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Updated by: 7146 PROPOSED STANDARD

Network Working Group                                       M. Rajagopal
Request for Comments: 3821                                  E. Rodriguez
Category: Standards Track                                       R. Weber
                                                              July 2004


                    Fibre Channel Over TCP/IP (FCIP)

Status of this Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).

Abstract

   Fibre Channel Over TCP/IP (FCIP) describes mechanisms that allow the
   interconnection of islands of Fibre Channel storage area networks
   over IP-based networks to form a unified storage area network in a
   single Fibre Channel fabric.  FCIP relies on IP-based network
   services to provide the connectivity between the storage area network
   islands over local area networks, metropolitan area networks, or wide
   area networks.

Table Of Contents

   1.  Purpose, Motivation, and Objectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Relationship to Fibre Channel Standards. . . . . . . . . . . .  4
       2.1.  Relevant Fibre Channel Standards . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
       2.2.  This Specification and Fibre Channel Standards . . . . .  5
   3.  Terminology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   4.  Protocol Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   5.  The FCIP Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       5.1.  FCIP Protocol Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       5.2.  FCIP Link. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       5.3.  FC Entity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       5.4.  FCIP Entity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       5.5.  FCIP Link Endpoint (FCIP_LEP). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       5.6.  FCIP Data Engine (FCIP_DE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
             5.6.1.  FCIP Encapsulation of FC Frames. . . . . . . . . 16
             5.6.2.  FCIP Data Engine Error Detection and Recovery. . 19
   6.  Checking FC Frame Transit Times in the IP Network. . . . . . . 22



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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


   7.  The FCIP Special Frame (FSF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
       7.1.  FCIP Special Frame Format. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
       7.2.  Overview of FSF Usage in Connection Establishment. . . . 26
   8.  TCP Connection Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
       8.1.  TCP Connection Establishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
             8.1.1.  Connection Establishment Model . . . . . . . . . 28
             8.1.2.  Creating New TCP Connections . . . . . . . . . . 29
             8.1.3.  Processing Incoming TCP Connect Requests . . . . 32
             8.1.4.  Simultaneous Connection Establishment. . . . . . 36
       8.2.  Closing TCP Connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
       8.3.  TCP Connection Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
             8.3.1.  TCP Selective Acknowledgement Option . . . . . . 36
             8.3.2.  TCP Window Scale Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
             8.3.3.  Protection Against Sequence Number Wrap. . . . . 37
             8.3.4.  TCP_NODELAY Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
       8.4.  TCP Connection Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
       8.5.  Flow Control Mapping between TCP and FC. . . . . . . . . 37
   9.  Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
       9.1.  Threat Models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
       9.2.  FC Fabric and IP Network Deployment Models . . . . . . . 40
       9.3.  FCIP Security Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
             9.3.1.  IPsec ESP Authentication and Confidentiality . . 40
             9.3.2.  Key Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
             9.3.3.  ESP Replay Protection and Rekeying Issues. . . . 43
       9.4.  Secure FCIP Link Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
             9.4.1.  FCIP Link Initialization Steps . . . . . . . . . 44
             9.4.2.  TCP Connection Security Associations (SAs) . . . 44
             9.4.3.  Handling Data Integrity and Confidentiality
                     Violations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
   10. Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
       10.1. Performance Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
       10.2. IP Quality of Service (QoS) Support. . . . . . . . . . . 46
   11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
       11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
       11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
   12. Acknowledgments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
   Appendix A  Fibre Channel Bit and Byte Numbering Guidance. . . . . 51
            B  IANA Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
            C  FCIP Usage of Addresses and Identifiers. . . . . . . . 52
            D  Example of synchronization Recovery Algorithm. . . . . 53
            E  Relationship between FCIP and IP over FC (IPFC). . . . 58
            F  FC Frame Format. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
            G  FC Encapsulation Format. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
            H  FCIP Requirements on an FC Entity. . . . . . . . . . . 63
   Editors and Contributors Acknowledgements. . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
   Editors and Contributors Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
   Full Copyright Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74




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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


1.  Purpose, Motivation, and Objectives

   Warning to Readers Familiar With Fibre Channel: Both Fibre Channel
   and IETF standards use the same byte transmission order.   However,
   the bit and byte numbering is different.  See appendix A for
   guidance.

   Fibre Channel (FC) is a gigabit or multi-gigabit speed networking
   technology primarily used to implement Storage Area Networks (SANs).
   See section 2 for information about how Fibre Channel is standardized
   and the relationship of this specification to Fibre Channel
   standards.  An overview of Fibre Channel can be found in [34].

   This specification describes mechanisms that allow the
   interconnection of islands of Fibre Channel SANs over IP Networks to
   form a unified SAN in a single Fibre Channel fabric.  The motivation
   behind defining these interconnection mechanisms is a desire to
   connect physically remote FC sites allowing remote disk access, tape
   backup, and live mirroring.

   Fibre Channel standards have chosen nominal distances between switch
   elements that are less than the distances available in an IP Network.
   Since Fibre Channel and IP Networking technologies are compatible, it
   is logical to turn to IP Networking for extending the allowable
   distances between Fibre Channel switch elements.

   The fundamental assumption made in this specification is that the
   Fibre Channel traffic is carried over the IP Network in such a manner
   that the Fibre Channel Fabric and all Fibre Channel devices on the
   Fabric are unaware of the presence of the IP Network.  This means
   that the FC datagrams must be delivered in such time as to comply
   with existing Fibre Channel specifications.  The FC traffic may span
   LANs, MANs, and WANs, so long as this fundamental assumption is
   adhered to.

   The objectives of this document are to:

   1) specify the encapsulation and mapping of Fibre Channel (FC) frames
      employing FC Frame Encapsulation [19].

   2) apply the mechanism described in 1) to an FC Fabric using an IP
      network as an interconnect between two or more islands in an FC
      Fabric.

   3) address any FC concerns arising from tunneling FC traffic over an
      IP-based network, including security, data integrity (loss),
      congestion, and performance.  This will be accomplished by
      utilizing the existing IETF-specified suite of protocols.



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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


   4) be compatible with the referenced FC standards.  While new work
      may be undertaken in T11 to optimize and enhance FC Fabrics, this
      specification REQUIRES conformance only to the referenced FC
      standards.

   5) be compatible with all applicable IETF standards so that the IP
      Network used to extend an FC Fabric can be used concurrently for
      other reasonable purposes.

   The objectives of this document do not include using an IP Network as
   a replacement for the Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop interconnect.  No
   definition is provided for encapsulating loop primitive signals for
   transmission over an IP Network.

Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119 [1].

2.  Relationship to Fibre Channel Standards

2.1.  Relevant Fibre Channel Standards

   FC is standardized as a family of American National Standards
   developed by the T11 technical committee of INCITS (InterNational
   Committee for Information Technology Standards).  T11 has specified a
   number of documents describing FC protocols, operations, and
   services.  T11 documents of interest to readers of this specification
   include (but are not limited to):

      -  FC-BB   - Fibre Channel Backbone [2]
      -  FC-BB-2 - Fibre Channel Backbone -2 [3]
      -  FC-SW-2 - Fibre Channel Switch Fabric -2 [4]
      -  FC-FS   - Fibre Channel Framing and Signaling [5]

   FC-BB and FC-BB-2 describe the relationship between an FC Fabric and
   interconnect technologies not defined by Fibre Channel standards
   (e.g., ATM and SONET).  FC-BB-2 is the Fibre Channel document
   describing the relationships between FC and TCP/IP, including the FC
   use of FCIP.

   FC-SW-2 describes the switch components of an FC Fabric and FC-FS
   describes the FC Frame format and basic control features of Fibre
   Channel.

   Additional information regarding T11 activities is available on the
   committee's web site www.t11.org.



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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


2.2.  This Specification and Fibre Channel Standards

   When considering the challenge of transporting FC Frames over an IP
   Network, it is logical to divide the standardization effort between
   TCP/IP requirements and Fibre Channel requirements.  This
   specification covers the TCP/IP requirements for transporting FC
   Frames; the Fibre Channel documents described in section 2.1 cover
   the Fibre Channel requirements.

   This specification addresses only the requirements necessary to
   properly utilize an IP Network as a conduit for FC Frames.  The
   result is a specification for an FCIP Entity (see section 5.4).

   A product that tunnels an FC Fabric through an IP Network MUST
   combine the FCIP Entity with an FC Entity (see section 5.3) using an
   implementation specific interface.  The requirements placed on an FC
   Entity by this specification to achieve proper delivery of FC Frames
   are summarized in appendix H.  More information about FC Entities can
   be found in the Fibre Channel standards and an example of an FC
   Entity can be found in FC-BB-2 [3].

   No attempt is being made to define a specific API between an FCIP
   Entity and an FC Entity.  The approach is to specify required
   functional interactions between an FCIP Entity and an FC Entity (both
   of which are required to forward FC frames across an IP Network), but
   allow implementers to choose how these interactions will be realized.

3.  Terminology

   Terms used to describe FCIP concepts are defined in this section.

   FC End Node - An FC device that uses the connection services provided
      by the FC Fabric.

   FC Entity - The Fibre Channel specific functional component that
      combines with an FCIP Entity to form an interface between an FC
      Fabric and an IP Network (see section 5.3).

   FC Fabric - An entity that interconnects various Nx_Ports (see [5])
      attached to it, and is capable of routing FC Frames using only the
      destination ID information in an FC Frame header (see appendix F).

   FC Fabric Entity - A Fibre Channel specific element containing one
      or more Interconnect_Ports (see FC-SW-2 [4]) and one or more
      FC/FCIP Entity pairs.  See FC-BB-2 [3] for details about FC Fabric
      Entities.





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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


   FC Frame - The basic unit of Fibre Channel data transfer (see
      appendix F).

   FC Frame Receiver Portal - The access point through which an FC
      Frame and time stamp enter an FCIP Data Engine from the FC Entity.

   FC Frame Transmitter Portal - The access point through which a
      reconstituted FC Frame and time stamp leave an FCIP Data Engine to
      the FC Entity.

   FC/FCIP Entity pair - The combination of one FC Entity and one FCIP
      entity.

   FCIP Data Engine (FCIP_DE) - The component of an FCIP Entity that
      handles FC Frame encapsulation, de-encapsulation, and transmission
      FCIP Frames through a single TCP Connection (see section 5.6).

   FCIP Entity - The entity responsible for the FCIP protocol exchanges
      on the IP Network and encompasses FCIP_LEP(s) and FCIP Control and
      Services module (see section 5.4).

   FCIP Frame - An FC Frame plus the FC Frame Encapsulation [19]
      header, encoded SOF and encoded EOF that contains the FC Frame
      (see section 5.6.1).

   FCIP Link - One or more TCP Connections that connect one FCIP_LEP to
      another (see section 5.2).

   FCIP Link Endpoint (FCIP_LEP) - The component of an FCIP Entity
      that handles a single FCIP Link and contains one or more FCIP_DEs
      (see section 5.5).

   Encapsulated Frame Receiver Portal - The TCP access point through
      which an FCIP Frame is received from the IP Network by an FCIP
      Data Engine.

