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INFORMATIONAL
Errata Exist
Network Working Group                                    D. Eastlake 3rd
Request for Comments: 3092                                      Motorola
Category: Informational                                        C. Manros
                                                                   Xerox
                                                              E. Raymond
                                                  Open Source Initiative
                                                            1 April 2001


                           Etymology of "Foo"

Status of this Memo

   This memo provides information for the Internet community.  It does
   not specify an Internet standard of any kind.  Distribution of this
   memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2001).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   Approximately 212 RFCs so far, starting with RFC 269, contain the
   terms `foo', `bar', or `foobar' as metasyntactic variables without
   any proper explanation or definition.  This document rectifies that
   deficiency.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction............................................1
   2. Definition and Etymology................................2
   3. Acronyms................................................5
   Appendix...................................................7
   Security Considerations...................................11
   References................................................12
   Authors' Addresses........................................13
   Full Copyright Statement..................................14

1. Introduction

   Approximately 212 RFCs, or about 7% of RFCs issued so far, starting
   with [RFC269], contain the terms `foo', `bar', or `foobar' used as a
   metasyntactic variable without any proper explanation or definition.
   This may seem trivial, but a number of newcomers, especially if
   English is not their native language, have had problems in
   understanding the origin of those terms.  This document rectifies
   that deficiency.



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RFC 3092                   Etymology of "Foo"               1 April 2001


   Section 2 below describes the definition and etymology of these words
   and Section 3 interprets them as acronyms.

   As an Appendix, we include a table of RFC occurrences of these words
   as metasyntactic variables.

2. Definition and Etymology

   bar /bar/ n. [JARGON]

   1. The second metasyntactic variable, after foo and before baz.
      "Suppose we have two functions: FOO and BAR.  FOO calls BAR...."

   2. Often appended to foo to produce foobar.

   foo /foo/

   1. interj.  Term of disgust.

   2. Used very generally as a sample name for absolutely anything, esp.
      programs and files (esp. scratch files).

   3. First on the standard list of metasyntactic variables used in
      syntax examples (bar, baz, qux, quux, corge, grault, garply,
      waldo, fred, plugh, xyzzy, thud). [JARGON]

      When used in connection with `bar' it is generally traced to the
      WW II era Army slang acronym FUBAR (`Fucked Up Beyond All
      Repair'), later modified to foobar.  Early versions of the Jargon
      File [JARGON] interpreted this change as a post-war
      bowdlerization, but it now seems more likely that FUBAR was itself
      a derivative of `foo' perhaps influenced by German `furchtbar'
      (terrible) - `foobar' may actually have been the original form.

      For, it seems, the word `foo' itself had an immediate prewar
      history in comic strips and cartoons.  In the 1938 Warner Brothers
      cartoon directed by Robert Clampett, "The Daffy Doc", a very early
      version of Daffy Duck holds up a sign saying "SILENCE IS FOO!"
      `FOO' and `BAR' also occurred in Walt Kelly's "Pogo" strips.  The
      earliest documented uses were in the surrealist "Smokey Stover"
      comic strip by Bill Holman about a fireman.  This comic strip
      appeared in various American comics including "Everybody's"
      between about 1930 and 1952.  It frequently included the word
      "FOO" on license plates of cars, in nonsense sayings in the
      background of some frames such as "He who foos last foos best" or
      "Many smoke but foo men chew", and had Smokey say "Where there's
      foo, there's fire".  Bill Holman, the author of the strip, filled
      it with odd jokes and personal contrivances, including other



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RFC 3092                   Etymology of "Foo"               1 April 2001


      nonsense phrases such as "Notary Sojac" and "1506 nix nix".
      According to the Warner Brothers Cartoon Companion [WBCC] Holman
      claimed to have found the word "foo" on the bottom of a Chinese
      figurine.  This is plausible; Chinese statuettes often have
      apotropaic inscriptions, and this may have been the Chinese word
      `fu' (sometimes transliterated `foo'), which can mean "happiness"
      when spoken with the proper tone (the lion-dog guardians flanking
      the steps of many Chinese restaurants are properly called "fu
      dogs") [PERS].  English speakers' reception of Holman's `foo'
      nonsense word was undoubtedly influenced by Yiddish `feh' and
      English `fooey' and `fool'. [JARGON, FOLDOC]

