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PROPOSED STANDARD
Errata Exist
Network Working Group                                       G. Armitage
Request for Comments: 2492                          Lucent Technologies
Category: Standards Track                                   P. Schulter
                                               BrightTiger Technologies
                                                                M. Jork
                                                 Digital Equipment GmbH
                                                           January 1999

                         IPv6 over ATM Networks

Status of this Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1999).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   This document is a companion to the ION working group's architecture
   document, "IPv6 over Non Broadcast Multiple Access (NBMA) networks".
   It provides specific details on how to apply the IPv6 over NBMA
   architecture to ATM networks. This architecture allows conventional
   host-side operation of the IPv6 Neighbor Discovery protocol, while
   also supporting the establishment of 'shortcut' ATM forwarding paths
   (when using SVCs).  Operation over administratively configured Point
   to Point PVCs is also supported.

1. Introduction.

   This document is an ATM-specific companion document to the ION
   working group's, "IPv6 over Non Broadcast Multiple Access (NBMA)
   networks" specification [1].  Terminology and architectural
   descriptions will not be repeated here.

   The use of ATM to provide point to point PVC service, or flexible
   point to point and point to multipoint SVC service, is covered by
   this document.

   A minimally conforming IPv6/ATM driver SHALL support the PVC mode of
   operation. An IPv6/ATM driver that supports the full SVC mode SHALL
   also support PVC mode of operation.




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RFC 2492                 IPv6 over ATM Networks             January 1999


2. Specification Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [16].

3. PVC Environments

   When the ATM network is used in PVC mode, each PVC will connect
   exactly two nodes and the use of Neighbor Discovery and other IPv6
   features is limited.  IPv6/ATM interfaces have only one neighbor on
   each Link. The MARS and NHRP protocols are NOT necessary, since
   multicast and broadcast operations collapse down to an ATM level
   unicast operation. Dynamically discovered shortcuts are not
   supported.

   The actual details of encapsulations, MTU, and link token generation
   are provided in the following sections.

   This use of PVC links does not mandate, nor does it prohibit the use
   of extensions to the Neighbor Discovery protocol which may be
   developed for either general use of for use in PVC connections (for
   example, Inverse Neighbor Discovery).

   Since ATM PVC links do not use link-layer addresses, the link-layer
   address options SHOULD not be included in any ND message [11].  If a
   link-layer address option is present in an ND message, then the
   option SHOULD be ignored.

   A minimally conforming IPv6/ATM driver SHALL support the PVC mode of
   operation.  PVC only implementations are not required to support any
   SVC mode of operation.

3.1 Default Packet Encapsulation

   Following the model in RFC 1483 [2], AAL5 SHALL be the default
   Adaptation Layer service, and (LLC/SNAP) encapsulation SHALL be
   default encapsulation used by unicast and multicast packets across
   pt-pt PVC links. As defined in [1], the default IPv6 packet
   encapsulation SHALL be:

         [0xAA-AA-03][0x00-00-00][0x86-DD][IPv6 packet]
             (LLC)       (OUI)     (PID)








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RFC 2492                 IPv6 over ATM Networks             January 1999


3.2 Optional null encapsulation

   IPv6/ATM drivers MAY also support null encapsulation as a
   configurable option. When null encapsulation is enabled, the IPv6
   packet is passed directly to the AAL5 layer. Both ends of the PVC
   MUST be configured to use null encapsulation. The PVC will not be
   available for use by protocols other than IPv6.

3.3 PPP encapsulation

   The concatentation of IPv6 over PPP with PPP over AAL5 PVCs is not
   covered by this specification.

3.4 MTU For PVC Environments

   The default IP MTU size for PVC links is 9180 bytes as specified in
   [7].  Other IP MTU values MAY be used.

3.5 Interface Token Formats in PVC Environments

   When the ATM network is used in PVC mode interface tokens SHALL be
   generated using one of the methods described in section 5. Interface
   tokens need only be unique between the two nodes on the PVC link.

4 SVC environments

4.1 SVC Specific Code Points

4.1.1 ATM Adaptation Layer encapsulation for SVC environments

   Following the model in RFC 1483 [2], AAL5 SHALL be the default
   Adaptation Layer service, and (LLC/SNAP) encapsulation SHALL be the
   default encapsulation used by unicast and multicast packets across
   SVC links.

