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Network Working Group                                        R. Housley
Request for Comments: 2630                                       SPYRUS
Category: Standards Track                                     June 1999


                      Cryptographic Message Syntax

Status of this Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1999).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   This document describes the Cryptographic Message Syntax.  This
   syntax is used to digitally sign, digest, authenticate, or encrypt
   arbitrary messages.

   The Cryptographic Message Syntax is derived from PKCS #7 version 1.5
   as specified in RFC 2315 [PKCS#7].  Wherever possible, backward
   compatibility is preserved; however, changes were necessary to
   accommodate attribute certificate transfer and key agreement
   techniques for key management.





















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RFC 2630              Cryptographic Message Syntax             June 1999


Table of Contents

   1   Introduction .................................................  4
   2   General Overview .............................................  4
   3   General Syntax ...............................................  5
   4   Data Content Type ............................................  5
   5   Signed-data Content Type .....................................  6
       5.1  SignedData Type .........................................  7
       5.2  EncapsulatedContentInfo Type ............................  8
       5.3  SignerInfo Type .........................................  9
       5.4  Message Digest Calculation Process ...................... 11
       5.5  Message Signature Generation Process .................... 12
       5.6  Message Signature Verification Process .................. 12
   6   Enveloped-data Content Type .................................. 12
       6.1  EnvelopedData Type ...................................... 14
       6.2  RecipientInfo Type ...................................... 15
            6.2.1  KeyTransRecipientInfo Type ....................... 16
            6.2.2  KeyAgreeRecipientInfo Type ....................... 17
            6.2.3  KEKRecipientInfo Type ............................ 19
       6.3  Content-encryption Process .............................. 20
       6.4  Key-encryption Process .................................. 20
   7   Digested-data Content Type ................................... 21
   8   Encrypted-data Content Type .................................. 22
   9   Authenticated-data Content Type .............................. 23
       9.1  AuthenticatedData Type .................................. 23
       9.2  MAC Generation .......................................... 25
       9.3  MAC Verification ........................................ 26
   10  Useful Types ................................................. 27
       10.1  Algorithm Identifier Types ............................. 27
             10.1.1  DigestAlgorithmIdentifier ...................... 27
             10.1.2  SignatureAlgorithmIdentifier ................... 27
             10.1.3  KeyEncryptionAlgorithmIdentifier ............... 28
             10.1.4  ContentEncryptionAlgorithmIdentifier ........... 28
             10.1.5  MessageAuthenticationCodeAlgorithm ............. 28
       10.2  Other Useful Types ..................................... 28
             10.2.1  CertificateRevocationLists ..................... 28
             10.2.2  CertificateChoices ............................. 29
             10.2.3  CertificateSet ................................. 29
             10.2.4  IssuerAndSerialNumber .......................... 30
             10.2.5  CMSVersion ..................................... 30
             10.2.6  UserKeyingMaterial ............................. 30
             10.2.7  OtherKeyAttribute .............................. 30









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   11  Useful Attributes ............................................ 31
       11.1  Content Type ........................................... 31
       11.2  Message Digest ......................................... 32
       11.3  Signing Time ........................................... 32
       11.4  Countersignature ....................................... 34
   12  Supported Algorithms ......................................... 35
       12.1  Digest Algorithms ...................................... 35
             12.1.1  SHA-1 .......................................... 35
             12.1.2  MD5 ............................................ 35
       12.2  Signature Algorithms ................................... 36
             12.2.1  DSA ............................................ 36
             12.2.2  RSA ............................................ 36
       12.3  Key Management Algorithms .............................. 36
             12.3.1  Key Agreement Algorithms ....................... 36
                     12.3.1.1  X9.42 Ephemeral-Static Diffie-Hellman. 37
             12.3.2  Key Transport Algorithms ....................... 38
                     12.3.2.1  RSA .................................. 39
             12.3.3  Symmetric Key-Encryption Key Algorithms ........ 39
                     12.3.3.1  Triple-DES Key Wrap .................. 40
                     12.3.3.2  RC2 Key Wrap ......................... 41
      12.4  Content Encryption Algorithms ........................... 41
            12.4.1  Triple-DES CBC .................................. 42
            12.4.2  RC2 CBC ......................................... 42
      12.5  Message Authentication Code Algorithms .................. 42
            12.5.1  HMAC with SHA-1 ................................. 43
      12.6  Triple-DES and RC2 Key Wrap Algorithms .................. 43
            12.6.1  Key Checksum .................................... 44
            12.6.2  Triple-DES Key Wrap ............................. 44
            12.6.3  Triple-DES Key Unwrap ........................... 44
            12.6.4  RC2 Key Wrap .................................... 45
            12.6.5  RC2 Key Unwrap .................................. 46
   Appendix A:  ASN.1 Module ........................................ 47
   References ....................................................... 55
   Security Considerations .......................................... 56
   Acknowledgments .................................................. 58
   Author's Address ................................................. 59
   Full Copyright Statement ......................................... 60














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1  Introduction

   This document describes the Cryptographic Message Syntax.  This
   syntax is used to digitally sign, digest, authenticate, or encrypt
   arbitrary messages.

   The Cryptographic Message Syntax describes an encapsulation syntax
   for data protection.  It supports digital signatures, message
   authentication codes, and encryption.  The syntax allows multiple
   encapsulation, so one encapsulation envelope can be nested inside
   another.  Likewise, one party can digitally sign some previously
   encapsulated data.  It also allows arbitrary attributes, such as
   signing time, to be signed along with the message content, and
   provides for other attributes such as countersignatures to be
   associated with a signature.

   The Cryptographic Message Syntax can support a variety of
   architectures for certificate-based key management, such as the one
   defined by the PKIX working group.

   The Cryptographic Message Syntax values are generated using ASN.1
   [X.208-88], using BER-encoding [X.209-88].  Values are typically
   represented as octet strings.  While many systems are capable of
   transmitting arbitrary octet strings reliably, it is well known that
   many electronic-mail systems are not.  This document does not address
   mechanisms for encoding octet strings for reliable transmission in
   such environments.

2  General Overview

   The Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS) is general enough to support
   many different content types.  This document defines one protection
   content, ContentInfo.  ContentInfo encapsulates a single identified
   content type, and the identified type may provide further
   encapsulation.  This document defines six content types: data,
   signed-data, enveloped-data, digested-data, encrypted-data, and
   authenticated-data.  Additional content types can be defined outside
   this document.

   An implementation that conforms to this specification must implement
   the protection content, ContentInfo, and must implement the data,
   signed-data, and enveloped-data content types.  The other content
   types may be implemented if desired.

   As a general design philosophy, each content type permits single pass
   processing using indefinite-length Basic Encoding Rules (BER)
   encoding.  Single-pass operation is especially helpful if content is
   large, stored on tapes, or is "piped" from another process.  Single-



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   pass operation has one significant drawback: it is difficult to
   perform encode operations using the Distinguished Encoding Rules
   (DER) [X.509-88] encoding in a single pass since the lengths of the
   various components may not be known in advance.  However, signed
   attributes within the signed-data content type and authenticated
   attributes within the authenticated-data content type require DER
   encoding.  Signed attributes and authenticated attributes must be
   transmitted in DER form to ensure that recipients can verify a
   content that contains one or more unrecognized attributes.  Signed
   attributes and authenticated attributes are the only CMS data types
   that require DER encoding.

3  General Syntax

   The Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS) associates a content type
   identifier with a content.  The syntax shall have ASN.1 type
   ContentInfo:

      ContentInfo ::= SEQUENCE {
        contentType ContentType,
        content [0] EXPLICIT ANY DEFINED BY contentType }

      ContentType ::= OBJECT IDENTIFIER

   The fields of ContentInfo have the following meanings:

      contentType indicates the type of the associated content.  It is
      an object identifier; it is a unique string of integers assigned
      by an authority that defines the content type.

      content is the associated content.  The type of content can be
      determined uniquely by contentType.  Content types for data,
      signed-data, enveloped-data, digested-data, encrypted-data, and
      authenticated-data are defined in this document.  If additional
      content types are defined in other documents, the ASN.1 type
      defined should not be a CHOICE type.

4  Data Content Type

   The following object identifier identifies the data content type:

      id-data OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
          us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs7(7) 1 }

   The data content type is intended to refer to arbitrary octet
   strings, such as ASCII text files; the interpretation is left to the
   application.  Such strings need not have any internal structure




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   (although they could have their own ASN.1 definition or other
   structure).

   The data content type is generally encapsulated in the signed-data,
   enveloped-data, digested-data, encrypted-data, or authenticated-data
   content type.

5  Signed-data Content Type

   The signed-data content type consists of a content of any type and
   zero or more signature values.  Any number of signers in parallel can
   sign any type of content.

   The typical application of the signed-data content type represents
   one signer's digital signature on content of the data content type.
   Another typical application disseminates certificates and certificate
   revocation lists (CRLs).

   The process by which signed-data is constructed involves the
   following steps:

      1.  For each signer, a message digest, or hash value, is computed
      on the content with a signer-specific message-digest algorithm.
      If the signer is signing any information other than the content,
      the message digest of the content and the other information are
      digested with the signer's message digest algorithm (see Section
      5.4), and the result becomes the "message digest."

      2.  For each signer, the message digest is digitally signed using
      the signer's private key.

      3.  For each signer, the signature value and other signer-specific
      information are collected into a SignerInfo value, as defined in
      Section 5.3.  Certificates and CRLs for each signer, and those not
      corresponding to any signer, are collected in this step.

      4.  The message digest algorithms for all the signers and the
      SignerInfo values for all the signers are collected together with
      the content into a SignedData value, as defined in Section 5.1.

   A recipient independently computes the message digest.  This message
   digest and the signer's public key are used to verify the signature
   value.  The signer's public key is referenced either by an issuer
   distinguished name along with an issuer-specific serial number or by
   a subject key identifier that uniquely identifies the certificate
   containing the public key.  The signer's certificate may be included
   in the SignedData certificates field.




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   This section is divided into six parts.  The first part describes the
   top-level type SignedData, the second part describes
   EncapsulatedContentInfo, the third part describes the per-signer
   information type SignerInfo, and the fourth, fifth, and sixth parts
   describe the message digest calculation, signature generation, and
   signature verification processes, respectively.

5.1  SignedData Type

   The following object identifier identifies the signed-data content
   type:

      id-signedData OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
          us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs7(7) 2 }

   The signed-data content type shall have ASN.1 type SignedData:

      SignedData ::= SEQUENCE {
        version CMSVersion,
        digestAlgorithms DigestAlgorithmIdentifiers,
        encapContentInfo EncapsulatedContentInfo,
        certificates [0] IMPLICIT CertificateSet OPTIONAL,
        crls [1] IMPLICIT CertificateRevocationLists OPTIONAL,
        signerInfos SignerInfos }

      DigestAlgorithmIdentifiers ::= SET OF DigestAlgorithmIdentifier

      SignerInfos ::= SET OF SignerInfo

   The fields of type SignedData have the following meanings:

      version is the syntax version number.  If no attribute
      certificates are present in the certificates field, the
      encapsulated content type is id-data, and all of the elements of
      SignerInfos are version 1, then the value of version shall be 1.
      Alternatively, if attribute certificates are present, the
      encapsulated content type is other than id-data, or any of the
      elements of SignerInfos are version 3, then the value of version
      shall be 3.

      digestAlgorithms is a collection of message digest algorithm
      identifiers.  There may be any number of elements in the
      collection, including zero.  Each element identifies the message
      digest algorithm, along with any associated parameters, used by
      one or more signer.  The collection is intended to list the
      message digest algorithms employed by all of the signers, in any
      order, to facilitate one-pass signature verification.  The message
      digesting process is described in Section 5.4.



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      encapContentInfo is the signed content, consisting of a content
      type identifier and the content itself.  Details of the
      EncapsulatedContentInfo type are discussed in section 5.2.

      certificates is a collection of certificates.  It is intended that
      the set of certificates be sufficient to contain chains from a
      recognized "root" or "top-level certification authority" to all of
      the signers in the signerInfos field.  There may be more
      certificates than necessary, and there may be certificates
      sufficient to contain chains from two or more independent top-
      level certification authorities.  There may also be fewer
      certificates than necessary, if it is expected that recipients
      have an alternate means of obtaining necessary certificates (e.g.,
      from a previous set of certificates).  As discussed above, if
      attribute certificates are present, then the value of version
      shall be 3.

      crls is a collection of certificate revocation lists (CRLs).  It
      is intended that the set contain information sufficient to
      determine whether or not the certificates in the certificates
      field are valid, but such correspondence is not necessary.  There
      may be more CRLs than necessary, and there may also be fewer CRLs
      than necessary.

      signerInfos is a collection of per-signer information.  There may
      be any number of elements in the collection, including zero.  The
      details of the SignerInfo type are discussed in section 5.3.

