD

   Profile purpose: To hold person object or white-pages type of
   directory information. The person schema captured in the directory
   entries is that commonly found in an electronic business card.

   Predefined MIME Directory value specifications used: uri, date,
   date-time, float

   New value specifications: This profile places further constraints on
   the [MIME-DIR] text value specification. In addition, it adds a
   binary, phone-number, utc-offset and vcard value specifications.

   Predefined MIME Directory types used: SOURCE, NAME, PROFILE, BEGIN,
   END.

   Predefined MIME Directory parameters used: ENCODING, VALUE, CHARSET,
   LANGUAGE, CONTEXT.

   New types: FN, N, NICKNAME, PHOTO, BDAY, ADR, LABEL, TEL, EMAIL,
   MAILER, TZ, GEO, TITLE, ROLE, LOGO, AGENT, ORG, CATEGORIES, NOTE,
   PRODID, REV, SORT-STRING, SOUND, URL, UID, VERSION, CLASS, KEY

   New parameters: TYPE

   Profile special notes: The vCard object MUST contain the FN, N and
   VERSION types. The type-grouping feature of [MIME-DIR] is supported
   by this profile to group related vCard properties about a directory



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   entry. For example, vCard properties describing WORK or HOME related
   characteristics can be grouped with a unique group label.

   The profile permits the use of non-standard types (i.e., those
   identified with the prefix string "X-") as a flexible method for
   implementations to extend the functionality currently defined within
   this profile.

2.  MIME Directory Features

   The vCard MIME Directory Profile makes use of many of the features
   defined by [MIME-DIR]. The following sections either clarify or
   extend the content-type definition of [MIME-DIR].

2.1 Predefined Type Usage

   The vCard MIME Directory Profile uses the following predefined types
   from [MIME-DIR].

2.1.1 BEGIN and END Type

   The content entity MUST begin with the BEGIN type with a value of
   "VCARD". The content entity MUST end with the END type with a value
   of "VCARD".

2.1.2 NAME Type

   If the NAME type is present, then its value is the displayable,
   presentation text associated with the source for the vCard, as
   specified in the SOURCE type.

2.1.3 PROFILE Type

   If the PROFILE type is present, then its value MUST be "VCARD".

2.1.4 SOURCE Type

   If the SOURCE type is present, then its value provides information
   how to find the source for the vCard.












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2.2 Predefined Type Parameter Usage

   The vCard MIME Directory Profile uses the following predefined type
   parameters as defined by [MIME-DIR].

        - LANGUAGE

        - ENCODING

        - VALUE

2.3 Predefined VALUE Type Usage

   The predefined data type values specified in [MIME-DIR] MUST NOT be
   repeated in COMMA separated value lists except within the N,
   NICKNAME, ADR and CATEGORIES value types.

   The text value type defined in [MIME-DIR] is further restricted such
   that any SEMI-COLON character (ASCII decimal 59) in the value MUST be
   escaped with the BACKSLASH character (ASCII decimal 92).

2.4 Extensions To The Predefined VALUE Types

   The predefined data type values specified in [MIME-DIR] have been
   extended by the vCard profile to include a number of value types that
   are specific to this profile.

2.4.1 BINARY

   The "binary" value type specifies that the type value is inline,
   encoded binary data. This value type can be specified in the PHOTO,
   LOGO, SOUND, and KEY types.

   If inline encoded binary data is specified, the ENCODING type
   parameter MUST be used to specify the encoding format. The binary
   data MUST be encoded using the "B" encoding format. Long lines of
   encoded binary data SHOULD BE folded to 75 characters using the
   folding method defined in [MIME-DIR].

   The value type is defined by the following notation:

   binary = <A "B" binary encoded string as defined by [RFC 2047].>

2.4.2 VCARD

   The "vcard" value type specifies that the type value is another
   vCard. This value type can be specified in the AGENT type. The value
   type is defined by this specification. Since each of the type



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   declarations with in the vcard value type are being specified within
   a text value themselves, they MUST be terminated with the backslash
   escape sequence "\n" or "\N", instead of the normal newline character
   sequence CRLF. In addition, any COMMA character (ASCII decimal 44),
   SEMI-COLON character (ASCII decimal 59) and COLON character (ASCII
   decimal 58) MUST be escaped with the BACKSLASH character (ASCII
   decimal 92). For example, with the AGENT type a value would be
   specified as:

        AGENT:BEGIN:VCARD\nFN:Joe Friday\nTEL:+1-919-555-7878\n
         TITLE:Area Administrator\, Assistant\n EMAIL\;TYPE=INTERN\n
         ET:jfriday@host.com\nEND:VCARD\n

2.4.3 PHONE-NUMBER

   The "phone-number" value type specifies that the type value is a
   telephone number. This value type can be specified in the TEL type.
   The value type is a text value that has the special semantics of a
   telephone number as defined in [CCITT E.163] and [CCITT X.121].

2.4.4 UTC-OFFSET

   The "utc-offset" value type specifies that the type value is a signed
   offset from UTC. This value type can be specified in the TZ type.

   The value type is an offset from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). It
   is specified as a positive or negative difference in units of hours
   and minutes (e.g., +hh:mm). The time is specified as a 24-hour clock.
   Hour values are from 00 to 23, and minute values are from 00 to 59.
   Hour and minutes are 2-digits with high order zeroes required to
   maintain digit count. The extended format for ISO 8601 UTC offsets
   MUST be used. The extended format makes use of a colon character as a
   separator of the hour and minute text fields.

   The value is defined by the following notation:

        time-hour       = 2DIGIT        ;00-23
        time-minute     = 2DIGIT        ;00-59
        utc-offset      = ("+" / "-") time-hour ":" time-minute

2.5 Structured Type Values

   Compound type values are delimited by a field delimiter, specified by
   the SEMI-COLON character (ASCII decimal 59). A SEMI-COLON in a
   component of a compound property value MUST be escaped with a
   BACKSLASH character (ASCII decimal 92).





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   Lists of values are delimited by a list delimiter, specified by the
   COMMA character (ASCII decimal 44). A COMMA character in a value MUST
   be escaped with a BACKSLASH character (ASCII decimal 92).

   This profile supports the type grouping mechanism defined in [MIME-
   DIR]. Grouping of related types is a useful technique to communicate
   common semantics concerning the properties of a vCard.

