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INFORMATIONAL

Network Working Group                                         K. Konishi
Request for Comments: 3743                                      K. Huang
Category: Informational                                          H. Qian
                                                                   Y. Ko
                                                              April 2004


              Joint Engineering Team (JET) Guidelines for
         Internationalized Domain Names (IDN) Registration and
            Administration for Chinese, Japanese, and Korean

Status of this Memo

   This memo provides information for the Internet community.  It does
   not specify an Internet standard of any kind.  Distribution of this
   memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).  All Rights Reserved.

IESG Note

   The IESG congratulates the Joint Engineering Team (JET) on developing
   mechanisms to enforce their desired policy.  The Language Variant
   Table mechanisms described here allow JET to enforce language-based
   character variant preferences, and they set an example for those who
   might want to use variant tables for their own policy enforcement.

   The IESG encourages those following this example to take JET's
   diligence as an example, as well as its technical work.  To follow
   their example, registration authorities may need to articulate
   policy, develop appropriate procedures and mechanisms for
   enforcement, and document the relationship between the two.  JET's
   LVT mechanism should be adaptable to different policies, and can be
   considered during that development process.

   The IETF does not, of course, dictate policy or require the use of
   any particular mechanisms for the implementation of these policies,
   as these are matters of sovereignty and contract.

Abstract

   Achieving internationalized access to domain names raises many
   complex issues.  These are associated not only with basic protocol
   design, such as how names are represented on the network, compared,
   and converted to appropriate forms, but also with issues and options
   for deployment, transition, registration, and administration.



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   The IETF Standards for Internationalized Domain Names, known as
   "IDNA", focuses on access to domain names in a range of scripts that
   is broader in scope than the original ASCII.  The development process
   made it clear that use of characters with similar appearances and/or
   interpretations created potential for confusion, as well as
   difficulties in deployment and transition.  The conclusion was that,
   while those issues were important, they could best be addressed
   administratively rather than through restrictions embedded in the
   protocols.  This document defines a set of guidelines for applying
   restrictions of that type for Chinese, Japanese and Korean (CJK)
   scripts and the zones that use them and, perhaps, the beginning of a
   framework for thinking about other zones, languages, and scripts.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Definitions, Context, and Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
       2.1.  Definitions and Context. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
       2.2.  Notation for Ideographs and Other Non-ASCII CJK
             Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   3.  Scope of the Administrative Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       3.1.  Principles Underlying These Guidelines . . . . . . . . . 10
       3.2.  Registration of IDL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
             3.2.1.  Using the Language Variant Table . . . . . . . . 13
             3.2.2.  IDL Package. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
             3.2.3.  Procedure for Registering IDLs . . . . . . . . . 14
       3.3.  Deletion and Transfer of IDL and IDL Package . . . . . . 19
       3.4.  Activation and Deactivation of IDL Variants  . . . . . . 19
             3.4.1.  Activation Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
             3.4.2.  Deactivation Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
       3.5.  Managing Changes in Language Associations. . . . . . . . 21
       3.6.  Managing Changes to Language Variant Tables. . . . . . . 21
   4.  Examples of Guideline Use in Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   5.  Syntax Description for the Language Variant Table. . . . . . . 25
       5.1.  ABNF Syntax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
       5.2.  Comments and Explanation of Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . 25
   6.  Security Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
   7.  Index to Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
   8.  Acknowledgments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
   9.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
       9.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
       9.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
   10. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
       10.1. Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
       10.2. Editors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
   11. Full Copyright Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33





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1.  Introduction

   Domain names form the fundamental naming architecture of the
   Internet.  Countless Internet protocols and applications rely on
   them, not just for stability and continuity, but also to avoid
   ambiguity.  They were designed to be identifiers without any language
   context.  However, as domain names have become visible to end users
   through Web URLs and e-mail addresses, the strings in domain-name
   labels are being increasingly interpreted as names, words, or
   phrases.  It is likely that users will do the same with languages of
   differing character sets, such as Chinese, Japanese and Korean (CJK),
   in which many words or concepts are represented using short sequences
   of characters.

   The introduction of what are called Internationalized Domain Names
   (IDN) amplifies both the difficulty of putting names into identifiers
   and the confusion that exists between scripts and languages.
   Character symbols that appear (or actually are) identical, or that
   have similar or identical semantics but that are assigned the
   different code points, further increase the potential for confusion.
   DNS internationalization also affects a number of Internet protocols
   and applications and creates additional layers of complexity in terms
   of technical administration and services.  Given the added
   complications of using a much broader range of characters than the
   original small ASCII subset, precautions are necessary in the
   deployment of IDNs in order to minimize confusion and fraud.

   The IETF IDN Working Group [IDN-WG] addressed the problem of handling
   the encoding and decoding of Unicode strings into and out of Domain
   Name System (DNS) labels with the goal that its solution would not
   put the operational DNS at any risk.  Its work resulted in one
   primary protocol and three supporting ones, respectively:

      1. Internationalizing Host Names in Applications [IDNA]
      2. Preparation of Internationalized Strings [STRINGPREP]
      3. A Stringprep Profile for Internationalized Domain Names
         [NAMEPREP]
      4. Punycode [PUNYCODE]

   IDNA, which calls on the others, normalizes and transforms strings
   that are intended to be used as IDNs.  In combination, the four
   provide the minimum functions required for internationalization, such
   as performing case mappings, eliminating character differences that
   would cause severe problems, and specifying matching (equality).
   They also convert between the resulting Unicode code points and an
   ASCII-based form that is more suitable for storing in actual DNS
   labels.  In this way, the IDNA transformations improve a user's
   chances of getting to the correct IDN.



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   Addressing the issues around differing character sets, a primary
   consideration and administrative challenge involves region-specific
   definitions, interpretations, and the semantics of strings to be used
   in IDNs.  A Unicode string may have a specific meaning as a name,
   word, or phrase in a particular language but that meaning could vary
   depending on the country, region, culture, or other context in which
   the string is used.  It might also have different interpretations in
   different languages that share some or all of the same characters.
   Therefore, individual zones and zone administrators may find it
   necessary to impose restrictions and procedures to reduce the
   likelihood of confusion, and instabilities of reference, within their
   own environments.

   Over the centuries, the evolution of CJK characters, and the
   differences in their use in different languages and even in different
   regions where the same language is spoken, has given rise to the idea
   of "variants", wherein one conceptual character can be identified
   with several different Code Points in character sets for computer
   use.  This document provides a framework for handling such variants
   while minimizing the possibility of serious user confusion in the
   obtaining or using of domain names.  However, the concept of variants
   is complex and may require many different layers of solutions. This
   guideline offers only one of those solution components.  It is not
   sufficient by itself to solve the whole problem, even with zone-
   specific tables as described below.

   Additionally, because of local language or writing-system
   differences, it is impossible to create universally accepted
   definitions for which potential variants are the same and which are
   not the same.  It is even more difficult to define a technical
   algorithm to generate variants that are linguistically accurate.
   That is, that the variant forms produced make as much sense in the
   language as the originally specified forms.  It is also possible that
   variants generated may have no meaning in the associated language or
   languages.  The intention is not to generate meaningful "words" but
   to generate similar variants to be reserved.  So even though the
   method described in this document may not always be linguistically
   accurate, nor does it need to be, it increases the chances of getting
   the right variants while accepting the inherent limitations of the
   DNS and the complexities of human language.

   This document outlines a model for such conventions for zones in
   which labels that contain CJK characters are to be registered and a
   system for implementing that model.  It provides a mechanism that
   allows each zone to define its own local rules for permitted
   characters and sequences and the handling of IDNs and their variants.