5.2  EncapsulatedContentInfo Type

   The content is represented in the type EncapsulatedContentInfo:

      EncapsulatedContentInfo ::= SEQUENCE {
        eContentType ContentType,
        eContent [0] EXPLICIT OCTET STRING OPTIONAL }

      ContentType ::= OBJECT IDENTIFIER

   The fields of type EncapsulatedContentInfo have the following
   meanings:

      eContentType is an object identifier that uniquely specifies the
      content type.

      eContent is the content itself, carried as an octet string.  The
      eContent need not be DER encoded.





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   The optional omission of the eContent within the
   EncapsulatedContentInfo field makes it possible to construct
   "external signatures."  In the case of external signatures, the
   content being signed is absent from the EncapsulatedContentInfo value
   included in the signed-data content type.  If the eContent value
   within EncapsulatedContentInfo is absent, then the signatureValue is
   calculated and the eContentType is assigned as though the eContent
   value was present.

   In the degenerate case where there are no signers, the
   EncapsulatedContentInfo value being "signed" is irrelevant.  In this
   case, the content type within the EncapsulatedContentInfo value being
   "signed" should be id-data (as defined in section 4), and the content
   field of the EncapsulatedContentInfo value should be omitted.

5.3  SignerInfo Type

   Per-signer information is represented in the type SignerInfo:

      SignerInfo ::= SEQUENCE {
        version CMSVersion,
        sid SignerIdentifier,
        digestAlgorithm DigestAlgorithmIdentifier,
        signedAttrs [0] IMPLICIT SignedAttributes OPTIONAL,
        signatureAlgorithm SignatureAlgorithmIdentifier,
        signature SignatureValue,
        unsignedAttrs [1] IMPLICIT UnsignedAttributes OPTIONAL }

      SignerIdentifier ::= CHOICE {
        issuerAndSerialNumber IssuerAndSerialNumber,
        subjectKeyIdentifier [0] SubjectKeyIdentifier }

      SignedAttributes ::= SET SIZE (1..MAX) OF Attribute

      UnsignedAttributes ::= SET SIZE (1..MAX) OF Attribute

      Attribute ::= SEQUENCE {
        attrType OBJECT IDENTIFIER,
        attrValues SET OF AttributeValue }

      AttributeValue ::= ANY

      SignatureValue ::= OCTET STRING

   The fields of type SignerInfo have the following meanings:

      version is the syntax version number.  If the SignerIdentifier is
      the CHOICE issuerAndSerialNumber, then the version shall be 1.  If



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      the SignerIdentifier is subjectKeyIdentifier, then the version
      shall be 3.

      sid specifies the signer's certificate (and thereby the signer's
      public key).  The signer's public key is needed by the recipient
      to verify the signature.  SignerIdentifier provides two
      alternatives for specifying the signer's public key.  The
      issuerAndSerialNumber alternative identifies the signer's
      certificate by the issuer's distinguished name and the certificate
      serial number; the subjectKeyIdentifier identifies the signer's
      certificate by the X.509 subjectKeyIdentifier extension value.

      digestAlgorithm identifies the message digest algorithm, and any
      associated parameters, used by the signer.  The message digest is
      computed on either the content being signed or the content
      together with the signed attributes using the process described in
      section 5.4.  The message digest algorithm should be among those
      listed in the digestAlgorithms field of the associated SignerData.

      signedAttributes is a collection of attributes that are signed.
      The field is optional, but it must be present if the content type
      of the EncapsulatedContentInfo value being signed is not id-data.
      Each SignedAttribute in the SET must be DER encoded.  Useful
      attribute types, such as signing time, are defined in Section 11.
      If the field is present, it must contain, at a minimum, the
      following two attributes:

         A content-type attribute having as its value the content type
         of the EncapsulatedContentInfo value being signed.  Section
         11.1 defines the content-type attribute.  The content-type
         attribute is not required when used as part of a
         countersignature unsigned attribute as defined in section 11.4.

         A message-digest attribute, having as its value the message
         digest of the content.  Section 11.2 defines the message-digest
         attribute.

      signatureAlgorithm identifies the signature algorithm, and any
      associated parameters, used by the signer to generate the digital
      signature.

      signature is the result of digital signature generation, using the
      message digest and the signer's private key.

      unsignedAttributes is a collection of attributes that are not
      signed.  The field is optional.  Useful attribute types, such as
      countersignatures, are defined in Section 11.




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   The fields of type SignedAttribute and UnsignedAttribute have the
   following meanings:

      attrType indicates the type of attribute.  It is an object
      identifier.

      attrValues is a set of values that comprise the attribute.  The
      type of each value in the set can be determined uniquely by
      attrType.

5.4  Message Digest Calculation Process

   The message digest calculation process computes a message digest on
   either the content being signed or the content together with the
   signed attributes.  In either case, the initial input to the message
   digest calculation process is the "value" of the encapsulated content
   being signed.  Specifically, the initial input is the
   encapContentInfo eContent OCTET STRING to which the signing process
   is applied.  Only the octets comprising the value of the eContent
   OCTET STRING are input to the message digest algorithm, not the tag
   or the length octets.

   The result of the message digest calculation process depends on
   whether the signedAttributes field is present.  When the field is
   absent, the result is just the message digest of the content as
   described above.  When the field is present, however, the result is
   the message digest of the complete DER encoding of the
   SignedAttributes value contained in the signedAttributes field.
   Since the SignedAttributes value, when present, must contain the
   content type and the content message digest attributes, those values
   are indirectly included in the result.  The content type attribute is
   not required when used as part of a countersignature unsigned
   attribute as defined in section 11.4.  A separate encoding of the
   signedAttributes field is performed for message digest calculation.
   The IMPLICIT [0] tag in the signedAttributes field is not used for
   the DER encoding, rather an EXPLICIT SET OF tag is used.  That is,
   the DER encoding of the SET OF tag, rather than of the IMPLICIT [0]
   tag, is to be included in the message digest calculation along with
   the length and content octets of the SignedAttributes value.

   When the signedAttributes field is absent, then only the octets
   comprising the value of the signedData encapContentInfo eContent
   OCTET STRING (e.g., the contents of a file) are input to the message
   digest calculation.  This has the advantage that the length of the
   content being signed need not be known in advance of the signature
   generation process.





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   Although the encapContentInfo eContent OCTET STRING tag and length
   octets are not included in the message digest calculation, they are
   still protected by other means.  The length octets are protected by
   the nature of the message digest algorithm since it is
   computationally infeasible to find any two distinct messages of any
   length that have the same message digest.

5.5  Message Signature Generation Process

   The input to the signature generation process includes the result of
   the message digest calculation process and the signer's private key.
   The details of the signature generation depend on the signature
   algorithm employed.  The object identifier, along with any
   parameters, that specifies the signature algorithm employed by the
   signer is carried in the signatureAlgorithm field.  The signature
   value generated by the signer is encoded as an OCTET STRING and
   carried in the signature field.

5.6  Message Signature Verification Process

   The input to the signature verification process includes the result
   of the message digest calculation process and the signer's public
   key.  The recipient may obtain the correct public key for the signer
   by any means, but the preferred method is from a certificate obtained
   from the SignedData certificates field.  The selection and validation
   of the signer's public key may be based on certification path
   validation (see [PROFILE]) as well as other external context, but is
   beyond the scope of this document.  The details of the signature
   verification depend on the signature algorithm employed.

   The recipient may not rely on any message digest values computed by
   the originator.  If the signedData signerInfo includes
   signedAttributes, then the content message digest must be calculated
   as described in section 5.4.  For the signature to be valid, the
   message digest value calculated by the recipient must be the same as
   the value of the messageDigest attribute included in the
   signedAttributes of the signedData signerInfo.

6  Enveloped-data Content Type

   The enveloped-data content type consists of an encrypted content of
   any type and encrypted content-encryption keys for one or more
   recipients.  The combination of the encrypted content and one
   encrypted content-encryption key for a recipient is a "digital
   envelope" for that recipient.  Any type of content can be enveloped
   for an arbitrary number of recipients using any of the three key
   management techniques for each recipient.




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   The typical application of the enveloped-data content type will
   represent one or more recipients' digital envelopes on content of the
   data or signed-data content types.

   Enveloped-data is constructed by the following steps:

      1.  A content-encryption key for a particular content-encryption
      algorithm is generated at random.

      2.  The content-encryption key is encrypted for each recipient.
      The details of this encryption depend on the key management
      algorithm used, but three general techniques are supported:

         key transport:  the content-encryption key is encrypted in the
         recipient's public key;

         key agreement:  the recipient's public key and the sender's
         private key are used to generate a pairwise symmetric key, then
         the content-encryption key is encrypted in the pairwise
         symmetric key; and

         symmetric key-encryption keys:  the content-encryption key is
         encrypted in a previously distributed symmetric key-encryption
         key.

      3.  For each recipient, the encrypted content-encryption key and
      other recipient-specific information are collected into a
      RecipientInfo value, defined in Section 6.2.

      4.  The content is encrypted with the content-encryption key.
      Content encryption may require that the content be padded to a
      multiple of some block size; see Section 6.3.

      5.  The RecipientInfo values for all the recipients are collected
      together with the encrypted content to form an EnvelopedData value
      as defined in Section 6.1.

   A recipient opens the digital envelope by decrypting one of the
   encrypted content-encryption keys and then decrypting the encrypted
   content with the recovered content-encryption key.

   This section is divided into four parts.  The first part describes
   the top-level type EnvelopedData, the second part describes the per-
   recipient information type RecipientInfo, and the third and fourth
   parts describe the content-encryption and key-encryption processes.






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6.1  EnvelopedData Type

   The following object identifier identifies the enveloped-data content
   type:

      id-envelopedData OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
          us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs7(7) 3 }

   The enveloped-data content type shall have ASN.1 type EnvelopedData:

      EnvelopedData ::= SEQUENCE {
        version CMSVersion,
        originatorInfo [0] IMPLICIT OriginatorInfo OPTIONAL,
        recipientInfos RecipientInfos,
        encryptedContentInfo EncryptedContentInfo,
        unprotectedAttrs [1] IMPLICIT UnprotectedAttributes OPTIONAL }

      OriginatorInfo ::= SEQUENCE {
        certs [0] IMPLICIT CertificateSet OPTIONAL,
        crls [1] IMPLICIT CertificateRevocationLists OPTIONAL }

      RecipientInfos ::= SET OF RecipientInfo

      EncryptedContentInfo ::= SEQUENCE {
        contentType ContentType,
        contentEncryptionAlgorithm ContentEncryptionAlgorithmIdentifier,
        encryptedContent [0] IMPLICIT EncryptedContent OPTIONAL }

      EncryptedContent ::= OCTET STRING

      UnprotectedAttributes ::= SET SIZE (1..MAX) OF Attribute

   The fields of type EnvelopedData have the following meanings:

      version is the syntax version number.  If originatorInfo is
      present, then version shall be 2.  If any of the RecipientInfo
      structures included have a version other than 0, then the version
      shall be 2.  If unprotectedAttrs is present, then version shall be
      2.  If originatorInfo is absent, all of the RecipientInfo
      structures are version 0, and unprotectedAttrs is absent, then
      version shall be 0.

      originatorInfo optionally provides information about the
      originator.  It is present only if required by the key management
      algorithm.  It may contain certificates and CRLs:

         certs is a collection of certificates.  certs may contain
         originator certificates associated with several different key



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         management algorithms.  certs may also contain attribute
         certificates associated with the originator.  The certificates
         contained in certs are intended to be sufficient to make chains
         from a recognized "root" or "top-level certification authority"
         to all recipients.  However, certs may contain more
         certificates than necessary, and there may be certificates
         sufficient to make chains from two or more independent top-
         level certification authorities.  Alternatively, certs may
         contain fewer certificates than necessary, if it is expected
         that recipients have an alternate means of obtaining necessary
         certificates (e.g., from a previous set of certificates).

         crls is a collection of CRLs.  It is intended that the set
         contain information sufficient to determine whether or not the
         certificates in the certs field are valid, but such
         correspondence is not necessary.  There may be more CRLs than
         necessary, and there may also be fewer CRLs than necessary.

      recipientInfos is a collection of per-recipient information.
      There must be at least one element in the collection.

      encryptedContentInfo is the encrypted content information.

      unprotectedAttrs is a collection of attributes that are not
      encrypted.  The field is optional.  Useful attribute types are
      defined in Section 11.

   The fields of type EncryptedContentInfo have the following meanings:

      contentType indicates the type of content.

      contentEncryptionAlgorithm identifies the content-encryption
      algorithm, and any associated parameters, used to encrypt the
      content.  The content-encryption process is described in Section
      6.3.  The same content-encryption algorithm and content-encryption
      key is used for all recipients.

      encryptedContent is the result of encrypting the content.  The
      field is optional, and if the field is not present, its intended
      value must be supplied by other means.

   The recipientInfos field comes before the encryptedContentInfo field
   so that an EnvelopedData value may be processed in a single pass.

6.2  RecipientInfo Type

   Per-recipient information is represented in the type RecipientInfo.
   RecipientInfo has a different format for the three key management



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   techniques that are supported: key transport, key agreement, and
   previously distributed symmetric key-encryption keys.  Any of the
   three key management techniques can be used for each recipient of the
   same encrypted content.  In all cases, the content-encryption key is
   transferred to one or more recipient in encrypted form.