   Encapsulated Frame Transmitter Portal - The TCP access point through
      which an FCIP Frame is transmitted to the IP Network by an FCIP
      Data Engine.

   FCIP Special Frame (FSF) - A specially formatted FC Frame containing
      information used by the FCIP protocol (see section 7).









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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


4.  Protocol Summary

   The FCIP protocol is summarized as follows:

   1) The primary function of an FCIP Entity is forwarding FC Frames,
      employing FC Frame Encapsulation described in [19].

   2) Viewed from the IP Network perspective, FCIP Entities are peers
      and communicate using TCP/IP.  Each FCIP Entity contains one or
      more TCP endpoints in the IP-based network.

   3) Viewed from the FC Fabric perspective, pairs of FCIP Entities, in
      combination with their associated FC Entities, forward FC Frames
      between FC Fabric elements.  The FC End Nodes are unaware of the
      existence of the FCIP Link.

   4) FC Primitive Signals, Primitive Sequences, and Class 1 FC Frames
      are not transmitted across an FCIP Link because they cannot be
      encoded using FC Frame Encapsulation [19].

   5) The path (route) taken by an encapsulated FC Frame follows the
      normal routing procedures of the IP Network.

   6) An FCIP Entity MAY contain multiple FCIP Link Endpoints, but each
      FCIP Link Endpoint (FCIP_LEP) communicates with exactly one other
      FCIP_LEP.

   7) When multiple FCIP_LEPs with multiple FCIP_DEs are in use,
      selection of which FCIP_DE to use for encapsulating and
      transmitting a given FC Frame is covered in FC-BB-2 [3].  FCIP
      Entities do not actively participate in FC Frame routing.

   8) The FCIP Control and Services module MAY use TCP/IP quality of
      service features (see section 10.2).

   9) It is necessary to statically or dynamically configure each FCIP
      entity with the IP addresses and TCP port numbers corresponding to
      FCIP Entities with which it is expected to initiate communication.
      If dynamic discovery of participating FCIP Entities is supported,
      the function SHALL be performed using the Service Location
      Protocol (SLPv2) [17].  It is outside the scope of this
      specification to describe any static configuration method for
      participating FCIP Entity discovery.  Refer to section 8.1.2.2 for
      a detailed description of dynamic discovery of participating FCIP
      Entities using SLPv2.






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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


  10) Before creating a TCP Connection to a peer FCIP Entity, the FCIP
      Entity attempting to create the TCP connection SHALL statically or
      dynamically determine the IP address, TCP port, expected FC Fabric
      Entity World Wide Name, TCP Connection Parameters, and Quality of
      Service Information.

  11) FCIP Entities do not actively participate in the discovery of FC
      source and destination identifiers.  Discovery of FC addresses
      (accessible via the FCIP Entity) is provided by techniques and
      protocols within the FC architecture as described in FC-FS [5] and
      FC-SW-2 [4].

  12) To support IP Network security (see section 9), FCIP Entities
      MUST:
      1) implement cryptographically protected authentication and
         cryptographic data integrity keyed to the authentication
         process, and
      2) implement data confidentiality security features.

  13) On an individual TCP Connection, this specification relies on
      TCP/IP to deliver a byte stream in the same order that it was
      sent.

  14) This specification assumes the presence of and requires the use of
      TCP and FC data loss and corruption mechanisms.  The error
      detection and recovery features described in this specification
      complement and support these existing mechanisms.
























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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


5.  The FCIP Model

5.1.  FCIP Protocol Model

   The relationship between FCIP and other protocols is illustrated in
   figure 1.

   +------------------------+ FCIP Link +------------------------+
   |          FCIP          |===========|          FCIP          |
   +--------+------+--------+           +--------+------+--------+
   |  FC-2  |      |  TCP   |           |  TCP   |      |  FC-2  |
   +--------+      +--------+           +--------+      +--------+
   |  FC-1  |      |   IP   |           |   IP   |      |  FC-1  |
   +--------+      +--------+           +--------+      +--------+
   |  FC-0  |      |  LINK  |           |  LINK  |      |  FC-0  |
   +--------+      +--------+           +--------+      +--------+
        |          |   PHY  |           |   PHY  |           |
        |          +--------+           +--------+           |
        |               |                    |               |
        |               |     IP Network     |               |
        V               +--------------------+               V
     to Fibre                                             to Fibre
     Channel                                              Channel
     Fabric                                               Fabric

   Key: FC-0 - Fibre Channel Physical Media Layer
        FC-1 - Fibre Channel Encode and Decode Layer
        FC-2 - Fibre Channel Framing and Flow Control Layer
        TCP  - Transmission Control Protocol
        IP   - Internet Protocol
        LINK - IP Link Layer
        PHY  - IP Physical Layer

   Figure 1:  FCIP Protocol Stack Model

   Note that the objective of the FCIP Protocol is to create and
   maintain one or more FCIP Links to transport data.














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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


5.2.  FCIP Link

   The FCIP Link is the basic unit of service provided by the FCIP
   Protocol to an FC Fabric.  As shown in figure 2, an FCIP Link
   connects two portions of an FC Fabric using an IP Network as a
   transport to form a single FC Fabric.

   /\/\/\/\/\/\         /\/\/\/\/\/\         /\/\/\/\/\/\
   \    FC    /         \    IP    /         \    FC    /
   /  Fabric  \=========/  Network \=========/  Fabric  \
   \/\/\/\/\/\/         \/\/\/\/\/\/         \/\/\/\/\/\/
              |                              |
              |<--------- FCIP Link -------->|

   Figure:  2  FCIP Link Model

   At the points where the ends of the FCIP Link meet portions of the FC
   Fabric, an FCIP Entity (see section 5.4) combines with an FC Entity
   as described in section 5.3 to serve as the interface between FC and
   IP.

   An FCIP Link SHALL contain at least one TCP Connection and MAY
   contain more than one TCP Connection.  The endpoints of a single TCP
   Connection are FCIP Data Engines (see section 5.6).  The endpoints of
   a single FCIP Link are FCIP Link Endpoints (see section 5.5).


























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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


5.3.  FC Entity

   An implementation that tunnels an FC Fabric through an IP Network
   MUST combine an FC Entity with an FCIP Entity (see section 5.4) to
   form a complete interface between the FC Fabric and IP Network as
   shown in figure 3.  An FC Fabric Entity may contain multiple
   instances of the FC/FCIP Entity pair shown on either the right-hand
   or left-hand side of figure 3.

              |<--------- FCIP Link -------->|
              |                              |
   +----------+         /\/\/\/\/\/\         +----------+
   |   FCIP   |         \    IP    /         |   FCIP   |
   |  Entity  |=========/  Network \=========|  Entity  |
   +----------+         \/\/\/\/\/\/         +----------+
   |    FC    |                              |    FC    |
   |  Entity  |                              |  Entity  |
   +----------+                              +----------+
        |                                         |
   /\/\/\/\/\/\                              /\/\/\/\/\/\
   \    FC    /                              \    FC    /
   /  Fabric  \                              /  Fabric  \
   \/\/\/\/\/\/                              \/\/\/\/\/\/

   Figure 3:  Model for Two Connected FC/FCIP Entity Pairs

   In general, the combination of an FCIP Link and two FC/FCIP Entity
   pairs is intended to provide a non-Fibre Channel backbone transport
   between Fibre Channel components.  For example, this combination can
   be used to function as the hard-wire connection between two Fibre
   Channel switches.

   The interface between the FC and FCIP Entities is implementation
   specific.  The functional requirements placed on an FC Entity by this
   specification are listed in appendix H.  More information about FC
   Entities can be found in the Fibre Channel standards and an example
   of an FC Entity can be found in FC-BB-2 [3].














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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


5.4.  FCIP Entity

   The model for an FCIP Entity is shown in figure 4.

    .......................................................
    : FCIP Entity                                         :
    :                                                     :
    :  +-----------+                                      :
    :  |   FCIP    |                                      :
    :  |Control and|------------------------------------+ :
    :  | Services  |                                    | :
    :  |  Module   |                                    | :
    :  +-----------+                                    | :
    :        |            +--------------------+        | :
    :        |   +-------+--------------------+|----+   | :
    :        |   |+-----+--------------------+|----+|   | :
    :        |   ||+----| FCIP Link Endpoint |----+||   | :
    :        |   |||    +--------------------+    |||   | :
    :.............................................|||.....:
             |   |||                              |||   |
             |   |||                              |||   o<--+
             |   |||                unique TCP    |||   |   |
             |   |||                connections-->|||   |   |
             |   |||                              |||   |   |
          +----------+                         /\/\/\/\/\/\ |
          |    FC    |                         \    IP    / |
          |  Entity  |                         /  Network \ |
          +----------+                         \/\/\/\/\/\/ |
               |                                            |
          /\/\/\/\/\/\                   +------------------+
          \    FC    /                   +->TCP port for
          /  Fabric  \                      incoming
          \/\/\/\/\/\/                      connections

    Figure 4:  FCIP Entity Model

   The FCIP Entity receives TCP connect requests on behalf of the
   FCIP_LEPs that it manages.  In support of this, the FCIP Entity is
   the sole owner of at least one TCP port/IP Address combination used
   to form TCP Connections.  The TCP port may be the FCIP well known
   port at a given IP Address.  An FC Fabric to IP Network interface
   product SHALL provide each FC/FCIP Entity pair contained in the
   product with a unique combination of FC Fabric Entity World Wide
   Identifier and FC/FCIP Entity Identifier values (see section 7).

   An FCIP Entity contains an FCIP Control and Services Module to
   control FCIP link initialization, FCIP link dissolution, and to
   provide the FC Entity with an interface to key IP Network features.



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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


   The interfaces to the IP Network features are implementation
   specific, however, REQUIRED TCP/IP functional support is specified in
   this document, including:

   -  TCP Connections - see section 8
   -  Security - see section 9
   -  Performance - see section 10
   -  Dynamic Discovery - see section 8.1.2.2

   The FCIP Link Endpoints in an FCIP Entity provide the FC Frame
   encapsulation and transmission features of FCIP.

5.5.  FCIP Link Endpoint (FCIP_LEP)

   As shown in figure 5, the FCIP Link Endpoint contains one FCIP Data
   Engine for each TCP Connection in the FCIP Link.

    ................................................
    : FCIP Link Endpoint                           :
    :                   +------------------+       :
    :          +-------+------------------+|----+  :
    :          |+-----+------------------+|----+|  :
    :          ||+----| FCIP Data Engine |----+||  :
    :          |||    +------------------+    |||  :
    :..............................................:
               |||                            |||
          +----------+                    /\/\/\/\/\/\
          |    FC    |                    \    IP    /
          |  Entity  |                    /  Network \
          +----------+                    \/\/\/\/\/\/
                |
          /\/\/\/\/\/\
          \    FC    /
          /  Fabric  \
          \/\/\/\/\/\/

   Figure 5:  FCIP Link Endpoint Model

   Each time a TCP Connection is formed with a new FC/FCIP Entity pair
   (including all the actions described in section  8.1), the FCIP
   Entity SHALL create a new FCIP Link Endpoint containing one FCIP Data
   Engine.