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   The document is an effort of the Joint Engineering Team (JET), a
   group composed of members of CNNIC, TWNIC, KRNIC, and JPNIC as well
   as other individual experts.  It offers guidelines for zone
   administrators, including but not limited to registry operators and
   registrars and information for all domain names holders on the
   administration of domain names that contain characters drawn from
   Chinese, Japanese, and Korean scripts.  Other language groups are
   encouraged to develop their own guidelines as needed, based on these
   guidelines if that is helpful.

2.  Definitions, Context, and Notation

2.1.  Definitions and Context

   This document uses a number of special terms.  In this section,
   definitions and explanations are grouped topically.  Some readers may
   prefer to skip over this material, returning, perhaps via the index
   to terminology in section 7, when needed.

2.1.1.  IDN

   IDN: The term "IDN" has a number of different uses: (a) as an
   abbreviation for "Internationalized Domain Name"; (b) as a fully
   qualified domain name that contains at least one label that contains
   characters not appearing in ASCII, specifically not in the subset of
   ASCII recommended for domain names (the so-called "hostname" or "LDH"
   subset, see RFC1035 [STD13]); (c) as a label of a domain name that
   contains at least one character beyond ASCII; (d) as a Unicode string
   to be processed by Nameprep; (e) as a string that is an output from
   Nameprep; (f) as a string that is the result of processing through
   both Nameprep and conversion into Punycode; (g) as the abbreviation
   of an IDN (more properly, IDL) Package, in the terminology of this
   document; (h) as the abbreviation of the IETF IDN Working Group; (g)
   as the abbreviation of the ICANN IDN Committee; and (h) as standing
   for other IDN activities in other companies/organizations.

   Because of the potential confusion, this document uses the term "IDN"
   as an abbreviation for Internationalized Domain Name and,
   specifically, in the second sense described in (b) above.  It uses
   "IDL," defined immediately below, to refer to Internationalized
   Domain Labels.

2.1.2.  IDL

   IDL: This document provides a guideline to be applied on a per-zone
   basis, one label at a time.  Therefore, the term "Internationalized
   Domain Label" or "IDL" will be used instead of the more general term
   "IDN" or its equivalents.  The processing specifications of this



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   document may be applied, in some zones, to ASCII characters also, if
   those characters are specified as valid in a Language Variant Table
   (see below).  Hence, in some zones, an IDL may contain or consist
   entirely of "LDH" characters.

2.1.3.  FQDN

   FQDN: A fully qualified domain name, one that explicitly contains all
   labels, including a Top-Level Domain (TLD) name.  In this context, a
   TLD name is one whose label appears in a nameserver record in the
   root zone.  The term "Domain Name Label" refers to any label of a
   FQDN.

2.1.4.  Registrations

   Registration: In this document, the term "registration" refers to the
   process by which a potential domain name holder requests that a label
   be placed in the DNS either as an individual name within a domain or
   as a subdomain delegation from another domain name holder.  In the
   case of a successful registration, the label or delegation records
   are placed in the relevant zone file, or, more specifically, they are
   "activated" or made "active" and additional IDLs may be reserved as
   part of an "IDL Package" (see below).  The guidelines presented here
   are recommended for all zones, at any hierarchy level, in which CJK
   characters are to appear and not just domains at the first or second
   level.

2.1.5.  RFC3066

   RFC3066: A system, widely used in the Internet, for coding and
   representing names of languages [RFC3066].  It is based on an
   International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard for
   coding language names [ISO639], but expands it to provide additional
   precision.

2.1.6.  ISO/IEC 10646

   ISO/IEC 10646: The international standard universal multiple-octet
   coded character set ("UCS") [IS10646].  The Code Point definitions of
   this standard are identical to those of corresponding versions of the
   Unicode standard (see below).  Consequently, the characters and their
   coding are often referred to as "Unicode characters."

2.1.7.  Unicode Character

   Unicode Character: The term "Unicode character" is used here in
   reference to characters chosen from the Unicode Standard Version 3.2
   [UNICODE] (and hence from ISO/IEC 10646).  In this document, the



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   characters are identified by their positions, or "Code Points." The
   notation U+12AB, for example, indicates the character at the position
   12AB (hexadecimal) in the Unicode 3.2 table.  For characters in
   positions above FFFF, i.e., requiring more than sixteen bits to
   represent, a five to eight-character string is used, such as U+112AB
   for the character in position 12AB of plane 1.

2.1.8.  Unicode String

   Unicode String: "Unicode string" refers to a string of Unicode
   characters.  The Unicode string is identified by the sequence of the
   Unicode characters regardless of the encoding scheme.

2.1.9.  CJK Characters

   CJK Characters: CJK characters are characters commonly used in the
   Chinese, Japanese, or Korean languages, including but not limited to
   those defined in the Unicode Standard as ASCII (U+0020 to U+007F),
   Han ideographs (U+3400 to U+9FAF and U+20000 to U+2A6DF), Bopomofo
   (U+3100 to U+312F and U+31A0 to U+31BF), Kana (U+3040 to U+30FF),
   Jamo (U+1100 to 11FF and U+3130 to U+318F), Hangul (U+AC00 to U+D7AF
   and U+3130 to U+318F), and the respective compatibility forms.  The
   particular characters that are permitted in a given zone are
   specified in the Language Variant Table(s) for that zone.

2.1.10.  Label String

   Label String: A generic term referring to a string of characters that
   is a candidate for registration in the DNS or such a string, once
   registered.  A label string may or may not be valid according to the
   rules of this specification and may even be invalid for IDNA use.
   The term "label", by itself, refers to a string that has been
   validated and may be formatted to appear in a DNS zone file.

2.1.11.  Language Variant Table

   Language Variant Table: The key mechanisms of this specification
   utilize a three-column table, called a Language Variant Table, for
   each language permitted to be registered in the zone.  Those columns
   are known, respectively, as "Valid Code Point", "Preferred Variant",
   and "Character Variant", which are defined separately below.  The
   Language Variant Tables are critical to the success of the guideline
   described in this document.  However, the principles to be used to
   generate the tables are not within the scope of this document and
   should be worked out by each registry separately (perhaps by adopting
   or adapting the work of some other registry).  In this document,
   "Table" and "Variant Table" are used as short forms for Language
   Variant Table.



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2.1.12.  Valid Code Point

   Valid Code Point: In a Language Variant Table, the list of Code
   Points that is permitted for that language.  Any other Code Points,
   or any string containing them, will be rejected by this
   specification.  The Valid Code Point list appears as the first column
   of the Language Variant Table.

2.1.13.  Preferred Variant

   Preferred Variant: In a Language Variant Table, a list of Code Points
   corresponding to each Valid Code Point and providing possible
   substitutions for it.  These substitutions are "preferred" in the
   sense that the variant labels generated using them are normally
   registered in the zone file, or "activated."  The Preferred Code
   Points appear in column 2 of the Language Variant Table.  "Preferred
   Code Point" is used interchangeably with this term.

2.1.14.  Character Variant

   Character Variant: In a Language Variant Table, a second list of Code
   Points corresponding to each Valid Code Point and providing possible
   substitutions for it.  Unlike the Preferred Variants, substitutions
   based on Character Variants are normally reserved but not actually
   registered (or "activated").  Character Variants appear in column 3
   of the Language Variant Table.  The term "Code Point Variants" is
   used interchangeably with this term.