      RecipientInfo ::= CHOICE {
        ktri KeyTransRecipientInfo,
        kari [1] KeyAgreeRecipientInfo,
        kekri [2] KEKRecipientInfo }

      EncryptedKey ::= OCTET STRING

6.2.1  KeyTransRecipientInfo Type

   Per-recipient information using key transport is represented in the
   type KeyTransRecipientInfo.  Each instance of KeyTransRecipientInfo
   transfers the content-encryption key to one recipient.

      KeyTransRecipientInfo ::= SEQUENCE {
        version CMSVersion,  -- always set to 0 or 2
        rid RecipientIdentifier,
        keyEncryptionAlgorithm KeyEncryptionAlgorithmIdentifier,
        encryptedKey EncryptedKey }

      RecipientIdentifier ::= CHOICE {
        issuerAndSerialNumber IssuerAndSerialNumber,
        subjectKeyIdentifier [0] SubjectKeyIdentifier }

   The fields of type KeyTransRecipientInfo have the following meanings:

      version is the syntax version number.  If the RecipientIdentifier
      is the CHOICE issuerAndSerialNumber, then the version shall be 0.
      If the RecipientIdentifier is subjectKeyIdentifier, then the
      version shall be 2.

      rid specifies the recipient's certificate or key that was used by
      the sender to protect the content-encryption key.  The
      RecipientIdentifier provides two alternatives for specifying the
      recipient's certificate, and thereby the recipient's public key.
      The recipient's certificate must contain a key transport public
      key.  The content-encryption key is encrypted with the recipient's
      public key.  The issuerAndSerialNumber alternative identifies the
      recipient's certificate by the issuer's distinguished name and the
      certificate serial number; the subjectKeyIdentifier identifies the
      recipient's certificate by the X.509 subjectKeyIdentifier
      extension value.




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      keyEncryptionAlgorithm identifies the key-encryption algorithm,
      and any associated parameters, used to encrypt the content-
      encryption key for the recipient.  The key-encryption process is
      described in Section 6.4.

      encryptedKey is the result of encrypting the content-encryption
      key for the recipient.

6.2.2  KeyAgreeRecipientInfo Type

   Recipient information using key agreement is represented in the type
   KeyAgreeRecipientInfo.  Each instance of KeyAgreeRecipientInfo will
   transfer the content-encryption key to one or more recipient that
   uses the same key agreement algorithm and domain parameters for that
   algorithm.

      KeyAgreeRecipientInfo ::= SEQUENCE {
        version CMSVersion,  -- always set to 3
        originator [0] EXPLICIT OriginatorIdentifierOrKey,
        ukm [1] EXPLICIT UserKeyingMaterial OPTIONAL,
        keyEncryptionAlgorithm KeyEncryptionAlgorithmIdentifier,
        recipientEncryptedKeys RecipientEncryptedKeys }

      OriginatorIdentifierOrKey ::= CHOICE {
        issuerAndSerialNumber IssuerAndSerialNumber,
        subjectKeyIdentifier [0] SubjectKeyIdentifier,
        originatorKey [1] OriginatorPublicKey }

      OriginatorPublicKey ::= SEQUENCE {
        algorithm AlgorithmIdentifier,
        publicKey BIT STRING }

      RecipientEncryptedKeys ::= SEQUENCE OF RecipientEncryptedKey

      RecipientEncryptedKey ::= SEQUENCE {
        rid KeyAgreeRecipientIdentifier,
        encryptedKey EncryptedKey }

      KeyAgreeRecipientIdentifier ::= CHOICE {
        issuerAndSerialNumber IssuerAndSerialNumber,
        rKeyId [0] IMPLICIT RecipientKeyIdentifier }

      RecipientKeyIdentifier ::= SEQUENCE {
        subjectKeyIdentifier SubjectKeyIdentifier,
        date GeneralizedTime OPTIONAL,
        other OtherKeyAttribute OPTIONAL }

      SubjectKeyIdentifier ::= OCTET STRING



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   The fields of type KeyAgreeRecipientInfo have the following meanings:

      version is the syntax version number.  It shall always be 3.

      originator is a CHOICE with three alternatives specifying the
      sender's key agreement public key.  The sender uses the
      corresponding private key and the recipient's public key to
      generate a pairwise key.  The content-encryption key is encrypted
      in the pairwise key.  The issuerAndSerialNumber alternative
      identifies the sender's certificate, and thereby the sender's
      public key, by the issuer's distinguished name and the certificate
      serial number.  The subjectKeyIdentifier alternative identifies
      the sender's certificate, and thereby the sender's public key, by
      the X.509 subjectKeyIdentifier extension value.  The originatorKey
      alternative includes the algorithm identifier and sender's key
      agreement public key. Permitting originator anonymity since the
      public key is not certified.

      ukm is optional.  With some key agreement algorithms, the sender
      provides a User Keying Material (UKM) to ensure that a different
      key is generated each time the same two parties generate a
      pairwise key.

      keyEncryptionAlgorithm identifies the key-encryption algorithm,
      and any associated parameters, used to encrypt the content-
      encryption key in the key-encryption key.  The key-encryption
      process is described in Section 6.4.

      recipientEncryptedKeys includes a recipient identifier and
      encrypted key for one or more recipients.  The
      KeyAgreeRecipientIdentifier is a CHOICE with two alternatives
      specifying the recipient's certificate, and thereby the
      recipient's public key, that was used by the sender to generate a
      pairwise key-encryption key.  The recipient's certificate must
      contain a key agreement public key.  The content-encryption key is
      encrypted in the pairwise key-encryption key.  The
      issuerAndSerialNumber alternative identifies the recipient's
      certificate by the issuer's distinguished name and the certificate
      serial number; the RecipientKeyIdentifier is described below.  The
      encryptedKey is the result of encrypting the content-encryption
      key in the pairwise key-encryption key generated using the key
      agreement algorithm.

   The fields of type RecipientKeyIdentifier have the following
   meanings:

      subjectKeyIdentifier identifies the recipient's certificate by the
      X.509 subjectKeyIdentifier extension value.



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      date is optional.  When present, the date specifies which of the
      recipient's previously distributed UKMs was used by the sender.

      other is optional.  When present, this field contains additional
      information used by the recipient to locate the public keying
      material used by the sender.

6.2.3  KEKRecipientInfo Type

   Recipient information using previously distributed symmetric keys is
   represented in the type KEKRecipientInfo.  Each instance of
   KEKRecipientInfo will transfer the content-encryption key to one or
   more recipients who have the previously distributed key-encryption
   key.

      KEKRecipientInfo ::= SEQUENCE {
        version CMSVersion,  -- always set to 4
        kekid KEKIdentifier,
        keyEncryptionAlgorithm KeyEncryptionAlgorithmIdentifier,
        encryptedKey EncryptedKey }

      KEKIdentifier ::= SEQUENCE {
        keyIdentifier OCTET STRING,
        date GeneralizedTime OPTIONAL,
        other OtherKeyAttribute OPTIONAL }

   The fields of type KEKRecipientInfo have the following meanings:

      version is the syntax version number.  It shall always be 4.

      kekid specifies a symmetric key-encryption key that was previously
      distributed to the sender and one or more recipients.

      keyEncryptionAlgorithm identifies the key-encryption algorithm,
      and any associated parameters, used to encrypt the content-
      encryption key with the key-encryption key.  The key-encryption
      process is described in Section 6.4.

      encryptedKey is the result of encrypting the content-encryption
      key in the key-encryption key.

   The fields of type KEKIdentifier have the following meanings:

      keyIdentifier identifies the key-encryption key that was
      previously distributed to the sender and one or more recipients.

      date is optional.  When present, the date specifies a single key-
      encryption key from a set that was previously distributed.



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      other is optional.  When present, this field contains additional
      information used by the recipient to determine the key-encryption
      key used by the sender.

6.3  Content-encryption Process

   The content-encryption key for the desired content-encryption
   algorithm is randomly generated.  The data to be protected is padded
   as described below, then the padded data is encrypted using the
   content-encryption key.  The encryption operation maps an arbitrary
   string of octets (the data) to another string of octets (the
   ciphertext) under control of a content-encryption key.  The encrypted
   data is included in the envelopedData encryptedContentInfo
   encryptedContent OCTET STRING.

   The input to the content-encryption process is the "value" of the
   content being enveloped.  Only the value octets of the envelopedData
   encryptedContentInfo encryptedContent OCTET STRING are encrypted; the
   OCTET STRING tag and length octets are not encrypted.

   Some content-encryption algorithms assume the input length is a
   multiple of k octets, where k is greater than one.  For such
   algorithms, the input shall be padded at the trailing end with
   k-(lth mod k) octets all having value k-(lth mod k), where lth is
   the length of the input.  In other words, the input is padded at
   the trailing end with one of the following strings:

                     01 -- if lth mod k = k-1
                  02 02 -- if lth mod k = k-2
                      .
                      .
                      .
            k k ... k k -- if lth mod k = 0

   The padding can be removed unambiguously since all input is padded,
   including input values that are already a multiple of the block size,
   and no padding string is a suffix of another.  This padding method is
   well defined if and only if k is less than 256.

6.4  Key-encryption Process

   The input to the key-encryption process -- the value supplied to the
   recipient's key-encryption algorithm -- is just the "value" of the
   content-encryption key.

   Any of the three key management techniques can be used for each
   recipient of the same encrypted content.




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7  Digested-data Content Type

   The digested-data content type consists of content of any type and a
   message digest of the content.

   Typically, the digested-data content type is used to provide content
   integrity, and the result generally becomes an input to the
   enveloped-data content type.

   The following steps construct digested-data:

      1.  A message digest is computed on the content with a message-
      digest algorithm.

      2.  The message-digest algorithm and the message digest are
      collected together with the content into a DigestedData value.

   A recipient verifies the message digest by comparing the message
   digest to an independently computed message digest.

   The following object identifier identifies the digested-data content
   type:

      id-digestedData OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
          us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs7(7) 5 }

   The digested-data content type shall have ASN.1 type DigestedData:

      DigestedData ::= SEQUENCE {
        version CMSVersion,
        digestAlgorithm DigestAlgorithmIdentifier,
        encapContentInfo EncapsulatedContentInfo,
        digest Digest }

      Digest ::= OCTET STRING

   The fields of type DigestedData have the following meanings:

      version is the syntax version number.  If the encapsulated content
      type is id-data, then the value of version shall be 0; however, if
      the encapsulated content type is other than id-data, then the
      value of version shall be 2.

      digestAlgorithm identifies the message digest algorithm, and any
      associated parameters, under which the content is digested.  The
      message-digesting process is the same as in Section 5.4 in the
      case when there are no signed attributes.




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      encapContentInfo is the content that is digested, as defined in
      section 5.2.

      digest is the result of the message-digesting process.

   The ordering of the digestAlgorithm field, the encapContentInfo
   field, and the digest field makes it possible to process a
   DigestedData value in a single pass.

8  Encrypted-data Content Type

   The encrypted-data content type consists of encrypted content of any
   type.  Unlike the enveloped-data content type, the encrypted-data
   content type has neither recipients nor encrypted content-encryption
   keys.  Keys must be managed by other means.

   The typical application of the encrypted-data content type will be to
   encrypt the content of the data content type for local storage,
   perhaps where the encryption key is a password.

   The following object identifier identifies the encrypted-data content
   type:

      id-encryptedData OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
          us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs7(7) 6 }

   The encrypted-data content type shall have ASN.1 type EncryptedData:

      EncryptedData ::= SEQUENCE {
        version CMSVersion,
        encryptedContentInfo EncryptedContentInfo,
        unprotectedAttrs [1] IMPLICIT UnprotectedAttributes OPTIONAL }

   The fields of type EncryptedData have the following meanings:

      version is the syntax version number.  If unprotectedAttrs is
      present, then version shall be 2.  If unprotectedAttrs is absent,
      then version shall be 0.

      encryptedContentInfo is the encrypted content information, as
      defined in Section 6.1.

      unprotectedAttrs is a collection of attributes that are not
      encrypted.  The field is optional.  Useful attribute types are
      defined in Section 11.






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9  Authenticated-data Content Type

   The authenticated-data content type consists of content of any type,
   a message authentication code (MAC), and encrypted authentication
   keys for one or more recipients.  The combination of the MAC and one
   encrypted authentication key for a recipient is necessary for that
   recipient to verify the integrity of the content.  Any type of
   content can be integrity protected for an arbitrary number of
   recipients.

   The process by which authenticated-data is constructed involves the
   following steps:

      1.  A message-authentication key for a particular message-
      authentication algorithm is generated at random.

      2.  The message-authentication key is encrypted for each
      recipient.  The details of this encryption depend on the key
      management algorithm used.

      3.  For each recipient, the encrypted message-authentication key
      and other recipient-specific information are collected into a
      RecipientInfo value, defined in Section 6.2.