2.6 Line Delimiting and Folding

   This profile supports the same line delimiting and folding methods
   defined in [MIME-DIR]. Specifically, when parsing a content line,
   folded lines must first be unfolded according to the unfolding
   procedure described in [MIME-DIR]. After generating a content line,
   lines longer than 75 characters SHOULD be folded according to the
   folding procedure described in [MIME DIR].

   Folding is done after any content encoding of a type value. Unfolding
   is done before any decoding of a type value in a content line.

3.  vCard Profile Features

   The vCard MIME Directory Profile Type contains directory information,
   typically pertaining to a single directory entry. The information is
   described using an attribute schema that is tailored for capturing
   personal contact information. The vCard can include attributes that
   describe identification, delivery addressing, telecommunications
   addressing, geographical, organizational, general explanatory and
   security and access information about the particular object
   associated with the vCard.

3.1 Identification Types

   These types are used in the vCard profile to capture information
   associated with the identification and naming of the person or
   resource associated with the vCard.

3.1.1 FN Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type FN

   Type name:FN

   Type purpose: To specify the formatted text corresponding to the name
   of the object the vCard represents.




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   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single text value.

   Type special notes: This type is based on the semantics of the X.520
   Common Name attribute. The property MUST be present in the vCard
   object.

   Type example:

        FN:Mr. John Q. Public\, Esq.

3.1.2 N Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type N

   Type name: N

   Type purpose: To specify the components of the name of the object the
   vCard represents.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single structured text value. Each component can have
   multiple values.

   Type special note: The structured type value corresponds, in
   sequence, to the Family Name, Given Name, Additional Names, Honorific
   Prefixes, and Honorific Suffixes. The text components are separated
   by the SEMI-COLON character (ASCII decimal 59). Individual text
   components can include multiple text values (e.g., multiple
   Additional Names) separated by the COMMA character (ASCII decimal
   44). This type is based on the semantics of the X.520 individual name
   attributes. The property MUST be present in the vCard object.

   Type example:

        N:Public;John;Quinlan;Mr.;Esq.

        N:Stevenson;John;Philip,Paul;Dr.;Jr.,M.D.,A.C.P.

3.1.3 NICKNAME Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type NICKNAME



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   Type name: NICKNAME

   Type purpose: To specify the text corresponding to the nickname of
   the object the vCard represents.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: One or more text values separated by a COMMA character
   (ASCII decimal 44).

   Type special note: The nickname is the descriptive name given instead
   of or in addition to the one belonging to a person, place, or thing.
   It can also be used to specify a familiar form of a proper name
   specified by the FN or N types.

   Type example:

        NICKNAME:Robbie

        NICKNAME:Jim,Jimmie

3.1.4 PHOTO Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type PHOTO

   Type name: PHOTO

   Type purpose: To specify an image or photograph information that
   annotates some aspect of the object the vCard represents.

   Type encoding: The encoding MUST be reset to "b" using the ENCODING
   parameter in order to specify inline, encoded binary data. If the
   value is referenced by a URI value, then the default encoding of 8bit
   is used and no explicit ENCODING parameter is needed.

   Type value: A single value. The default is binary value. It can also
   be reset to uri value. The uri value can be used to specify a value
   outside of this MIME entity.

   Type special notes: The type can include the type parameter "TYPE" to
   specify the graphic image format type. The TYPE parameter values MUST
   be one of the IANA registered image formats or a non-standard image
   format.






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   Type example:

        PHOTO;VALUE=uri:http://www.abc.com/pub/photos
         /jqpublic.gif


        PHOTO;ENCODING=b;TYPE=JPEG:MIICajCCAdOgAwIBAgICBEUwDQYJKoZIhvcN
         AQEEBQAwdzELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxLDAqBgNVBAoTI05ldHNjYXBlIENvbW11bm
         ljYXRpb25zIENvcnBvcmF0aW9uMRwwGgYDVQQLExNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBTeXN0
         <...remainder of "B" encoded binary data...>

3.1.5 BDAY Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type BDAY

   Type name: BDAY

   Type purpose: To specify the birth date of the object the vCard
   represents.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: The default is a single date value. It can also be reset
   to a single date-time value.

   Type examples:

        BDAY:1996-04-15

        BDAY:1953-10-15T23:10:00Z

        BDAY:1987-09-27T08:30:00-06:00

3.2 Delivery Addressing Types

   These types are concerned with information related to the delivery
   addressing or label for the vCard object.

3.2.1 ADR Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type ADR

   Type name: ADR




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   Type purpose: To specify the components of the delivery address for
   the vCard object.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single structured text value, separated by the
   SEMI-COLON character (ASCII decimal 59).

   Type special notes: The structured type value consists of a sequence
   of address components. The component values MUST be specified in
   their corresponding position. The structured type value corresponds,
   in sequence, to the post office box; the extended address; the street
   address; the locality (e.g., city); the region (e.g., state or
   province); the postal code; the country name. When a component value
   is missing, the associated component separator MUST still be
   specified.

   The text components are separated by the SEMI-COLON character (ASCII
   decimal 59). Where it makes semantic sense, individual text
   components can include multiple text values (e.g., a "street"
   component with multiple lines) separated by the COMMA character
   (ASCII decimal 44).

   The type can include the type parameter "TYPE" to specify the
   delivery address type. The TYPE parameter values can include "dom" to
   indicate a domestic delivery address; "intl" to indicate an
   international delivery address; "postal" to indicate a postal
   delivery address; "parcel" to indicate a parcel delivery address;
   "home" to indicate a delivery address for a residence; "work" to
   indicate delivery address for a place of work; and "pref" to indicate
   the preferred delivery address when more than one address is
   specified. These type parameter values can be specified as a
   parameter list (i.e., "TYPE=dom;TYPE=postal") or as a value list
   (i.e., "TYPE=dom,postal"). This type is based on semantics of the
   X.520 geographical and postal addressing attributes. The default is
   "TYPE=intl,postal,parcel,work". The default can be overridden to some
   other set of values by specifying one or more alternate values. For
   example, the default can be reset to "TYPE=dom,postal,work,home" to
   specify a domestic delivery address for postal delivery to a
   residence that is also used for work.

   Type example: In this example the post office box and the extended
   address are absent.

        ADR;TYPE=dom,home,postal,parcel:;;123 Main
          Street;Any Town;CA;91921-1234





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3.2.2 LABEL Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type LABEL

   Type name: LABEL

   Type purpose: To specify the formatted text corresponding to delivery
   address of the object the vCard represents.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single text value.