2.1.15.  Preferred Variant Label

   Preferred Variant Label: A label generated by use of Preferred
   Variants (or Preferred Code Points).

2.1.16.  Character Variant Label

   Character Variant Label: A label generated by use of Character
   Variants.

2.1.17.  Zone Variant

   Zone Variant: A Preferred or Character Variant Label that is actually
   to be entered (registered) into the DNS.  That is, into the zone file
   for the relevant zone.  Zone Variants are also referred to as Zone
   Variant Labels or Active (or Activated) Labels.







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2.1.18.  IDL Package

   IDL Package: A collection of IDLs as determined by these Guidelines.
   All labels in the package are "reserved", meaning they cannot be
   registered by anyone other than the holder of the Package.  These
   reserved IDLs may be "activated", meaning they are actually entered
   into a zone file as a "Zone Variant".  The IDL Package also contains
   identification of the language(s) associated with the registration
   process.  The IDL and its variant labels form a single, atomic unit.

2.2.  Notation for Ideographs and Other Non-ASCII CJK Characters.

   For purposes of clarity, particularly in regard to examples, Han
   ideographs appear in several places in this document.  However, they
   do not appear in the ASCII version of this document.  For the
   convenience of readers of the ASCII version, and some readers not
   familiar with recognizing and distinguishing Chinese characters, most
   uses of these characters will be associated with both their Unicode
   Code Points and an "asterisk tag" with its corresponding Chinese
   Romanization [ISO7098], with the tone mark represented by a number
   from 1 to 4.  Those tags have no meaning outside this document; they
   are a quick visual and reading reference to help facilitate the
   combinations and transformations of characters in the guideline and
   table excerpts.

3.  Scope of the Administrative Guidelines

   Zone administrators are responsible for the administration of the
   domain name labels under their control.  A zone administrator might
   be responsible for a large zone, such as a top-level domain (TLD),
   whether generic or country code, or a smaller one, such as a typical
   second- or third-level domain.  A large zone is often more complex
   than its smaller counterpart.  However, actual technical
   administrative tasks, such as addition, deletion, delegation, and
   transfer of zones between domain name holders, are similar for all
   zones.

   This document provides guidelines for the ways CJK characters should
   be handled within a zone, for how language issues should be
   considered and incorporated, and for how Domain Name Labels
   containing CJK characters should be administered (including
   registration, deletion, and transfer of labels).

   Other IDN policies, such as the creation of new top-level domains
   (TLDs), the cost structure for registrations, and how the processes
   described here get allocated between registrar and registry if the
   zone makes that distinction, also are outside the scope of this
   document.



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   Technical implementation issues are not discussed here either.  For
   example, deciding which guidelines should be implemented as registry
   actions and which should be registrar actions is left to zone
   administrators, with the possibility that it will differ from zone to
   zone.

3.1.  Principles Underlying These Guidelines

   In many places, in the event of a dispute over rights to a name (or,
   more accurately, DNS label string), this document assumes "first-
   come, first-served" (FCFS) as a resolution policy even though FCFS is
   not listed below as one of the principles for this document.  If
   policies are already in place governing priorities and "rights", one
   can use the guidelines here by replacing uses of FCFS in this
   document with policies specific to the zone.  Some of the guidelines
   here may not be applicable to other policies for determining rights
   to labels.  Still other alternatives, such as use of UDRP [UDRP] or
   mutual exclusion, might have little impact on other aspects of these
   guidelines.

   (a) Although some Unicode strings may be pure identifiers made up of
   an assortment of characters from many languages and scripts, IDLs are
   likely to be "words" or "names" or "phrases" that have specific
   meaning in a language.  While a zone administration might or might
   not require "meaning" as a registration criterion, meaning could
   prove to be a useful tool for avoiding user confusion.

      Each IDL to be registered should be associated administratively
      with one or more languages.

   Language associations should either be predetermined by the zone
   administrator and applied to the entire zone or be chosen by the
   registrants on a per-IDL basis.  The latter may be necessary for some
   zones, but it will make administration more difficult and will
   increase the likelihood of conflicts in variant forms.

   A given zone might have multiple languages associated with it or it
   may have no language specified at all.  Omitting specification of a
   language may provide additional opportunities for user confusion and
   is therefore NOT recommended.

   (b) Each language uses only a subset of Unicode characters.
   Therefore, if an IDL is associated with a language, it is not
   permitted to contain any Unicode character that is not within the
   valid subset for that language.

      Each IDL to be registered must be verified against the valid
      subset of Unicode for the language(s) associated with the IDL.



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      That subset is specified by the list of characters appearing in
      the first column of the language and zone-specific tables as
      described later in this document.

   If the IDL fails this test for any of its associated languages, the
   IDL is not valid for registration.

   Note that this verification is not necessarily linguistically
   accurate, because some languages have special rules.  For example,
   some languages impose restrictions on the order in which particular
   combinations of characters may appear.  Characters that are valid for
   the language, and hence permitted by this specification, might still
   not form valid words or even strings in the language.

   (c) When an IDL is associated with a language, it may have Character
   Variants that depend on that language associated with it in addition
   to any Preferred Variants.  These variants are potential sources of
   confusion with the Code Points in the original label string.
   Consequently, the labels generated from them should be unavailable to
   registrants of other names, words, or phrases.

      During registration, all labels generated from the Character
      Variants for the associated language(s) of the IDL should be
      reserved.

   IDL reservations of the type described here normally do not appear in
   the distributed DNS zone file.  In other words, these reserved IDLs
   may not resolve.  Domain name holders could request that these
   reserved IDLs be placed in the zone file and made active and
   resolvable.

   Zones will need to establish local policies about how they are to be
   made active.  Specifically, many zones, especially at the top level,
   have prohibited or restricted the use of "CNAME"s DNS aliases,
   especially CNAMEs that point to nameserver delegation records (NS
   records).  And long-term use of long-term aliases for domain
   hierarchies, rather than single names ("DNAME records") are
   considered problematic because of the recursion they can introduce
   into DNS lookups.

   (d) When an IDL is a "name", "word", or "phrase", it will have
   Character Variants depending on the associated language.
   Furthermore, one or more of those Character Variants will be used
   more often than others for linguistic, political, or other reasons.

   These more commonly used variants are distinguished from ordinary
   Character Variants and are known as Preferred Variant(s) for the
   particular language.



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      To increase the likelihood of correct and predictable resolution
      of the IDN by end users, all labels generated from the Preferred
      Variants for the associated language(s) should be resolvable.

   In other words, the Preferred Variant Labels should appear in the
   distributed DNS zone file.

   (e) IDLs associated with one or more languages may have a large
   number of Character Variant Labels or Preferred Variant Labels.  Some
   of these labels may include combinations of characters that are
   meaningless or invalid linguistically.  It may therefore be
   appropriate for a zone to adopt procedures that include only
   linguistically acceptable labels in the IDL Package.

      A zone administrator may impose additional rules and other
      processing activities to limit the number of Character Variant
      Labels or Preferred Variant Labels that are actually reserved or
      registered.

   These additional rules and other processing activities are based on
   policies and/or procedures imposed on a per-zone basis and therefore
   are not within the scope of this document.  Such policies or
   procedures might be used, for example, to restrict the number of
   Preferred Variant Labels actually reserved or to prevent certain
   words from being registered at all.

   (f) There are some Character Variant Labels and Preferred Variant
   Labels that are associated with each IDL.  These labels are
   considered "equivalent" to each another.  To avoid confusion, they
   all should be assigned to a single domain name holder.