   An FCIP_LEP is a transparent data translation point between an FC
   Entity and an IP Network.  A pair of FCIP_LEPs communicating over one
   or more TCP Connections create an FCIP Link to join two islands of an
   FC Fabric, producing a single FC Fabric.




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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


   The IP Network over which the two FCIP_LEPs communicate is not aware
   of the FC payloads that it is carrying.  Likewise, the FC End Nodes
   connected to the FC Fabric are unaware of the TCP/IP based transport
   employed in the structure of the FC Fabric.

   An FCIP_LEP uses normal TCP based flow control mechanisms for
   managing its internal resources and matching them with the advertised
   TCP Receiver Window Size (see sections 8.3.2, 8.5).  An FCIP_LEP MAY
   communicate with its local FC Entity counterpart to coordinate flow
   control.

5.6.  FCIP Data Engine (FCIP_DE)

   The model for one of the multiple FCIP_DEs that MAY be present in an
   FCIP_LEP is shown in figure 6.

        +--------------------------------+
        |                                |
   F    |-+    +------------------+    +-|
   C    |p|    |  Encapsulation   |    |p|    N
     -->|1|--->|     Engine       |--->|2|--> e
   E    |-+    +------------------+    +-|    t
   n    |                                |  I w
   t    |-+    +------------------+    +-|  P o
   i    |p|    | De-Encapsulation |    |p|    r
   t <--|4|<---|     Engine       |<---|3|<-- k
   y    |-+    +------------------+    +-|
        |                                |
        +--------------------------------+

   Figure 6:  FCIP Data Engine Model

   Data enters and leaves the FCIP_DE through four portals (p1 - p4).
   The portals do not process or examine the data that passes through
   them.  They are only the named access points where the FCIP_DE
   interfaces with the external world.  The names of the portals are as
   follows:

   p1) FC Frame Receiver Portal - The interface through which an FC
       Frame and time stamp enters an FCIP_DE from the FC Entity.

   p2) Encapsulated Frame Transmitter Portal - The TCP interface through
       which an FCIP Frame is transmitted to the IP Network by an
       FCIP_DE.

   p3) Encapsulated Frame Receiver Portal - The TCP interface through
       which an FCIP Frame is received from the IP Network by an
       FCIP_DE.



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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


   p4) FC Frame Transmitter Portal - The interface through which a
       reconstituted FC Frame and time stamp exits an FCIP_DE to the FC
       Entity.

   The work of the FCIP_DE is done by the Encapsulation and De-
   Encapsulation Engines.  The Engines have two functions:

   1) Encapsulating and de-encapsulating FC Frames using the
      encapsulation format described in FC Frame Encapsulation [19] and
      in section 5.6.1 of this document, and

   2) Detecting some data transmission errors and performing minimal
      error recovery as described in section 5.6.2.

   Data flows through a pair of IP Network connected FCIP_DEs in the
   following seven steps:

   1) An FC Frame and time stamp arrives at the FC Frame Receiver Portal
      and is passed to the Encapsulation Engine.  The FC Frame is
      assumed to have been processed by the FC Entity according to the
      applicable FC rules and is not validated by the FCIP_DE.  If the
      FC Entity is in the Unsynchronized state with respect to a time
      base as described in the FC Frame Encapsulation [19]
      specification, the time stamp delivered with the FC Frame SHALL be
      zero.

   2) In the Encapsulation Engine, the encapsulation format described in
      FC Frame Encapsulation [19] and in section 5.6.1 of this document
      SHALL be applied to prepare the FC Frame and associated time stamp
      for transmission over the IP Network.

   3) The entire encapsulated FC Frame (a.k.a. the FCIP Frame) SHALL be
      passed to the Encapsulated Frame Transmitter Portal where it SHALL
      be inserted in the TCP byte stream.

   4) Transmission of the FCIP Frame over the IP Network follows all the
      TCP rules of operation.  This includes, but is not limited to, the
      in-order delivery of bytes in the stream, as specified by TCP [6].

   5) The FCIP Frame arrives at the partner FCIP Entity where it enters
      the FCIP_DE through the Encapsulated Frame Receiver Portal and is
      passed to the De-Encapsulation Engine for processing.

   6) The De-Encapsulation Engine SHALL validate the incoming TCP byte
      stream as described in section 5.6.2.2 and SHALL de-encapsulate
      the FC Frame and associated time stamp according to the
      encapsulation format described in FC Frame Encapsulation [19] and
      in section 5.6.1 of this document.



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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


   7) In the absence of errors, the de-encapsulated FC Frame and time
      stamp SHALL be passed to the FC Frame Transmitter Portal for
      delivery to the FC Entity.  Error handling is discussed in section
      5.6.2.2.

   Every FC Frame that arrives at the FC Frame Receiver Portal SHALL be
   transmitted on the IP Network as described in steps 1 through 4
   above.  In the absence of errors, data bytes arriving at the
   Encapsulated Frame Receiver Portal SHALL be de-encapsulated and
   forwarded to the FC Frame Transmitter Portal as described in steps 5
   through 7.

5.6.1.  FCIP Encapsulation of FC Frames

   The FCIP encapsulation of FC Frames employs FC Frame Encapsulation
   [19].

   The features from FC Frame Encapsulation that are unique to
   individual protocols SHALL be applied as follows for the FCIP
   encapsulation of FC Frames.

   The Protocol# field SHALL contain 1 in accordance with the IANA
   Considerations annex of FC Frame Encapsulation [19].

   The Protocol Specific field SHALL have the format shown in figure 7.
   Note: the word numbers in figure 7 are relative to the complete FC
   Frame Encapsulation header, not to the Protocol Specific field.

   W|------------------------------Bit------------------------------|
   o|                                                               |
   r|                    1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3|
   d|0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1|
    +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   1|               replication of encapsulation word 0             |
    +---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
   2|    pFlags     |    Reserved   |    -pFlags    |  -Reserved    |
    +---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+

   Figure 7:  FCIP Usage of FC Frame Encapsulation Protocol Specific
   field

   Word 1 of the Protocol Specific field SHALL contain an exact copy of
   word 0 in FC Frame Encapsulation [19].

   The pFlags (protocol specific flags) field provides information about
   the protocol specific usage of the FC Encapsulation Header.  Figure 8
   shows the defined pFlags bits.




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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


   |----------------Bit--------------------|
   |                                       |
   |  0    1    2    3    4    5    6    7 |
   +----+-----------------------------+----+
   | Ch |          Reserved           | SF |
   +----+-----------------------------+----+

   Figure 8:  pFlags Field Bits

   The SF (Special Frame) bit indicates whether the FCIP Frame is an
   encapsulated FC Frame or an FSF (FCIP Special Frame, see section 7).
   When the FCIP Frame contains an encapsulated FC Frame, the SF bit
   SHALL be 0.  When the FCIP Frame is an FSF, the SF bit SHALL be 1.

   The FSF SHALL only be sent as the first bytes transmitted in each
   direction on a newly formed TCP Connection and only one FSF SHALL be
   transmitted in each direction at that time (see section 8.1).  After
   that all FCIP Frames SHALL have the SF bit set to 0.

   The Ch (Changed) bit indicates whether an echoed FSF has been
   intentionally altered (see section 8.1.3).  The Ch bit SHALL be 0
   unless the FSF bit is 1.  When the initial TCP Connection FSF is
   sent, the Ch bit SHALL be 0.  If the recipient of a TCP connect
   request echoes the FSF without any changes, then the Ch bit SHALL
   continue to be 0.  If the recipient of a TCP connect request alters
   the FSF before echoing it, then the Ch bit SHALL be changed to 1.

   The -pFlags field SHALL contain the ones complement of the contents
   of the pFlags field.






















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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


   Table 1 summarizes the usage of the pFlags SF and Ch bits.

   +----+----+------------+--------------------------------------+
   |    |    | Originated |                                      |
   | SF | Ch | or Echoed  | Validity/Description                 |
   +----+----+------------+--------------------------------------+
   |  0 |  0 |    n/a     | Encapsulated FC Frame                |
   +----+----+------------+--------------------------------------+
   |  0 |  1 |    n/a     | Always Illegal                       |
   +----+----+------------+--------------------------------------+
   |  1 |  0 | Originated | Originated FSF                       |
   +----+----+------------+--------------------------------------+
   |  1 |  1 | Originated | Always Illegal                       |
   +----+----+------------+--------------------------------------+
   |  1 |  0 |   Echoed   | Echoed FSF without changes           |
   +----+----+------------+--------------------------------------+
   |  1 |  1 |   Echoed   | Echoed FSF with changes              |
   +----+----+------------+--------------------------------------+
   | Note 1: Echoed FSFs may contain changes resulting from      |
   | transmission errors, necessitating the comparison between   |
   | sent and received FSF bytes by the FSF originator described |
   | in section 8.1.2.3.                                         |
   |                                                             |
   | Note 2: Column positions in this table do not reflect the   |
   | bit positions of the SF and Ch bits in the pFlags field.    |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------+

   Table 1:  pFlags SF and Ch bit usage summary

   The Reserved pFlags bits SHALL be 0.

   The Reserved field (bits 23-16 in word 2): SHALL contain 0.

   The -Reserved field (bits 7-0 in word 2): SHALL contain 255 (or
   0xFF).

   The CRCV (CRC Valid) Flag SHALL be set to 0.

   The CRC field SHALL be set to 0.

   In FCIP, the SOF and EOF codes listed as Class 2, Class 3, and Class
   4 in the FC Frame Encapsulation [19] are legal.









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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


5.6.2.  FCIP Data Engine Error Detection and Recovery

5.6.2.1.  TCP Assistance With Error Detection and Recovery

   TCP [6] requires in order delivery, generation of TCP checksums, and
   checking of TCP checksums.  Thus, the byte stream passed from TCP to
   the FCIP_LEP will be in order and free of errors detectable by the
   TCP checksum.  The FCIP_LEP relies on TCP to perform these functions.

5.6.2.2.  Errors in FCIP Headers and Discarding FCIP Frames

   Bytes delivered through the Encapsulated Frame Receiver Portal that
   are not correctly delimited as defined by the FC Frame Encapsulation
   [19] are considered to be in error.

   The failure of the Protocol# and Version fields in the FCIP Frame
   header to contain the values defined for an FCIP Frame SHALL be
   considered an error.

   Further, some errors in the encapsulation will result in the FCIP_DE
   losing synchronization with the FC Frames in the byte stream entering
   through the Encapsulated Frame Receiver Portal.