   Type special notes: The type value is formatted text that can be used
   to present a delivery address label for the vCard object. The type
   can include the type parameter "TYPE" to specify delivery label type.
   The TYPE parameter values can include "dom" to indicate a domestic
   delivery label; "intl" to indicate an international delivery label;
   "postal" to indicate a postal delivery label; "parcel" to indicate a
   parcel delivery label; "home" to indicate a delivery label for a
   residence; "work" to indicate delivery label for a place of work; and
   "pref" to indicate the preferred delivery label when more than one
   label is specified. These type parameter values can be specified as a
   parameter list (i.e., "TYPE=dom;TYPE=postal") or as a value list
   (i.e., "TYPE=dom,postal"). This type is based on semantics of the
   X.520 geographical and postal addressing attributes. The default is
   "TYPE=intl,postal,parcel,work". The default can be overridden to some
   other set of values by specifying one or more alternate values. For
   example, the default can be reset to "TYPE=intl,post,parcel,home" to
   specify an international delivery label for both postal and parcel
   delivery to a residential location.

   Type example: A multi-line address label.

        LABEL;TYPE=dom,home,postal,parcel:Mr.John Q. Public\, Esq.\n
         Mail Drop: TNE QB\n123 Main Street\nAny Town\, CA  91921-1234
         \nU.S.A.

3.3 Telecommunications Addressing Types

   These types are concerned with information associated with the
   telecommunications addressing of the object the vCard represents.







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3.3.1 TEL Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type TEL

   Type name: TEL

   Type purpose: To specify the telephone number for telephony
   communication with the object the vCard represents.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single phone-number value.

   Type special notes: The value of this type is specified in a
   canonical form in order to specify an unambiguous representation of
   the globally unique telephone endpoint. This type is based on the
   X.500 Telephone Number attribute.

   The type can include the type parameter "TYPE" to specify intended
   use for the telephone number. The TYPE parameter values can include:
   "home" to indicate a telephone number associated with a residence,
   "msg" to indicate the telephone number has voice messaging support,
   "work" to indicate a telephone number associated with a place of
   work, "pref" to indicate a preferred-use telephone number, "voice" to
   indicate a voice telephone number, "fax" to indicate a facsimile
   telephone number, "cell" to indicate a cellular telephone number,
   "video" to indicate a video conferencing telephone number, "pager" to
   indicate a paging device telephone number, "bbs" to indicate a
   bulletin board system telephone number, "modem" to indicate a MODEM
   connected telephone number, "car" to indicate a car-phone telephone
   number, "isdn" to indicate an ISDN service telephone number, "pcs" to
   indicate a personal communication services telephone number. The
   default type is "voice". These type parameter values can be specified
   as a parameter list (i.e., "TYPE=work;TYPE=voice") or as a value list
   (i.e., "TYPE=work,voice"). The default can be overridden to another
   set of values by specifying one or more alternate values. For
   example, the default TYPE of "voice" can be reset to a WORK and HOME,
   VOICE and FAX telephone number by the value list
   "TYPE=work,home,voice,fax".

   Type example:

        TEL;TYPE=work,voice,pref,msg:+1-213-555-1234






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3.3.2 EMAIL Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type EMAIL

   Type name: EMAIL

   Type purpose: To specify the electronic mail address for
   communication with the object the vCard represents.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single text value.

   Type special notes: The type can include the type parameter "TYPE" to
   specify the format or preference of the electronic mail address. The
   TYPE parameter values can include: "internet" to indicate an Internet
   addressing type, "x400" to indicate a X.400 addressing type or "pref"
   to indicate a preferred-use email address when more than one is
   specified. Another IANA registered address type can also be
   specified. The default email type is "internet". A non-standard value
   can also be specified.

   Type example:

        EMAIL;TYPE=internet:jqpublic@xyz.dom1.com

        EMAIL;TYPE=internet:jdoe@isp.net

        EMAIL;TYPE=internet,pref:jane_doe@abc.com

3.3.3 MAILER Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type MAILER

   Type name: MAILER

   Type purpose: To specify the type of electronic mail software that is
   used by the individual associated with the vCard.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single text value.





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   Type special notes: This information can provide assistance to a
   correspondent regarding the type of data representation which can be
   used, and how they can be packaged. This property is based on the
   private MIME type X-Mailer that is generally implemented by MIME user
   agent products.

   Type example:

        MAILER:PigeonMail 2.1

3.4 Geographical Types

   These types are concerned with information associated with
   geographical positions or regions associated with the object the
   vCard represents.

3.4.1 TZ Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type TZ

   Type name: TZ

   Type purpose: To specify information related to the time zone of the
   object the vCard represents.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: The default is a single utc-offset value. It can also be
   reset to a single text value.

   Type special notes: The type value consists of a single value.

   Type examples:

        TZ:-05:00

        TZ;VALUE=text:-05:00; EST; Raleigh/North America
        ;This example has a single value, not a structure text value.

3.4.2 GEO Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type GEO

   Type name: GEO



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   Type purpose: To specify information related to the global
   positioning of the object the vCard represents.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single structured value consisting of two float values
   separated by the SEMI-COLON character (ASCII decimal 59).

   Type special notes: This type specifies information related to the
   global position of the object associated with the vCard. The value
   specifies latitude and longitude, in that order (i.e., "LAT LON"
   ordering). The longitude represents the location east and west of the
   prime meridian as a positive or negative real number, respectively.
   The latitude represents the location north and south of the equator
   as a positive or negative real number, respectively. The longitude
   and latitude values MUST be specified as decimal degrees and should
   be specified to six decimal places. This will allow for granularity
   within a meter of the geographical position. The text components are
   separated by the SEMI-COLON character (ASCII decimal 59). The simple
   formula for converting degrees-minutes-seconds into decimal degrees
   is:

        decimal = degrees + minutes/60 + seconds/3600.

   Type example:

        GEO:37.386013;-122.082932

3.5 Organizational Types

   These types are concerned with information associated with
   characteristics of the organization or organizational units of the
   object the vCard represents.

3.5.1 TITLE Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type TITLE

   Type name: TITLE

   Type purpose: To specify the job title, functional position or
   function of the object the vCard represents.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single text value.



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   Type special notes: This type is based on the X.520 Title attribute.

   Type example:

        TITLE:Director\, Research and Development

3.5.2 ROLE Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type ROLE

   Type name: ROLE

   Type purpose: To specify information concerning the role, occupation,
   or business category of the object the vCard represents.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single text value.