      Holman's strip featured a firetruck called the Foomobile that rode
      on two wheels.  The comic strip was tremendously popular in the
      late 1930s, and legend has it that a manufacturer in Indiana even
      produced an operable version of Holman's Foomobile.  According to
      the Encyclopedia of American Comics [EAC], `Foo' fever swept the
      U.S., finding its way into popular songs and generating over 500
      `Foo Clubs.' The fad left `foo' references embedded in popular
      culture (including the couple of appearances in Warner Brothers
      cartoons of 1938-39) but with their origins rapidly forgotten.
      [JARGON]

      One place they are known to have remained live is in the U.S.
      military during the WWII years.  In 1944-45, the term `foo
      fighters' [FF] was in use by radar operators for the kind of
      mysterious or spurious trace that would later be called a UFO (the
      older term resurfaced in popular American usage in 1995 via the
      name of one of the better grunge-rock bands [BFF]).  Informants
      connected the term to the Smokey Stover strip [PERS].

      The U.S. and British militaries frequently swapped slang terms
      during the war.  Period sources reported that `FOO' became a
      semi-legendary subject of WWII British-army graffiti more or less
      equivalent to the American Kilroy [WORDS].  Where British troops
      went, the graffito "FOO was here" or something similar showed up.
      Several slang dictionaries aver that FOO probably came from
      Forward Observation Officer, but this (like the contemporaneous
      "FUBAR") was probably a backronym [JARGON].  Forty years later,
      Paul Dickson's excellent book "Words" [WORDS] traced "Foo" to an
      unspecified British naval magazine in 1946, quoting as follows:

         "Mr. Foo is a mysterious Second World War product, gifted with
         bitter omniscience and sarcasm."

      Earlier versions of the Jargon File suggested the possibility that
      hacker usage actually sprang from "FOO, Lampoons and Parody", the
      title of a comic book first issued in September 1958, a joint



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RFC 3092                   Etymology of "Foo"               1 April 2001


      project of Charles and Robert Crumb.  Though Robert Crumb (then in
      his mid-teens) later became one of the most important and
      influential artists in underground comics, this venture was hardly
      a success; indeed, the brothers later burned most of the existing
      copies in disgust.  The title FOO was featured in large letters on
      the front cover.  However, very few copies of this comic actually
      circulated, and students of Crumb's `oeuvre' have established that
      this title was a reference to the earlier Smokey Stover comics.
      The Crumbs may also have been influenced by a short-lived Canadian
      parody magazine named `Foo' published in 1951-52. [JARGON]

      An old-time member reports that in the 1959 "Dictionary of the
      TMRC Language", compiled at TMRC (the Tech Model Railroad Club at
      MIT) there was an entry for Foo.  The current on-line version, in
      which "Foo" is the only word coded to appear red, has the
      following [TMRC]:

         Foo:  The sacred syllable (FOO MANI PADME HUM); to be spoken
         only when under obligation to commune with the Deity. Our first
         obligation is to keep the Foo Counters turning.

      This definition used Bill Holman's nonsense word, then only two
      decades old and demonstrably still live in popular culture and
      slang, to make a "ha ha only serious" analogy with esoteric
      Tibetan Buddhism.  Today's hackers would find it difficult to
      resist elaborating a joke like that, and it is not likely 1959's
      were any less susceptible. [JARGON]

   4. [EF] Prince Foo was the last ruler of Pheebor and owner of the
      Phee Helm, about 400 years before the reign of Entharion.  When
      Foo was beheaded by someone he called an "eastern fop" from
      Borphee, the glorious age of Pheebor ended, and Borphee rose to
      the prominence it now enjoys.