      4.  Using the message-authentication key, the originator computes
      a MAC value on the content.  If the originator is authenticating
      any information in addition to the content (see Section 9.2), a
      message digest is calculated on the content, the message digest of
      the content and the other information are authenticated using the
      message-authentication key, and the result becomes the "MAC
      value."

9.1  AuthenticatedData Type

   The following object identifier identifies the authenticated-data
   content type:

      id-ct-authData OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
          us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16)
          ct(1) 2 }











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   The authenticated-data content type shall have ASN.1 type
   AuthenticatedData:

      AuthenticatedData ::= SEQUENCE {
        version CMSVersion,
        originatorInfo [0] IMPLICIT OriginatorInfo OPTIONAL,
        recipientInfos RecipientInfos,
        macAlgorithm MessageAuthenticationCodeAlgorithm,
        digestAlgorithm [1] DigestAlgorithmIdentifier OPTIONAL,
        encapContentInfo EncapsulatedContentInfo,
        authenticatedAttributes [2] IMPLICIT AuthAttributes OPTIONAL,
        mac MessageAuthenticationCode,
        unauthenticatedAttributes [3] IMPLICIT UnauthAttributes OPTIONAL }

      AuthAttributes ::= SET SIZE (1..MAX) OF Attribute

      UnauthAttributes ::= SET SIZE (1..MAX) OF Attribute

      MessageAuthenticationCode ::= OCTET STRING

   The fields of type AuthenticatedData have the following meanings:

      version is the syntax version number.  It shall be 0.

      originatorInfo optionally provides information about the
      originator.  It is present only if required by the key management
      algorithm.  It may contain certificates, attribute certificates,
      and CRLs, as defined in Section 6.1.

      recipientInfos is a collection of per-recipient information, as
      defined in Section 6.1.  There must be at least one element in the
      collection.

      macAlgorithm is a message authentication code (MAC) algorithm
      identifier.  It identifies the MAC algorithm, along with any
      associated parameters, used by the originator.  Placement of the
      macAlgorithm field facilitates one-pass processing by the
      recipient.

      digestAlgorithm identifies the message digest algorithm, and any
      associated parameters, used to compute a message digest on the
      encapsulated content if authenticated attributes are present.  The
      message digesting process is described in Section 9.2.  Placement
      of the digestAlgorithm field facilitates one-pass processing by
      the recipient.  If the digestAlgorithm field is present, then the
      authenticatedAttributes field must also be present.





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      encapContentInfo is the content that is authenticated, as defined
      in section 5.2.

      authenticatedAttributes is a collection of authenticated
      attributes.  The authenticatedAttributes structure is optional,
      but it must be present if the content type of the
      EncapsulatedContentInfo value being authenticated is not id-data.
      If the authenticatedAttributes field is present, then the
      digestAlgorithm field must also be present.  Each
      AuthenticatedAttribute in the SET must be DER encoded.  Useful
      attribute types are defined in Section 11.  If the
      authenticatedAttributes field is present, it must contain, at a
      minimum, the following two attributes:

         A content-type attribute having as its value the content type
         of the EncapsulatedContentInfo value being authenticated.
         Section 11.1 defines the content-type attribute.

         A message-digest attribute, having as its value the message
         digest of the content.  Section 11.2 defines the message-digest
         attribute.

      mac is the message authentication code.

      unauthenticatedAttributes is a collection of attributes that are
      not authenticated.  The field is optional.  To date, no attributes
      have been defined for use as unauthenticated attributes, but other
      useful attribute types are defined in Section 11.

9.2  MAC Generation

   The MAC calculation process computes a message authentication code
   (MAC) on either the message being authenticated or a message digest
   of message being authenticated together with the originator's
   authenticated attributes.

   If authenticatedAttributes field is absent, the input to the MAC
   calculation process is the value of the encapContentInfo eContent
   OCTET STRING.  Only the octets comprising the value of the eContent
   OCTET STRING are input to the MAC algorithm; the tag and the length
   octets are omitted.  This has the advantage that the length of the
   content being authenticated need not be known in advance of the MAC
   generation process.

   If authenticatedAttributes field is present, the content-type
   attribute (as described in Section 11.1) and the message-digest
   attribute (as described in section 11.2) must be included, and the
   input to the MAC calculation process is the DER encoding of



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   authenticatedAttributes.  A separate encoding of the
   authenticatedAttributes field is performed for message digest
   calculation.  The IMPLICIT [2] tag in the authenticatedAttributes
   field is not used for the DER encoding, rather an EXPLICIT SET OF tag
   is used.  That is, the DER encoding of the SET OF tag, rather than of
   the IMPLICIT [2] tag, is to be included in the message digest
   calculation along with the length and content octets of the
   authenticatedAttributes value.

   The message digest calculation process computes a message digest on
   the content being authenticated.  The initial input to the message
   digest calculation process is the "value" of the encapsulated content
   being authenticated.  Specifically, the input is the encapContentInfo
   eContent OCTET STRING to which the authentication process is applied.
   Only the octets comprising the value of the encapContentInfo eContent
   OCTET STRING are input to the message digest algorithm, not the tag
   or the length octets.  This has the advantage that the length of the
   content being authenticated need not be known in advance.  Although
   the encapContentInfo eContent OCTET STRING tag and length octets are
   not included in the message digest calculation, they are still
   protected by other means.  The length octets are protected by the
   nature of the message digest algorithm since it is computationally
   infeasible to find any two distinct messages of any length that have
   the same message digest.

   The input to the MAC calculation process includes the MAC input data,
   defined above, and an authentication key conveyed in a recipientInfo
   structure.  The details of MAC calculation depend on the MAC
   algorithm employed (e.g., HMAC).  The object identifier, along with
   any parameters, that specifies the MAC algorithm employed by the
   originator is carried in the macAlgorithm field.  The MAC value
   generated by the originator is encoded as an OCTET STRING and carried
   in the mac field.

9.3  MAC Verification

   The input to the MAC verification process includes the input data
   (determined based on the presence or absence of the
   authenticatedAttributes field, as defined in 9.2), and the
   authentication key conveyed in recipientInfo.  The details of the MAC
   verification process depend on the MAC algorithm employed.

   The recipient may not rely on any MAC values or message digest values
   computed by the originator.  The content is authenticated as
   described in section 9.2.  If the originator includes authenticated
   attributes, then the content of the authenticatedAttributes is
   authenticated as described in section 9.2.  For authentication to
   succeed, the message MAC value calculated by the recipient must be



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   the same as the value of the mac field.  Similarly, for
   authentication to succeed when the authenticatedAttributes field is
   present, the content message digest value calculated by the recipient
   must be the same as the message digest value included in the
   authenticatedAttributes message-digest attribute.

10  Useful Types

   This section is divided into two parts.  The first part defines
   algorithm identifiers, and the second part defines other useful
   types.

10.1  Algorithm Identifier Types

   All of the algorithm identifiers have the same type:
   AlgorithmIdentifier.  The definition of AlgorithmIdentifier is
   imported from X.509 [X.509-88].

   There are many alternatives for each type of algorithm listed.  For
   each of these five types, Section 12 lists the algorithms that must
   be included in a CMS implementation.

10.1.1  DigestAlgorithmIdentifier

   The DigestAlgorithmIdentifier type identifies a message-digest
   algorithm.  Examples include SHA-1, MD2, and MD5.  A message-digest
   algorithm maps an octet string (the message) to another octet string
   (the message digest).

      DigestAlgorithmIdentifier ::= AlgorithmIdentifier

10.1.2  SignatureAlgorithmIdentifier

   The SignatureAlgorithmIdentifier type identifies a signature
   algorithm.  Examples include DSS and RSA.  A signature algorithm
   supports signature generation and verification operations.  The
   signature generation operation uses the message digest and the
   signer's private key to generate a signature value.  The signature
   verification operation uses the message digest and the signer's
   public key to determine whether or not a signature value is valid.
   Context determines which operation is intended.

      SignatureAlgorithmIdentifier ::= AlgorithmIdentifier








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10.1.3  KeyEncryptionAlgorithmIdentifier

   The KeyEncryptionAlgorithmIdentifier type identifies a key-encryption
   algorithm used to encrypt a content-encryption key.  The encryption
   operation maps an octet string (the key) to another octet string (the
   encrypted key) under control of a key-encryption key.  The decryption
   operation is the inverse of the encryption operation.  Context
   determines which operation is intended.

   The details of encryption and decryption depend on the key management
   algorithm used.  Key transport, key agreement, and previously
   distributed symmetric key-encrypting keys are supported.

      KeyEncryptionAlgorithmIdentifier ::= AlgorithmIdentifier

10.1.4  ContentEncryptionAlgorithmIdentifier

   The ContentEncryptionAlgorithmIdentifier type identifies a content-
   encryption algorithm.  Examples include Triple-DES and RC2.  A
   content-encryption algorithm supports encryption and decryption
   operations.  The encryption operation maps an octet string (the
   message) to another octet string (the ciphertext) under control of a
   content-encryption key.  The decryption operation is the inverse of
   the encryption operation.  Context determines which operation is
   intended.

      ContentEncryptionAlgorithmIdentifier ::= AlgorithmIdentifier

10.1.5  MessageAuthenticationCodeAlgorithm

   The MessageAuthenticationCodeAlgorithm type identifies a message
   authentication code (MAC) algorithm.  Examples include DES-MAC and
   HMAC.  A MAC algorithm supports generation and verification
   operations.  The MAC generation and verification operations use the
   same symmetric key.  Context determines which operation is intended.

      MessageAuthenticationCodeAlgorithm ::= AlgorithmIdentifier

10.2  Other Useful Types

   This section defines types that are used other places in the
   document.  The types are not listed in any particular order.

10.2.1  CertificateRevocationLists

   The CertificateRevocationLists type gives a set of certificate
   revocation lists (CRLs). It is intended that the set contain
   information sufficient to determine whether the certificates and



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   attribute certificates with which the set is associated are revoked
   or not.  However, there may be more CRLs than necessary or there may
   be fewer CRLs than necessary.

   The CertificateList may contain a CRL, an Authority Revocation List
   (ARL), a Delta Revocation List, or an Attribute Certificate
   Revocation List.  All of these lists share a common syntax.

   CRLs are specified in X.509 [X.509-97], and they are profiled for use
   in the Internet in RFC 2459 [PROFILE].

   The definition of CertificateList is imported from X.509.

      CertificateRevocationLists ::= SET OF CertificateList

10.2.2  CertificateChoices

   The CertificateChoices type gives either a PKCS #6 extended
   certificate [PKCS#6], an X.509 certificate, or an X.509 attribute
   certificate [X.509-97].  The PKCS #6 extended certificate is
   obsolete.  PKCS #6 certificates are included for backward
   compatibility, and their use should be avoided.  The Internet profile
   of X.509 certificates is specified in the "Internet X.509 Public Key
   Infrastructure: Certificate and CRL Profile" [PROFILE].

   The definitions of Certificate and AttributeCertificate are imported
   from X.509.

      CertificateChoices ::= CHOICE {
         certificate Certificate,                 -- See X.509
         extendedCertificate [0] IMPLICIT ExtendedCertificate,
                                                  -- Obsolete
         attrCert [1] IMPLICIT AttributeCertificate }
                                                  -- See X.509 and X9.57

10.2.3  CertificateSet

   The CertificateSet type provides a set of certificates.  It is
   intended that the set be sufficient to contain chains from a
   recognized "root" or "top-level certification authority" to all of
   the sender certificates with which the set is associated.  However,
   there may be more certificates than necessary, or there may be fewer
   than necessary.

   The precise meaning of a "chain" is outside the scope of this
   document.  Some applications may impose upper limits on the length of
   a chain; others may enforce certain relationships between the
   subjects and issuers of certificates within a chain.



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      CertificateSet ::= SET OF CertificateChoices

10.2.4  IssuerAndSerialNumber

   The IssuerAndSerialNumber type identifies a certificate, and thereby
   an entity and a public key, by the distinguished name of the
   certificate issuer and an issuer-specific certificate serial number.

   The definition of Name is imported from X.501 [X.501-88], and the
   definition of CertificateSerialNumber is imported from X.509
   [X.509-97].

      IssuerAndSerialNumber ::= SEQUENCE {
        issuer Name,
        serialNumber CertificateSerialNumber }

      CertificateSerialNumber ::= INTEGER

10.2.5  CMSVersion

   The Version type gives a syntax version number, for compatibility
   with future revisions of this document.

      CMSVersion ::= INTEGER  { v0(0), v1(1), v2(2), v3(3), v4(4) }

10.2.6  UserKeyingMaterial

   The UserKeyingMaterial type gives a syntax for user keying material
   (UKM).  Some key agreement algorithms require UKMs to ensure that a
   different key is generated each time the same two parties generate a
   pairwise key.  The sender provides a UKM for use with a specific key
   agreement algorithm.