   Type special notes: This type is based on the X.520 Business Category
   explanatory attribute. This property is included as an organizational
   type to avoid confusion with the semantics of the TITLE type and
   incorrect usage of that type when the semantics of this type is
   intended.

   Type example:

        ROLE:Programmer

3.5.3 LOGO Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type LOGO

   Type name: LOGO

   Type purpose: To specify a graphic image of a logo associated with
   the object the vCard represents.

   Type encoding: The encoding MUST be reset to "b" using the ENCODING
   parameter in order to specify inline, encoded binary data. If the
   value is referenced by a URI value, then the default encoding of 8bit
   is used and no explicit ENCODING parameter is needed.





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   Type value: A single value. The default is binary value. It can also
   be reset to uri value. The uri value can be used to specify a value
   outside of this MIME entity.

   Type special notes: The type can include the type parameter "TYPE" to
   specify the graphic image format type. The TYPE parameter values MUST
   be one of the IANA registered image formats or a non-standard image
   format.

   Type example:

        LOGO;VALUE=uri:http://www.abc.com/pub/logos/abccorp.jpg

        LOGO;ENCODING=b;TYPE=JPEG:MIICajCCAdOgAwIBAgICBEUwDQYJKoZIhvcN
         AQEEBQAwdzELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxLDAqBgNVBAoTI05ldHNjYXBlIENvbW11bm
         ljYXRpb25zIENvcnBvcmF0aW9uMRwwGgYDVQQLExNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBTeXN0
         <...the remainder of "B" encoded binary data...>

3.5.4 AGENT Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type AGENT

   Type name: AGENT

   Type purpose: To specify information about another person who will
   act on behalf of the individual or resource associated with the
   vCard.

   Type encoding: 8-bit

   Type value: The default is a single vcard value. It can also be reset
   to either a single text or uri value. The text value can be used to
   specify textual information. The uri value can be used to specify
   information outside of this MIME entity.

   Type special notes: This type typically is used to specify an area
   administrator, assistant, or secretary for the individual associated
   with the vCard. A key characteristic of the Agent type is that it
   represents somebody or something that is separately addressable.

   Type example:

        AGENT;VALUE=uri:
         CID:JQPUBLIC.part3.960129T083020.xyzMail@host3.com





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        AGENT:BEGIN:VCARD\nFN:Susan Thomas\nTEL:+1-919-555-
         1234\nEMAIL\;INTERNET:sthomas@host.com\nEND:VCARD\n

3.5.5 ORG Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type ORG

   Type name: ORG

   Type purpose: To specify the organizational name and units associated
   with the vCard.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single structured text value consisting of components
   separated the SEMI-COLON character (ASCII decimal 59).

   Type special notes: The type is based on the X.520 Organization Name
   and Organization Unit attributes. The type value is a structured type
   consisting of the organization name, followed by one or more levels
   of organizational unit names.

   Type example: A type value consisting of an organizational name,
   organizational unit #1 name and organizational unit #2 name.

        ORG:ABC\, Inc.;North American Division;Marketing

3.6 Explanatory Types

   These types are concerned with additional explanations, such as that
   related to informational notes or revisions specific to the vCard.

3.6.1 CATEGORIES Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type CATEGORIES

   Type name: CATEGORIES

   Type purpose: To specify application category information about the
   vCard.

   Type encoding: 8bit





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   Type value: One or more text values separated by a COMMA character
   (ASCII decimal 44).

   Type example:

        CATEGORIES:TRAVEL AGENT

        CATEGORIES:INTERNET,IETF,INDUSTRY,INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

3.6.2 NOTE Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type NOTE

   Type name: NOTE

   Type purpose: To specify supplemental information or a comment that
   is associated with the vCard.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single text value.

   Type special notes: The type is based on the X.520 Description
   attribute.

   Type example:

        NOTE:This fax number is operational 0800 to 1715
          EST\, Mon-Fri.

3.6.3 PRODID Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type PRODID

   Type name: PRODID

   Type purpose: To specify the identifier for the product that created
   the vCard object.

   Type encoding: 8-bit

   Type value: A single text value.





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   Type special notes: Implementations SHOULD use a method such as that
   specified for Formal Public Identifiers in ISO 9070 to assure that
   the text value is unique.

   Type example:

        PRODID:-//ONLINE DIRECTORY//NONSGML Version 1//EN

3.6.4 REV Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type REV

   Type name: REV

   Type purpose: To specify revision information about the current
   vCard.

   Type encoding: 8-bit

   Type value: The default is a single date-time value. Can also be
   reset to a single date value.

   Type special notes: The value distinguishes the current revision of
   the information in this vCard for other renditions of the
   information.

   Type example:

        REV:1995-10-31T22:27:10Z

        REV:1997-11-15

3.6.5 SORT-STRING Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type SORT-STRING

   Type Name: SORT-STRING

   Type purpose: To specify the family name or given name text to be
   used for national-language-specific sorting of the FN and N types.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single text value.



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   Type special notes: The sort string is used to provide family name or
   given name text that is to be used in locale- or national-language-
   specific sorting of the formatted name and structured name types.
   Without this information, sorting algorithms could incorrectly sort
   this vCard within a sequence of sorted vCards.  When this type is
   present in a vCard, then this family name or given name value is used
   for sorting the vCard.

   Type examples: For the case of family name sorting, the following
   examples define common sort string usage with the FN and N types.

        FN:Rene van der Harten
        N:van der Harten;Rene;J.;Sir;R.D.O.N.
        SORT-STRING:Harten

        FN:Robert Pau Shou Chang
        N:Pau;Shou Chang;Robert
        SORT-STRING:Pau

        FN:Osamu Koura
        N:Koura;Osamu
        SORT-STRING:Koura

        FN:Oscar del Pozo
        N:del Pozo Triscon;Oscar
        SORT-STRING:Pozo

        FN:Chistine d'Aboville
        N:d'Aboville;Christine
        SORT-STRING:Aboville

3.6.6 SOUND Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type SOUND

   Type name: SOUND

   Type purpose: To specify a digital sound content information that
   annotates some aspect of the vCard. By default this type is used to
   specify the proper pronunciation of the name type value of the vCard.

   Type encoding: The encoding MUST be reset to "b" using the ENCODING
   parameter in order to specify inline, encoded binary data. If the
   value is referenced by a URI value, then the default encoding of 8bit
   is used and no explicit ENCODING parameter is needed.




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   Type value: A single value. The default is binary value. It can also
   be reset to uri value. The uri value can be used to specify a value
   outside of this MIME entity.