      The IDL and its variant labels should be grouped together into a
      single atomic unit, known in this document as an "IDL Package".

   The IDL Package is created upon registration and is atomic: Transfer
   and deletion of an IDL is performed on the IDL Package as a whole.
   That is, an IDL within the IDL Package may not be transferred or
   deleted individually; any re-registration, transfers, or other
   actions that impact the IDL should also affect the other variants.

   The name-conflict resolution policy associated with this zone could
   result in a conflict with the principle of IDL Package atomicity.  In
   such a case, the policy must be defined to make the precedence clear.








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3.2.  Registration of IDL

   To conform to the principles described in 3.1, this document
   introduces two concepts: the Language Variant Table and the IDL
   Package.  These are described in the next two subsections, followed
   by a description of the algorithm that is used to interpret the table
   and generate variant labels.

3.2.1.  Using the Language Variant Table

   For each zone that uses a given language, each language should have
   its own Language Variant Table.  The table consists of a header
   section that identifies references and version information, followed
   by a section with one row for each Code Point that is valid for the
   language and three columns.

      (1) The first column contains the subset of Unicode characters
          that is valid to be registered ("Valid Code Point").  This is
          used to verify the IDL to be registered (see 3.1b).  As in the
          registration procedure described later, this column is used as
          an index to examine characters that appear in a proposed IDL
          to be processed.  The collection of Valid Code Points in the
          table for a particular language can be thought of as defining
          the script for that language, although the normal definition
          of a script would not include, for example, ASCII characters
          with CJK ones.

      (2) The second column contains the Preferred Variant(s) of the
          corresponding Unicode character in column one ("Valid Code
          Point").  These variant characters are used to generate the
          Preferred Variant Labels for the IDL.  Those labels should be
          resolvable (see 3.1d).  Under normal circumstances, all of
          those Preferred Variant Labels will be activated in the
          relevant zone file so that they will resolve when the DNS is
          queried for them.

      (3) The third column contains the Character Variant(s) for the
          corresponding Valid Code Point.  These are used to generate
          the Character Variant Labels of the IDL, which are then to be
          reserved (see 3.1c).  Registration, or activation, of labels
          generated from Character Variants will normally be a
          registrant decision, subject to local policy.

   Each entry in a column consists of one or more Code Points, expressed
   as a numeric character number in the Unicode table and optionally
   followed by a parenthetical reference.  The first column, or Valid
   Code Point, may have only one Code Point specified in a given row.
   The other columns may have more than one.



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   Any row may be terminated with an optional comment, starting with
   "#".

   The formal syntax of the table and more-precise definitions of some
   of its organization appear in Section 5.

   The Language Variant Table should be provided by a relevant group,
   organization, or body.  However, the question of who is relevant or
   has the authority to create this table and the rules that define it
   is beyond the scope of this document.

3.2.2.  IDL Package

   The IDL Package is created on successful registration and consists
   of:

      (1) the IDL registered

      (2) the language(s) associated with the IDL

      (3) the version of the associated character variant table

      (4) the reserved IDLs

      (5) active IDLs, that is, "Zone Variant Labels" that are to appear
          in the DNS zone file

3.2.3.  Procedure for Registering IDLs

   An explanation follows each step.

   Step 1.    IN <= IDL to be registered and
              {L} <= Set of languages associated with IN

   Start the process with the label string (prospective IDL) to be
   registered and the associated language(s) as input.

   Step 2.    Generate the Nameprep-processed version of the IN,
              applying all mappings and canonicalization required by
              IDNA.

   The prospective IDL is processed by using Nameprep to apply the
   normalizations and exclusions globally required to use IDNA.  If the
   Nameprep processing fails, then the IDL is invalid and the
   registration process must stop.






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   Step 2.1.  NP(IN) <= Nameprep processed IN
   Step 2.2.  Check availability of NP(IN).  If not available, route to
              conflict policy.

   The Nameprep-processed IDL is then checked against the contents of
   the zone file and previously created IDL Packages.  If it is already
   registered or reserved, then a conflict exists that must be resolved
   by applying whatever policy is applicable for the zone.  For example,
   if FCFS is used, the registration process terminates unless the
   conflict resolution policy provides another alternative.

   Step 3.    Process each language.
              For each language (AL) in {L}

   Step 3 goes through all languages associated with the proposed IDL
   and checks each character (after Nameprep has been applied) for
   validity in each of them.  It then applies the Preferred Variants
   (column 2 values) and the Character Variants (column 3 values) to
   generate candidate labels.

   Step 3.1.  Check validity of NP(IN) in AL.  If failed, stop
              processing.

   In step 3.1, IDL validation is done by checking that every Code Point
   in the Nameprep-processed IDL is a Code Point allowed by the "Valid
   Code Point" column of the Character Variant Table for the language.
   This is then repeated for any other languages (and hence, Language
   Variant Tables) specified in the registration.  If one or more Code
   Points are not valid, the registration process terminates.

   Step 3.2.  PV(IN,AL) <= Set of available Nameprep-processed Preferred
                           Variants of NP(IN) in AL

   Step 3.2 generates the list of Preferred Variant Labels of the IDL by
   doing a combination (see Step 3.2A below) of all possible variants
   listed in the "Preferred Variant(s)" column for each Code Point in
   the Nameprep-processed IDL.  The generated Preferred Variant Labels
   must be processed through Nameprep.  If the Nameprep processing fails
   for any Preferred Variant Label (this is unlikely to occur if the
   Preferred Variants are processed through Nameprep before being placed
   in the table), then that variant label will be removed from the list.
   The remaining Preferred Variant Labels in the list are then checked
   to see whether they are already registered or reserved.  If any are
   registered or reserved, then the conflict resolution policy will
   apply.  In general, this will not prevent the originally requested
   IDL from being registered unless the policy prevents such
   registration.  For example, if FCFS is applied, then the conflicting
   variants will be removed from the list, but the originally requested



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   IDL and any remaining variants will be registered (see steps 5 and 8
   below).

   Step 3.2A Generating variant labels from Variant Code Points.

   Steps 3.2 and 3.3 require that the Preferred Variants and Character
   Variants be combined with the original IDL to form sets of variant
   labels.  Conceptually, one starts with the original, Nameprep-
   processed, IDL and examines each of its characters in turn.  If a
   character is encountered for which there is a corresponding Preferred
   Variant or Character Variant, a new variant label is produced with
   the Variant Code Point substituted for the original one.  If variant
   labels already exist as the result of the processing of characters
   that appeared earlier in the original IDL, then the substitutions are
   made in them as well, resulting in additional generated variant
   labels.  This operation is repeated separately for the Preferred
   Variants (in Step 3.2) and Character Variants (in Step 3.3).  Of
   course, equivalent results could be achieved by processing the
   original IDL's characters in order, building the Preferred Variant
   Label set and Character Variant Label set in parallel.

   This process will sometimes generate a very large number of labels.
   For example, if only two of the characters in the original IDL are
   associated with Preferred Variants and if the first of those
   characters has three Preferred Variants and the second has two, one
   ends up with 12 variant labels to be placed in the IDL Package and,
   normally, in the zone file.  Repeating the process for Character
   Variants, if any exist, would further increase the number of labels.
   And if more than one language is specified for the original IDL, then
   repetition of the process for additional languages (see step 4,
   below) might further increase the size of the set.




