      UserKeyingMaterial ::= OCTET STRING

10.2.7  OtherKeyAttribute

   The OtherKeyAttribute type gives a syntax for the inclusion of other
   key attributes that permit the recipient to select the key used by
   the sender.  The attribute object identifier must be registered along
   with the syntax of the attribute itself.  Use of this structure
   should be avoided since it may impede interoperability.

      OtherKeyAttribute ::= SEQUENCE {
        keyAttrId OBJECT IDENTIFIER,
        keyAttr ANY DEFINED BY keyAttrId OPTIONAL }





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11  Useful Attributes

   This section defines attributes that may be used with signed-data,
   enveloped-data, encrypted-data, or authenticated-data.  The syntax of
   Attribute is compatible with X.501 [X.501-88] and RFC 2459 [PROFILE].
   Some of the attributes defined in this section were originally
   defined in PKCS #9 [PKCS#9], others were not previously defined.  The
   attributes are not listed in any particular order.

   Additional attributes are defined in many places, notably the S/MIME
   Version 3 Message Specification [MSG] and the Enhanced Security
   Services for S/MIME [ESS], which also include recommendations on the
   placement of these attributes.

11.1  Content Type

   The content-type attribute type specifies the content type of the
   ContentInfo value being signed in signed-data.  The content-type
   attribute type is required if there are any authenticated attributes
   present.

   The content-type attribute must be a signed attribute or an
   authenticated attribute; it cannot be an unsigned attribute, an
   unauthenticated attribute, or an unprotectedAttribute.

   The following object identifier identifies the content-type
   attribute:

      id-contentType OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
          us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9) 3 }

   Content-type attribute values have ASN.1 type ContentType:

      ContentType ::= OBJECT IDENTIFIER

   A content-type attribute must have a single attribute value, even
   though the syntax is defined as a SET OF AttributeValue.  There must
   not be zero or multiple instances of AttributeValue present.

   The SignedAttributes and AuthAttributes syntaxes are each defined as
   a SET OF Attributes.  The SignedAttributes in a signerInfo must not
   include multiple instances of the content-type attribute.  Similarly,
   the AuthAttributes in an AuthenticatedData must not include multiple
   instances of the content-type attribute.







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11.2  Message Digest

   The message-digest attribute type specifies the message digest of the
   encapContentInfo eContent OCTET STRING being signed in signed-data
   (see section 5.4) or authenticated in authenticated-data (see section
   9.2).  For signed-data, the message digest is computed using the
   signer's message digest algorithm.  For authenticated-data, the
   message digest is computed using the originator's message digest
   algorithm.

   Within signed-data, the message-digest signed attribute type is
   required if there are any attributes present.  Within authenticated-
   data, the message-digest authenticated attribute type is required if
   there are any attributes present.

   The message-digest attribute must be a signed attribute or an
   authenticated attribute; it cannot be an unsigned attribute or an
   unauthenticated attribute.

   The following object identifier identifies the message-digest
   attribute:

      id-messageDigest OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
          us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9) 4 }

   Message-digest attribute values have ASN.1 type MessageDigest:

      MessageDigest ::= OCTET STRING

   A message-digest attribute must have a single attribute value, even
   though the syntax is defined as a SET OF AttributeValue.  There must
   not be zero or multiple instances of AttributeValue present.

   The SignedAttributes syntax is defined as a SET OF Attributes.  The
   SignedAttributes in a signerInfo must not include multiple instances
   of the message-digest attribute.

11.3  Signing Time

   The signing-time attribute type specifies the time at which the
   signer (purportedly) performed the signing process.  The signing-time
   attribute type is intended for use in signed-data.

   The signing-time attribute may be a signed attribute; it cannot be an
   unsigned attribute, an authenticated attribute, or an unauthenticated
   attribute.





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   The following object identifier identifies the signing-time
   attribute:

      id-signingTime OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
          us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9) 5 }

   Signing-time attribute values have ASN.1 type SigningTime:

      SigningTime ::= Time

      Time ::= CHOICE {
        utcTime          UTCTime,
        generalizedTime  GeneralizedTime }

   Note: The definition of Time matches the one specified in the 1997
   version of X.509 [X.509-97].

   Dates between 1 January 1950 and 31 December 2049 (inclusive) must be
   encoded as UTCTime.  Any dates with year values before 1950 or after
   2049 must be encoded as GeneralizedTime.

   UTCTime values must be expressed in Greenwich Mean Time (Zulu) and
   must include seconds (i.e., times are YYMMDDHHMMSSZ), even where the
   number of seconds is zero.  Midnight (GMT) must be represented as
   "YYMMDD000000Z".  Century information is implicit, and the century
   must be determined as follows:

      Where YY is greater than or equal to 50, the year shall be
      interpreted as 19YY; and

      Where YY is less than 50, the year shall be interpreted as 20YY.

   GeneralizedTime values shall be expressed in Greenwich Mean Time
   (Zulu) and must include seconds (i.e., times are YYYYMMDDHHMMSSZ),
   even where the number of seconds is zero.  GeneralizedTime values
   must not include fractional seconds.

   A signing-time attribute must have a single attribute value, even
   though the syntax is defined as a SET OF AttributeValue.  There must
   not be zero or multiple instances of AttributeValue present.

   The SignedAttributes syntax is defined as a SET OF Attributes.  The
   SignedAttributes in a signerInfo must not include multiple instances
   of the signing-time attribute.

   No requirement is imposed concerning the correctness of the signing
   time, and acceptance of a purported signing time is a matter of a
   recipient's discretion.  It is expected, however, that some signers,



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   such as time-stamp servers, will be trusted implicitly.

11.4  Countersignature

   The countersignature attribute type specifies one or more signatures
   on the contents octets of the DER encoding of the signatureValue
   field of a SignerInfo value in signed-data.  Thus, the
   countersignature attribute type countersigns (signs in serial)
   another signature.

   The countersignature attribute must be an unsigned attribute; it
   cannot be a signed attribute, an authenticated attribute, or an
   unauthenticated attribute.

   The following object identifier identifies the countersignature
   attribute:

      id-countersignature OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
          us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9) 6 }

   Countersignature attribute values have ASN.1 type Countersignature:

      Countersignature ::= SignerInfo

   Countersignature values have the same meaning as SignerInfo values
   for ordinary signatures, except that:

      1.  The signedAttributes field must contain a message-digest
      attribute if it contains any other attributes, but need not
      contain a content-type attribute, as there is no content type for
      countersignatures.

      2.  The input to the message-digesting process is the contents
      octets of the DER encoding of the signatureValue field of the
      SignerInfo value with which the attribute is associated.

   A countersignature attribute can have multiple attribute values.  The
   syntax is defined as a SET OF AttributeValue, and there must be one
   or more instances of AttributeValue present.

   The UnsignedAttributes syntax is defined as a SET OF Attributes.  The
   UnsignedAttributes in a signerInfo may include multiple instances of
   the countersignature attribute.

   A countersignature, since it has type SignerInfo, can itself contain
   a countersignature attribute.  Thus it is possible to construct
   arbitrarily long series of countersignatures.




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12  Supported Algorithms

   This section lists the algorithms that must be implemented.
   Additional algorithms that should be implemented are also included.

12.1  Digest Algorithms

   CMS implementations must include SHA-1.  CMS implementations should
   include MD5.

   Digest algorithm identifiers are located in the SignedData
   digestAlgorithms field, the SignerInfo digestAlgorithm field, the
   DigestedData digestAlgorithm field, and the AuthenticatedData
   digestAlgorithm field.

   Digest values are located in the DigestedData digest field, and
   digest values are located in the Message Digest authenticated
   attribute.  In addition, digest values are input to signature
   algorithms.

12.1.1  SHA-1

   The SHA-1 digest algorithm is defined in FIPS Pub 180-1 [SHA1]. The
   algorithm identifier for SHA-1 is:

      sha-1 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) identified-organization(3)
          oiw(14) secsig(3) algorithm(2) 26 }

   The AlgorithmIdentifier parameters field is optional.  If present,
   the parameters field must contain an ASN.1 NULL.  Implementations
   should accept SHA-1 AlgorithmIdentifiers with absent parameters as
   well as NULL parameters.  Implementations should generate SHA-1
   AlgorithmIdentifiers with NULL parameters.

12.1.2  MD5

   The MD5 digest algorithm is defined in RFC 1321 [MD5].  The algorithm
   identifier for MD5 is:

      md5 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2) us(840)
          rsadsi(113549) digestAlgorithm(2) 5 }

   The AlgorithmIdentifier parameters field must be present, and the
   parameters field must contain NULL.  Implementations may accept the
   MD5 AlgorithmIdentifiers with absent parameters as well as NULL
   parameters.





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12.2  Signature Algorithms

   CMS implementations must include DSA.  CMS implementations may
   include RSA.

   Signature algorithm identifiers are located in the SignerInfo
   signatureAlgorithm field.  Also, signature algorithm identifiers are
   located in the SignerInfo signatureAlgorithm field of
   countersignature attributes.

   Signature values are located in the SignerInfo signature field.
   Also, signature values are located in the SignerInfo signature field
   of countersignature attributes.

12.2.1  DSA

   The DSA signature algorithm is defined in FIPS Pub 186 [DSS].  DSA is
   always used with the SHA-1 message digest algorithm.  The algorithm
   identifier for DSA is:

      id-dsa-with-sha1 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=  { iso(1) member-body(2)
          us(840) x9-57 (10040) x9cm(4) 3 }

   The AlgorithmIdentifier parameters field must not be present.

12.2.2  RSA

   The RSA signature algorithm is defined in RFC 2347 [NEWPKCS#1]. RFC
   2347 specifies the use of the RSA signature algorithm with the SHA-1
   and MD5 message digest algorithms.  The algorithm identifier for RSA
   is:

      rsaEncryption OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
          us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-1(1) 1 }

12.3  Key Management Algorithms

   CMS accommodates three general key management techniques: key
   agreement, key transport, and previously distributed symmetric key-
   encryption keys.

12.3.1  Key Agreement Algorithms

   CMS implementations must include key agreement using X9.42
   Ephemeral-Static Diffie-Hellman.

   Any symmetric encryption algorithm that a CMS implementation includes
   as a content-encryption algorithm must also be included as a key-



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   encryption algorithm.  CMS implementations must include key agreement
   of Triple-DES pairwise key-encryption keys and Triple-DES wrapping of
   Triple-DES content-encryption keys.  CMS implementations should
   include key agreement of RC2 pairwise key-encryption keys and RC2
   wrapping of RC2 content-encryption keys.  The key wrap algorithm for
   Triple-DES and RC2 is described in section 12.3.3.

   A CMS implementation may support mixed key-encryption and content-
   encryption algorithms.  For example, a 128-bit RC2 content-encryption
   key may be wrapped with 168-bit Triple-DES key-encryption key.
   Similarly, a 40-bit RC2 content-encryption key may be wrapped with
   128-bit RC2 key-encryption key.

   For key agreement of RC2 key-encryption keys, 128 bits must be
   generated as input to the key expansion process used to compute the
   RC2 effective key [RC2].

   Key agreement algorithm identifiers are located in the EnvelopedData
   RecipientInfos KeyAgreeRecipientInfo keyEncryptionAlgorithm and
   AuthenticatedData RecipientInfos KeyAgreeRecipientInfo
   keyEncryptionAlgorithm fields.

   Key wrap algorithm identifiers are located in the KeyWrapAlgorithm
   parameters within the EnvelopedData RecipientInfos
   KeyAgreeRecipientInfo keyEncryptionAlgorithm and AuthenticatedData
   RecipientInfos KeyAgreeRecipientInfo keyEncryptionAlgorithm fields.

   Wrapped content-encryption keys are located in the EnvelopedData
   RecipientInfos KeyAgreeRecipientInfo RecipientEncryptedKeys
   encryptedKey field.  Wrapped message-authentication keys are located
   in the AuthenticatedData RecipientInfos KeyAgreeRecipientInfo
   RecipientEncryptedKeys encryptedKey field.

12.3.1.1  X9.42 Ephemeral-Static Diffie-Hellman

   Ephemeral-Static Diffie-Hellman key agreement is defined in RFC 2631
   [DH-X9.42].  When using Ephemeral-Static Diffie-Hellman, the
   EnvelopedData RecipientInfos KeyAgreeRecipientInfo and
   AuthenticatedData RecipientInfos KeyAgreeRecipientInfo fields are
   used as follows:

      version must be 3.

      originator must be the originatorKey alternative.  The
      originatorKey algorithm fields must contain the dh-public-number
      object identifier with absent parameters.  The originatorKey
      publicKey field must contain the sender's ephemeral public key.
      The dh-public-number object identifier is:



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         dh-public-number OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
             us(840) ansi-x942(10046) number-type(2) 1 }

      ukm may be absent.  When present, the ukm is used to ensure that a
      different key-encryption key is generated when the ephemeral
      private key might be used more than once.

      keyEncryptionAlgorithm must be the id-alg-ESDH algorithm
      identifier.  The algorithm identifier parameter field for id-alg-
      ESDH is KeyWrapAlgorihtm, and this parameter must be present.  The
      KeyWrapAlgorithm denotes the symmetric encryption algorithm used
      to encrypt the content-encryption key with the pairwise key-
      encryption key generated using the Ephemeral-Static Diffie-Hellman
      key agreement algorithm.  Triple-DES and RC2 key wrap algorithms
      are discussed in section 12.3.3.  The id-alg-ESDH algorithm
      identifier and parameter syntax is:

       id-alg-ESDH OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2) us(840)
           rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) alg(3) 5 }

       KeyWrapAlgorithm ::= AlgorithmIdentifier

      recipientEncryptedKeys contains an identifier and an encrypted key
      for each recipient.  The RecipientEncryptedKey
      KeyAgreeRecipientIdentifier must contain either the
      issuerAndSerialNumber identifying the recipient's certificate or
      the RecipientKeyIdentifier containing the subject key identifier
      from the recipient's certificate.  In both cases, the recipient's
      certificate contains the recipient's static public key.
      RecipientEncryptedKey EncryptedKey must contain the content-
      encryption key encrypted with the Ephemeral-Static Diffie-Hellman
      generated pairwise key-encryption key using the algorithm
      specified by the KeyWrapAlgortihm.