   The Frame Length field in the FC Frame Encapsulation header is used
   to determine where in the data stream the next FC Encapsulated Header
   is located.  The following tests SHALL be performed to verify
   synchronization with the byte stream entering the Encapsulated Frame
   Receiver Portal, and synchronization SHALL be considered lost if any
   of the tests fail:

   1) Frame Length field validation -- 15 < Frame Length < 545;

   2) Comparison of Frame Length field to its ones complement; and

   3) A valid EOF is found in the word preceding the start of the next
      FCIP header as indicated by the Frame Length field, to be tested
      as follows:

      1) Bits 24-31 and 16-23 contain identical legal EOF values (the
         list of legal EOF values is in the FC Frame Encapsulation
         [19]); and

      2) Bits 8-15 and 0-7 contain the ones complement of the EOF value
         found in bits 24-31.

   Note: The range of valid Frame Length values is derived as follows.
   The FCIP Frame header is seven words, one word each is required for
   the encoded SOF and EOF values, the FC Frame header is six words, and



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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


   the FC CRC requires one word, yielding a base Frame Length of 16
   (7+1+1+6+1) words, if no FC Payload is present.  Since the FC Payload
   is optional, any Frame Length value greater than 15 is valid.  The
   maximum FC Payload size is 528 words, meaning that any Frame Length
   value up to and including 544 (528+16) is valid.

   If synchronization is lost, the FC Frame SHALL NOT be forwarded on to
   the FC Entity and further recovery SHALL be handled as defined by
   section 5.6.2.3.

   In addition to the tests above, the validity and positioning of the
   following FCIP Frame information SHOULD be used to detect
   encapsulation errors that may or may not affect synchronization:

      a)  Protocol# ones complement field (1 test);
      b)  Version ones complement field (1 test);
      c)  Replication of encapsulation word 0 in word 1 (1 test);
      d)  Reserved field and its ones complement (2 tests);
      e)  Flags field and its ones complement (2 tests);
      f)  CRC field is equal to zero (1 test);
      g)  SOF fields and ones complement fields (4 tests);
      h)  Format and values of FC header (1 test);
      i)  CRC of FC Frame (2 tests);
      j)  FC Frame Encapsulation header information in the next FCIP
          Frame (1 test).

   At least 3 of the 16 tests listed above SHALL be performed.  Failure
   of any of the above tests actually performed SHALL indicate an
   encapsulation error and the FC Frame SHALL NOT be forwarded on to the
   FC Entity.  Further, such errors SHOULD be considered carefully,
   since some may be synchronization errors.

   Whenever an FCIP_DE discards bytes delivered through the Encapsulated
   Frame Receiver Portal, it SHALL cause the FCIP Entity to notify the
   FC Entity of the condition and provide a suitable description of the
   reason bytes were discarded.

   The burden for recovering from discarded data falls on the FC Entity
   and other components of the FC Fabric, and is outside the scope of
   this specification.











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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


5.6.2.3.  Synchronization Failures

   If an FCIP_DE determines that it cannot find the next FCIP Frame
   header in the byte stream entering through the Encapsulated Frame
   Receiver Portal, the FCIP_DE SHALL do one of the following:

   a) close the TCP Connection [6] [7] and notify the FC Entity with the
      reason for the closure;

   b) recover synchronization by searching the bytes delivered by the
      Encapsulated Frame Receiver Portal for a valid FCIP Frame header
      having the correct properties (see section 5.6.2.2), and
      discarding bytes delivered by the Encapsulated Frame Receiver
      Portal until a valid FCIP Frame header is found; or

   c) attempt to recover synchronization as described in b) and if
      synchronization cannot be recovered, close the TCP Connection as
      described in a), including notification of the FC Entity with the
      reason for the closure.

   If the FCIP_DE attempts to recover synchronization, the
   resynchronization algorithm used SHALL meet the following
   requirements:

   a) discard or identify with an EOFa (see appendix section F.1) those
      FC Frames and fragments of FC Frames identified before
      synchronization has again been completely verified.  The number of
      FC Frames not forwarded may vary based on the algorithm used;

   b) return to forwarding FC Frames through the FC Frame Transmitter
      Portal only after synchronization on the transmitted FCIP Frame
      stream has been verified; and

   c) close the TCP/IP connection if the algorithm ends without
      verifying successful synchronization.  The probability of failing
      to synchronize successfully and the time necessary to determine
      whether or not synchronization was successful may vary with the
      algorithm used.

   An example algorithm meeting these requirements can be found in
   appendix D.

   The burden for recovering from the discarding of FCIP Frames during
   the optional resynchronization process described in this section
   falls on the FC Entity and other components of the FC Fabric, and is
   outside the scope of this specification.





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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


6.  Checking FC Frame Transit Times in the IP Network

   FC-BB-2 [3] defines how the measurement of IP Network transit time is
   performed, based on the requirements stated in the FC Frame
   Encapsulation [19] specification.  The choice to place this
   implementation requirement on the FC Entity is based on a desire to
   include the transit time through the FCIP Entities when computing the
   IP Network transit time experienced by the FC Frames.

   Each FC Frame that enters the FCIP_DE through the FC Frame Receiver
   Portal SHALL be accompanied by a time stamp value that the FCIP_DE
   SHALL place in the Time Stamp [integer] and Time Stamp [fraction]
   fields of the encapsulation header of the FCIP Frame that contains
   the FC Frame.  If no synchronized time stamp value is available to
   accompany the entering FC Frame, a value of zero SHALL be used.

   Each FC Frame that exits the FCIP_DE through the FC Frame Transmitter
   Portal SHALL be accompanied by the time stamp value taken from the
   FCIP Frame that encapsulated the FC Frame.

   The FC Entity SHALL use suitable internal clocks and either Fibre
   Channel services or an SNTP Version 4 server [26] to establish and
   maintain the required synchronized time value.  The FC Entity SHALL
   verify that the FC Entity it is communicating with on an FCIP Link is
   using the same synchronized time source, either Fibre Channel
   services or SNTP server.

   Note that since the FC Fabric is expected to have a single
   synchronized time value throughout, reliance on the Fibre Channel
   services means that only one synchronized time value is needed for
   all FCIP_DEs regardless of their connection characteristics.




















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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


7.  The FCIP Special Frame (FSF)

7.1.  FCIP Special Frame Format

   Figure 9 shows the FSF format.

    W|------------------------------Bit------------------------------|
    o|                                                               |
    r|                    1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3|
    d|0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1|
     +---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
    0|   Protocol#   |    Version    |  -Protocol#   |   -Version    |
     |    (0x01)     |    (0x01)     |     (0xFE)    |    (0xFE)     |
     +---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
    1|   Protocol#   |    Version    |  -Protocol#   |   -Version    |
     |    (0x01)     |    (0x01)     |     (0xFE)    |    (0xFE)     |
     +---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
    2|    pFlags     |    Reserved   |    -pFlags    |  -Reserved    |
     |               |     (0x00)    |               |    (0xFF)     |
     +-----------+---+---------------+-----------+---+---------------+
    3|   Flags   |   Frame Length    |   -Flags  |   -Frame Length   |
     | (0b000000)|  (0b0000010011)   | (0b111111)|   (0b1111101100)  |
     +-----------+-------------------+-----------+-------------------+
    4|                      Time Stamp [integer]                     |
     +---------------------------------------------------------------+
    5|                      Time Stamp [fraction]                    |
     +---------------------------------------------------------------+
    6|                     CRC (Reserved in FCIP)                    |
     |                        (0x00-00-00-00)                        |
     +-------------------------------+-------------------------------+
    7|           Reserved            |          -Reserved            |
     |           (0x00-00)           |          (0xFF-FF)            |
     +-------------------------------+-------------------------------+
    8|                                                               |
     +-----        Source FC Fabric Entity World Wide Name      -----+
    9|                                                               |
     +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   10|                                                               |
     +-----           Source FC/FCIP Entity Identifier          -----+
   11|                                                               |
     +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   12|                                                               |
     +-----                   Connection Nonce                  -----+
   13|                                                               |
     +---------------+---------------+-------------------------------+
                               (Continued)

   Figure 9:  FSF Format (part 1 of 2)



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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


    W|------------------------------Bit------------------------------|
    o|                                                               |
    r|                    1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3|
    d|0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1|
     |                                                               |
     |                          (Concluded)                          |
     +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   14|   Connection  |    Reserved   |    Connection Usage Code      |
     |  Usage Flags  |     (0x00)    |     <defined in FC-BB-2>      |
     +---------------+---------------+-------------------------------+
   15|                                                               |
     +-----    Destination FC Fabric Entity World Wide Name     -----+
   16|                                                               |
     +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   17|                            K_A_TOV                            |
     +-------------------------------+-------------------------------+
   18|           Reserved            |          -Reserved            |
     |           (0x00-00)           |          (0xFF-FF)            |
     +-------------------------------+-------------------------------+

   Figure 9: FSF Format (part 2 of 2)

   The FSF SHALL only be sent as the first bytes transmitted in each
   direction on a newly formed TCP Connection, and only one FSF SHALL be
   transmitted in each direction.

   The contents of the FSF SHALL be as described for encapsulated FC
   Frames, except for the fields described in this section.

   All FSFs SHALL have the pFlags SF bit set to 1 (see section 5.6.1).

   The Source FC Fabric Entity World Wide Name field SHALL contain the
   Fibre Channel Name_Identifier [5] for the FC Fabric entity associated
   with the FC/FCIP Entity pair that generates (as opposed to echoes)
   the FSF.  For example, if the FC Fabric entity is a FC Switch, the FC
   Fabric Entity World Wide Name field SHALL contain the Switch_Name
   [4].  The Source FC Fabric Entity World Wide Name SHALL be world wide
   unique.

   The Source FC/FCIP Entity Identifier field SHALL contain a unique
   identifier for the FC/FCIP Entity pair that generates (as opposed to
   echoes) the FSF.  The value is assigned by the FC Fabric entity whose
   world wide name appears in the Source FC Fabric Entity World Wide
   Name field.

   Note: The combination of the Source FC Entity World Wide Name and
   Source FC/FCIP Entity Identifier fields uniquely identifies every
   FC/FCIP Entity pair in the IP Network.



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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


   The Connection Nonce field shall contain a 64-bit random number
   generated to uniquely identify a single TCP connect request.  In
   order to provide sufficient security for the connection nonce, the
   Randomness Recommendations for Security [9] SHOULD be followed.

   The Connection Usage Flags field identifies the types of SOF values
   [19] to be carried on the connection as shown in figure 10.

   |------------------------------Bit------------------------------|
   |                                                               |
   |    0      1       2       3       4       5       6       7   |
   +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------------------------------+
   |  SOFf | SOF?2 | SOF?3 | SOF?4 |            Reserved           |
   +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------------------------------+

   Figure 10:  Connection Usage Flags Field Format

   If the SOFf bit is one, then FC Frames containing SOFf are intended
   to be carried on the connection.

   If the SOF?2 bit is one, then FC Frames containing SOFi2 and SOFn2
   are intended to be carried on the connection.

   If the SOF?3 bit is one, then FC Frames containing SOFi3 and SOFn3
   are intended to be carried on the connection.

   If the SOF?4 bit is one, then FC Frames containing SOFi4, SOFn4, and
   SOFc4 are intended to be carried on the connection.