   5. [OED] A 13th-16th century usage for the devil or any other enemy.
      The earliest citation it gives is from the year 1366, Chaucer A B
      C (84): "Lat not our alder foo [devil] make his bobance [boast]".
      Chaucer's "Foo" is probably related to modern English "foe".

   6. Rare species of dog.

      A spitz-type dog discovered to exist after having long been
      considered extinct, the Chinese Foo Dog, or Sacred Dog of
      Sinkiang, may have originated through a crossing of Northern
      European hunting dogs and the ancient Chow Chow from Mongolia or
      be the missing link between the Chinese Wolf and the Chow Chow.
      It probably derives its name from foochow, of the kind or style




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RFC 3092                   Etymology of "Foo"               1 April 2001


      prevalent in Foochow, of or from the city of Foochow (now Minhow)
      in southeast China. [DOG]

   foobar n.

      [JARGON] A widely used metasyntactic variable; see foo for
      etymology.  Probably originally propagated through DECsystem
      manuals by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in 1960s and early
      1970s; confirmed sightings there go back to 1972.  Hackers do not
      generally use this to mean FUBAR in either the slang or jargon
      sense.  It has been plausibly suggested that "foobar" spread among
      early computer engineers partly because of FUBAR and partly
      because "foo bar" parses in electronics techspeak as an inverted
      foo signal.

   foo-fighter n.

      World War II term for Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs) noted by
      both German and British military.  See [FF] and entry above for
      "foo".

3. Acronyms

   The following information is derived primarily from the compilations
   at University Cork College <http://www.ucc.ie/acronyms> and Acronym
   Finder <http://www.AcronymFinder.com> generally filtered for computer
   usage.

   .bar:

      Generic file extension which is not meant to imply anything about
      the file type.

   BAR:

      Base Address Register

      Buffer Address Register

   FOO:

      Forward Observation Observer.

      FOO Of Oberlin.  An organization whose name is a recursive
      acronym.  Motto: The FOO, the Proud, the FOO.  See
      <http://cs.oberlin.edu/students/jmankoff/FOO/home.html>.

      File Open for Output.  An NFILE error code [RFC1037].



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RFC 3092                   Etymology of "Foo"               1 April 2001


   FOOBAR:

      FTP Operation Over Big Address Records [RFC1639].  (Particularly
      appropriate given that the first RFC to use "foo", [RFC269], was
      also about file transfer.)

   FUBAR:

      Failed UniBus Address Register - in a VAX, from Digital Equipment
      Corporation Engineering.

      Fucked Up Beyond All Recognition/Repair - From US Military in
      World War II.  Sometimes sanitized to "Fouled Up ...".

   FUBARD - Past tense of FUBAR.




































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RFC 3092                   Etymology of "Foo"               1 April 2001


Appendix

   Below is a table of RFC occurrences of these words as metasyntactic
   variables.  (This excludes other uses that are reasonably clear like
   "vertical bar" or "bar BoF".)  Many of these uses are for example
   domain names.  That usage may decrease with the specification in [RFC
   2606] of a Best Current Practice for example domain names.

