[Docs] [txt|pdf] [draft-ietf-rap-rs...] [Diff1] [Diff2]

Obsoleted by: 3182 PROPOSED STANDARD

Network Working Group                                           S. Yadav
Request for Comments: 2752                                   R. Yavatkar
Category: Standards Track                                          Intel
                                                              R. Pabbati
                                                                 P. Ford
                                                                T. Moore
                                                               Microsoft
                                                               S. Herzog
                                                               IPHighway
                                                            January 2000


                    Identity Representation for RSVP

Status of this Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2000).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   This document describes the representation of identity information in
   POLICY_DATA object [POL-EXT] for supporting policy based admission
   control in RSVP. The goal of identity representation is to allow a
   process on a system to securely identify the owner and the
   application of the communicating process (e.g. user id) and convey
   this information in RSVP messages (PATH or RESV) in a secure manner.
   We describe the encoding of identities as RSVP policy element. We
   describe the processing rules to generate identity policy elements
   for multicast merged flows. Subsequently, we describe representations
   of user identities for Kerberos and Public Key based user
   authentication mechanisms. In summary we describe the use of this
   identity information in an operational setting.

1. Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC-2119].





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2. Introduction

   RSVP [RFC 2205] is a resource reservation setup protocol designed for
   an integrated services Internet [RFC 1633]. RSVP is used by a host to
   request specific quality of service (QoS) from the network for
   particular application data streams or flows. RSVP is also used by
   routers to deliver QoS requests to all nodes along the path(s) of the
   flows and to establish and maintain state to provide the requested
   service. RSVP requests will generally result in resources being
   reserved in each node along the data path. RSVP allows particular
   users to obtain preferential access to network resources, under the
   control of an admission control mechanism. Permission to make a
   reservation is based both upon the availability of the requested
   resources along the path of the data and upon satisfaction of policy
   rules. Providing policy based admission control mechanism based on
   user identity or application is one of the prime requirements.

   In order to solve these problems and implement identity based policy
   control it is required to identify the user and/or application making
   a RSVP request.

   This document proposes a mechanism for sending identification
   information in the RSVP messages and enables authorization decisions
   based on policy and identity.

   We describe the authentication policy element (AUTH_DATA) contained
   in the POLICY_DATA object. User process can generate an AUTH_DATA
   policy element and gives it to RSVP process (service) on the
   originating host. RSVP service inserts AUTH_DATA into the RSVP
   message to identify the owner (user and/or application) making the
   request for network resources. Network elements, such as routers,
   authenticate request using the credentials presented in the AUTH_DATA
   and admit the RSVP message based on admission policy. After a request
   has been authenticated, first hop router installs the RSVP state and
   forwards the new policy element returned by the Policy Decision Point
   (PDP) [POL-FRAME].

3. Policy Element for Authentication Data

3.1 Policy Data Object Format

   POLICY_DATA objects contain policy information and are carried by
   RSVP messages. A detail description of the format of POLICY_DATA
   object can be found in "RSVP Extensions for Policy Control" [POL-
   EXT].






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3.2 Authentication Data Policy Element

   In this section, we describe a policy element (PE) called
   authentication data (AUTH_DATA). AUTH_DATA policy element contains a
   list of authentication attributes.

       +-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
       | Length                    | P-Type = Identity Type    |
       +-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
       // Authentication Attribute List                       //
       +-------------------------------------------------------+

   Length
       The length of the policy element (including the Length and P-
       Type) is in number of octets (MUST be a multiple of 4) and
       indicates the end of the authentication attribute list.

   P-Type (Identity Type)
       Type of identity information contained in this Policy Element
       supplied as the Policy element type (P-type). The Internet
       Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) acts as a registry for policy
       element types for identity as described in the [POL-EXT].
       Initially, the registry contains the following P-Types for
       identity:

       1   AUTH_USER       Authentication scheme to identify users

       2   AUTH_APP        Authentication scheme to identify
                           applications

   Authentication Attribute List

       Authentication attributes contain information specific to
       authentication method and type of AUTH_DATA.  The policy element
       provides the mechanism for grouping a collection of
       authentication attributes.