   All or none of the SOFf, SOF?2, SOF?3, and SOF?4 bits MAY be set to
   one.  If all of the SOFf, SOF?2, SOF?3, and SOF?4 bits are zero, then
   the types of FC Frames intended to be carried on the connection have
   no specific relationship to the SOF code.

   The FCIP Entity SHALL NOT enforce the SOF usage described by the
   Connection Usage Flags field and SHALL only use the contents of the
   field as described below.

   The Connection Usage Code field contains Fibre Channel defined
   information regarding the intended usage of the connection as
   specified in FC-BB-2 [3].










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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


   The FCIP Entity SHALL use the contents of the Connection Usage Flags
   and Connection Usage Code fields to locate appropriate QoS settings
   in the "shared" database of TCP Connection information (see section
   8.1.1) and apply those settings to a newly formed connection.

   The Destination FC Fabric Entity World Wide Name field MAY contain
   the Fibre Channel Name_Identifier [5] for the FC Fabric entity
   associated with the FC/FCIP Entity pair that echoes (as opposed to
   generates) the Special Frame.

   The K_A_TOV field SHALL contain the FC Keep Alive Timeout value to be
   applied to the new TCP Connection as specified in FC-BB-2 [3].

   For each new incoming TCP connect request and subsequent FSF
   received, the FCIP Entity SHALL send the contents of the Source FC
   Fabric Entity World Wide Name, Source FC/FCIP Identifier, Connection
   Usage Flags and Connection Usage Code fields to the FC Entity along
   with the other connection information (e.g., FCIP_LEP and FCIP_DE
   information).

7.2.  Overview of FSF Usage in Connection Establishment

   When a new TCP Connection is established, an FCIP Special Frame makes
   one round trip from the FCIP Entity initiating the TCP connect
   operation to the FCIP Entity receiving the TCP connect request and
   back.  This FSF usage serves three functions:

   -  Identification of the FCIP Link endpoints

   -  Conveyance of a few critical parameters shared by the FC/FCIP
      Entity pairs involved in the FCIP Link

   -  Configuration discovery (used in place of SLP only when allowed by
      site security policies)

   The specific format and protocol requirements for this usage of the
   FSF are found in sections 7.1 and 8.1.2.3.  This section provides an
   overview of the FSF usage without stating requirements.

   Because FCIP is only a tunnel for a Fibre Channel Fabric and because
   the Fabric has its own complex link setup algorithm that can be
   employed for many FCIP link setup needs, it is desirable to minimize
   the complexity of the FSF usage during TCP Connection setup.  With
   this in mind, this FSF usage is not a login or parameter negotiation
   mechanism.  A single FSF transits each newly established TCP
   connection as the first bytes sent in each direction.





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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


   Note: This usage of the FSF cannot be eliminated entirely because a
   newly created TCP Connection must be associated with the correct FCIP
   Link before FC Fabric initialization of the connection can commence.

   The first bytes sent from the TCP connect request initiator to the
   receiver are an FSF identifying both the sender and who the sender
   thinks is the receiver.  If the contents of this FSF are correct and
   acceptable to the receiver, the unchanged FSF is echoed back to the
   sender.  This send/echo process is the only set of actions that
   allows the TCP Connection to be used to carry FC Fabric traffic.  If
   the send and unchanged echo process does not occur, the algorithm
   followed at one or both ends of the TCP Connection results in the
   closure of the TCP Connection (see section 8.1 for specific algorithm
   requirements).

   Note: Owing to the limited manner in which the FSF is used and the
   requirement that the FSF be echoed without changes before a TCP
   Connection is allowed to carry user data, no error checking beyond
   that provided by TCP is deemed necessary.

   As described above, the primary purpose of the FSF usage during TCP
   Connection setup is identifying the FCIP Link to which the new TCP
   Connection belongs.  From these beginnings, it is only a small
   stretch to envision using the FSF as a simplified configuration
   discovery tool, and the mechanics of such a usage are described in
   section 8.1.

   However, use of the FSF for configuration discovery lacks the broad
   range of capabilities provided by SLPv2 and most particularly lacks
   the security capabilities of SLPv2.  For these reasons, using the FSF
   for configuration discovery is not appropriate for all environments.
   Thus the choice to use the FSF for discovery purposes is a policy
   choice to be included in the TCP Connection Establishment "shared"
   database described in section 8.1.1.

   When FSF-based configuration discovery is enabled, the normal TCP
   Connection setup rules outlined above are modified as follows.

   Normally, the algorithm executed by an FCIP Entity receiving an FSF
   includes verifying that its own identification information in the
   arriving FSF is correct and closing the TCP Connection if it is not.
   This can be viewed as requiring the initiator of a TCP connect
   request to know in advance the identity of the FCIP Entity that is
   the target of that request (using SLP, for example), and through the
   FSF effectively saying, "I think I'm talking to X."  If the party at
   the other end of the TCP connect request is really Y, then it simply
   hangs up.




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   FSF-based discovery allows the "I think I'm talking to X" to be
   replaced with "Please tell me who I am talking to?", which is
   accomplished by replacing an explicit value in the Destination FC
   Fabric Entity World Wide Name field with zero.

   If the policy at the receiving FCIP Entity allows FSF-based
   discovery, the zero is replaced with the correct Destination FC
   Fabric Entity World Wide Name value in the echoed FSF.  This is still
   subject to the rules of sending with unchanged echo, and so closure
   of TCP Connection occurs after the echoed FSF is received by the TCP
   connect initiator.

   Despite the TCP Connection closure, however, the TCP connect
   initiator now knows the correct Destination FC Fabric Entity World
   Wide Name identity of the FCIP Entity at a given IP Address and a
   subsequent TCP Connection setup sequence probably will be successful.

   The Ch bit in the pFlags field (see section 5.6.1) allows for
   differentiation between changes in the FSF resulting from
   transmission errors and changes resulting from intentional acts by
   the FSF recipient.

8.  TCP Connection Management

8.1.  TCP Connection Establishment

8.1.1.  Connection Establishment Model

   The description of the connection establishment process is a model
   for the interactions between an FC Entity and an FCIP Entity during
   TCP Connection establishment.  The model is written in terms of a
   "shared" database that the FCIP Entity consults to determine the
   properties of the TCP Connections to be formed combined with routine
   calls to the FC Entity when connections are successfully established.
   Whether the FC Entity contributes information to the "shared"
   database is not critical to this model.  However, the fact that the
   FCIP Entity MAY consult the database at any time to determine its
   actions relative to TCP Connection establishment is important.

   It is important to remember that this description is only a model for
   the interactions between an FC Entity and an FCIP Entity.  Any
   implementation that has the same effects on the FC Fabric and IP
   Network as those described using the model meets the requirements of
   this specification.  For example, an implementation might replace the
   "shared" database with a routine interface between the FC and FCIP
   Entities.





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8.1.2.  Creating New TCP Connections

8.1.2.1.  Non-Dynamic Creation of New TCP Connections

   When an FCIP Entity discovers that a new TCP Connection needs to be
   established, it SHALL determine the IP Address to which the TCP
   Connection is to be made and establish all enabled IP security
   features for that IP Address as described in section 9.  Then the
   FCIP Entity SHALL determine the following information about the new
   connection in addition to the IP Address:

   -  The expected Destination FC Fabric Entity World Wide Name of the
      FC/FCIP Entity pair to which the TCP Connection is being made

   -  TCP Connection Parameters (see section 8.3)

   -  Quality of Service Information (see section 10)

   Based on this information, the FCIP Entity SHALL generate a TCP
   connect request [6] to the FCIP Well-Known Port of 3225 (or other
   configuration specific port number) at the specified IP Address.

   If the TCP connect request is rejected, the FCIP Entity SHALL act to
   limit unnecessary repetition of attempts to establish similar
   connections.  For example, the FCIP Entity might wait 60 seconds
   before trying to re-establish the connection.

   If the TCP connect request is accepted, the FCIP Entity SHALL follow
   the steps described in section 8.1.2.3 to complete the establishment
   of a new FCIP_DE.

   It is RECOMMENDED that an FCIP Entity not initiate TCP connect
   requests to another FCIP Entity if incoming TCP connect requests from
   that FCIP Entity have already been accepted.

8.1.2.2.  Dynamic Creation of New TCP Connections

   If dynamic discovery of participating FCIP Entities is supported, the
   function SHALL be performed using the Service Location Protocol
   (SLPv2) [17] in the manner defined for FCIP usage [20].

   Upon discovering that dynamic discovery is to be used, the FCIP
   Entity SHALL enable IP security features for the SLP discovery
   process as described in [20] and then:

   1) Determine the one or more FCIP Discovery Domain(s) to be used in
      the dynamic discovery process;




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   2) Establish an SLPv2 Service Agent to advertise the availability of
      this FCIP Entity to peer FCIP Entities in the identified FCIP
      Discovery Domain(s); and

   3) Establish an SLPv2 User Agent to locate service advertisements for
      peer FCIP Entities in the identified FCIP Discovery Domain(s).

   For each peer FCIP Entity dynamically discovered through the SLPv2
   User Agent, the FCIP Entity SHALL establish all enabled IP security
   features for the discovered IP Address as described in section 9 and
   then determine the following information about the new connection:

   -  The expected Destination FC Fabric Entity World Wide Name of the
      FC/FCIP Entity pair to which the TCP Connection is being made

   -  TCP Connection Parameters (see section 8.3)

   -  Quality of Service Information (see section 10)

   Based on this information, the FCIP Entity SHALL generate a TCP
   connect request [6] to the FCIP Well-Known Port of 3225 (or other
   configuration specific port number) at the IP Address specified by
   the service advertisement.  If the TCP connect request is rejected,
   act to limit unnecessary repetition of attempts to establish similar
   connections.  If the TCP connect request is accepted, the FCIP Entity
   SHALL follow the steps described in section 8.1.2.3 to complete the
   establishment of a new FCIP_DE.

   It is recommended that an FCIP Entity not initiate TCP connect
   requests to another FCIP Entity if incoming TCP connect requests from
   that FCIP Entity have already been accepted.

8.1.2.3.  Connection Setup After a Successful TCP Connect Request

   Whether Non-Dynamic TCP Connection creation (see section 8.1.2.1) or
   Dynamic TCP Connection creation (see section 8.1.2.2) is used, the
   steps described in this section SHALL be followed to take the TCP
   Connection setup process to completion.

   After the TCP connect request has been accepted, the FCIP Entity
   SHALL send an FCIP Special Frame (FSF, see section 7) as the first
   bytes transmitted on the newly formed connection, and retain a copy
   of those bytes for later comparisons.  All fields in the FSF SHALL be
   filled in as described in section 7, particularly:

   -  The Source FC Fabric Entity World Wide Name field SHALL contain
      the FC Fabric Entity World Wide Name for the FC/FCIP Entity pair
      that is originating the TCP connect request;



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   -  The Source FC/FCIP Entity Identifier field SHALL contain a unique
      identifier that is assigned by the FC Fabric entity whose world
      wide name appears in the Source FC Fabric Entity World Wide Name
      field;

   -  The Connection Nonce field SHALL contain a 64-bit random number
      that differs in value from any recently used Connection Nonce
      value.  In order to provide sufficient security for the connection
      nonce, the Randomness Recommendations for Security [9] SHOULD be
      followed; and

   -  The Destination FC Fabric Entity World Wide Name field SHALL
      contain 0 or the expected FC Fabric Entity World Wide Name for the
      FC/FCIP Entity pair whose destination is the TCP connect request.