4.1.2 Unicast Packet Encapsulation

   As defined in [1], the default IPv6 unicast packet encapsulation
   SHALL be:

         [0xAA-AA-03][0x00-00-00][0x86-DD][IPv6 packet]
             (LLC)       (OUI)     (PID)









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RFC 2492                 IPv6 over ATM Networks             January 1999


4.1.3 Multicast packet encapsulation

   As defined in [1], the default IPv6 multicast packet encapsulation
   SHALL be:

         [0xAA-AA-03][0x00-00-5E][0x00-01][pkt$cmi][0x86DD][IPv6
         packet]
             (LLC)       (OUI)     (PID)    (mars encaps)

         The IPv6/ATM driver's Cluster Member ID SHALL be copied into
         the 2 octet pkt$cmi field prior to transmission.

4.1.4 Optional null encapsulation

   IPv6/ATM drivers MAY also support null encapsulation as a
   configurable option. Null encapsulation SHALL only be used for
   passing IPv6 packets from one IPv6/ATM driver to another. Null
   encapsulation SHALL NOT be used on the pt-pt SVC between the IPv6/ATM
   driver and its local MARS.

   If null encapsulation is enabled, the IPv6 packet is passed directly
   to the AAL5 layer. Both ends of the SVC MUST agree to use null
   encapsulation during the call SETUP phase.  The SVC will not be
   available for use by protocols other than IPv6.

   If null encapsulation is enabled on data SVCs between routers,
   inter-router NHRP traffic SHALL utilize a separate, parallel SVC.

   Use of null encapsulation is not encouraged when IPv6/ATM is used
   with MARS/NHRP/ND as described in [1].

4.1.5 MARS control messages

   The encapsulation of MARS control messages (between MARS and MARS
   Clients) remains the same as shown in RFC 2022 [3]:

      [0xAA-AA-03][0x00-00-5E][0x00-03][MARS control message]
         (LLC)       (OUI)     (PID)

   The key control field values are:

      The mar$afn field remains 0x0F (ATM addresses)

      The mar$pro field SHALL be 0x86DD (IPv6)

      The mar$op.version field remains 0x00 (MARS)





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RFC 2492                 IPv6 over ATM Networks             January 1999


   The mar$spln and mar$tpln fields (where relevant) are either 0 (for
   null or non-existent information) or 16 (for the full IPv6 protocol
   address)

   The way in which ATM addresses are stored remains the same as shown
   in RFC 2022 [3]

4.1.6 NHRP control messages

   The encapsulation of NHRP control messages remains the same as shown
   in RFC 2332 [4]:

      [0xAA-AA-03][0x00-00-5E][0x00-03][NHRP control message]
         (LLC)       (OUI)     (PID)

   The key control field values are:

      The ar$afn field remains 0x0F (ATM addresses)

      The ar$pro field SHALL be 0x86DD (IPv6)

      The ar$op.version field remains 0x01 (NHRP)

   The ar$spln and ar$tpln fields (where relevant) are either 0 (for
   null or non-existent information) or 16 (for the full IPv6 protocol
   address)

   The way in which ATM addresses are stored remains the same as shown
   in RFC 2022 [3]

4.1.7 Neigbor Discovery control messages

   Section 5.2 of [1] describes the ND Link-layer address option.  For
   IPv6/ATM drivers, the subfields SHALL be encoded in the following
   manner:

      [NTL] defines the type and length of the ATM number immediately
      following the [STL] field. The format is as follows:

            7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
            |0|x|  length   |
            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+








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RFC 2492                 IPv6 over ATM Networks             January 1999


      The most significant bit is reserved and MUST be set to zero.  The
      second most significant bit (x) is a flag indicating whether the
      ATM number is in:

          ATM Forum AESA format (x = 0).
          Native E.164 format (x = 1).

      The bottom 6 bits represent an unsigned integer value indicating
      the length of the associated ATM address field in octets.

   The [STL] format is the same as the [NTL] field. Defines the length
   of the subaddress field, if it exists. If it does not exist this
   entire octet field MUST be zero. If the subaddress exists it will be
   in AESA format, so flag x SHALL be zero.

   [NBMA Number] is a variable length field containing the ATM address
   of the Link layer target. It is always present.

   [NBMA Subaddress] is a variable length field containing the ATM
   subaddress of the Link layer target. It may or may not be present.
   When it is not, the option ends after the [NBMA Number] (or any
   additional padding for 8 byte alignment).