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   For illustrative purposes, the "combination" process could be
   achieved by a recursive function similar to the following pseudocode:

        Function Combination(Str)
          F <= first codepoint of Str
          SStr <= Substring of Str, without the first code point
          NSC <= {}

          If SStr is empty then
           for each V in (Variants of code point F)
             NSC = NSC set-union (the string with the code point V)
           End of Loop
          Else
            SubCom = Combination(SStr)
            For each V in (Variants of code point F)
              For each SC in SubCom
                NSC = NSC set-union (the string with the
                    first code point V followed by the string SC)
              End of Loop
            End of Loop
          Endif

          Return NSC

   Step 3.3.  CV(IN,AL) <= Set of available Nameprep-processed Character
                           Variants of NP(IN) in AL

   This step generates the list of Character Variant Labels by doing a
   combination (see Step 3.2A above) of all the possible variants listed
   in the "Character Variant(s)" column for each Code Point in the
   Nameprep-processed original IDL.  As with the Preferred Variant
   Labels, the generated Character Variant Labels must be processed by,
   and acceptable to, Nameprep.  If the Nameprep processing fails for a
   Character Variant Label, then that variant label will be removed from
   the list.  The remaining Character Variant Labels are then checked to
   be sure they are not registered or reserved.  If one or more are,
   then the conflict resolution policy is applied.  As with Preferred
   Variant Labels, a conflict that is resolved in favor of the earlier
   registrant does not, in general, prevent the IDL from being
   registered, nor the remaining variants from being reserved in step 6
   below.

   Step 3.4.  End of Loop








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   Step 4.    Let PVall be the set-union of all PV(IN,AL)

   Step 4 generates the Preferred Variants Label for all languages.  In
   this step, and again in step 6 below, the zone administrator may
   impose additional rules and processing activities to restrict the
   number of Preferred (tentatively to be reserved and activated) and
   Character (tentatively to be reserved) Label Variants.  These
   additional rules and processing activities are zone policy specific
   and therefore are not specified in this document.

   Step 5.    {ZV} <= PVall set-union NP(IN)

   Step 5 generates the initial Zone Variants.  The set includes all
   Preferred Variants for all languages and the original Nameprep-
   processed IDL.  Unless excluded by further processing, these Zone
   Variants will be activated.  That is, placed into the DNS zone.  Note
   that the "set-union" operation will eliminate any duplicates.

   Step 6.    Let CVall be the set-union of all CV(IN,AL), set-minus
              {ZV}

   Step 6 generates the Reserved Label Variants (the Character Variant
   Label set).  These labels are normally reserved but not activated.
   The set includes all Character Variant Labels for all languages, but
   not the Zone Variants defined in the previous step.  The set-union
   and set-minus operations eliminate any duplicates.

   Step 7.    Create IDL Package for IN using IN, {L}, {ZV} and CVall

   In Step 7, the "IDL Package" is created using the original IDL, the
   associated language(s), the Zone Variant Labels, and the Reserved
   Variant Labels.  If zone-specific additional processing or filtering
   is to be applied to eliminate linguistically inappropriate or other
   forms, it should be applied before the IDL Package is actually
   assembled.

   Step 8.    Put {ZV} into zone file

   The activated IDLs are converted via ToASCII with UseSTD13ASCIIRules
   [IDNA] before being placed into the zone file.  This conversion
   results in the IDLs being in the actual IDNA ("Punycode") form used
   in zone files, while the IDLs have been carried in Unicode form up to
   this point.  If ToASCII fails for any of the activated IDLs, that IDL
   must not be placed into the zone file.  If the IDL is a subdomain
   name, it will be delegated.






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3.3.  Deletion and Transfer of IDL and IDL Package

   In traditional domain administration, every Domain Name Label is
   independent of all other Domain Name Labels.  Registration, deletion,
   and transfer of labels is done on a per-label basis.  However, with
   the guidelines discussed here, each IDL is associated with specific
   languages, with all label variants, both active (zone) and reserved,
   together in an IDL Package.  This quite deliberately prohibits labels
   that contain sufficient mixtures of characters from different scripts
   to make them impossible as words in any given language.  If a zone
   chooses to not impose that restriction--that is, to permit labels to
   be constructed by picking characters from several different languages
   and scripts--then the guidelines described here would be
   inappropriate.

   As stated earlier, the IDL package should be treated as a single
   atomic unit and all variants of the IDL should belong to a single
   domain-name holder.  If the local policy related to the handling of
   disagreements requires a particular IDL to be transferred and deleted
   independently of the IDL Package, the conflict policy would take
   precedence.  In such an event, the conflict policy should include a
   transfer or delete procedure that takes the nature of IDL Packages
   into consideration.

   When an IDL Package is deleted, all of the Zone and Reserved Label
   Variants again become available.  The deletion of one IDL Package
   does not change any other IDL Packages.

3.4.  Activation and Deactivation of IDL variants

   Because there are active (registered) IDLs and inactive (reserved but
   not registered) IDLs within an IDL package, processes are required to
   activate or deactivate IDL variants within an IDL Package.

3.4.1.  Activation Algorithm

   Step 1.  IN <= IDL to be activated and PA <= IDL Package

   Start with the IDL to be activated and the IDL Package of which it is
   a member.

   Step 2.  NP(IN) <= Nameprep processed IN

   Process the IDL through Nameprep.  This step should never cause a
   problem, or even a change, since all labels that become part of the
   IDL Package are processed through Nameprep in Step 3.2 or 3.3 of the
   Registration procedure (section 3.2.3).




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   Step 3.  If NP(IN) not in CVall then stop

   Verify that the Nameprep-processed version of the IDL appears as a
   still-unactivated label in the IDL Package, i.e., in the list of
   Reserved Label Variants, CVall.  It might be a useful "sanity check"
   to also verify that it does not already appear in the zone file.

   Step 4. CVall <= CVall set-minus NP(IN) and {ZV} <= {ZV} set-union
           NP(IN)

   Within the IDL Package, remove the Nameprep-processed version of the
   IDL from the list of Reserved Label Variants and add it to the list
   of active (zone) label variants.

   Step 5.  Put {ZV} into the zone file

   Actually register (activate) the Zone Variant Labels.

3.4.2.  Deactivation Algorithm

   Step 1.  IN <= IDL to be deactivated and PA <= IDL Package

   As with activation, start with the IDL to be deactivated and the IDL
   Package of which it is a member.

   Step 2.  NP(IN) <= Nameprep processed IN

   Get the Nameprep-processed version of the name (see discussion in the
   previous section).

   Step 3.  If NP(IN) not in {ZV} then stop

   Verify that the Nameprep-processed version of the IDL appears as an
   activated (zone) label variant in the IDL Package.  It might be a
   useful "sanity check" at this point to also verify that it actually
   appears in the zone file.

   Step 4. CVall <= CVall set-union NP(IN) and {ZV} <= {ZV} set-minus
           NP(IN)

   Within the IDL Package, remove the Nameprep-processed version of the
   IDL from the list of Active (Zone) Label Variants and add it to the
   list of Reserved (but inactive) Label Variants.

   Step 5.  Put {ZV} into the zone file






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3.5.  Managing Changes in Language Associations

   Since the IDL package is an atomic unit and the associated list of
   variants must not be changed after creation, this document does not
   include a mechanism for adding and deleting language associations
   within the IDL package.  Instead, it recommends deleting the IDL
   package entirely, followed by a registration with the new set of
   languages.  Zone administrators may find it desirable to devise
   procedures that prevent other parties from capturing the labels in
   the IDL Package during these operations.