   +------+-----+-----+---------+-------+-----+
   | RFC# | bar | foo | foo.bar | fubar |  #  |
   |      |     |     | foobar  |       |     |
   +------+-----+-----+---------+-------+-----+
   |  269 |  X  |  X  |         |       |   1 |
   |  441 |  X  |  X  |         |       |   2 |
   |  614 |     |  X  |         |       |   3 |
   |  686 |     |  X  |         |       |   4 |
   |  691 |     |  X  |         |       |   5 |
   |  733 |  X  |  X  |         |       |   6 |
   |  742 |     |  X  |         |       |   7 |
   |  743 |  X  |  X  |         |       |   8 |
   |  756 |     |  X  |         |       |   9 |
   |  765 |  X  |  X  |         |       |  10 |
   |  772 |  X  |  X  |         |   X   |  11 |
   |  775 |     |     |    X    |       |  12 |
   |  780 |  X  |  X  |         |   X   |  13 |
   |  788 |  X  |  X  |         |       |  14 |
   |  810 |  X  |  X  |    X    |       |  15 |
   |  819 |     |  X  |         |       |  16 |
   |  821 |  X  |  X  |         |       |  17 |
   |  822 |  X  |  X  |         |       |  18 |
   |  882 |  X  |  X  |         |       |  19 |
   |  883 |     |  X  |         |       |  20 |
   |  897 |  X  |  X  |         |       |  21 |
   |  913 |     |  X  |         |       |  22 |
   |  921 |  X  |  X  |         |       |  23 |
   |  934 |     |  X  |         |       |  24 |
   |  952 |  X  |  X  |    X    |       |  25 |
   |  959 |     |     |    X    |       |  26 |
   |  976 |     |     |    X    |       |  27 |
   |  977 |     |  X  |    X    |       |  28 |
   |  987 |     |     |    X    |       |  29 |
   | 1013 |     |  X  |         |       |  30 |
   | 1033 |  X  |  X  |         |       |  31 |
   | 1035 |     |  X  |         |       |  32 |
   | 1037 |     |  X  |         |       |  33 |
   | 1056 |  X  |  X  |    X    |       |  34 |
   | 1068 |     |  X  |         |       |  35 |
   | 1137 |     |     |    X    |       |  36 |



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RFC 3092                   Etymology of "Foo"               1 April 2001


   | 1138 |     |  X  |    X    |       |  37 |
   | 1148 |     |  X  |    X    |       |  38 |
   | 1173 |     |     |    X    |       |  39 |
   | 1176 |     |     |    X    |       |  40 |
   | 1186 |     |  X  |         |       |  41 |
   | 1194 |     |  X  |         |       |  42 |
   | 1196 |     |  X  |         |       |  43 |
   | 1203 |     |  X  |    X    |       |  44 |
   | 1288 |     |  X  |         |       |  45 |
   | 1291 |     |  X  |         |       |  46 |
   | 1309 |     |  X  |         |       |  47 |
   | 1327 |     |  X  |    X    |       |  48 |
   | 1341 |  X  |  X  |    X    |       |  49 |
   | 1343 |     |  X  |    X    |       |  50 |
   | 1344 |     |  X  |         |       |  51 |
   | 1348 |     |     |    X    |       |  52 |
   | 1386 |     |  X  |         |       |  53 |
   | 1408 |     |  X  |         |       |  54 |
   | 1411 |     |  X  |         |       |  55 |
   | 1412 |     |  X  |         |       |  56 |
   | 1459 |  X  |  X  |    X    |   X   |  57 |
   | 1480 |     |  X  |         |       |  58 |
   | 1505 |     |  X  |         |       |  59 |
   | 1519 |     |  X  |         |       |  60 |
   | 1521 |  X  |  X  |         |       |  61 |
   | 1523 |     |  X  |         |       |  62 |
   | 1524 |     |  X  |    X    |       |  63 |
   | 1526 |  X  |  X  |         |       |  64 |
   | 1535 |  X  |  X  |    X    |       |  65 |
   | 1536 |  X  |     |    X    |       |  66 |
   | 1537 |     |  X  |    X    |       |  67 |
   | 1563 |     |  X  |         |       |  68 |
   | 1564 |     |     |    X    |       |  69 |
   | 1572 |     |  X  |         |       |  70 |
   | 1573 |     |  X  |         |       |  71 |
   | 1622 |     |  X  |         |       |  72 |
   | 1635 |     |     |    X    |       |  73 |
   | 1636 |     |  X  |    X    |       |  74 |
   | 1642 |     |  X  |         |       |  75 |
   | 1645 |     |     |    X    |       |  76 |
   | 1649 |     |  X  |         |       |  77 |
   | 1664 |     |     |    X    |       |  78 |
   | 1681 |     |     |    X    |       |  79 |
   | 1697 |     |  X  |         |       |  80 |
   | 1716 |     |  X  |         |       |  81 |
   | 1718 |     |  X  |         |       |  82 |
   | 1730 |  X  |  X  |    X    |       |  83 |
   | 1734 |     |     |    X    |       |  84 |