   The octet ordering of the [NBMA Number] and [NBMA Subaddress] fields
   SHALL be the same as that used in MARS and NHRP control messages.

4.2 UNI 3.0/3.1 signaling issues (SVC mode).

   When an IPv6 node places a call to another IPv6 node, it SHOULD
   follow the procedures in [6] and [7] for signalling UNI 3.0/3.1 SVCs
   [9] and negotiating MTU.  The default IP MTU size on a LL is 9180
   bytes as specified in [7].

   Note that while the procedures in [7] still apply to IPv6 over ATM,
   IPv6 Path MTU Discovery [8] is used by nodes and routers rather than
   IPv4 MTU discovery. Additionally, while IPv6 nodes are not required
   to implement Path MTU Discovery, IPv6/ATM nodes SHOULD implement it.
   Also, since IPv6 nodes will negotiate an appropriate MTU for each VC,
   Path MTU should never be triggered since neither node should ever
   receive a Packet Too Big message to trigger Path MTU Discovery.  When
   nodes are communicating via one or more routers Path MTU Discovery
   will be used just as it is for legacy networks.

5 Interface Tokens

   For both PVC and SVC modes of operation, one of the following methods
   SHALL be used to generate Interface Tokens as required by section 5.1
   of [1].



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RFC 2492                 IPv6 over ATM Networks             January 1999


5.1 Interface Tokens Based on ESI values

   When the underlying ATM interface is identified by an ATM End System
   Address (AESA, formerly known as an NSAPA), the interface token MAY
   be formed from the ESI and SEL values in the AESA as follows:

          [0x00][ESI][SEL]

   [0x00] is a one octet field which is always set to 0.
          Note that the bit corresponding to the EUI-64 Global/Local bit
          [5] is always reset indicating that this address is not a
          globally unique IPv6 interface token.

   [ESI] is a six octet field.
          This field always contains the six octet ESI value for the
          AESA used to address the specific instance of the IPv6/ATM
          interface.

   [SEL] is a one octet field.
          This field always contains the SEL value from the AESA used to
          address the specific instance of the IPv6/ATM interface.

5.2 Interface Tokens Based on 48 Bit MAC Values

   Where the underlying ATM NIC driver has access to a set of one or
   more 48 bit MAC values unique to the ATM NIC (e.g. MAC addresses
   configured into the NIC's ROM), the IPv6/ATM interface MAY use one of
   these values to create a unique interface token as described in [10].

5.3 Interface Tokens Based on EUI-64 Values

   Where the underlying ATM NIC driver has access to a set of one or
   more 64 bit EUI-64 values unique to the ATM NIC (e.g. EUI-64
   addresses configured into the NIC's ROM), the IPv6/ATM interface
   SHOULD use one of these values to create a unique interface token.
   after inverting the Global/Local identifier bit [10].  (Any
   relationship between these values and the ESI(s) registered with the
   local ATM switch by the ATM driver are outside the scope of this
   document.)

   When EUI-64 values are used for IPv6 interface tokens the only
   modification allowed to the octet string read from the NIC is
   inversion of the Global/Local identifier bit.








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RFC 2492                 IPv6 over ATM Networks             January 1999


5.4 Interface Tokens Based on Native E.164 Addresses

   When an interface uses Native E.164 addresses then the E.164 values
   MAY be used to generate an interface token as follows:

          [D14][D13D12][D11D10][D9D8][D9D6][D5D4][D3D2][D1D0]

   [D14] A single octet containing the semi-octet representing the most
   significant E.164 digit shifted left four bits to the most
   significant four bits of the octet.  The lower four bits MUST be set
   to 0.  Note that the EUI-64 Global/Local indicator is set to 0
   indicating that this is not a globally unique IPv6 interface token.

   [D13D12] A single octet containing the semi-octet representing the
   second most significant E.164 digit [D13] shifted left four places to
   the most significant bits of the octet, and the third most
   significant semi-octet in the four least significant bits of the
   octet.

   [D11D10] - [D1D0] Octets each containing two E.164 digits, one in the
   most significant four bits, and one in the least significant four
   bits as indicated.

5.5 Nodes Without Unique Identifiers

   If no MAC, EUI-64, AESA, or E.164 value is available for generating
   an interface token, then the interface token SHALL be generated as
   described in Appendix A of [10].