3.6.  Managing Changes to the Language Variant Tables

   Language Variant Tables are subject to changes over time, and these
   changes may or may not be backward compatible.  It is possible that
   updated Language Variant Tables may produce a different set of
   Preferred Variants and Reserved Variants.

   In order to preserve the atomicity of the IDL Package, when the
   Language Variant Table is changed, IDL Packages created using the
   previous version of the Language Variant Table must not be updated or
   affected.

4.  Examples of Guideline Use in Zones

   To provide a meaningful example, some Language Variant Tables must be
   defined.  Assume, then, for the purpose of giving examples, that the
   following four Language Variant Tables are defined:

   Note: these tables are not a representation of the actual tables, and
   they do not contain sufficient entries to be used in any actual
   implementation.  IANA maintains a voluntary registry of actual tables
   [IANA-LVTABLES] which may be consulted for complete examples.

   a) Language Variant Table for zh-cn and zh-sg

Reference 1 CP936 (commonly known as GBK)
Reference 2 zVariant, zTradVariant, zSimpVariant in Unihan.txt [UNIHAN]
Reference 3 List of Simplified character Table (Simplified column)
Reference 4 zSimpVariant in Unihan.txt [UNIHAN]
Reference 5 variant that exists in GB2312, common simplified hanzi

   Version 1 20020701 # July 2002

   56E2(1);56E2(5);5718(2)           # sphere, ball, circle; mass, lump
   5718(1);56E2(4);56E2(2),56E3(2)   # sphere, ball, circle; mass, lump
   60F3(1);60F3(5);                  # think, speculate, plan, consider
   654E(1);6559(5);6559(2)           # teach



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   6559(1);6559(5);654E(2)           # teach, class
   6DF8(1);6E05(5);6E05(2)           # clear
   6E05(1);6E05(5);6DF8(2)           # clear, pure, clean; peaceful
   771E(1);771F(5);771F(2)           # real, actual, true, genuine
   771F(1);771F(5);771E(2)           # real, actual, true, genuine
   8054(1);8054(3);806F(2)           # connect, join; associate, ally
   806F(1);8054(3);8054(2),8068(2)   # connect, join; associate, ally
   96C6(1);96C6(5);                  # assemble, collect together

   b) Language Variant Table for zh-tw

   Reference 1 CP950 (commonly known as BIG5)
   Reference 2 zVariant, zTradVariant, zSimpVariant in Unihan.txt
   Reference 3 List of Simplified Character Table (Traditional column)
   Reference 4 zTradVariant in Unihan.txt

   Version 1 20020701 # July 2002

   5718(1);5718(4);56E2(2),56E3(2)   # sphere, ball, circle; mass, lump
   60F3(1);60F3(1);                  # think, speculate, plan, consider
   6559(1);6559(1);654E(2)           # teach, class
   6E05(1);6E05(1);6DF8(2)           # clear, pure, clean; peaceful
   771F(1);771F(1);771E(2)           # real, actual, true, genuine
   806F(1);806F(3);8054(2),8068(2)   # connect, join; associate, ally
   96C6(1);96C6(1);                  # assemble, collect together

   c) Language Variant Table for ja

   Reference 1 CP932 (commonly known as Shift-JIS)
   Reference 2 zVariant in Unihan.txt
   Reference 3 variant that exists in JIS X0208, commonly used Kanji

   Version 1 20020701 # July 2002

   5718(1);5718(3);56E3(2)           # sphere, ball, circle; mass, lump
   60F3(1);60F3(3);                  # think, speculate, plan, consider
   654E(1);6559(3);6559(2)           # teach
   6559(1);6559(3);654E(2)           # teach, class
   6DF8(1);6E05(3);6E05(2)           # clear
   6E05(1);6E05(3);6DF8(2)           # clear, pure, clean; peaceful
   771E(1);771E(1);771F(2)           # real, actual, true, genuine
   771F(1);771F(1);771E(2)           # real, actual, true, genuine
   806F(1);806F(1);8068(2)           # connect, join; associate, ally
   96C6(1);96C6(3);                  # assemble, collect together

   d) Language Variant Table for ko

   Reference 1 CP949 (commonly known as EUC-KR)



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   Reference 2 zVariant and K-source in Unihan.txt

   Version 1 20020701 # July 2002

   5718(1);5718(1);56E3(2)           # sphere, ball, circle; mass, lump
   60F3(1);60F3(1);                  # think, speculate, plan, consider
   654E(1);654E(1);6559(2)           # teach
   6DF8(1);6DF8(1);6E05(2)           # clear
   771E(1);771E(1);771F(2)           # real, actual, true, genuine
   806F(1);806F(1);8068(2)           # connect, join; associate, ally
   96C6(1);96C6(1);                  # assemble, collect together

   Example 1: IDL = (U+6E05 U+771F U+6559) *qing2 zhen1 jiao4*
              {L} = {zh-cn, zh-sg, zh-tw}

   NP(IN) = (U+6E05 U+771F U+6559)
   PV(IN,zh-cn) = (U+6E05 U+771F U+6559)
   PV(IN,zh-sg) = (U+6E05 U+771F U+6559)
   PV(IN,zh-tw) = (U+6E05 U+771F U+6559)

   {ZV} = {(U+6E05 U+771F U+6559)}
   CVall = {(U+6E05 U+771E U+6559),
           (U+6E05 U+771E U+654E),
           (U+6E05 U+771F U+654E),
           (U+6DF8 U+771E U+6559),
           (U+6DF8 U+771E U+654E),
           (U+6DF8 U+771F U+6559),
           (U+6DF8 U+771F U+654E)}

   Example 2: IDL = (U+6E05 U+771F U+6559) *qing2 zhen1 jiao4*
              {L} = {ja}

   NP(IN) = (U+6E05 U+771F U+6559)
   PV(IN,ja) = (U+6E05 U+771F U+6559)
   {ZV} = {(U+6E05 U+771F U+6559)}

   CVall = {(U+6E05 U+771E U+6559),
           (U+6E05 U+771E U+654E),
           (U+6E05 U+771F U+654E),
           (U+6DF8 U+771E U+6559),
           (U+6DF8 U+771E U+654E),
           (U+6DF8 U+771F U+6559),
           (U+6DF8 U+771F U+654E)}

   Example 3: IDL = (U+6E05 U+771F U+6559) *qing2 zhen1 jiao4*
              {L} = {zh-cn, zh-sg, zh-tw, ja, ko}

   NP(IN) = (U+6E05 U+771F U+6559) *qing2 zhen1 jiao4*



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   Invalid registration because U+6E05 is invalid in L = ko

   Example 4: IDL = (U+806F U+60F3 U+96C6 U+5718)
                    *lian2 xiang3 ji2 tuan2*
             {L} = {zh-cn, zh-sg, zh-tw}

   NP(IN) = (U+806F U+60F3 U+96C6 U+5718)
   PV(IN,zh-cn) = (U+8054 U+60F3 U+96C6 U+56E2)
   PV(IN,zh-sg) = (U+8054 U+60F3 U+96C6 U+56E2)
   PV(IN,zh-tw) = (U+806F U+60F3 U+96C6 U+5718)
   {ZV} = {(U+8054 U+60F3 U+96C6 U+56E2),
          (U+806F U+60F3 U+96C6 U+5718)}
   CVall = {(U+8054 U+60F3 U+96C6 U+56E3),
           (U+8054 U+60F3 U+96C6 U+5718),
           (U+806F U+60F3 U+96C6 U+56E2),
           (U+806f U+60F3 U+96C6 U+56E3),
           (U+8068 U+60F3 U+96C6 U+56E2),
           (U+8068 U+60F3 U+96C6 U+56E3),
           (U+8068 U+60F3 U+96C6 U+5718)