   After the FSF is sent on the newly formed connection, the FCIP Entity
   SHALL wait for the FSF to be echoed as the first bytes received on
   the newly formed connection.

   The FCIP Entity MAY apply a timeout of not less than 90 seconds while
   waiting for the echoed FSF bytes.  If the timeout expires, the FCIP
   Entity SHALL close the TCP Connection and notify the FC Entity with
   the reason for the closure.

   If the echoed FSF bytes do not exactly match the FSF bytes sent
   (words 7 through 17 inclusive) or if the echoed Destination FC Fabric
   Entity World Wide Name field contains zero, the FCIP Entity SHALL
   close the TCP Connection and notify the FC Entity with the reason for
   the closure.

   The FCIP Entity SHALL only perform the following steps if the echoed
   FSF bytes exactly match the FSF bytes sent (words 7 through 17
   inclusive).

   1) Instantiate the appropriate Quality of Service (see section 10)
      conditions on the newly created TCP Connection,

   2) If the IP Address and TCP Port to which the TCP Connection was
      made is not associated with any other FCIP_LEP, create a new
      FCIP_LEP for the new FCIP Link,

   3) Create a new FCIP_DE within the newly created FCIP_LEP to service
      the new TCP Connection, and

   4) Inform the FC Entity of the new FCIP_LEP, FCIP_DE, Destination FC
      Fabric Entity World Wide Name, Connection Usage Flags, and
      Connection Usage Code.




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8.1.3.  Processing Incoming TCP Connect Requests

   The FCIP Entity SHALL listen for new TCP Connection requests [6] on
   the FCIP Well-Known Port (3225).  An FCIP Entity MAY also accept and
   establish TCP Connections to a TCP port number other than the FCIP
   Well-Known Port, as configured by the network administrator in a
   manner outside the scope of this specification.

   The FCIP Entity SHALL determine the following information about the
   requested connection:

   -  Whether the "shared" database (see section 8.1.1) allows the
      requested connection

   -  Whether IP security setup has been performed for the IP security
      features enabled on the connection (see section 9)

   If the requested connection is not allowed, the FCIP Entity SHALL
   reject the connect request using appropriate TCP means.  If the
   requested connection is allowed, the FC Entity SHALL ensure that
   required IP security features are enabled and accept the TCP connect
   request.

   After the TCP connect request has been accepted, the FCIP Entity
   SHALL wait for the FSF sent by the originator of the TCP connect
   request (see section 8.1.2) as the first bytes received on the
   accepted connection.

   The FCIP Entity MAY apply a timeout of no less than 90 seconds while
   waiting for the FSF bytes. If the timeout expires, the FCIP Entity
   SHALL close the TCP Connection and notify the FC Entity with the
   reason for the closure.

   Note: One method for attacking the security of the FCIP Link
   formation process (detailed in section 9.1) depends on keeping a TCP
   connect request open without sending an FSF.  Implementations should
   bear this in mind in the handling of TCP connect requests where the
   FSF is not sent in a timely manner.

   Upon receipt of the FSF sent by the originator of the TCP connect
   request, the FCIP Entity SHALL inspect the contents of the following
   fields:

   -  Connection Nonce,
   -  Destination FC Fabric Entity World Wide Name,
   -  Connection Usage Flags, and
   -  Connection Usage Code.




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   If the Connection Nonce field contains a value identical to the most
   recently received Connection Nonce from the same IP Address, the FCIP
   Entity SHALL close the TCP Connection and notify the FC Entity with
   the reason for the closure.

   If an FCIP Entity receives a duplicate FSF during the FCIP Link
   formation process, it SHALL close that TCP Connection and notify the
   FC Entity with the reason for the closure.

   If the Destination FC Fabric Entity World Wide Name contains 0, the
   FCIP Entity SHALL take one of the following three actions:

   1) Leave the Destination FC Fabric Entity World Wide Name field and
      Ch bit both 0;

   2) Change the Destination FC Fabric Entity World Wide Name field to
      match FC Fabric Entity World Wide Name associated with the FCIP
      Entity that received the TCP connect request and change the Ch bit
      to 1; or

   3) Close the TCP Connection without sending any response.

   The choice between the above actions depends on the anticipated usage
   of the FCIP Entity.  The FCIP Entity may consult the "shared"
   database when choosing between the above actions.

   If:
   a) The Destination FC Fabric Entity World Wide Name contains a non-
      zero value that does not match the FC Fabric Entity World Wide
      Name associated with the FCIP Entity that received the TCP connect
      request, or

   b) The contents of the Connection Usage Flags and Connection Usage
      Code fields is not acceptable to the FCIP Entity that received the
      TCP connect request, then the FCIP Entity SHALL take one of the
      following two actions:

      1) Change the contents of the unacceptable fields to correct/
         acceptable values and set the Ch bit to 1; or

      2) Close the TCP Connection without sending any response.

   If the FCIP Entity makes any changes in the content of the FSF, it
   SHALL also set the Ch bit to 1.

   If any changes have been made in the received FSF during the
   processing described above, the following steps SHALL be performed:




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   1) The changed FSF SHALL be echoed to the originator of the TCP
      connect request as the only bytes transmitted on the accepted
      connection;

   2) The TCP Connection SHALL be closed (the FC Entity need not be
      notified of the TCP Connection closure in this case because it is
      not indicative of an error); and

   3) All of the additional processing described in this section SHALL
      be skipped.

   The remaining steps in this section SHALL be performed only if the
   FCIP Entity has not changed the contents of the above mentioned
   fields to correct/acceptable values.

   If the Source FC Fabric Entity World Wide Name and Source FC/FCIP
   Entity Identifier field values in the FSF do not match the Source FC
   Fabric Entity World Wide Name and Source FC/FCIP Entity Identifier
   associated with any other FCIP_LEP, the FCIP Entity SHALL:

   1) Echo the unchanged FSF to the originator of the TCP connect
      request as the first bytes transmitted on the accepted connection;

   2) Instantiate the appropriate Quality of Service (see section 10.2)
      conditions on the newly created TCP Connection, considering the
      Connection Usage Flags and Connection Usage Code fields, and
      "shared" database information (see section 8.1.1) as appropriate,

   3) Create a new FCIP_LEP for the new FCIP Link,

   4) Create a new FCIP_DE within the newly created FCIP_LEP to service
      the new TCP Connection, and

   5) Inform the FC Entity of the new FCIP_LEP, FCIP_DE, Source FC
      Fabric Entity World Wide Name, Source FC/FCIP Entity Identifier,
      Connection Usage Flags, and Connection Usage Code.

   If the Source FC Fabric Entity World Wide Name and Source FC/FCIP
   Entity Identifier field values in the FCIP Special Frame match the
   Source FC Fabric Entity World Wide Name and Source FC/FCIP Entity
   Identifier associated with an existing FCIP_LEP, the FCIP Entity
   SHALL:

   1) Request that the FC Entity authenticate the source of the TCP
      connect request (see FC-BB-2 [3]), providing the following
      information to the FC Entity for authentication purposes:





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      a) Source FC Fabric Entity World Wide Name,
      b) Source FC/FCIP Entity Identifier, and
      c) Connection Nonce.

      The FCIP Entity SHALL NOT use the new TCP Connection for any
      purpose until the FC Entity authenticates the source of the TCP
      connect request.  If the FC Entity indicates that the TCP connect
      request cannot be properly authenticated, the FCIP Entity SHALL
      close the TCP Connection and skip all of the remaining steps in
      this section.

      The definition of the FC Entity SHALL include an authentication
      mechanism for use in response to a TCP connect request source that
      communicates with the partner FC/FCIP Entity pair on an existing
      FCIP Link.  This authentication mechanism should use a previously
      authenticated TCP Connection in the existing FCIP Link to
      authenticate the Connection Nonce sent in the new TCP Connection
      setup process.  The FCIP Entity SHALL treat failure of this
      authentication as an authentication failure for the new TCP
      Connection setup process.

   2) Echo the unchanged FSF to the originator of the TCP connect
      request as the first bytes transmitted on the accepted connection;

   3) Instantiate the appropriate Quality of Service (see section 10.2)
      conditions on the newly created TCP Connection, considering the
      Connection Usage Flags and Connection Usage Code fields, and
      "shared" database information (see section 8.1.1) as appropriate,

   4) Create a new FCIP_DE within the existing FCIP_LEP to service the
      new TCP Connection, and

   5) Inform the FC Entity of the FCIP_LEP, Source FC Fabric Entity
      World Wide Name, Source FC/FCIP Entity Identifier, Connection
      Usage Flags, Connection Usage Code, and new FCIP_DE.

   Note that the originator of TCP connect requests uses the IP Address
   and TCP Port to identify which TCP Connections belong to which
   FCIP_LEPs while the recipient of TCP connect requests uses the Source
   FC Fabric Entity World Wide Name, and Source FC/FCIP Entity
   Identifier fields from the FSF to identify which TCP Connection
   belong to which FCIP_LEPs.  For this reason, an FCIP Entity that both
   originates and receives TCP connect requests is unable to match the
   FCIP_LEPs associated with originated TCP connect requests to the
   FCIP_LEPs associated with received TCP connect requests.






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8.1.4.  Simultaneous Connection Establishment

   If two FCIP Entities perform simultaneous open operations, then two
   TCP Connections are formed and the SF originates at one end on one
   connection and at the other end on the other.  Connection setup
   proceeds as described above on both connections, and the steps
   described above properly result in the formation of two FCIP Links
   between the same FCIP Entities.

   This is not an error.  Fibre Channel is perfectly capable of handling
   two approximately equal connections between FC Fabric elements.

   The decision to setup pairs of FCIP Links in this manner is
   considered to be a site policy decision that can be covered in the
   "shared" database described in section 8.1.1.

8.2.  Closing TCP Connections

   The FCIP Entity SHALL provide a mechanism with acknowledgement by
   which the FC Entity is able to cause the closing of an existing TCP
   Connection at any time.  This allows the FC Entity to close TCP
   Connections that are producing too many errors, etc.

8.3.  TCP Connection Parameters

   In order to provide efficient management of FCIP_LEP resources as
   well as FCIP Link resources, consideration of certain TCP Connection
   parameters is recommended.

8.3.1.  TCP Selective Acknowledgement Option

   The Selective Acknowledgement option RFC 2883 [18] allows the
   receiver to acknowledge multiple lost packets in a single ACK,
   enabling faster recovery.  An FCIP Entity MAY negotiate use of TCP
   SACK and use it for faster recovery from lost packets and holes in
   TCP sequence number space.