3.3 Authentication Attributes

   Authentication attributes MUST be encoded as a multiple of 4 octets,
   attributes that are not a multiple of 4 octets long MUST be padded to
   a 4-octet boundary.

   +--------+--------+--------+--------+
   | Length          | A-Type |SubType |
   +--------+--------+--------+--------+
   | Value ...
   +--------+--------+--------+--------+



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   Length
       The length field is two octets and indicates the actual length of
       the attribute (including the Length and A-Type fields) in number
       of octets. The length does not include any bytes padding to the
       value field to make the attribute multiple of 4 octets long.

   A-Type
       Authentication attribute type (A-Type) field is one octet. IANA
       acts as a registry for A-Types as described in the section 9,
       IANA Considerations. Initially, the registry contains the
       following A-Types:

           1  POLICY_LOCATOR     Unique string for locating the
                                 admission policy (such as X.500 DN
                                 described in [RFC 1779]).

           2  CREDENTIAL         User credential such as Kerberos
                                 ticket, or digital certificate.
                                 Application credential such as
                                 application ID.

           3  DIGITAL_SIGNATURE  Digital signature of the
                                 authentication data policy element.

           4  POLICY_ERROR_OBJECT Detailed information on policy
                                 failures.

   SubType
       Authentication attribute sub-type field is one octet. Value of
       SubType depends on A-type.

   Value:
       The value field contains the attribute specific information.

3.3.1 Policy Locator

   POLICY_LOCATOR is used to locate the admission policy for the user
   or application. Distinguished Name (DN) is unique for each User or
   application hence a DN is used as policy locator.

   +-------+-------+-------+-------+
   | Length        |A-Type |SubType|
   +-------+-------+-------+-------+
   | OctetString ...
   +-------+-------+-------+--------





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   Length
       Length of the attribute, which MUST be >= 4.

   A-Type
       POLICY_LOCATOR

   SubType
       Following sub types for POLICY_LOCATOR are defined. IANA acts as
       a registry for POLICY_LOCATOR sub types as described in the
       section 9, IANA Considerations. Initially, the registry contains
       the following sub types for POLICY_LOCATOR:

       1  ASCII_DN      OctetString contains the X.500 DN as described
                        in the RFC 1779 as an ASCII string.

       2  UNICODE_DN    OctetString contains the X.500 DN described in
                        the RFC 1779 as an UNICODE string.

       3  ASCII_DN_ENCRYPT  OctetString contains the encrypted X.500
                        DN. The Kerberos session key or digital
                        certificate private key is used for encryption.
                        For Kerberos encryption the format is the same
                        as returned from gss_seal [RFC 1509].

       4  UNICODE_DN_ENCRYPT  OctetString contains the encrypted
                        UNICODE X.500 DN. The Kerberos session key or
                        digital certificate private key is used for
                        encryption. For Kerberos encryption the format
                        is the same as returned from gss_seal [RFC
                        1509].

   OctetString
       The OctetString field contains the DN.

3.3.2 Credential

   CREDENTIAL indicates the credential of the user or application to be
   authenticated. For Kerberos authentication method the CREDENTIAL
   object contains the Kerberos session ticket. For public key based
   authentication this field contains a digital certificate.

   A summary of the CREDENTIAL attribute format is shown below. The
   fields are transmitted from left to right.








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   +-------+-------+-------+-------+
   | Length        |A-Type |SubType|
   +-------+-------+-------+-------+
   | OctetString ...
   +-------+-------+-------+--------

   Length
       Length of the attribute, which MUST be >= 4.

   A-Type
       CREDENTIAL

   SubType
       IANA acts as a registry for CREDENTIAL sub types as described in
       the section 9, IANA Considerations. Initially, the registry
       contains the following sub types for CREDENTIAL:

       1  ASCII_ID      OctetString contains user or application
                         identification in plain ASCII text string.