   Type special notes: The type can include the type parameter "TYPE" to
   specify the audio format type. The TYPE parameter values MUST be one
   of the IANA registered audio formats or a non-standard audio format.

   Type example:

        SOUND;TYPE=BASIC;VALUE=uri:CID:JOHNQPUBLIC.part8.
         19960229T080000.xyzMail@host1.com

        SOUND;TYPE=BASIC;ENCODING=b:MIICajCCAdOgAwIBAgICBEUwDQYJKoZIhvcN
         AQEEBQAwdzELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxLDAqBgNVBAoTI05ldHNjYXBlIENvbW11bm
         ljYXRpb25zIENvcnBvcmF0aW9uMRwwGgYDVQQLExNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBTeXN0
         <...the remainder of "B" encoded binary data...>

3.6.7 UID Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type UID

   Type name: UID

   Type purpose: To specify a value that represents a globally unique
   identifier corresponding to the individual or resource associated
   with the vCard.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single text value.

   Type special notes: The type is used to uniquely identify the object
   that the vCard represents.

   The type can include the type parameter "TYPE" to specify the format
   of the identifier. The TYPE parameter value should be an IANA
   registered identifier format. The value can also be a non-standard
   format.

   Type example:

        UID:19950401-080045-40000F192713-0052






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3.6.8 URL Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type URL

   Type name: URL

   Type purpose: To specify a uniform resource locator associated with
   the object that the vCard refers to.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single uri value.

   Type example:

        URL:http://www.swbyps.restaurant.french/~chezchic.html

3.6.9 VERSION Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type VERSION

   Type name: VERSION

   Type purpose: To specify the version of the vCard specification used
   to format this vCard.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single text value.

   Type special notes: The property MUST be present in the vCard object.
   The value MUST be "3.0" if the vCard corresponds to this
   specification.

   Type example:

        VERSION:3.0

3.7 Security Types

   These types are concerned with the security of communication pathways
   or access to the vCard.





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3.7.1 CLASS Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type CLASS

   Type name: CLASS

   Type purpose: To specify the access classification for a vCard
   object.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single text value.

   Type special notes: An access classification is only one component of
   the general security model for a directory service. The
   classification attribute provides a method of capturing the intent of
   the owner for general access to information described by the vCard
   object.

   Type examples:

        CLASS:PUBLIC

        CLASS:PRIVATE

        CLASS:CONFIDENTIAL

3.7.2 KEY Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type KEY

   Type name: KEY

   Type purpose: To specify a public key or authentication certificate
   associated with the object that the vCard represents.

   Type encoding: The encoding MUST be reset to "b" using the ENCODING
   parameter in order to specify inline, encoded binary data. If the
   value is a text value, then the default encoding of 8bit is used and
   no explicit ENCODING parameter is needed.

   Type value: A single value. The default is binary. It can also be
   reset to text value. The text value can be used to specify a text
   key.



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   Type special notes: The type can also include the type parameter TYPE
   to specify the public key or authentication certificate format. The
   parameter type should specify an IANA registered public key or
   authentication certificate format. The parameter type can also
   specify a non-standard format.

   Type example:

        KEY;ENCODING=b:MIICajCCAdOgAwIBAgICBEUwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEEBQA
         wdzELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxLDAqBgNVBAoTI05ldHNjYXBlIENbW11bmljYX
         Rpb25zIENvcnBvcmF0aW9uMRwwGgYDVQQLExNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBTeXN0
         ZW1zMRwwGgYDVQQDExNyb290Y2EubmV0c2NhcGUuY29tMB4XDTk3MDYwNj
         E5NDc1OVoXDTk3MTIwMzE5NDc1OVowgYkxCzAJBgNVBAYTAlVTMSYwJAYD
         VQQKEx1OZXRzY2FwZSBDb21tdW5pY2F0aW9ucyBDb3JwLjEYMBYGA1UEAx
         MPVGltb3RoeSBBIEhvd2VzMSEwHwYJKoZIhvcNAQkBFhJob3dlc0BuZXRz
         Y2FwZS5jb20xFTATBgoJkiaJk/IsZAEBEwVob3dlczBcMA0GCSqGSIb3DQ
         EBAQUAA0sAMEgCQQC0JZf6wkg8pLMXHHCUvMfL5H6zjSk4vTTXZpYyrdN2
         dXcoX49LKiOmgeJSzoiFKHtLOIboyludF90CgqcxtwKnAgMBAAGjNjA0MB
         EGCWCGSAGG+EIBAQQEAwIAoDAfBgNVHSMEGDAWgBT84FToB/GV3jr3mcau
         +hUMbsQukjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQQFAAOBgQBexv7o7mi3PLXadkmNP9LcIP
         mx93HGp0Kgyx1jIVMyNgsemeAwBM+MSlhMfcpbTrONwNjZYW8vJDSoi//y
         rZlVt9bJbs7MNYZVsyF1unsqaln4/vy6Uawfg8VUMk1U7jt8LYpo4YULU7
         UZHPYVUaSgVttImOHZIKi4hlPXBOhcUQ==

3.8 Extended Types

   The types defined by this document can be extended with private types
   using the non-standard, private values mechanism defined in [RFC
   2045]. Non-standard, private types with a name starting with "X-" may
   be defined bilaterally between two cooperating agents without outside
   registration or standardization.

4.  Formal Grammar

   The following formal grammar is provided to assist developers in
   building parsers for the vCard.

   This syntax is written according to the form described in RFC 2234,
   but it references just this small subset of RFC 2234 literals:

   ;*******************************************
   ; Commonly Used Literal Definition
   ;*******************************************

   ALPHA        = %x41-5A / %x61-7A
        ; Latin Capital Letter A-Latin Capital Letter Z /
        ; Latin Small Letter a-Latin Small Letter z




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   CHAR         = %x01-7F
        ; Any C0 Controls and Basic Latin, excluding NULL from
        ; Code Charts, pages 7-6 through 7-9 in [UNICODE]

   CR           = %x0D
        ; Carriage Return

   LF           = %0A
        ; Line Feed

   CRLF         = CR LF
        ; Internet standard newline

   ;CTL         = %x00-1F / %x7F
        ; Controls. Not used, but referenced in comments.