12.3.2  Key Transport Algorithms

   CMS implementations should include key transport using RSA.  RSA
   implementations must include key transport of Triple-DES content-
   encryption keys.  RSA implementations should include key transport of
   RC2 content-encryption keys.

   Key transport algorithm identifiers are located in the EnvelopedData
   RecipientInfos KeyTransRecipientInfo keyEncryptionAlgorithm and
   AuthenticatedData RecipientInfos KeyTransRecipientInfo
   keyEncryptionAlgorithm fields.

   Key transport encrypted content-encryption keys are located in the
   EnvelopedData RecipientInfos KeyTransRecipientInfo encryptedKey



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   field.  Key transport encrypted message-authentication keys are
   located in the AuthenticatedData RecipientInfos KeyTransRecipientInfo
   encryptedKey field.

12.3.2.1  RSA

   The RSA key transport algorithm is the RSA encryption scheme defined
   in RFC 2313 [PKCS#1], block type is 02, where the message to be
   encrypted is the content-encryption key.  The algorithm identifier
   for RSA is:

      rsaEncryption OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
          us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-1(1) 1 }

   The AlgorithmIdentifier parameters field must be present, and the
   parameters field must contain NULL.

   When using a Triple-DES content-encryption key, adjust the parity
   bits for each DES key comprising the Triple-DES key prior to RSA
   encryption.

   The use of RSA encryption, as defined in RFC 2313 [PKCS#1], to
   provide confidentiality has a known vulnerability concerns.  The
   vulnerability is primarily relevant to usage in interactive
   applications rather than to store-and-forward environments.  Further
   information and proposed countermeasures are discussed in the
   Security Considerations section of this document.

   Note that the same encryption scheme is also defined in RFC 2437
   [NEWPKCS#1].  Within RFC 2437, this scheme is called
   RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5.

12.3.3  Symmetric Key-Encryption Key Algorithms

   CMS implementations may include symmetric key-encryption key
   management.  Such CMS implementations must include Triple-DES key-
   encryption keys wrapping Triple-DES content-encryption keys, and such
   CMS implementations should include RC2 key-encryption keys wrapping
   RC2 content-encryption keys.  Only 128-bit RC2 keys may be used as
   key-encryption keys, and they must be used with the
   RC2ParameterVersion parameter set to 58.  A CMS implementation may
   support mixed key-encryption and content-encryption algorithms.  For
   example, a 40-bit RC2 content-encryption key may be wrapped with
   168-bit Triple-DES key-encryption key or with a 128-bit RC2 key-
   encryption key.






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   Key wrap algorithm identifiers are located in the EnvelopedData
   RecipientInfos KEKRecipientInfo keyEncryptionAlgorithm and
   AuthenticatedData RecipientInfos KEKRecipientInfo
   keyEncryptionAlgorithm fields.

   Wrapped content-encryption keys are located in the EnvelopedData
   RecipientInfos KEKRecipientInfo encryptedKey field.  Wrapped
   message-authentication keys are located in the AuthenticatedData
   RecipientInfos KEKRecipientInfo encryptedKey field.

   The output of a key agreement algorithm is a key-encryption key, and
   this key-encryption key is used to encrypt the content-encryption
   key.  In conjunction with key agreement algorithms, CMS
   implementations must include encryption of content-encryption keys
   with the pairwise key-encryption key generated using a key agreement
   algorithm.  To support key agreement, key wrap algorithm identifiers
   are located in the KeyWrapAlgorithm parameter of the EnvelopedData
   RecipientInfos KeyAgreeRecipientInfo keyEncryptionAlgorithm and
   AuthenticatedData RecipientInfos KeyAgreeRecipientInfo
   keyEncryptionAlgorithm fields.  Wrapped content-encryption keys are
   located in the EnvelopedData RecipientInfos KeyAgreeRecipientInfo
   RecipientEncryptedKeys encryptedKey field, wrapped message-
   authentication keys are located in the AuthenticatedData
   RecipientInfos KeyAgreeRecipientInfo RecipientEncryptedKeys
   encryptedKey field.

12.3.3.1  Triple-DES Key Wrap

   Triple-DES key encryption has the algorithm identifier:

      id-alg-CMS3DESwrap OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
          us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) alg(3) 6 }

   The AlgorithmIdentifier parameter field must be NULL.

   The key wrap algorithm used to encrypt a Triple-DES content-
   encryption key with a Triple-DES key-encryption key is specified in
   section 12.6.

   Out-of-band distribution of the Triple-DES key-encryption key used to
   encrypt the Triple-DES content-encryption key is beyond of the scope
   of this document.









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12.3.3.2  RC2 Key Wrap

   RC2 key encryption has the algorithm identifier:

      id-alg-CMSRC2wrap OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
          us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) alg(3) 7 }

   The AlgorithmIdentifier parameter field must be RC2wrapParameter:

      RC2wrapParameter ::= RC2ParameterVersion

      RC2ParameterVersion ::= INTEGER

   The RC2 effective-key-bits (key size) greater than 32 and less than
   256 is encoded in the RC2ParameterVersion.  For the effective-key-
   bits of 40, 64, and 128, the rc2ParameterVersion values are 160, 120,
   and 58 respectively.  These values are not simply the RC2 key length.
   Note that the value 160 must be encoded as two octets (00 A0),
   because the one octet (A0) encoding represents a negative number.

   Only 128-bit RC2 keys may be used as key-encryption keys, and they
   must be used with the RC2ParameterVersion parameter set to 58.

   The key wrap algorithm used to encrypt a RC2 content-encryption key
   with a RC2 key-encryption key is specified in section 12.6.

   Out-of-band distribution of the RC2 key-encryption key used to
   encrypt the RC2 content-encryption key is beyond of the scope of this
   document.

12.4  Content Encryption Algorithms

   CMS implementations must include Triple-DES in CBC mode.  CMS
   implementations should include RC2 in CBC mode.

   Content encryption algorithms identifiers are located in the
   EnvelopedData EncryptedContentInfo contentEncryptionAlgorithm and the
   EncryptedData EncryptedContentInfo contentEncryptionAlgorithm fields.

   Content encryption algorithms are used to encipher the content
   located in the EnvelopedData EncryptedContentInfo encryptedContent
   field and the EncryptedData EncryptedContentInfo encryptedContent
   field.








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12.4.1  Triple-DES CBC

   The Triple-DES algorithm is described in ANSI X9.52 [3DES].  The
   Triple-DES is composed from three sequential DES [DES] operations:
   encrypt, decrypt, and encrypt.  Three-Key Triple-DES uses a different
   key for each DES operation.  Two-Key Triple-DES uses one key for the
   two encrypt operations and different key for the decrypt operation.
   The same algorithm identifiers are used for Three-Key Triple-DES and
   Two-Key Triple-DES.  The algorithm identifier for Triple-DES in
   Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode is:

      des-ede3-cbc OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
          us(840) rsadsi(113549) encryptionAlgorithm(3) 7 }

   The AlgorithmIdentifier parameters field must be present, and the
   parameters field must contain a CBCParameter:

      CBCParameter ::= IV

      IV ::= OCTET STRING  -- exactly 8 octets

12.4.2  RC2 CBC

   The RC2 algorithm is described in RFC 2268 [RC2].  The algorithm
   identifier for RC2 in CBC mode is:

      rc2-cbc OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2) us(840)
          rsadsi(113549) encryptionAlgorithm(3) 2 }

   The AlgorithmIdentifier parameters field must be present, and the
   parameters field must contain a RC2CBCParameter:

      RC2CBCParameter ::= SEQUENCE {
        rc2ParameterVersion INTEGER,
        iv OCTET STRING  }  -- exactly 8 octets

   The RC2 effective-key-bits (key size) greater than 32 and less than
   256 is encoded in the rc2ParameterVersion.  For the effective-key-
   bits of 40, 64, and 128, the rc2ParameterVersion values are 160, 120,
   and 58 respectively.  These values are not simply the RC2 key length.
   Note that the value 160 must be encoded as two octets (00 A0), since
   the one octet (A0) encoding represents a negative number.

12.5  Message Authentication Code Algorithms

   CMS implementations that support authenticatedData must include HMAC
   with SHA-1.




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   MAC algorithm identifiers are located in the AuthenticatedData
   macAlgorithm field.

   MAC values are located in the AuthenticatedData mac field.

12.5.1  HMAC with SHA-1

   The HMAC with SHA-1 algorithm is described in RFC 2104 [HMAC].  The
   algorithm identifier for HMAC with SHA-1 is:

      hMAC-SHA1 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) identified-organization(3)
          dod(6) internet(1) security(5) mechanisms(5) 8 1 2 }

   The AlgorithmIdentifier parameters field must be absent.

12.6  Triple-DES and RC2 Key Wrap Algorithms

   CMS implementations must include encryption of a Triple-DES content-
   encryption key with a Triple-DES key-encryption key using the
   algorithm specified in Sections 12.6.2 and 12.6.3.  CMS
   implementations should include encryption of a RC2 content-encryption
   key with a RC2 key-encryption key using the algorithm specified in
   Sections 12.6.4 and 12.6.5.  Triple-DES and RC2 content-encryption
   keys are encrypted in Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode [MODES].

   Key Transport algorithms allow for the content-encryption key to be
   directly encrypted; however, key agreement and symmetric key-
   encryption key algorithms encrypt the content-encryption key with a
   second symmetric encryption algorithm.  This section describes how
   the Triple-DES or RC2 content-encryption key is formatted and
   encrypted.

   Key agreement algorithms generate a pairwise key-encryption key, and
   a key wrap algorithm is used to encrypt the content-encryption key
   with the pairwise key-encryption key.  Similarly, a key wrap
   algorithm is used to encrypt the content-encryption key in a
   previously distributed key-encryption key.

   The key-encryption key is generated by the key agreement algorithm or
   distributed out of band.  For key agreement of RC2 key-encryption
   keys, 128 bits must be generated as input to the key expansion
   process used to compute the RC2 effective key [RC2].

   The same algorithm identifier is used for both 2-key and 3-key
   Triple-DES.  When the length of the content-encryption key to be
   wrapped is a 2-key Triple-DES key, a third key with the same value as
   the first key is created.  Thus, all Triple-DES content-encryption
   keys are wrapped like 3-key Triple-DES keys.



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RFC 2630              Cryptographic Message Syntax             June 1999


12.6.1  Key Checksum

   The CMS Checksum Algorithm is used to provide a content-encryption
   key integrity check value.  The algorithm is:

   1.  Compute a 20 octet SHA-1 [SHA1] message digest on the
       content-encryption key.
   2.  Use the most significant (first) eight octets of the message
       digest value as the checksum value.

12.6.2  Triple-DES Key Wrap

   The Triple-DES key wrap algorithm encrypts a Triple-DES content-
   encryption key with a Triple-DES key-encryption key.  The Triple-DES
   key wrap algorithm is:

   1.  Set odd parity for each of the DES key octets comprising
       the content-encryption key, call the result CEK.
   2.  Compute an 8 octet key checksum value on CEK as described above
       in Section 12.6.1, call the result ICV.
   3.  Let CEKICV = CEK || ICV.
   4.  Generate 8 octets at random, call the result IV.
   5.  Encrypt CEKICV in CBC mode using the key-encryption key.  Use
       the random value generated in the previous step as the
       initialization vector (IV).  Call the ciphertext TEMP1.
   6.  Let TEMP2 = IV || TEMP1.
   7.  Reverse the order of the octets in TEMP2.  That is, the most
       significant (first) octet is swapped with the least significant
       (last) octet, and so on.  Call the result TEMP3.
   8.  Encrypt TEMP3 in CBC mode using the key-encryption key.  Use
       an initialization vector (IV) of 0x4adda22c79e82105.
       The ciphertext is 40 octets long.

   Note:  When the same content-encryption key is wrapped in different
   key-encryption keys, a fresh initialization vector (IV) must be
   generated for each invocation of the key wrap algorithm.