       2  UNICODE_ID    OctetString contains user or application
                         identification in plain UNICODE text string.

       3  KERBEROS_TKT  OctetString contains Kerberos ticket.

       4  X509_V3_CERT  OctetString contains X.509 V3 digital
                         certificate [X.509].

       5  PGP_CERT      OctetString contains PGP digital certificate.

       OctetString
       The OctetString contains the user or application credential.

3.3.3 Digital Signature

   The DIGITAL_SIGNATURE attribute MUST be the last attribute in the
   attribute list and contains the digital signature of the AUTH_DATA
   policy element.  The digital signature signs all data in the
   AUTH_DATA policy element up to the DIGITAL_SIGNATURE. The algorithm
   used to compute the digital signature depends on the authentication
   method specified by the CREDENTIAL SubType field.

   A summary of DIGITAL_SIGNATURE attribute format is described below.








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   +-------+-------+-------+-------+
   | Length        |A-Type |SubType|
   +-------+-------+-------+-------+
   | OctetString ...
   +-------+-------+-------+--------

   Length
       Length of the attribute, which MUST be >= 4.

       ti3 A-Type
       DIGITAL_SIGNATURE

   SubType
       No sub types for DIGITAL_SIGNATURE are currently defined. This
       field MUST be set to 0.

   OctetString
       OctetString contains the digital signature of the AUTH_DATA.

3.3.4 Policy Error Object

   This attribute is used to carry any specific policy control errors
   generated by a node when processing/validating an Authentication Data
   Policy Element. When a RSVP policy node (local policy decision point
   or remote PDP) encounters a request that fails policy control due to
   its Authentication Policy Element, it SHOULD add a POLICY_ERROR_CODE
   containing additional information about the reason the failure
   occurred into the policy element. This will then cause an appropriate
   PATH_ERROR or RESV_ERROR message to be generated with the policy
   element and appropriate RSVP error code in the message, which is
   returned to the request's source.

   The AUTH_DATA policy element in the PATH or RSVP message SHOULD not
   contain the POLICY_ERROR_OBJECT attribute. These are only inserted
   into PATH_ERROR and RESV_ERROR messages when generated by policy
   aware intermediate nodes.

   +----------+----------+----------+----------+
   | Length              | A-Type   |SubType(0)|
   +----------+----------+----------+----------+
   | 0 (Reserved)        | ErrorValue          |
   +----------+----------+----------+----------+
   | OctetString ...
   +----------+----------+----------+----------+

   Length
       Length of the attribute, which MUST be >= 8.




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   A-Type
       POLICY_ERROR_CODE

   ErrorValue
       A 32-bit bit code containing the reason that the policy decision
       point failed to process the policy element. Following values have
       been defined.

       1  ERROR_NO_MORE_INFO           No information is available.
       2  UNSUPPORTED_CREDENTIAL_TYPE  This type of credentials is
                                       not supported.

       3  INSUFFICIENT_PRIVILEGES      The credentials do not have
                                       sufficient privilege.

       4  EXPIRED_CREDENTIAL           The credential has expired.

       5  IDENTITY_CHANGED             Identity has changed.

   OctetString
       The OctetString field contains information from the policy
       decision point that MAY contain additional information about the
       policy failure. For example, it may include a human-readable
       message in the ASCII text.

4. Authentication Data Formats

   Authentication attributes are grouped in a policy element to
   represent the identity credentials.

4.1 Simple User Authentication

   In simple user authentication method the user login ID (in plain
   ASCII or UNICODE text) is encoded as CREDENTIAL attribute. A summary
   of the simple user AUTH_DATA policy element is shown below.

   +--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
   | Length                      | P-type = AUTH_USER          |
   +--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
   | Length                      |POLICY_LOCATOR| SubType      |
   +--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
   | OctetString (User's Distinguished Name) ...
   +--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
   | Length                      |CREDENTIAL    | ASCII_ID     |
   +--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
   | OctetString (User's login ID) ...
   +--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+




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4.2 Kerberos User Authentication

   Kerberos [RFC 1510] authentication uses a trusted third party (the
   Kerberos Distribution Center - KDC) to provide for authentication of
   the user to a network server. It is assumed that a KDC is present and
   both host and verifier of authentication information (router or PDP)
   implement Kerberos authentication.