   Example 5: IDL = (U+8054 U+60F3 U+96C6 U+56E2)
                  *lian2 xiang3 ji2 tuan2*
             {L} = {zh-cn, zh-sg}

   NP(IN) = (U+8054 U+60F3 U+96C6 U+56E2)
   PV(IN,zh-cn) = (U+8054 U+60F3 U+96C6 U+56E2)
   PV(IN,zh-sg) = (U+8054 U+60F3 U+96C6 U+56E2)
   {ZV} = {(U+8054 U+60F3 U+96C6 U+56E2)}
   CVall = {(U+8054 U+60F3 U+96C6 U+56E3),
           (U+8054 U+60F3 U+96C6 U+5718),
           (U+806F U+60F3 U+96C6 U+56E2),
           (U+806f U+60F3 U+96C6 U+56E3),
           (U+806F U+60F3 U+96C6 U+5718),
           (U+8068 U+60F3 U+96C6 U+56E2),
           (U+8068 U+60F3 U+96C6 U+56E3),
           (U+8068 U+60F3 U+96C6 U+5718)}

   Example 6: IDL = (U+8054 U+60F3 U+96C6 U+56E2)
                  *lian2 xiang3 ji2 tuan2*
              {L} = {zh-cn, zh-sg, zh-tw}

   NP(IN) = (U+8054 U+60F3 U+96C6 U+56E2)
   Invalid registration because U+8054 is invalid in L = zh-tw

   Example 7: IDL = (U+806F U+60F3 U+96C6 U+5718)
                  *lian2 xiang3 ji2 tuan2*
              {L} = {ja,ko}




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   NP(IN) = (U+806F U+60F3 U+96C6 U+5718)
   PV(IN,ja) = (U+806F U+60F3 U+96C6 U+5718)
   PV(IN,ko) = (U+806F U+60F3 U+96C6 U+5718)
   {ZV} = {(U+806F U+60F3 U+96C6 U+5718)}

   CVall = {(U+806F U+60F3 U+96C6 U+56E3),
           (U+8068 U+60F3 U+96C6 U+5718),
           (U+8068 U+60F3 U+96C6 U+56E3)}

5.  Syntax Description for the Language Variant Table

   The formal syntax for the Language Variant Table is as follows, using
   the IETF "ABNF" metalanguage [ABNF].  Some comments on this syntax
   appear immediately after it.

5.1.  ABNF Syntax

LanguageVariantTable = 1*ReferenceLine VersionLine 1*EntryLine
ReferenceLine = "Reference" SP RefNo SP RefDesciption [ Comment ] CRLF
RefNo = 1*DIGIT
RefDesciption = *[VCHAR]
VersionLine = "Version" SP VersionNo SP VersionDate [ Comment ] CRLF
VersionNo = 1*DIGIT
VersionDate = YYYYMMDD
EntryLine = VariantEntry/Comment CRLF

VariantEntry = ValidCodePoint  ";"
               PreferredVariant ";" CharacterVariant [ Comment ]
ValidCodePoint = CodePoint
RefList = RefNo  0*( "," RefNo )
PreferredVariant = CodePointSet 0*( "," CodePointSet )
CharacterVariant = CodePointSet 0*( "," CodePointSet )
CodePointSet = CodePoint 0*( SP CodePoint )
CodePoint = 4*8DIGIT  [ "(" Reflist ")" ]
Comment = "#" *VCHAR

   YYYYMMDD is an integer, in alphabetic form, representing a date,
   where YYYY is the 4-digit year, MM is the 2-digit month, and DD is
   the 2-digit day.

5.2.  Comments and Explanation of Syntax

   Any lines starting with, or portions of lines after, the hash
   symbol("#") are treated as comments.  Comments have no significance
   in the processing of the tables; nor are there any syntax
   requirements between the hash symbol and the end of the line.  Blank
   lines in the tables are ignored completely.




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   Every language should have its own Language Variant Table provided by
   a relevant group, organization, or other body.  That table will
   normally be based on some established standard or standards.  The
   group that defines a Language Variant Table should document
   references to the appropriate standards at the beginning of the
   table, tagged with the word "Reference" followed by an integer (the
   reference number) followed by the description of the reference.  For
   example:

   Reference 1 CP936 (commonly known as GBK)
   Reference 2 zVariant, zTradVariant, zSimpVariant in Unihan.txt
   Reference 3 List of Simplified Character Table (Simplified column)
   Reference 4 zSimpVariant in Unihan.txt
   Reference 5 Variant that exists in GB2312, common simplified Hanzi

   Each Language Variant Table must have a version number and its
   release date.  This is tagged with the word "Version" followed by an
   integer then followed by the date in the format YYYYMMDD, where YYYY
   is the 4-digit year, MM is the 2-digit month, and DD is the 2-digit
   day of the publication date of the table.

   Version 1 20020701     # July 2002 Version 1

   The table has three columns, separated by semicolons: "Valid Code
   Point"; "Preferred Variant(s)"; and "Character Variant(s)".

   The "Valid Code Point" is the subset of Unicode characters that are
   valid to be registered.

   There can be more than one Preferred Variant; hence there could be
   multiple entries in the "Preferred Variant(s)" column.  If the
   "Preferred Variant(s)" column is empty, then there is no
   corresponding Preferred Variant; in other words, the Preferred
   Variant is null, there is no corresponding preferred variant
   codepoint, and no processing to add labels for preferred variants
   occurs."  Unless local policy dictates otherwise, the procedures
   above will result in only those labels that reflect the valid code
   point being activated (registered) into the zone file.

   The "Character Variant(s)" column contains all Character Variants of
   the Code Point.  Since the Code Point is always a variant of itself,
   to avoid redundancy, the Code Point is assumed to be part of the
   "Character Variant(s)" and need not be repeated in the "Character
   Variant(s)" column.

   If the variant in the "Preferred Variant(s)" or the "Character
   Variant(s)" column is composed of a sequence of Code Points, then
   sequence of Code Points is listed separated by a space.



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   If there are multiple variants in the "Preferred Variant(s)" or the
   "Character Variant(s)" column, then each variant is separated by a
   comma.

   Any Code Point listed in the "Preferred Variant(s)" column must be
   allowed by the rules for the relevant language to be registered.
   However, this is not a requirement for the entries in the "Character
   Variant(s)" column; it is possible that some of those entries may not
   be allowed to be registered.

   Every Code Point in the table should have a corresponding reference
   number (associated with the references) specified to justify the
   entry.  The reference number is placed in parentheses after the Code
   Point.  If there is more than one reference, then the numbers are
   placed within a single set of parentheses and separated by commas.

6.  Security Considerations

   As discussed in the Introduction, substantially-unrestricted use of
   international (non-ASCII) characters in domain name labels may cause
   user confusion and invite various types of attacks.  In particular,
   in the case of CJK languages, an attacker has an opportunity to
   divert or confuse users as a result of different characters (or, more
   specifically, assigned code points) with identical or similar
   semantics.  These Guidelines provide a partial remedy for those risks
   by supplying a framework for prohibiting inappropriate characters
   from being registered at all and for permitting "variant" characters
   to be grouped together and reserved, so that they can only be
   registered in the DNS by the same owner.  However, the system it
   suggests is no better or worse than the per-zone and per-language
   tables whose format and use this document specifies.  Specific
   tables, and any additional local processing, will reflect per-zone
   decisions about the balance between risk and flexibility of
   registrations.   And, of course, errors in construction of those
   tables may significantly reduce the quality of protection provided.