   DIGIT        = %x30-39
        ; Digit Zero-Digit Nine

   DQUOTE       = %x22
        ; Quotation Mark

   HTAB         = %x09
        ; Horizontal Tabulation

   SP           = %x20
        ; space

   VCHAR        = %x21-7E
        ; Visible (printing) characters

   WSP          = SP / HTAB
        ; White Space

   ;*******************************************
   ; Basic vCard Definition
   ;*******************************************

   vcard_entity = 1*(vcard)

   vcard        = [group "."] "BEGIN" ":" "VCARD" 1*CRLF
                  1*(contentline)
        ;A vCard object MUST include the VERSION, FN and N types.
                  [group "."] "END" ":" "VCARD" 1*CRLF

   contentline  = [group "."] name *(";" param ) ":" value CRLF
        ; When parsing a content line, folded lines must first
        ; be unfolded according to the unfolding procedure



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        ; described above. When generating a content line, lines
        ; longer than 75 characters SHOULD be folded according to
        ; the folding procedure described in [MIME DIR].

   group        = 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")

   name         = iana-token / x-name
        ; Parsing of the param and value is
        ; based on the "name" or type identifier
        ; as defined in ABNF sections below

   iana-token   = 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")
        ; vCard type or parameter identifier registered with IANA

   x-name       = "X-" 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")
        ; Reserved for non-standard use

   param        = param-name "=" param-value *("," param-value)

   param-name   = iana-token / x-name

   param-value  = ptext / quoted-string

   ptext        = *SAFE-CHAR

   value        = *VALUE-CHAR

   quoted-string = DQUOTE QSAFE-CHAR DQUOTE

   NON-ASCII    = %x80-FF
        ; Use is restricted by CHARSET parameter
        ; on outer MIME object (UTF-8 preferred)

   QSAFE-CHAR   = WSP / %x21 / %x23-7E / NON-ASCII
        ; Any character except CTLs, DQUOTE

   SAFE-CHAR    = WSP / %x21 / %x23-2B / %x2D-39 / %x3C-7E / NON-ASCII
        ; Any character except CTLs, DQUOTE, ";", ":", ","

   VALUE-CHAR   = WSP / VCHAR / NON-ASCII
        ; Any textual character

   ;*******************************************
   ; vCard Type Definition
   ;
   ; Provides type-specific definitions for how the
   ; "value" and "param" are defined.
   ;*******************************************



Dawson & Howes              Standards Track                    [Page 29]

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   ;For name="NAME"
   param        = ""
        ; No parameters allowed

   value        = text-value

   ;For name="PROFILE"
   param        = ""
        ; No parameters allowed

   value        = text-value
        ; Value MUST be the case insensitive value "VCARD

   ;For name="SOURCE"
   param        = source-param
        ; No parameters allowed

   value        = uri

   source-param = ("VALUE" "=" "uri")
                / ("CONTEXT" "=" "word")
        ; Parameter value specifies the protocol context
        ; for the uri value.
                / (x-name "=" *SAFE-CHAR)

   ;For name="FN"
   ;This type MUST be included in a vCard object.
   param        = text-param
        ; Text parameters allowed

   value        = text-value

   ;For name="N"
   ;This type MUST be included in a vCard object.

   param        = text-param
        ; Text parameters allowed

   value        = n-value

   n-value      = 0*4(text-value *("," text-value) ";")
                  text-value *("," text-value)
        ; Family; Given; Middle; Prefix; Suffix.
        ; Example: Public;John;Quincy,Adams;Reverend Dr. III

   ;For name="NICKNAME"
   param        = text-param
        ; Text parameters allowed



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   value        = text-list

   ;For name="PHOTO"
   param        = img-inline-param
        ; Only image parameters allowed

   param        =/ img-refer-param
        ; Only image parameters allowed

   value        = img-inline-value
        ; Value and parameter MUST match

   value        =/ img-refer-value
        ; Value and parameter MUST match

   ;For name="BDAY"
   param        = ("VALUE" "=" "date")
        ; Only value parameter allowed

   param        =/ ("VALUE" "=" "date-time")
        ; Only value parameter allowed

   value        = date-value
        ; Value MUST match value type

   value        =/ date-time-value
        ; Value MUST match value type

   ;For name="ADR"
   param        = adr-param / text-param
        ; Only adr and text parameters allowed

   value        = adr-value

   ;For name="LABEL"
   param        = adr-param / text-param
        ; Only adr and text parameters allowed

   value        = text-value

   ;For name="TEL"
   param        = tel-param
        ; Only tel parameters allowed

   value        = phone-number-value

   tel-param    = "TYPE" "=" tel-type *("," tel-type)




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   tel-type     = "HOME" / "WORK" / "PREF" / "VOICE" / "FAX" / "MSG"
                / "CELL" / "PAGER" / "BBS" / "MODEM" / "CAR" / "ISDN"
                / "VIDEO" / "PCS" / iana-token / x-name
        ; Values are case insensitive

   ;For name="EMAIL"
   param        = email-param
        ; Only email parameters allowed

   value        = text-value

   email-param  = "TYPE" "=" email-type ["," "PREF"]
        ; Value is case insensitive

   email-type   = "INTERNET" / "X400" / iana-token / "X-" word
        ; Values are case insensitive

   ;For name="MAILER"
   param        = text-param
        ; Only text parameters allowed

   value        = text-value

   ;For name="TZ"
   param        = ""
        ; No parameters allowed

   value        = utc-offset-value

   ;For name="GEO"
   param        = ""
        ; No parameters allowed

   value        = float-value ";" float-value

   ;For name="TITLE"
   param        = text-param
        ; Only text parameters allowed

   value        = text-value

   ;For name="ROLE"
   param        = text-param
        ; Only text parameters allowed

   value        = text-value

   ;For name="LOGO"



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   param        = img-inline-param / img-refer-param
        ; Only image parameters allowed

   value        = img-inline-value / img-refer-value
        ; Value and parameter MUST match

   ;For name="AGENT"
   param        = agent-inline-param

   param        =/ agent-refer-param

   value        = agent-inline-value
        ; Value and parameter MUST match

   value        =/ agent-refer-value
        ; Value and parameter MUST match

   agent-inline-param = ""
        ; No parameters allowed

   agent-refer-param = "VALUE" "=" "uri"
        ; Only value parameter allowed

   agent-inline-value = text-value
        ; Value MUST be a valid vCard object

   agent-refer-value = uri
        ; URI MUST refer to image content of given type

   ;For name="ORG"

   param        = text-param
        ; Only text parameters allowed

   value        = org-value

   org-value    = *(text-value ";") text-value
        ; First is Organization Name, remainder are Organization Units.