   A summary of the Kerberos AUTH_DATA policy element is shown below.

   +--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
   | Length                      | P-type = AUTH_USER          |
   +--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
   | Length                      |POLICY_LOCATOR|   SubType    |
   +--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
   | OctetString (User's Distinguished Name) ...
   +--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
   | Length                      | CREDENTIAL   | KERBEROS_TKT |
   +--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
   | OctetString (Kerberos Session Ticket) ...
   +--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+

4.2.1. Operational Setting using Kerberos Identities

   An RSVP enabled host is configured to construct and insert AUTH_DATA
   policy element into RSVP messages that designate use of the Kerberos
   authentication method (KERBEROS_TKT). Upon RSVP session
   initialization, the user application contacts the KDC to obtain a
   Kerberos ticket for the next network node or its PDP. A router when
   generating a RSVP message contacts the KDC to obtain a Kerberos
   ticket for the next hop network node or its PDP. The identity of the
   PDP or next network hop can be statically configured, learned via
   DHCP or maintained in a directory service. The Kerberos ticket is
   sent to the next network node (which may be a router or host) in a
   RSVP message. The KDC is used to validate the ticket and
   authentication the user sending RSVP message.

4.3 Public Key based User Authentication

   In public key based user authentication method digital certificate is
   encoded as user credentials. The digital signature is used for
   authenticating the user. A summary of the public key user AUTH_DATA
   policy element is shown below.








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   +--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
   | Length                      | P-type = AUTH_USER          |
   +--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
   | Length                      |POLICY_LOCATOR|   SubType    |
   +--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
   | OctetString (User's Distinguished Name) ...
   +--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
   | Length                      | CREDENTIAL   |   SubType    |
   +--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
   | OctetString (User's Digital Certificate) ...
   +--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
   | Length                      |DIGITAL_SIGN. | 0            |
   +--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
   | OctetString (Digital signature) ...
   +--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+

4.3.1. Operational Setting for public key based authentication

   Public key based authentication assumes following:

       -  RSVP service requestors have a pair of keys (private key and
          public key).

       -  Private key is secured with the user.

       -  Public keys are stored in digital certificates and a trusted
          party, certificate authority (CA) issues these digital
          certificates.

       -  The verifier (PDP or router) has the ability to verify the
          digital certificate.

   RSVP requestor uses its private key to generate DIGITAL_SIGNATURE.
   User Authenticators (router, PDP) use the user's public key (stored
   in the digital certificate) to verify the signature and authenticate
   the user.

4.4 Simple Application Authentication

   The application authentication method encodes the application
   identification such as an executable filename as plain ASCII or
   UNICODE text.









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   +----------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
   | Length                        | P-type = AUTH_APP           |
   +----------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
   | Length                        |POLICY_LOCATOR| SubType      |
   +----------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
   | OctetString (Application Identity attributes in
   |              the form of  a Distinguished Name) ...
   +----------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
   | Length                        | CREDENTIAL   | ASCII_ID     |
   +----------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
   | OctetString (Application Id, e.g., vic.exe)
   +----------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+

5. Operation

   +-----+                                                  +-----+
   | PDP |-------+                                          | PDP |
   +-----+       |             ...................          +-----+
                 |             :                 :          |
               +--------+      :     Transit     :        +-------+
          +----| Router |------:     Network     : -------| Router|--+
          |    +--------+      :                 :        +-------+  |
          |        |           :.................:             |     |
          |        |                                           |     |
     Host A        B                                           C     D

     Figure 1: User and Application Authentication using AUTH_DATA PE

   Network nodes (hosts/routers) generate AUTH_DATA policy elements,
   contents of which are depend on the identity type used and the
   authentication method used. These generally contain authentication
   credentials (Kerberos ticket or digital certificate) and policy
   locators (which can be the X.500 Distinguished Name of the user or
   network node or application names). Network nodes generate AUTH_DATA
   policy element containing the authentication identity when making the
   RSVP request or forwarding a RSVP message.