12.6.3  Triple-DES Key Unwrap

   The Triple-DES key unwrap algorithm decrypts a Triple-DES content-
   encryption key using a Triple-DES key-encryption key.  The Triple-DES
   key unwrap algorithm is:

   1.  If the wrapped content-encryption key is not 40 octets, then
       error.
   2.  Decrypt the wrapped content-encryption key in CBC mode using
       the key-encryption key.  Use an initialization vector (IV)
       of 0x4adda22c79e82105.  Call the output TEMP3.



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   3.  Reverse the order of the octets in TEMP3.  That is, the most
       significant (first) octet is swapped with the least significant
       (last) octet, and so on.  Call the result TEMP2.
   4.  Decompose the TEMP2 into IV and TEMP1.  IV is the most
       significant (first) 8 octets, and TEMP1 is the least significant
       (last) 32 octets.
   5.  Decrypt TEMP1 in CBC mode using the key-encryption key.  Use
       the IV value from the previous step as the initialization vector.
       Call the ciphertext CEKICV.
   6.  Decompose the CEKICV into CEK and ICV. CEK is the most significant
       (first) 24 octets, and ICV is the least significant (last) 8 octets.
   7.  Compute an 8 octet key checksum value on CEK as described above
       in Section 12.6.1.  If the computed key checksum value does not
       match the decrypted key checksum value, ICV, then error.
   8.  Check for odd parity each of the DES key octets comprising CEK.
       If parity is incorrect, then there is an error.
   9.  Use CEK as the content-encryption key.

12.6.4  RC2 Key Wrap

   The RC2 key wrap algorithm encrypts a RC2 content-encryption key with
   a RC2 key-encryption key.  The RC2 key wrap algorithm is:

   1.  Let the content-encryption key be called CEK, and let the length
       of the content-encryption key in octets be called LENGTH.  LENGTH
       is a single octet.
   2.  Let LCEK = LENGTH || CEK.
   3.  Let LCEKPAD = LCEK || PAD.  If the length of LCEK is a multiple
       of 8, the PAD has a length of zero.  If the length of LCEK is
       not a multiple of 8, then PAD contains the fewest number of
       random octets to make the length of LCEKPAD a multiple of 8.
   4.  Compute an 8 octet key checksum value on LCEKPAD as described
       above in Section 12.6.1, call the result ICV.
   5.  Let LCEKPADICV = LCEKPAD || ICV.
   6.  Generate 8 octets at random, call the result IV.
   7.  Encrypt LCEKPADICV in CBC mode using the key-encryption key.
       Use the random value generated in the previous step as the
       initialization vector (IV).  Call the ciphertext TEMP1.
   8.  Let TEMP2 = IV || TEMP1.
   9.  Reverse the order of the octets in TEMP2.  That is, the most
       significant (first) octet is swapped with the least significant
       (last) octet, and so on.  Call the result TEMP3.
   10. Encrypt TEMP3 in CBC mode using the key-encryption key.  Use
       an initialization vector (IV) of 0x4adda22c79e82105.

   Note:  When the same content-encryption key is wrapped in different
   key-encryption keys, a fresh initialization vector (IV) must be
   generated for each invocation of the key wrap algorithm.



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12.6.5  RC2 Key Unwrap

   The RC2 key unwrap algorithm decrypts a RC2 content-encryption key
   using a RC2 key-encryption key.  The RC2 key unwrap algorithm is:

   1.  If the wrapped content-encryption key is not a multiple of 8
       octets, then error.
   2.  Decrypt the wrapped content-encryption key in CBC mode using
       the key-encryption key.  Use an initialization vector (IV)
       of 0x4adda22c79e82105.  Call the output TEMP3.
   3.  Reverse the order of the octets in TEMP3.  That is, the most
       significant (first) octet is swapped with the least significant
       (last) octet, and so on.  Call the result TEMP2.
   4.  Decompose the TEMP2 into IV and TEMP1.  IV is the most
       significant (first) 8 octets, and TEMP1 is the remaining octets.

   5.  Decrypt TEMP1 in CBC mode using the key-encryption key.  Use
       the IV value from the previous step as the initialization vector.
       Call the plaintext LCEKPADICV.
   6.  Decompose the LCEKPADICV into LCEKPAD, and ICV.  ICV is the
       least significant (last) octet 8 octets.  LCEKPAD is the
       remaining octets.
   7.  Compute an 8 octet key checksum value on LCEKPAD as described
       above in Section 12.6.1.  If the computed key checksum value
       does not match the decrypted key checksum value, ICV, then error.
   8.  Decompose the LCEKPAD into LENGTH, CEK, and PAD.  LENGTH is the
       most significant (first) octet.  CEK is the following LENGTH
       octets.  PAD is the remaining octets, if any.
   9.  If the length of PAD is more than 7 octets, then error.
   10. Use CEK as the content-encryption key.





















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Appendix A:  ASN.1 Module

CryptographicMessageSyntax
    { iso(1) member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549)
      pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) modules(0) cms(1) }

DEFINITIONS IMPLICIT TAGS ::=
BEGIN

-- EXPORTS All
-- The types and values defined in this module are exported for use in
-- the other ASN.1 modules.  Other applications may use them for their
-- own purposes.

IMPORTS

  -- Directory Information Framework (X.501)
        Name
           FROM InformationFramework { joint-iso-itu-t ds(5) modules(1)
                informationFramework(1) 3 }

  -- Directory Authentication Framework (X.509)
        AlgorithmIdentifier, AttributeCertificate, Certificate,
        CertificateList, CertificateSerialNumber
           FROM AuthenticationFramework { joint-iso-itu-t ds(5)
                module(1) authenticationFramework(7) 3 } ;


-- Cryptographic Message Syntax

ContentInfo ::= SEQUENCE {
  contentType ContentType,
  content [0] EXPLICIT ANY DEFINED BY contentType }

ContentType ::= OBJECT IDENTIFIER

SignedData ::= SEQUENCE {
  version CMSVersion,
  digestAlgorithms DigestAlgorithmIdentifiers,
  encapContentInfo EncapsulatedContentInfo,
  certificates [0] IMPLICIT CertificateSet OPTIONAL,
  crls [1] IMPLICIT CertificateRevocationLists OPTIONAL,
  signerInfos SignerInfos }

DigestAlgorithmIdentifiers ::= SET OF DigestAlgorithmIdentifier

SignerInfos ::= SET OF SignerInfo




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EncapsulatedContentInfo ::= SEQUENCE {
  eContentType ContentType,
  eContent [0] EXPLICIT OCTET STRING OPTIONAL }

SignerInfo ::= SEQUENCE {
  version CMSVersion,
  sid SignerIdentifier,
  digestAlgorithm DigestAlgorithmIdentifier,
  signedAttrs [0] IMPLICIT SignedAttributes OPTIONAL,
  signatureAlgorithm SignatureAlgorithmIdentifier,
  signature SignatureValue,
  unsignedAttrs [1] IMPLICIT UnsignedAttributes OPTIONAL }

SignerIdentifier ::= CHOICE {
  issuerAndSerialNumber IssuerAndSerialNumber,
  subjectKeyIdentifier [0] SubjectKeyIdentifier }

SignedAttributes ::= SET SIZE (1..MAX) OF Attribute

UnsignedAttributes ::= SET SIZE (1..MAX) OF Attribute

Attribute ::= SEQUENCE {
  attrType OBJECT IDENTIFIER,
  attrValues SET OF AttributeValue }

AttributeValue ::= ANY

SignatureValue ::= OCTET STRING

EnvelopedData ::= SEQUENCE {
  version CMSVersion,
  originatorInfo [0] IMPLICIT OriginatorInfo OPTIONAL,
  recipientInfos RecipientInfos,
  encryptedContentInfo EncryptedContentInfo,
  unprotectedAttrs [1] IMPLICIT UnprotectedAttributes OPTIONAL }

OriginatorInfo ::= SEQUENCE {
  certs [0] IMPLICIT CertificateSet OPTIONAL,
  crls [1] IMPLICIT CertificateRevocationLists OPTIONAL }

RecipientInfos ::= SET OF RecipientInfo

EncryptedContentInfo ::= SEQUENCE {
  contentType ContentType,
  contentEncryptionAlgorithm ContentEncryptionAlgorithmIdentifier,
  encryptedContent [0] IMPLICIT EncryptedContent OPTIONAL }

EncryptedContent ::= OCTET STRING



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UnprotectedAttributes ::= SET SIZE (1..MAX) OF Attribute

RecipientInfo ::= CHOICE {
  ktri KeyTransRecipientInfo,
  kari [1] KeyAgreeRecipientInfo,
  kekri [2] KEKRecipientInfo }

EncryptedKey ::= OCTET STRING

KeyTransRecipientInfo ::= SEQUENCE {
  version CMSVersion,  -- always set to 0 or 2
  rid RecipientIdentifier,
  keyEncryptionAlgorithm KeyEncryptionAlgorithmIdentifier,
  encryptedKey EncryptedKey }

RecipientIdentifier ::= CHOICE {
  issuerAndSerialNumber IssuerAndSerialNumber,
  subjectKeyIdentifier [0] SubjectKeyIdentifier }

KeyAgreeRecipientInfo ::= SEQUENCE {
  version CMSVersion,  -- always set to 3
  originator [0] EXPLICIT OriginatorIdentifierOrKey,
  ukm [1] EXPLICIT UserKeyingMaterial OPTIONAL,
  keyEncryptionAlgorithm KeyEncryptionAlgorithmIdentifier,
  recipientEncryptedKeys RecipientEncryptedKeys }

OriginatorIdentifierOrKey ::= CHOICE {
  issuerAndSerialNumber IssuerAndSerialNumber,
  subjectKeyIdentifier [0] SubjectKeyIdentifier,
  originatorKey [1] OriginatorPublicKey }

OriginatorPublicKey ::= SEQUENCE {
  algorithm AlgorithmIdentifier,
  publicKey BIT STRING }

RecipientEncryptedKeys ::= SEQUENCE OF RecipientEncryptedKey

RecipientEncryptedKey ::= SEQUENCE {
  rid KeyAgreeRecipientIdentifier,
  encryptedKey EncryptedKey }

KeyAgreeRecipientIdentifier ::= CHOICE {
  issuerAndSerialNumber IssuerAndSerialNumber,
  rKeyId [0] IMPLICIT RecipientKeyIdentifier }







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RecipientKeyIdentifier ::= SEQUENCE {
  subjectKeyIdentifier SubjectKeyIdentifier,
  date GeneralizedTime OPTIONAL,
  other OtherKeyAttribute OPTIONAL }

SubjectKeyIdentifier ::= OCTET STRING

KEKRecipientInfo ::= SEQUENCE {
  version CMSVersion,  -- always set to 4
  kekid KEKIdentifier,
  keyEncryptionAlgorithm KeyEncryptionAlgorithmIdentifier,
  encryptedKey EncryptedKey }

KEKIdentifier ::= SEQUENCE {
  keyIdentifier OCTET STRING,
  date GeneralizedTime OPTIONAL,
  other OtherKeyAttribute OPTIONAL }

DigestedData ::= SEQUENCE {
  version CMSVersion,
  digestAlgorithm DigestAlgorithmIdentifier,
  encapContentInfo EncapsulatedContentInfo,
  digest Digest }

Digest ::= OCTET STRING

EncryptedData ::= SEQUENCE {
  version CMSVersion,
  encryptedContentInfo EncryptedContentInfo,
  unprotectedAttrs [1] IMPLICIT UnprotectedAttributes OPTIONAL }

AuthenticatedData ::= SEQUENCE {
  version CMSVersion,
  originatorInfo [0] IMPLICIT OriginatorInfo OPTIONAL,
  recipientInfos RecipientInfos,
  macAlgorithm MessageAuthenticationCodeAlgorithm,
  digestAlgorithm [1] DigestAlgorithmIdentifier OPTIONAL,
  encapContentInfo EncapsulatedContentInfo,
  authenticatedAttributes [2] IMPLICIT AuthAttributes OPTIONAL,
  mac MessageAuthenticationCode,
  unauthenticatedAttributes [3] IMPLICIT UnauthAttributes OPTIONAL }

AuthAttributes ::= SET SIZE (1..MAX) OF Attribute

UnauthAttributes ::= SET SIZE (1..MAX) OF Attribute

MessageAuthenticationCode ::= OCTET STRING




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RFC 2630              Cryptographic Message Syntax             June 1999


DigestAlgorithmIdentifier ::= AlgorithmIdentifier

SignatureAlgorithmIdentifier ::= AlgorithmIdentifier

KeyEncryptionAlgorithmIdentifier ::= AlgorithmIdentifier

ContentEncryptionAlgorithmIdentifier ::= AlgorithmIdentifier

MessageAuthenticationCodeAlgorithm ::= AlgorithmIdentifier

CertificateRevocationLists ::= SET OF CertificateList

CertificateChoices ::= CHOICE {
  certificate Certificate,  -- See X.509
  extendedCertificate [0] IMPLICIT ExtendedCertificate,  -- Obsolete
  attrCert [1] IMPLICIT AttributeCertificate }  -- See X.509 & X9.57