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RFC 3092                   Etymology of "Foo"               1 April 2001


   | 1738 |     |  X  |         |       |  85 |
   | 1783 |     |     |    X    |       |  86 |
   | 1784 |     |     |    X    |       |  87 |
   | 1786 |  X  |  X  |         |       |  88 |
   | 1813 |  X  |  X  |         |       |  89 |
   | 1835 |     |  X  |    X    |       |  90 |
   | 1856 |     |     |    X    |       |  91 |
   | 1861 |     |     |    X    |       |  92 |
   | 1866 |     |  X  |         |       |  93 |
   | 1894 |     |     |    X    |       |  94 |
   | 1896 |     |  X  |         |       |  95 |
   | 1898 |     |  X  |         |       |  96 |
   | 1913 |     |  X  |    X    |       |  97 |
   | 1945 |  X  |  X  |         |       |  98 |
   | 1985 |     |  X  |    X    |       |  99 |
   | 2015 |  X  |  X  |         |       | 100 |
   | 2017 |     |  X  |         |       | 101 |
   | 2033 |  X  |  X  |         |       | 102 |
   | 2045 |     |     |    X    |       | 103 |
   | 2046 |  X  |  X  |         |       | 104 |
   | 2049 |  X  |  X  |         |       | 105 |
   | 2055 |     |  X  |         |       | 106 |
   | 2060 |  X  |  X  |    X    |       | 107 |
   | 2065 |     |  X  |         |       | 108 |
   | 2068 |     |     |    X    |       | 109 |
   | 2071 |     |  X  |         |       | 110 |
   | 2088 |     |     |    X    |       | 111 |
   | 2109 |     |  X  |         |       | 112 |
   | 2110 |     |  X  |    X    |       | 113 |
   | 2111 |  X  |  X  |    X    |       | 114 |
   | 2141 |     |  X  |         |       | 115 |
   | 2150 |     |  X  |         |       | 116 |
   | 2152 |     |  X  |         |       | 117 |
   | 2156 |     |  X  |    X    |       | 118 |
   | 2163 |     |     |    X    |       | 119 |
   | 2167 |     |     |    X    |       | 120 |
   | 2168 |     |     |    X    |       | 121 |
   | 2169 |     |     |    X    |       | 122 |
   | 2180 |  X  |  X  |         |       | 123 |
   | 2193 |  X  |  X  |         |       | 124 |
   | 2224 |     |  X  |         |       | 125 |
   | 2227 |  X  |  X  |         |       | 126 |
   | 2233 |     |  X  |         |       | 127 |
   | 2234 |  X  |  X  |    X    |       | 128 |
   | 2243 |     |  X  |         |       | 129 |
   | 2255 |     |  X  |    X    |       | 130 |
   | 2280 |  X  |  X  |         |       | 131 |
   | 2295 |     |  X  |         |       | 132 |



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RFC 3092                   Etymology of "Foo"               1 April 2001