   Network nodes generate user AUTH_DATA policy element using the
   following rules

   1. For unicast sessions the user policy locator is copied from the
      previous hop. The authentication credentials are for the current
      network node identity.

   2. For multicast messages the user policy locator is for the current
      network node identity. The authentication credentials are for the
      current network node.




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   Network nodes generate application AUTH_DATA policy element using the
   following rules:

   1. For unicast sessions the application AUTH_DATA is copied from the
      previous hop.

   2. For multicast messages the application AUTH_DATA is either the
      first application AUTH_DATA in the message or chosen by the PDP.

6. Message Processing Rules

6.1 Message Generation (RSVP Host)

   An RSVP message is created as specified in [RFC2205] with following
   modifications.

   1. RSVP message MAY contain multiple AUTH_DATA policy elements.

   2. Authentication policy element (AUTH_DATA) is created and the
      IdentityType field is set to indicate the identity type in the
      policy element.

      -  DN is inserted as POLICY_LOCATOR attribute.

      -  Credentials such as Kerberos ticket or digital certificate are
         inserted as the CREDENTIAL attribute.

   3. POLICY_DATA object (containing the AUTH_DATA policy element) is
      inserted in the RSVP message in appropriate place. If INTEGRITY
      object is not computed for the RSVP message then an INTEGRITY
      object SHOULD be computed for this POLICY_DATA object, as
      described in the [POL_EXT], and SHOULD be inserted as a Policy
      Data option.

6.2 Message Reception (Router)

   RSVP message is processed as specified in [RFC2205] with following
   modifications.

   1. If router is not policy aware then it SHOULD send the RSVP message
      to the PDP and wait for response. If the router is policy unaware
      then it ignores the policy data objects and continues processing
      the RSVP message.

   2. Reject the message if the response from the PDP is negative.

   3. Continue processing the RSVP message.




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6.3 Authentication (Router/PDP)

   1. Retrieve the AUTH_DATA policy element. Check the PE type field and
      return an error if the identity type is not supported.

   2. Verify user credential

      -  Simple authentication: e.g. Get user ID and validate it, or get
         executable name and validate it.

      -  Kerberos: Send the Kerberos ticket to the KDC to obtain the
         session key. Using the session key authenticate the user.

      -  Public Key: Validate the certificate that it was issued by a
         trusted Certificate Authority (CA) and authenticate the user or
         application by verifying the digital signature.

7. Error Signaling

   If PDP fails to verify the AUTH_DATA policy element then it MUST
   return policy control failure (Error Code = 02) to the PEP. The error
   values are described in [RFC 2205] and [POL-EXT]. Also PDP SHOULD
   supply a policy data object containing an AUTH_DATA Policy Element
   with A-Type=POLICY_ERROR_CODE containing more details on the Policy
   Control failure (see section 3.3.4). The PEP will include this Policy
   Data object in the outgoing RSVP Error message.

8. IANA Considerations

   Following the policies outlined in [IANA-CONSIDERATIONS],
   authentication attribute types (A-Type)in the range 0-127 are
   allocated through an IETF Consensus action, A-Type values between
   128-255 are reserved for Private Use and are not assigned by IANA.

   Following the policies outlined in [IANA-CONSIDERATIONS],
   POLICY_LOCATOR SubType values in the range 0-127 are allocated
   through an IETF Consensus action, POLICY_LOCATOR SubType values
   between 128-255 are reserved for Private Use and are not assigned by
   IANA.

   Following the policies outlined in [IANA-CONSIDERATIONS], CREDENTIAL
   SubType values in the range 0-127 are allocated through an IETF
   Consensus action, CREDENTIAL SubType values between 128-255 are
   reserved for Private Use and are not assigned by IANA.