CertificateSet ::= SET OF CertificateChoices

IssuerAndSerialNumber ::= SEQUENCE {
  issuer Name,
  serialNumber CertificateSerialNumber }

CMSVersion ::= INTEGER  { v0(0), v1(1), v2(2), v3(3), v4(4) }

UserKeyingMaterial ::= OCTET STRING

OtherKeyAttribute ::= SEQUENCE {
  keyAttrId OBJECT IDENTIFIER,
  keyAttr ANY DEFINED BY keyAttrId OPTIONAL }


-- CMS Attributes

MessageDigest ::= OCTET STRING

SigningTime  ::= Time

Time ::= CHOICE {
  utcTime UTCTime,
  generalTime GeneralizedTime }

Countersignature ::= SignerInfo








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RFC 2630              Cryptographic Message Syntax             June 1999


-- Algorithm Identifiers

sha-1 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) identified-organization(3)
    oiw(14) secsig(3) algorithm(2) 26 }

md5 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2) us(840)
    rsadsi(113549) digestAlgorithm(2) 5 }

id-dsa-with-sha1 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=  { iso(1) member-body(2)
    us(840) x9-57 (10040) x9cm(4) 3 }

rsaEncryption OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
    us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-1(1) 1 }

dh-public-number OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
    us(840) ansi-x942(10046) number-type(2) 1 }

id-alg-ESDH OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2) us(840)
    rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) alg(3) 5 }

id-alg-CMS3DESwrap OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
    us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) alg(3) 6 }

id-alg-CMSRC2wrap OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
    us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) alg(3) 7 }

des-ede3-cbc OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
    us(840) rsadsi(113549) encryptionAlgorithm(3) 7 }

rc2-cbc OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2) us(840)
    rsadsi(113549) encryptionAlgorithm(3) 2 }

hMAC-SHA1 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) identified-organization(3)
    dod(6) internet(1) security(5) mechanisms(5) 8 1 2 }


-- Algorithm Parameters

KeyWrapAlgorithm ::= AlgorithmIdentifier

RC2wrapParameter ::= RC2ParameterVersion

RC2ParameterVersion ::= INTEGER

CBCParameter ::= IV

IV ::= OCTET STRING  -- exactly 8 octets




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RFC 2630              Cryptographic Message Syntax             June 1999


RC2CBCParameter ::= SEQUENCE {
  rc2ParameterVersion INTEGER,
  iv OCTET STRING  }  -- exactly 8 octets


-- Content Type Object Identifiers

id-ct-contentInfo OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
    us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16)
    ct(1) 6 }

id-data OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
    us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs7(7) 1 }

id-signedData OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
    us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs7(7) 2 }

id-envelopedData OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
    us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs7(7) 3 }

id-digestedData OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
    us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs7(7) 5 }

id-encryptedData OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
    us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs7(7) 6 }

id-ct-authData OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
    us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16)
    ct(1) 2 }


-- Attribute Object Identifiers

id-contentType OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
    us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9) 3 }

id-messageDigest OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
    us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9) 4 }

id-signingTime OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
    us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9) 5 }

id-countersignature OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
    us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9) 6 }







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RFC 2630              Cryptographic Message Syntax             June 1999


-- Obsolete Extended Certificate syntax from PKCS#6

ExtendedCertificate ::= SEQUENCE {
  extendedCertificateInfo ExtendedCertificateInfo,
  signatureAlgorithm SignatureAlgorithmIdentifier,
  signature Signature }

ExtendedCertificateInfo ::= SEQUENCE {
  version CMSVersion,
  certificate Certificate,
  attributes UnauthAttributes }

Signature ::= BIT STRING


END -- of CryptographicMessageSyntax



































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RFC 2630              Cryptographic Message Syntax             June 1999


References

   3DES       American National Standards Institute.  ANSI X9.52-1998,
              Triple Data Encryption Algorithm Modes of Operation. 1998.

   DES        American National Standards Institute.  ANSI X3.106,
              "American National Standard for Information Systems - Data
              Link Encryption".  1983.

   DH-X9.42   Rescorla, E., "Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement Method",
              RFC 2631, June 1999.

   DSS        National Institute of Standards and Technology.
              FIPS Pub 186: Digital Signature Standard.  19 May 1994.

   ESS        Hoffman, P., Editor, "Enhanced Security Services for
              S/MIME", RFC 2634, June 1999.

   HMAC       Krawczyk, H., "HMAC: Keyed-Hashing for Message
              Authentication", RFC 2104, February 1997.

   MD5        Rivest, R., "The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm", RFC 1321,
              April 1992.

   MODES      National Institute of Standards and Technology.
              FIPS Pub 81: DES Modes of Operation.  2 December 1980.

   MSG        Ramsdell, B., Editor, "S/MIME Version 3 Message
              Specification", RFC 2633, June 1999.

   NEWPKCS#1  Kaliski, B., "PKCS #1: RSA Encryption, Version 2.0",
              RFC 2347, October 1998.

   PROFILE    Housley, R., Ford, W., Polk, W. and D. Solo, "Internet
              X.509 Public Key Infrastructure: Certificate and CRL
              Profile", RFC 2459, January 1999.

   PKCS#1     Kaliski, B., "PKCS #1: RSA Encryption, Version 1.5.",
              RFC 2313, March 1998.

   PKCS#6     RSA Laboratories.  PKCS #6: Extended-Certificate Syntax
              Standard, Version 1.5.  November 1993.

   PKCS#7     Kaliski, B., "PKCS #7: Cryptographic Message Syntax,
              Version 1.5.", RFC 2315, March 1998.

   PKCS#9     RSA Laboratories.  PKCS #9: Selected Attribute Types,
              Version 1.1.  November 1993.



Housley                     Standards Track                    [Page 55]

RFC 2630              Cryptographic Message Syntax             June 1999


   RANDOM     Eastlake, D., Crocker, S. and J. Schiller, "Randomness
              Recommendations for Security", RFC 1750, December 1994.

   RC2        Rivest, R., "A Description of the RC2 (r) Encryption
              Algorithm", RFC 2268, March 1998.

   SHA1       National Institute of Standards and Technology.
              FIPS Pub 180-1: Secure Hash Standard.  17 April 1995.

   X.208-88   CCITT.  Recommendation X.208: Specification of Abstract
              Syntax Notation One (ASN.1).  1988.

   X.209-88   CCITT.  Recommendation X.209: Specification of Basic
              Encoding Rules for Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1).
              1988.

   X.501-88   CCITT.  Recommendation X.501: The Directory - Models.
              1988.

   X.509-88   CCITT.  Recommendation X.509: The Directory -
              Authentication Framework.  1988.

   X.509-97   ITU-T.  Recommendation X.509: The Directory -
              Authentication Framework.  1997.

Security Considerations

   The Cryptographic Message Syntax provides a method for digitally
   signing data, digesting data, encrypting data, and authenticating
   data.

   Implementations must protect the signer's private key.  Compromise of
   the signer's private key permits masquerade.

   Implementations must protect the key management private key, the
   key-encryption key, and the content-encryption key.  Compromise of
   the key management private key or the key-encryption key may result
   in the disclosure of all messages protected with that key.
   Similarly, compromise of the content-encryption key may result in
   disclosure of the associated encrypted content.

   Implementations must protect the key management private key and the
   message-authentication key.  Compromise of the key management private
   key permits masquerade of authenticated data.  Similarly, compromise
   of the message-authentication key may result in undetectable
   modification of the authenticated content.





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RFC 2630              Cryptographic Message Syntax             June 1999


   Implementations must randomly generate content-encryption keys,
   message-authentication keys, initialization vectors (IVs), and
   padding.  Also, the generation of public/private key pairs relies on
   a random numbers.  The use of inadequate pseudo-random number
   generators (PRNGs) to generate cryptographic keys can result in
   little or no security.  An attacker may find it much easier to
   reproduce the PRNG environment that produced the keys, searching the
   resulting small set of possibilities, rather than brute force
   searching the whole key space.  The generation of quality random
   numbers is difficult.  RFC 1750 [RANDOM] offers important guidance in
   this area, and Appendix 3 of FIPS Pub 186 [DSS] provides one quality
   PRNG technique.

   When using key agreement algorithms or previously distributed
   symmetric key-encryption keys, a key-encryption key is used to
   encrypt the content-encryption key.  If the key-encryption and
   content-encryption algorithms are different, the effective security
   is determined by the weaker of the two algorithms.  If, for example,
   a message content is encrypted with 168-bit Triple-DES and the
   Triple-DES content-encryption key is wrapped with a 40-bit RC2 key,
   then at most 40 bits of protection is provided.  A trivial search to
   determine the value of the 40-bit RC2 key can recover Triple-DES key,
   and then the Triple-DES key can be used to decrypt the content.
   Therefore, implementers must ensure that key-encryption algorithms
   are as strong or stronger than content-encryption algorithms.

   Section 12.6 specifies key wrap algorithms used to encrypt a Triple-
   DES [3DES] content-encryption key with a Triple-DES key-encryption
   key or to encrypt a RC2 [RC2] content-encryption key with a RC2 key-
   encryption key.  The key wrap algorithms make use of CBC mode
   [MODES].  These key wrap algorithms have been reviewed for use with
   Triple and RC2.  They have not been reviewed for use with other
   cryptographic modes or other encryption algorithms.  Therefore, if a
   CMS implementation wishes to support ciphers in addition to Triple-
   DES or RC2, then additional key wrap algorithms need to be defined to
   support the additional ciphers.

   Implementers should be aware that cryptographic algorithms become
   weaker with time.  As new cryptoanalysis techniques are developed and
   computing performance improves, the work factor to break a particular
   cryptographic algorithm will reduce.  Therefore, cryptographic
   algorithm implementations should be modular allowing new algorithms
   to be readily inserted.  That is, implementers should be prepared for
   the set of mandatory to implement algorithms to change over time.

   The countersignature unauthenticated attribute includes a digital
   signature that is computed on the content signature value, thus the
   countersigning process need not know the original signed content.



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   This structure permits implementation efficiency advantages; however,
   this structure may also permit the countersigning of an inappropriate
   signature value.  Therefore, implementations that perform
   countersignatures should either verify the original signature value
   prior to countersigning it (this verification requires processing of
   the original content), or implementations should perform
   countersigning in a context that ensures that only appropriate
   signature values are countersigned.

   Users of CMS, particularly those employing CMS to support interactive
   applications, should be aware that PKCS #1 Version 1.5 as specified
   in RFC 2313 [PKCS#1] is vulnerable to adaptive chosen ciphertext
   attacks when applied for encryption purposes.  Exploitation of this
   identified vulnerability, revealing the result of a particular RSA
   decryption, requires access to an oracle which will respond to a
   large number of ciphertexts (based on currently available results,
   hundreds of thousands or more), which are constructed adaptively in
   response to previously-received replies providing information on the
   successes or failures of attempted decryption operations.  As a
   result, the attack appears significantly less feasible to perpetrate
   for store-and-forward S/MIME environments than for directly
   interactive protocols.  Where CMS constructs are applied as an
   intermediate encryption layer within an interactive request-response
   communications environment, exploitation could be more feasible.

   An updated version of PKCS #1 has been published, PKCS #1 Version 2.0
   [NEWPKCS#1].  This new document will supersede RFC 2313.  PKCS #1
   Version 2.0 preserves support for the encryption padding format
   defined in PKCS #1 Version 1.5 [PKCS#1], and it also defines a new
   alternative.  To resolve the adaptive chosen ciphertext
   vulnerability, the PKCS #1 Version 2.0 specifies and recommends use
   of Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding (OAEP) when RSA encryption
   is used to provide confidentiality.  Designers of protocols and
   systems employing CMS for interactive environments should either
   consider usage of OAEP, or should ensure that information which could
   reveal the success or failure of attempted PKCS #1 Version 1.5
   decryption operations is not provided.  Support for OAEP will likely
   be added to a future version of the CMS specification.

Acknowledgments

   This document is the result of contributions from many professionals.
   I appreciate the hard work of all members of the IETF S/MIME Working
   Group.  I extend a special thanks to Rich Ankney, Tim Dean, Steve
   Dusse, Carl Ellison, Peter Gutmann, Bob Jueneman, Stephen Henson,
   Paul Hoffman, Scott Hollenbeck, Don Johnson, Burt Kaliski, John Linn,
   John Pawling, Blake Ramsdell, Francois Rousseau, Jim Schaad, and Dave
   Solo for their efforts and support.



Housley                     Standards Track                    [Page 58]

RFC 2630              Cryptographic Message Syntax             June 1999


Author's Address

   Russell Housley
   SPYRUS
   381 Elden Street
   Suite 1120
   Herndon, VA 20170
   USA

   EMail: housley@spyrus.com









































Housley                     Standards Track                    [Page 59]

RFC 2630              Cryptographic Message Syntax             June 1999


Full Copyright Statement

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Housley                     Standards Track                    [Page 60]


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