8.3.2.  TCP Window Scale Option

   The TCP Window Scale option [8] allows TCP window sizes larger than
   16-bit limits to be advertised by the receiver.  It is necessary to
   allow data in long fat networks to fill the available pipe.  This
   also implies buffering on the TCP sender that matches the
   (bandwidth*delay) product of the TCP Connection.  An FCIP_LEP uses
   locally available mechanisms to set a window size that matches the
   available local buffer resources and the desired throughput.





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8.3.3.  Protection Against Sequence Number Wrap

   It is RECOMMENDED that FCIP Entities implement protection against
   wrapped sequence numbers PAWS [8].  It is quite possible that within
   a single connection, TCP sequence numbers wrap within a timeout
   window.

8.3.4.  TCP_NODELAY Option

   FCIP Entities should disable the Nagle Algorithm as described in RFC
   1122 [7] section 4.2.3.4.  By tradition, this can be accomplished by
   setting the TCP_NODELAY option to one at the local TCP interface.

8.4.  TCP Connection Considerations

   In idle mode, a TCP Connection "keep alive" option of TCP is normally
   used to keep a connection alive.  However, this timeout is fairly
   large and may prevent early detection of loss of connectivity.  In
   order to facilitate faster detection of loss of connectivity, FC
   Entities SHOULD implement some form of Fibre Channel connection
   failure detection (see FC-BB-2 [3]).

   When an FCIP Entity discovers that TCP connectivity has been lost,
   the FCIP Entity SHALL notify the FC Entity of the failure including
   information about the reason for the failure.

8.5.  Flow Control Mapping between TCP and FC

   The FCIP Entity and FC Entity are connected to the IP Network and FC
   Fabric, respectively, and they need to follow the flow control
   mechanisms of both TCP and FC, which work independently of each
   other.

   This section provides guidelines as to how the FCIP Entity can map
   TCP flow control to status notifications to the FC Entity.

   There are two scenarios in which the flow control management becomes
   crucial:

   1) When there is line speed mismatch between the FC and IP
      interfaces.

      Even though it is RECOMMENDED that both of the FC and IP
      interfaces to the FC Entity and FCIP Entity, respectively, be of
      comparable speeds, it is possible to carry FC traffic over an IP
      Network that has a different line speed and bit error rate.





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   2) When the FC Fabric or IP Network encounters congestion.

      Even when both the FC Fabric or IP network are of comparable
      speeds, during the course of operation, the FC Fabric or the IP
      Network could encounter congestion due to transient conditions.

   The FC Entity uses Fibre Channel mechanisms for flow control at the
   FC Frame Receiver Portal based on information supplied by the FCIP
   Entity regarding flow constraints at the Encapsulated Frame
   Transmitter Portal.  The FCIP Entity uses TCP mechanisms for flow
   control at the Encapsulated Frame Receiver Portal based on
   information supplied by the FC Entity regarding flow constraints at
   the FC Frame Transmitter Portal.

   Coordination of these flow control mechanisms, one of which is credit
   based and the other of which is window based, depends on a
   painstaking design that is outside the scope of this specification.

9.  Security

   FCIP utilizes the IPsec protocol suite to provide data
   confidentiality and authentication services, and IKE as the key
   management protocol.  This section describes the requirements for
   various components of these protocols as used by FCIP, based on FCIP
   operating environments.  Additional consideration for use of IPsec
   and IKE with the FCIP protocol can be found in [21].  In the event
   that requirements in [21] conflict with requirements stated in this
   document, the requirements in this document SHALL prevail.

9.1.  Threat Models

   Using a general purpose, wide-area network, such as an IP Network, as
   a functional replacement for physical cabling introduces some
   security problems not normally encountered in Fibre Channel Fabrics.
   FC interconnect cabling is typically protected physically from
   outside access.  Public IP Networks allow hostile parties to impact
   the security of the transport infrastructure.

   The general effect is that the security of an FC Fabric is only as
   good as the security of the entire IP Network that carries the FCIP
   Links used by that FC Fabric.  The following broad classes of attacks
   are possible:

   1) Unauthorized Fibre Channel elements can gain access to resources
      through normal Fibre Channel Fabric and processes.  Although this
      is a valid threat, securing the Fibre Channel Fabrics is outside
      the scope of this document.  Securing the IP Network is the issue
      considered in this specification.



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   2) Unauthorized agents can monitor and manipulate Fibre Channel
      traffic flowing over physical media used by the IP Network and
      accessible to the agent.

   3) TCP Connections may be hijacked and used to instantiate an invalid
      FCIP Link between two peer FCIP Entities.

   4) Valid and invalid FCIP Frames may be injected on the TCP
      Connections.

   5) The payload of an FCIP Frame may be altered or transformed.  The
      TCP checksum, FCIP ones complement checks, and FC frame CRC do not
      protect against this because all of them can be modified or
      regenerated by a malicious and determined adversary.

   6) Unauthorized agents can masquerade as valid FCIP Entities and
      disturb proper operation of the Fibre Channel Fabric.

   7) Denial of Service attacks can be mounted by injecting TCP
      Connection requests and other resource exhaustion operations.

   8) An adversary may launch a variety of attacks against the discovery
      process [17].

   9) An attacker may exploit the FSF authentication mechanism of the
      FCIP Link formation process (see section 8.1.3).  The attacker
      could observe the FSF contents sent on an initial connection of an
      FCIP Link and use the observed nonce, Source FC/FCIP Entity
      Identifier, and other FSF contents to form an FCIP Link using the
      attacker's own previously established connection, while
      resetting/blocking the observed connection.  Although the use of
      timeout for reception of FSF reduces the risk of this attack, such
      an attack is possible.  See section 9.3.1 to protect against this
      specific attack.

   The existing IPsec Security Architecture and protocol suite [10]
   offers protection from these threats.  An FCIP Entity MUST implement
   portions of the IPsec protocol suite as described in this section.













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9.2.  FC Fabric and IP Network Deployment Models

   In the context of enabling a secure FCIP tunnel between FC SANs, the
   following characteristics of the IP Network deployment are useful to
   note.

   1) The FCIP Entities share a peer-to-peer relationship.  Therefore,
      the administration of security policies applies to all FCIP
      Entities in an equal manner.  This differs from a true Client-
      Server relationship, where there is an inherent difference in how
      security policies are administered.

   2) Policy administration as well as security deployment and
      configuration are constrained to the set of FCIP Entities, thereby
      posing less of a requirement on a scalable mechanism.  For
      example, the validation of credentials can be relaxed to the point
      where deploying a set of pre-shared keys is a viable technique.

   3) TCP Connections and the IP Network are terminated at the FCIP
      Entity.  The granularity of security implementation is at the
      level of the FCIP tunnel endpoint (or FCIP Entity), unlike other
      applications where there is a user-level termination of TCP
      Connections.  User-level objects are not controllable by or
      visible to FCIP Entities.  All user-level security related to FCIP
      is the responsibility of the Fibre Channel standards and is
      outside the scope of this specification.

   4) When an FCIP Entity is deployed, its IP addresses will typically
      be statically assigned.  However, support for dynamic IP address
      assignment, as described in [33], while typically not required,
      cannot be ruled out.

9.3.  FCIP Security Components

   FCIP Security compliant implementations MUST implement ESP and the
   IPsec protocol suite based cryptographic authentication and data
   integrity [10], as well as confidentiality using algorithms and
   transforms as described in this section.  Also, FCIP implementations
   MUST meet the secure key management requirements of IPsec protocol
   suite.

9.3.1.  IPsec ESP Authentication and Confidentiality

   FCIP Entities MUST implement IPsec ESP [12] in Tunnel Mode for
   providing Data Integrity and Confidentiality.  FCIP Entities MAY
   implement IPsec ESP in Transport Mode, if deployment considerations
   require use of Transport Mode.  When ESP is utilized, per-packet data
   origin authentication, integrity, and replay protection MUST be used.



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   If Confidentiality is not enabled but Data Integrity is enabled, ESP
   with NULL Encryption [15] MUST be used.

   IPsec ESP for message authentication computes a cryptographic hash
   over the payload that is protected.  While IPsec ESP mandates
   compliant implementations to support certain algorithms for deriving
   this hash, FCIP implementations:

   -  MUST implement HMAC with SHA-1 [11]
   -  SHOULD implement AES in CBC MAC mode with XCBC extensions [23]
   -  DES in CBC mode SHOULD NOT be used due to inherent weaknesses

   For ESP Confidentiality, FCIP Entities:

   -  MUST implement 3DES in CBC mode [16]
   -  SHOULD implement AES in CTR mode [22]
   -  MUST implement NULL Encryption [15]

9.3.2.  Key Management

   FCIP Entities MUST support IKE [14] for peer authentication,
   negotiation of Security Associations (SA), and Key Management using
   the IPsec DOI [13].  Manual keying SHALL NOT be used for establishing
   an SA since it does not provide the necessary elements for rekeying
   (see section 9.3.3).  Conformant FCIP implementations MUST support
   peer authentication using pre-shared keys and MAY support peer
   authentication using digital certificates.  Peer authentication using
   public key encryption methods outlined in IKE [14] sections 5.2 and
   5.3 SHOULD NOT be used.

   IKE Phase 1 establishes a secure, MAC-authenticated channel for
   communications for use by IKE Phase 2.  FCIP implementations MUST
   support IKE Main Mode and SHOULD support Aggressive Mode.

   IKE Phase 1 exchanges MUST explicitly carry the Identification
   Payload fields (IDii and IDir).  Conformant FCIP implementations MUST
   use ID_IPV4_ADDR, ID_IPV6_ADDR (if the protocol stack supports IPv6),
   or ID_FQDN Identification Type values.  The ID_USER_FQDN, IP Subnet,
   IP Address Range, ID_DER_ASN1_DN, and ID_DER_ASN1_GN Identification
   Type values SHOULD NOT be used.  The ID_KEY_ID Identification Type
   values MUST NOT be used.  As described in [13], the port and protocol
   fields in the Identification Payload MUST be set to zero or UDP port
   500.

   FCIP Entities negotiate parameters for SA during IKE Phase 2 only
   using "Quick Mode".  For FCIP Entities engaged in IKE "Quick Mode",
   there is no requirement for PFS (Perfect Forward Secrecy).  FCIP




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   implementations MUST use either ID_IPV4_ADDR or ID_IPV6_ADDR
   Identification Type values (based on the version of IP supported).
   Other Identification Type values MUST NOT be used.

   Since the number of Phase 2 SAs may be limited, Phase 2 delete
   messages may be sent for idle SAs.  The receipt of a Phase 2 delete
   message SHOULD NOT be interpreted as a reason for tearing down an
   FCIP Link or any of its TCP connections.  When there is new activity
   on that idle link, a new Phase 2 SA MUST be re-established.

   For a given pair of FCIP Entities, the same IKE Phase 1 negotiation
   can be used for all Phase 2 negotiations; i.e., all TCP Connections
   that are bundled into the single FCIP Link can share the same Phase 1
   results.