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9. Security Considerations

   The purpose of this memo is to describe a mechanism to authenticate
   RSVP requests based on user identity in a secure manner. RSVP
   INTEGRITY object is used to protect the policy object containing user
   identity information from security (replay) attacks. Combining the
   AUTH_DATA policy element and the INTEGRITY object results in a secure
   access control that enforces authentication based on both the
   identity of the user and the identity of the originating node.

   Simple authentication does not contain credential that can be
   securely authenticated and is inherently less secured.

   The Kerberos authentication mechanism is reasonably well secured.

   User authentication using a public key certificate is known to
   provide the strongest security.

10. Acknowledgments

   We would like to thank Andrew Smith, Bob Lindell and many others for
   their valuable comments on this memo.

11. References

   [ASCII]               Coded Character Set -- 7-Bit American Standard
                         Code for Information Interchange, ANSI X3.4-
                         1986.

   [IANA-CONSIDERATIONS] Alvestrand, H. and T. Narten, "Guidelines for
                         Writing an IANA Considerations Section in
                         RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 2434, October 1998.

   [POL-EXT]             Herzog, S., "RSVP Extensions for Policy
                         Control", RFC 2750, January 2000.

   [POL-FRAME]           Yavatkar, R., Pendarakis, D. and R. Guerin, "A
                         Framework for Policy-based Admission Control
                         RSVP", RFC 2753, January 2000.

   [RFC 1510]            Kohl, J. and C. Neuman, "The Kerberos Network
                         Authentication Service (V5)", RFC 1510,
                         September 1993.

   [RFC 1704]            Haller, N. and R. Atkinson, "On Internet
                         Authentication", RFC 1704, October 1994.





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   [RFC 1779]            Killie, S., "A String Representation of
                         Distinguished Names", RFC 1779, March 1995.

   [RFC 2205]            Braden, R., Zhang, L., Berson, S., Herzog, S.
                         and S. Jamin, "Resource ReSerVation Protocol
                         (RSVP) - Version 1 Functional Specification",
                         RFC 2205, September 1997.

   [RFC 2209]            Braden, R. and L. Zhang, "Resource ReSerVation
                         Protocol (RSVP) - Version 1 Message Processing
                         Rules", RFC 2209, September 1997.

   [UNICODE]             The Unicode Consortium, "The Unicode Standard,
                         Version 2.0", Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA,
                         1996.

   [X.509]               Housley, R., Ford, W., Polk, W. and D. Solo,
                         "Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure
                         Certificate and CRL Profile", RFC 2459, January
                         1999.

   [X.509-ITU]           ITU-T (formerly CCITT) Information technology -
                         Open Systems Interconnection - The Directory:
                         Authentication Framework Recommendation X.509
                         ISO/IEC 9594-8


























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12. Author Information

   Satyendra Yadav
   Intel, JF3-206
   2111 NE 25th Avenue
   Hillsboro, OR 97124

   EMail: Satyendra.Yadav@intel.com


   Raj Yavatkar
   Intel, JF3-206
   2111 NE 25th Avenue
   Hillsboro, OR 97124

   EMail: Raj.Yavatkar@intel.com


   Ramesh Pabbati
   Microsoft
   1 Microsoft Way
   Redmond, WA 98054

   EMail: rameshpa@microsoft.com


   Peter Ford
   Microsoft
   1 Microsoft Way
   Redmond, WA 98054

   EMail: peterf@microsoft.com


   Tim Moore
   Microsoft
   1 Microsoft Way
   Redmond, WA 98054

   EMail: timmoore@microsoft.com


   Shai Herzog
   IPHighway, Inc.
   55 New York Avenue
   Framingham, MA 01701

   EMail: herzog@iphighway.com



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13. Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2000).  All Rights Reserved.

   This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
   others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
   or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
   and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
   kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
   included on all such copies and derivative works.  However, this
   document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
   the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
   Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
   developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
   copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
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Yadav, et al.               Standards Track                    [Page 17]


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