5.6 Multiple Logical Links on a Single Interface

   A logical ATM interface might be associated with a different SEL
   field of a common AESA prefix, or a set of entirely separate ESIs
   might have been registered with the local ATM switch to create a
   range of unique AESAs.

   The minimum information required to uniquely identify each logical
   ATM interface is (within the context of the local switch port) their
   ESI+SEL combination.

   For the vhost case described in section 5.1.2 of [1], vhost SHALL
   select a different interface token from the range of 64 bit values
   available to the ATM NIC (as described in 4.1). Each vhost SHALL
   implement IPv6/ATM interfaces in such a way that no two or more
   vhosts end up advertising the same interface token onto the same LL.
   (Conformance with this requirement may be achieved by choosing
   different SEL values, ESI values, or both.)




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RFC 2492                 IPv6 over ATM Networks             January 1999


6. Conclusion and Open Issues.

   This document is an ATM-specific companion document to the ION
   working group's, "IPv6 over Non Broadcast Multiple Access (NBMA)
   networks" specification [1]. It specifies codepoints for the
   administratively configured PVC, and dynamically established SVC,
   modes of operation.

   There are no major open issues. Comments to the ION mailing list are
   solicited (ion@nexen.com).

7. Security Considerations

   While this proposal does not introduce any new security mechanisms
   all current IPv6 security mechanisms will work without modification
   for ATM.  This includes both authentication and encryption for both
   Neighbor Discovery protocols as well as the exchange of IPv6 data
   packets.

Acknowledgments

   The original IPv6/ATM work by G. Armitage occurred while employed at
   Bellcore. Elements of section 4 were borrowed from Matt Crawford's
   memo on IPv6 over Ethernet.

   The authors would like to thank Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Kenjiro Cho,
   Yoshinobu Inoue, Hiroshi Esaki, Yoshifumi Atarashi, and Atsushi
   Hagiwara for their contributions based on actual PVC implementations.























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RFC 2492                 IPv6 over ATM Networks             January 1999


Authors' Addresses

   Grenville Armitage
   Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies
   101 Crawfords Corner Road
   Holmdel, NJ 07733
   USA

   EMail: gja@lucent.com


   Peter Schulter
   BrightTiger Technologies
   125 Nagog Park
   Acton, MA 01720

   EMail: paschulter@acm.org


   Markus Jork
   European Applied Research Center
   Digital Equipment GmbH
   CEC Karlsruhe
   Vincenz-Priessnitz-Str. 1
   D-76131 Karlsruhe
   Germany

   EMail: jork@kar.dec.com























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RFC 2492                 IPv6 over ATM Networks             January 1999


References

   [1] Armitage, G., Schulter, P., Jork, M. and G. Harter, "IPv6 over
       Non-Broadcast Multiple Access (NBMA) networks", RFC 2491, January
       1999.

   [2] Heinanen, J., "Multiprotocol Encapsulation over ATM Adaption
       Layer 5", RFC 1483, July 1993.

   [3] Armitage, G., "Support for Multicast over UNI 3.1 based ATM
       Networks", RFC 2022, November 1996.

   [4] Luciani, J., Katz, D., Piscitello, D., Cole, B. and N. Doraswamy,
       "NBMA Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP)", RFC 2332, April 1998.

   [5] "64-Bit Global Identifier Format Tutorial",
       http://standards.ieee.org/db/oui/tutorials/EUI64.html.

   [6] Perez, M., Liaw, F., Mankin, A., Hoffman, E., Grossman, D. and A.
       Malis, "ATM Signalling Support for IP over ATM", RFC 1755,
       February 1995.

   [7] Atkinson, R., "Default IP MTU for use over ATM AAL5", RFC 1626,
       May 1994.

   [8] McCann, J., Deering, S. and J. Mogul, "Path MTU Discovery for IP
       version 6", RFC 1981, August 1996.

   [9] ATM Forum, "ATM User Network Interface (UNI) Specification
       Version 3.1", ISBN 0-13-393828-X, Prentice Hall, Englewood
       Cliffs, NJ, June 1995.

   [10] Hinden, B. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
        Architecture", RFC 2373, July 1998.

   [11] Narten, T., Nordmark, E. and W. Simpson, "Neighbor Discovery for
        IP Version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 2461, December 1998.














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RFC 2492                 IPv6 over ATM Networks             January 1999


Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1999).  All Rights Reserved.

   This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
   others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
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   The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
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   This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
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   HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
   MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
























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