   ;For name="CATEGORIES"
   param        = text-param
        ; Only text parameters allowed

   value        = text-list

   ;For name="NOTE"
   param        = text-param
        ; Only text parameters allowed



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   value        = text-value

   ;For name="PRODID"
   param        = ""
        ; No parameters allowed

   value        = text-value

   ;For name="REV"
   param        = ["VALUE" =" "date-time"]
        ; Only value parameters allowed. Values are case insensitive.

   param        =/ "VALUE" =" "date"
        ; Only value parameters allowed. Values are case insensitive.

   value        = date-time-value

   value        =/ date-value

   ;For name="SORT-STRING"
   param        = text-param
        ; Only text parameters allowed

   value        = text-value

   ;For name="SOUND"
   param        = snd-inline-param
        ; Only sound parameters allowed

   param        =/ snd-refer-param
        ; Only sound parameters allowed

   value        = snd-line-value
        ; Value MUST match value type

   value        =/ snd-refer-value
        ; Value MUST match value type

   snd-inline-value     = binary-value CRLF
        ; Value MUST be "b" encoded audio content

   snd-inline-param     = ("VALUE" "=" "binary"])
                        / ("ENCODING" "=" "b")
                        / ("TYPE" "=" *SAFE-CHAR)
        ; Value MUST be an IANA registered audio type

   snd-refer-value      = uri
        ; URI MUST refer to audio content of given type



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   snd-refer-param      = ("VALUE" "=" "uri")
                        / ("TYPE" "=" word)
        ; Value MUST be an IANA registered audio type

   ;For name="UID"
   param        = ""
        ; No parameters allowed

   value        = text-value

   ;For name="URL"
   param        = ""
        ; No parameters allowed

   value        = uri

   ;For name="VERSION"
   ;This type MUST be included in a vCard object.
   param        = ""
        ; No parameters allowed

   value        = text-value
        ; Value MUST be "3.0"

   ;For name="CLASS"
   param        = ""
        ; No parameters allowed

   value        = "PUBLIC" / "PRIVATE" / "CONFIDENTIAL"
                / iana-token / x-name
        ; Value are case insensitive

   ;For name="KEY"
   param        = key-txt-param
        ; Only value and type parameters allowed

   param        =/ key-bin-param
        ; Only value and type parameters allowed

   value        = text-value

   value        =/ binary-value

   key-txt-param = "TYPE" "=" keytype

   key-bin-param = ("TYPE" "=" keytype)
                 / ("ENCODING" "=" "b")
        ; Value MUST be a "b" encoded key or certificate



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   keytype      = "X509" / "PGP" / iana-token / x-name
        ; Values are case insensitive

   ;For name="X-" non-standard type
   param        = text-param / (x-name "=" param-value)
        ; Only text or non-standard parameters allowed

   value        = text-value

   ;*******************************************
   ; vCard Commonly Used Parameter Definition
   ;*******************************************

   text-param   = ("VALUE" "=" "ptext")
                / ("LANGUAGE" "=" langval)
                / (x-name "=" param-value)

   langval      = <a language string as defined in RFC 1766>

   img-inline-value     = binary-value
        ;Value MUST be "b" encoded image content

   img-inline-param

   img-inline-param     = ("VALUE" "=" "binary")
                        / ("ENCODING" "=" "b")
                        / ("TYPE" "=" param-value
        ;TYPE value MUST be an IANA registered image type

   img-refer-value = uri
        ;URI MUST refer to image content of given type

   img-refer-param      = ("VALUE" "=" "uri")
                        / ("TYPE" "=" param-value)
        ;TYPE value MUST be an IANA registered image type

   adr-param    = ("TYPE" "=" adr-type *("," adr-type))
                / (text-param)

   adr-type     = "dom" / "intl" / "postal" / "parcel" / "home"
                / "work" / "pref" / iana-type / x-name

   adr-value    = 0*6(text-value ";") text-value
        ; PO Box, Extended Address, Street, Locality, Region, Postal
        ; Code, Country Name






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   ;*******************************************
   ; vCard Type Value Definition
   ;*******************************************

   text-value-list      = 1*text-value *("," 1*text-value)

   text-value   = *(SAFE-CHAR / ":" / DQUOTE / ESCAPED-CHAR)

   ESCAPED-CHAR = "\\" / "\;" / "\," / "\n" / "\N")
        ; \\ encodes \, \n or \N encodes newline
        ; \; encodes ;, \, encodes ,

   binary-value = <A "b" encoded text value as defined in [RFC 2047]>

   date-value   = <A single date value as defined in [MIME-DIR]>

   time-value   = <A single time value as defined in [MIME-DIR]>

   date-time-value = <A single date-time value as defined in [MIME-DIR]

   float-value  = <A single float value as defined in [MIME-DIR]>

   phone-number-value = <A single text  value as defined in [CCITT
                         E.163] and [CCITT X.121]>

   uri-value    = <A uri value as defined in [MIME-DIR]>

   utc-offset-value = ("+" / "-") time-hour ":" time-minute
   time-hour    = 2DIGIT                ;00-23
   time-minute  = 2DIGIT                ;00-59

5.  Differences From vCard v2.1

   This specification has been reviewed by the IETF community. The
   review process introduced a number of differences from the [VCARD]
   version 2.1. These differences require that vCard objects conforming
   to this specification have a different version number than a vCard
   conforming to [VCARD]. The differences include the following:

        . The QUOTED-PRINTABLE inline encoding has been eliminated.
          Only the "B" encoding of [RFC 2047] is an allowed value for
          the ENCODING parameter.

        . The method for specifying CRLF character sequences in text
          type values has been changed. The CRLF character sequence in
          a text type value is specified with the backslash character
          sequence "\n" or "\N".




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        . Any COMMA or SEMICOLON in a text type value must be backslash
          escaped.

        . VERSION value corresponding to this specification MUST be
          "3.0".

        . The [MIME-DIR] predefined types of SOURCE, NAME and PROFILE
          are allowed.

        . The [MIME-DIR] VALUE type parameter for value data typing is
          allowed. In addition, there are extensions made to these type
          values for additional value types used in this specification.

        . The [VCARD] CHARSET type parameter has been eliminated.
          Character set can only be specified on the CHARSET parameter
          on the Content-Type MIME header field.

        . The [VCARD] support for non-significant WSP character has
          been eliminated.

        . The "TYPE=" prefix to parameter values is required. In
          [VCARD] this was optional.