7.  Index to Terminology

   As a convenience to the reader, this section lists all of the special
   terminology used in this document, with a pointer to the section in
   which it is defined.

        Activated Label                 2.1.17
        Activation                      2.1.4
        Active Label                    2.1.17
        Character Variant               2.1.14
        Character Variant Label         2.1.16
        CJK Characters                  2.1.9



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        Code point                      2.1.7
        Code Point Variant              2.1.14
        FQDN                            2.1.3
        Hostname                        2.1.1
        IDL                             2.1.2
        IDL Package                     2.1.18
        IDN                             2.1.1
        Internationalized Domain Label  2.1.2
        ISO/IEC 10646                   2.1.6
        Label String                    2.1.10
        Language name codes             2.1.5
        Language Variant Table          2.1.11
        LDH Subset                      2.1.1
        Preferred Code Point            2.1.13
        Preferred Variant               2.1.13
        Preferred Variant Label         2.1.15
        Registration                    2.1.4
        Reserved                        2.1.18
        RFC3066                         2.1.5
        Table                           2.1.11
        UCS                             2.1.6
        Unicode Character               2.1.7
        Unicode String                  2.1.8
        Valid Code Point                2.1.12
        Variant Table                   2.1.11
        Zone Variant                    2.1.17

8. Acknowledgments

   The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of:

   -  V. CHEN, N. HSU, H. HOTTA, S. TASHIRO, Y. YONEYA, and other Joint
      Engineering Team members at the JET meeting in Bangkok, Thailand.

   -  Yves Arrouye, an observer at the JET meeting in Bangkok, for his
      contribution on the IDL Package.

   -  Those who commented on, and made suggestions about, earlier
      versions, including Harald ALVESTRAND, Erin CHEN, Patrik
      FALTSTROM, Paul HOFFMAN, Soobok LEE, LEE Xiaodong, MAO Wei, Erik
      NORDMARK, and L.M. TSENG.










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9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [ABNF]          Crocker, D. and P. Overell, Eds., "Augmented BNF for
                   Syntax Specifications: ABNF", RFC 2234, November
                   1997.

   [STD13]         Mockapetris, P., "Domain names concepts and
                   facilities" STD 13, RFC 1034, November 1987.
                   Mockapetris, P.,  "Domain names implementation and
                   specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987.

   [RFC3066]       Alvestrand, H., "Tags for the Identification of
                   Languages," BCP 47, RFC 3066, January 2001.

   [IDNA]          Faltstrom, P., Hoffman, P. and A. M. Costello,
                   "Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications
                   (IDNA)", RFC 3490, March 2003.

   [PUNYCODE]      Costello, A.M., "Punycode: A Bootstring encoding of
                   Unicode for Internationalized Domain Names in
                   Applications (IDNA)", RFC 3492, March 2003.

   [STRINGPREP]    Hoffman, P. and M. Blanchet, "Preparation of
                   Internationalized Strings ("stringprep")", RFC 3454,
                   December 2002.

   [NAMEPREP]      Hoffman, P. and M. Blanchet, "Nameprep: A Stringprep
                   Profile for Internationalized Domain Names (IDN)",
                   RFC 3491, March 2003.

   [IS10646]       A product of ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2, Work Item
                   JTC1.02.18 (ISO/IEC 10646).  It is a multipart
                   standard: Part 1, published as ISO/IEC 10646-
                   1:2000(E), covers the Architecture and Basic
                   Multilingual Plane, and Part 2, published as ISO/IEC
                   10646-2:2001(E), covers the supplementary
                   (additional) planes.

   [UNIHAN]        Unicode Han Database, Unicode Consortium
                   ftp://ftp.unicode.org/Public/UNIDATA/Unihan.txt.

   [UNICODE]       The Unicode Consortium, "The Unicode Standard Version
                   3.0," ISBN 0-201-61633-5.  Unicode Standard Annex #28
                   (http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr28/)
                   defines Version 3.2 of the Unicode Standard, which is
                   definitive for IDNA and this document.



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   [ISO7098]       ISO 7098;1991 Information and documentation
                   Romanization of Chinese, ISO/TC46/SC2.

9.2.  Informative References

   [IANA-LVTABLES] Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), IDN
                   Character Registry.
                   http://www.iana.org/assignments/idn/

   [IDN-WG]        IETF Internationalized Domain Names Working Group,
                   now concluded,idn@ops.ietf.org, James Seng, Marc
                   Blanchet, co-chairs, http://www.i-d-n.net/.

   [UDRP]          ICANN, "Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution
                   Policy", October 1999,
                   http://www.icann.org/udrp/udrp-policy-24oct99.htm

   [ISO639]     "ISO 639:1988 (E/F) Code for the representation of names
                   of languages", International Organization for
                   Standardization, 1st edition, 1988-04-01.

10.  Contributors

   The formal responsibility for this document and the ideas it contains
   lie with K. Koniski, K. Huang, H. Qian, and Y. Ko.  These authors are
   listed on the first page as authors of record, and they are the
   appropriate the long-term contacts for questions and comments on this
   RFC.  On the other hand, J. Seng, J. Klensin, and W. Rickard served
   as editors of the document, transcribing and translating the ideas of
   the four authors and the teams they represented into the current
   written form.  They were the primary contacts during the editing
   process, but not in the long term.



















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10.1.  Authors' Addresses

   Kazunori KONISHI
   JPNIC
   Kokusai-Kougyou-Kanda Bldg 6F
   2-3-4 Uchi-Kanda, Chiyoda-ku
   Tokyo 101-0047
   Japan

   Phone: +81 49-278-7313
   EMail: konishi@jp.apan.net


   Kenny HUANG
   TWNIC
   3F, 16, Kang Hwa Street, Taipei
   Taiwan

   Phone: 886-2-2658-6510
   EMail: huangk@alum.sinica.edu


   QIAN Hualin
   CNNIC
   No.6 Branch-box of No.349 Mailbox, Beijing 100080
   Peoples Republic of China

   EMail: Hlqian@cnnic.net.cn


   KO YangWoo
   PeaceNet
   Yangchun P.O. Box 81 Seoul 158-600
   Korea

   EMail: yw@mrko.pe.kr















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10.2.  Editors' Addresses

   James SENG
   180 Lompang Road
   #22-07 Singapore 670180
   Phone: +65 9638-7085

   EMail: jseng@pobox.org.sg


   John C KLENSIN
   1770 Massachusetts Avenue, No. 322
   Cambridge, MA 02140
   U.S.A.

   EMail: Klensin+ietf@jck.com


   Wendy RICKARD
   The Rickard Group
   16 Seminary Ave
   Hopewell, NJ  08525
   USA

   EMail: rickard@rickardgroup.com


























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11.  Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).  This document is subject
   to the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78 and
   except as set forth therein, the authors retain all their rights.

   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
   OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
   ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
   INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE
   INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
   WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

Intellectual Property

   The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
   Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed to
   pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in
   this document or the extent to which any license under such rights
   might or might not be available; nor does it represent that it has
   made any independent effort to identify any such rights.  Information
   on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC documents can be
   found in BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any
   assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result of an
   attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of
   such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this
   specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository at
   http://www.ietf.org/ipr.

   The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
   copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
   rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement
   this standard.  Please address the information to the IETF at ietf-
   ipr@ietf.org.

Acknowledgement

   Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
   Internet Society.









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