   | 2302 |     |  X  |         |       | 133 |
   | 2311 |  X  |     |         |       | 134 |
   | 2326 |  X  |  X  |    X    |       | 135 |
   | 2342 |     |  X  |         |       | 136 |
   | 2348 |     |     |    X    |       | 137 |
   | 2349 |     |     |    X    |       | 138 |
   | 2359 |     |     |    X    |       | 139 |
   | 2369 |  X  |  X  |    X    |       | 140 |
   | 2378 |     |  X  |         |       | 141 |
   | 2384 |     |     |    X    |       | 142 |
   | 2392 |  X  |  X  |    X    |       | 143 |
   | 2396 |     |     |    X    |       | 144 |
   | 2401 |     |     |    X    |       | 145 |
   | 2407 |     |     |    X    |       | 146 |
   | 2421 |     |  X  |         |       | 147 |
   | 2425 |     |     |    X    |       | 148 |
   | 2434 |     |  X  |         |       | 149 |
   | 2446 |     |  X  |    X    |       | 150 |
   | 2447 |  X  |  X  |         |       | 151 |
   | 2458 |     |  X  |    X    |       | 152 |
   | 2459 |     |     |    X    |       | 153 |
   | 2476 |     |  X  |         |       | 154 |
   | 2483 |  X  |  X  |         |       | 155 |
   | 2486 |     |  X  |         |       | 156 |
   | 2505 |  X  |  X  |         |       | 157 |
   | 2518 |  X  |  X  |    X    |       | 158 |
   | 2535 |     |  X  |         |       | 159 |
   | 2538 |     |  X  |         |       | 160 |
   | 2543 |  X  |  X  |    X    |       | 161 |
   | 2554 |     |     |    X    |       | 162 |
   | 2557 |     |  X  |    X    |       | 163 |
   | 2565 |     |  X  |    X    |       | 164 |
   | 2569 |  X  |  X  |         |       | 165 |
   | 2593 |  X  |  X  |         |       | 166 |
   | 2595 |     |  X  |         |       | 167 |
   | 2608 |     |  X  |         |       | 168 |
   | 2609 |     |  X  |         |       | 169 |
   | 2616 |  X  |  X  |    X    |       | 170 |
   | 2622 |  X  |  X  |         |       | 171 |
   | 2626 |     |  X  |         |       | 172 |
   | 2633 |  X  |     |         |       | 173 |
   | 2640 |     |  X  |    X    |       | 174 |
   | 2645 |     |     |    X    |       | 175 |
   | 2650 |  X  |     |         |       | 176 |
   | 2659 |     |     |    X    |       | 177 |
   | 2673 |     |  X  |    X    |       | 178 |
   | 2693 |     |  X  |         |       | 179 |
   | 2704 |  X  |  X  |         |       | 180 |



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RFC 3092                   Etymology of "Foo"               1 April 2001


   | 2705 |  X  |  X  |         |       | 181 |
   | 2717 |     |  X  |    X    |       | 182 |
   | 2725 |  X  |  X  |         |       | 183 |
   | 2731 |  X  |  X  |    X    |       | 184 |
   | 2732 |     |  X  |         |       | 185 |
   | 2782 |     |  X  |    X    |       | 186 |
   | 2803 |     |  X  |         |       | 187 |
   | 2806 |     |  X  |         |       | 188 |
   | 2812 |  X  |  X  |    X    |   X   | 189 |
   | 2818 |  X  |  X  |         |       | 190 |
   | 2828 |     |  X  |    X    |       | 191 |
   | 2830 |  X  |     |         |       | 192 |
   | 2831 |  X  |  X  |    X    |       | 193 |
   | 2839 |     |  X  |         |       | 194 |
   | 2846 |  X  |  X  |         |       | 195 |
   | 2853 |     |  X  |         |       | 196 |
   | 2863 |     |  X  |         |       | 197 |
   | 2910 |     |  X  |    X    |       | 198 |
   | 2912 |     |  X  |    X    |       | 199 |
   | 2915 |     |  X  |         |       | 200 |
   | 2926 |     |     |    X    |       | 201 |
   | 2942 |     |  X  |         |       | 202 |
   | 2965 |     |  X  |         |       | 203 |
   | 2967 |  X  |  X  |    X    |       | 204 |
   | 2970 |     |  X  |         |       | 205 |
   | 2993 |  X  |  X  |         |       | 206 |
   | 3010 |  X  |  X  |         |       | 207 |
   | 3023 |     |  X  |         |       | 208 |
   | 3028 |     |  X  |         |       | 209 |
   | 3075 |  X  |  X  |         |       | 210 |
   | 3080 |     |  X  |         |       | 211 |
   | 3092 |  X  |  X  |    X    |   X   | 212 |
   +------+-----+-----+---------+-------+-----+
   | RFC# | bar | foo | foo.bar | fubar |  #  |
   |      |     |     | foobar  |       |     |
   +------+-----+-----+---------+-------+-----+

Security Considerations

   Security issues are not discussed in this memo.