        . LOGO, PHOTO and SOUND multimedia formats MUST be either IANA
          registered types or non-standard types.

        . Inline binary content must be "B" encoded and folded. A blank
          line after the encoded binary content is no longer required.

        . TEL values can be identified as personal communication
          services telephone numbers with the PCS type parameter value.

        . The CATEGORIES, CLASS, NICKNAME, PRODID and SORT-STRING types
          have been added.

        . The VERSION, N and FN types MUST be specified in a vCard.
          This identifies the version of the specification that the
          object was formatted to. It also assures that every vCard
          will include both a structured and formatted name that can be
          used to identify the object.











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6.  Acknowledgements

   The many valuable comments contributed by members of the IETF ASID
   working group are gratefully acknowledged, as are the contributions
   by Roland Alden, Stephen Bartlett, Alec Dun, Patrik Faltstrom, Daniel
   Gurney, Bruce Johnston, Daniel Klaussen, Pete Miller, Keith Moore,
   Vinod Seraphin, Michelle Watkins. Chris Newman was especially helpful
   in navigating the intricacies of ABNF lore.

7.  Authors' Addresses

   BEGIN:vCard
   VERSION:3.0
   FN:Frank Dawson
   ORG:Lotus Development Corporation
   ADR;TYPE=WORK,POSTAL,PARCEL:;;6544 Battleford Drive
    ;Raleigh;NC;27613-3502;U.S.A.
   TEL;TYPE=VOICE,MSG,WORK:+1-919-676-9515
   TEL;TYPE=FAX,WORK:+1-919-676-9564
   EMAIL;TYPE=INTERNET,PREF:Frank_Dawson@Lotus.com
   EMAIL;TYPE=INTERNET:fdawson@earthlink.net
   URL:http://home.earthlink.net/~fdawson
   END:vCard


   BEGIN:vCard
   VERSION:3.0
   FN:Tim Howes
   ORG:Netscape Communications Corp.
   ADR;TYPE=WORK:;;501 E. Middlefield Rd.;Mountain View;
    CA; 94043;U.S.A.
   TEL;TYPE=VOICE,MSG,WORK:+1-415-937-3419
   TEL;TYPE=FAX,WORK:+1-415-528-4164
   EMAIL;TYPE=INTERNET:howes@netscape.com
   END:vCard

8.  Security Considerations

   vCards can carry cryptographic keys or certificates, as described in
   Section 3.7.2.

   Section 3.7.1 specifies a desired security classification policy for
   a particular vCard. That policy is not enforced in any way.

   The vCard objects have no inherent authentication or privacy, but can
   easily be carried by any security mechanism that transfers MIME
   objects with authentication or privacy. In cases where threats of
   "spoofed" vCard information is a concern, the vCard SHOULD BE



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RFC 2426              vCard MIME Directory Profile        September 1998


   transported using one of these secure mechanisms.

   The information in a vCard may become out of date. In cases where the
   vitality of data is important to an originator of a vCard, the "URL"
   type described in section 3.6.8 SHOULD BE specified. In addition, the
   "REV" type described in section 3.6.4 can be specified to indicate
   the last time that the vCard data was updated.

9.  References

   [ISO 8601]    ISO 8601:1988 - Data elements and interchange formats -
                 Information interchange - Representation of dates and
                 times - The International Organization for
                 Standardization, June, 1988.

   [ISO 8601 TC] ISO 8601, Technical Corrigendum 1 - Data elements and
                 interchange formats - Information interchange -
                 Representation of dates and times - The International
                 Organization for Standardization, May, 1991.

   [ISO 9070]    ISO 9070, Information Processing - SGML support
                 facilities - Registration Procedures for Public Text
                 Owner Identifiers, April, 1991.

   [CCITT E.163] Recommendation E.163 - Numbering Plan for The
                 International Telephone Service, CCITT Blue Book,
                 Fascicle II.2, pp.  128-134, November, 1988.

   [CCITT X.121] Recommendation X.121 - International Numbering Plan for
                 Public Data Networks, CCITT Blue Book, Fascicle VIII.3,
                 pp. 317-332, November, 1988.

   [CCITT X.520] Recommendation X.520 - The Directory - Selected
                 Attribute Types, November 1988.

   [CCITT X.521] Recommendation X.521 - The Directory - Selected Object
                 Classes, November 1988.

   [MIME-DIR]    Howes, T., Smith, M., and F. Dawson, "A MIME Content-
                 Type for Directory Information", RFC 2425, September
                 1998.

   [RFC 1738]    Berners-Lee, T., Masinter, L., and M. McCahill,
                 "Uniform Resource Locators (URL)", RFC 1738, December
                 1994.

   [RFC 1766]    Alvestrand, H., "Tags for the Identification of
                 Languages", RFC 1766, March 1995.



Dawson & Howes              Standards Track                    [Page 40]

RFC 2426              vCard MIME Directory Profile        September 1998


   [RFC 1872]    Levinson, E., "The MIME Multipart/Related Content-
                 type", RFC 1872, December 1995.

   [RFC 2045]    Freed, N., and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet
                 Mail Extensions (MIME) - Part One: Format of Internet
                 Message Bodies", RFC 2045, November 1996.

   [RFC 2046]    Freed, N., and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet
                 Mail Extensions (MIME) - Part Two: Media Types", RFC
                 2046, November 1996.

   [RFC 2047]    Moore, K., "Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
                 (MIME) - Part Three: Message Header Extensions for
                 Non-ASCII Text", RFC 2047, November 1996.

   [RFC 2048]    Freed, N., Klensin, J., and J. Postel, "Multipurpose
                 Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) - Part Four:
                 Registration Procedures", RFC 2048, January 1997.

   [RFC 2119]    Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
                 Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC 2234]    Crocker, D., and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
                 Specifications: ABNF", RFC 2234, November 1997.

   [UNICODE]     "The Unicode Standard - Version 2.0", The Unicode
                 Consortium, July 1996.

   [VCARD]       Internet Mail Consortium, "vCard - The Electronic
                 Business Card Version 2.1",
                 http://www.imc.org/pdi/vcard-21.txt, September 18,
                 1996.



















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10.  Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1998).  All Rights Reserved.

   This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
   others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
   or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
   and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
   kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
   included on all such copies and derivative works.  However, this
   document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
   the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
   Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
   developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
   copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
   followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
   English.

   The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
   revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.

   This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
   TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
   BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION
   HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
   MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
























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