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RFC 3092                   Etymology of "Foo"               1 April 2001


References

   [BFF]     "Best of Foo Fighters: Signature Licks", Troy Stetina, Foo
             Fighters, October 2000, Hal Leonard Publishing Corporation,
             ISBN 063401470.

   [DOG]     <http://www.rarebreed.com/breeds/foo/foo.html>.


   [EAC]     "Encyclopedia of American Comics", Ron Goulart, 1990, Facts
             on File.

   [EF]      "Encyclopedia Frobozzica",
             <http://www.everything2.com/index.pl?node=Prince%20Foo>

   [FF]      Foo Fighters - "The Rainbow Conspiracy", Brad Steiger,
             Sherry Hansen Steiger, December 1998, Kensington Publishing
             Corp., ISBN 1575663635.  - Computer UFO Network
             <http://www.cufon.org> particularly
             <http://www.cufon.org/cufon/foo.htm>.

   [FOLDOC]  "Free On-Line Dictionary Of Computing",
             <http://www.foldoc.org>.

   [JARGON]  The Jargon File.  See <http://www.jargon.org>.  Last
             printed as "The New Hacker's Dictionary", Eric S. Raymond,
             3rd Edition, MIT Press, ISBN 0-262-68092-0, 1996.

   [OED]     "The Oxford English Dictionary", J. A. Simpson, 1989,
             Oxford University Press, ISBN 0198611862.

   [PERS]    Personal communications.

   [RFC269]  Brodie, H., "Some Experience with File Transfer", RFC 269,
             December 1971.

   [RFC1037] Greenberg, B. and S. Keene, "NFILE - A File Access
             Protocol", RFC 1037, December 1987.

   [RFC1639] Piscitello, D., "FTP Operation Over Big Address Records
             (FOOBAR)", RFC 1639, June 1994.

   [RFC2606] Eastlake, D. and A. Panitz, "Reserved Top Level DNS Names",
             BCP 32, RFC 2606, June 1999.







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RFC 3092                   Etymology of "Foo"               1 April 2001


   [TMRC]    The Tech Model Railroad Club (The Model Railroad Club of
             the Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Dictionary,
             <http://tmrc-www.mit.edu/dictionary.html>.

   [WBCC]    "Warner Brothers Cartoon Companion",
             <http://members.aol.com/EOCostello/>.

   [WORDS]   "Words", Paul Dickson, ISBN 0-440-52260-7, Dell, 1982.

Authors' Addresses

   The authors of this document are:

   Donald E. Eastlake 3rd
   Motorola
   155 Beaver Street
   Milford, MA 01757 USA

   Phone:  +1 508-261-5434 (w)
           +1 508-634-2066 (h)
   Fax:    +1 508-261-4777 (w)
   EMail:  Donald.Eastlake@motorola.com


   Carl-Uno Manros
   Xerox Corporation
   701 Aviation Blvd.
   El Segundo, CA 90245 USA

   Phone:  +1 310-333-8273
   Fax:    +1 310-333-5514
   EMail:  manros@cp10.es.xerox.com


   Eric S. Raymond
   Open Source Initiative
   6 Karen Drive
   Malvern, PA 19355

   Phone:  +1 610-296-5718
   EMail:  esr@thyrsus.com










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RFC 3092                   Etymology of "Foo"               1 April 2001


Full Copyright Statement

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Acknowledgement

   Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
   Internet Society.



















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