   Repeated rekeying using "Quick Mode" on the same shared secret will
   reduce the cryptographic properties of that secret over time.  To
   overcome this, Phase 1 SHOULD be invoked periodically to create a new
   set of IKE shared secrets and related security parameters.

   IKE Phase 1 establishment requires the following key distribution and
   FCIP Entities:

   -  MUST support pre-shared IKE keys.
   -  MAY support certificate-based peer authentication using digital
      signatures.
   -  SHOULD NOT use peer authentication using the public key encryption
      methods outlined in sections 5.2 and 5.3 of [14].

   When pre-shared keys are used, IKE Main Mode is usable only when both
   peers of an FCIP Link use statically assigned IP addresses.  When
   support for dynamically assigned IP Addresses is attempted in
   conjunction with Main Mode, use of group pre-shared keys would be
   forced, and the use of group pre-shared keys in combination with Main
   Mode is not recommended as it exposes the deployed environment to
   man-in-the-middle attacks.  Therefore, if either peer of an FCIP Link
   uses dynamically assigned addresses, Aggressive Mode SHOULD be used
   and Main Mode SHOULD NOT be used.

   When Digital Signatures are used, either IKE Main Mode or IKE
   Aggressive Mode may be used.  In all cases, access to locally stored
   secret information (pre-shared key, or private key for digital
   signing) MUST be suitably restricted, since compromise of secret
   information nullifies the security properties of IKE/IPsec protocols.
   Such mechanisms are outside the scope of this document.  Support for
   IKE Oakley Groups [27] is not required.





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   For the purpose of establishing a secure FCIP Link, the two
   participating FCIP Entities consult a Security Policy Database (SPD).
   The SPD is described in IPsec [10] Section 4.4.1.  FCIP Entities may
   have more than one interface and IP Address, and it is possible for
   an FCIP Link to contain multiple TCP connections whose FCIP endpoint
   IP Addresses are different.  In this case, an IKE Phase 1 SA is
   established for each FCIP endpoint IP Address pair.  Within IKE Phase
   1, FCIP implementations must support the ID_IPV4_ADDR, ID_IPV6_ADDR
   (if the protocol stack supports IPv6), and ID_FQDN Identity Payloads.
   If FCIP Endpoint addresses are dynamically assigned, it may be
   beneficial to use ID_FQDN, and for this reason, IP_FQDN Identity
   Payload MUST be supported.  Other identity payloads (ID_USER_FQDN,
   ID_DER_ASN1_GN, ID_KEY_ID) SHOULD NOT be used.

   At the end of successful IKE negotiations both FCIP Entities store
   the SA parameters in their SA database (SAD).  The SAD is described
   in IPsec [10] Section 4.4.3.  The SAD contains the set of active SA
   entries, each entry containing Sequence Counter Overflow, Sequence
   Number Counter, Anti-replay Window, and the Lifetime of the SA.  FCIP
   Entities SHALL employ a default SA Lifetime of one hour and a default
   Anti-replay window of 32 sequence numbers.

   When a TCP Connection is established between two FCIP_DEs, two
   unidirectional SAs are created for that connection and each SA is
   identified in the form of a Security Parameter Index (SPI).  One SA
   is associated with the incoming traffic flow and the other SA is
   associated with the outgoing traffic flow.  The FCIP_DEs at each end
   of the TCP connection MUST maintain the SPIs for both its incoming
   and outgoing FCIP Encapsulated Frames.

   FCIP Entities MAY provide administrative management of
   Confidentiality usage.  These management interfaces SHOULD be
   provided in a secure manner, so as to prevent an attacker from
   subverting the security process by attacking the management
   interface.

9.3.3.  ESP Replay Protection and Rekeying Issues

   FCIP Entities MUST implement Replay Protection against ESP Sequence
   Number wrap, as described in [14].  In addition, based on the cipher
   algorithm and the number of bits in the cipher block size, the
   validity of the key may become compromised.  In both cases, the SA
   needs to be re-established.

   FCIP Entities MUST use the results of IKE Phase 1 negotiation for
   initiating an IKE Phase 2 "Quick Mode" exchange and establish new
   SAs.




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   To enable smooth transition of SAs, it is RECOMMENDED that both FCIP
   Entities refresh the SPI when the sequence number counter reaches
   2^31 (i.e., half the sequence number space).  It also is RECOMMENDED
   that the receiver operate with multiple SPIs for the same TCP
   Connection for a period of 2^31 sequence number packets before aging
   out an SPI.

   When a new SPI is created for the outgoing direction, the sending
   side SHALL begin using it for all new FCIP Encapsulated Frames.
   Frames that are either in-flight, or re-sent due to TCP
   retransmissions, etc. MAY use either the new SPI or the one being
   replaced.

9.4.  Secure FCIP Link Operation

9.4.1.  FCIP Link Initialization Steps

   FCIP implementations may allow enabling and disabling security
   mechanisms at the granularity of an FCIP Link.  If enabled, the
   following FCIP Link Initialization steps MUST be followed.

   When an FCIP Link is initialized, before any FCIP TCP Connections are
   established, the local SPD is consulted to determine if IKE Phase 1
   has been completed with the FCIP Entity in the peer FCIP Entity, as
   identified by the WWN.

   If Phase 1 is already completed, IKE Phase 2 proceeds.  Otherwise,
   IKE Phase 1 MUST be completed before IKE Phase 2 can start.  Both IKE
   Phase 1 and Phase 2 transactions use UDP Port 500.  If IKE Phase 1
   fails, the FCIP Link initialization terminates and notifies the FC
   entity with the reason for the termination.  Otherwise, the FCIP Link
   initialization moves to TCP Connection Initialization.

   As described in section 8.1, FCIP Entities exchange an FSF for
   forming an FCIP Link.  The use of ESP Confidentiality is an effective
   countermeasure against any perceived security risks of FSF.

9.4.2.  TCP Connection Security Associations (SAs)

   Each TCP connection MUST be protected by an IKE Phase 2 SA.  Traffic
   from one or more than one TCP connection may flow within each IPsec
   Phase 2 SA.  While it is possible for an IKE Phase 2 SA to protect
   multiple TCP connections, all packets of a TCP connection are
   protected using only one IKE Phase 2 SA.







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   If different Quality of Service settings are applied to TCP
   connections, it is advisable to use a different IPsec SA for these
   connections.  Attempting to apply a different quality of service to
   connections handled by the same IPsec SA can result in reordering,
   and falling outside the replay window.  For additional details, see
   [21].

   FCIP implementations need not verify that the IP addresses and port
   numbers in the packet match any locally stored per-connection values,
   leaving this check to be performed by the IPsec layer.

   An implementation is free to perform several IKE Phase 2 negotiations
   and cache them in its local SPIs, although entries in such a cache
   can be flushed per current SA Lifetime settings.

9.4.3.  Handling Data Integrity and Confidentiality Violations

   Upon datagram reception, when the ESP packet fails an integrity
   check, the receiver MUST drop the datagram, which will trigger TCP
   retransmission.  If many such datagrams are dropped, a receiving FCIP
   Entity MAY close the TCP Connection and notify the FC Entity with the
   reason for the closure.

   An implementation SHOULD follow guidelines for auditing all auditable
   ESP events per IPsec [10] Section 7.

   Integrity checks MUST be performed if Confidentiality is enabled.

10.  Performance

10.1.  Performance Considerations

   Traditionally, the links between FC Fabric components have been
   characterized by low latency and high throughput.  The purpose of
   FCIP is to provide functionality equivalent to these links using an
   IP Network, where low latency and high throughput are not as certain.
   It follows that FCIP Entities and their counterpart FC Entities
   probably will be interested in optimal use of the IP Network.

   Many options exist for ensuring high throughput and low latency
   appropriate for the distances involved in an IP Network.  For
   example, a private IP Network might be constructed for the sole use
   of FCIP Entities.  The options that are within the scope of this
   specification are discussed here.

   One option for increasing the probability that FCIP data streams will
   experience low latency and high throughput is the IP QoS techniques
   discussed in section 10.2.  This option can have value when applied



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   to a single TCP Connection.  Depending on the sophistication of the
   FC Entity, further value may be obtained by having multiple TCP
   Connections with differing QoS characteristics.

   There are many reasons why an FC Entity might request the creation of
   multiple TCP Connections within an FCIP_LEP.  These reasons include a
   desire to provide differentiated services for different TCP data
   connections between FCIP_LEPs, or a preference to separately queue
   different streams of traffic not having a common in-order delivery
   requirement.

   At the time a new TCP Connection is created, the FC Entity SHALL
   specify to the FCIP Entity the QoS characteristics (including but not
   limited to IP per-hop-behavior) to be used for the lifetime of that
   connection.  This MAY be achieved by having:

   a) only one set of QoS characteristics for all TCP Connections;

   b) a default set of QoS characteristics that the FCIP Entity applies
      in the absence of differing instructions from the FC Entity; or

   c) a sophisticated mechanism for exchanging QoS requirements
      information between the FC Entity and FCIP Entity each time a new
      TCP Connection is created.

   Once established, the QoS characteristics of a TCP Connection SHALL
   NOT be changed, since this specification provides no mechanism for
   the FC Entity to control such changes.  The mechanism for providing
   different QoS characteristics in FCIP is the establishment of a
   different TCP Connections and associated FCIP_DEs.

   When FCIP is used with a network with a large (bandwidth*delay)
   product, it is RECOMMENDED that FCIP_LEPs use the TCP mechanisms
   (window scaling and wrapped sequence protection) for Long Fat
   Networks (LFNs) as defined in RFC 1323 [24].

10.2.  IP Quality of Service (QoS) Support

   Many methods of providing QoS have been devised or proposed.  These
   include (but are not limited to) the following:

   -  Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) -- RFC 3031 [32]
   -  Differentiated Services Architecture (diffserv) -- RFC 2474 [28],
      RFC 2475 [29], RFC 2597 [30], and RFC 2598 [31] -- and other forms
      of per-hop-behavior (PHB)
   -  Integrated Services, RFC 1633 [25]
   -  IEEE 802.1p




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   The purpose of this specification is not to specify any particular
   form of IP QoS, but rather to specify only those issues that must be
   addressed in order to maximize interoperability between FCIP
   equipment that has been manufactured by different vendors.

   It is RECOMMENDED that some form of preferential QoS be used for FCIP
   traffic to minimize latency and packet drops.  No particular form of
   QoS is recommended.

   If a PHB IP QoS is implemented, it is RECOMMENDED that it
   interoperate with diffserv (see RFC 2474 [28], RFC 2475 [29], RFC
   2597 [30], and RFC 2598 [31]).

   If no form of preferential QoS is implemented, the DSCP field SHOULD
   be set to '000000' to avoid negative impacts on other network
   components and services that may be caused by uncontrolled usage of
   non-zero values of the DSCP field.

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   The references in this section were current as of the time this
   specification was approved.  This specification is intended to
   operate with newer versions of the referenced documents and looking
   for newer reference documents is recommended.

   [1]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
        Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [2]  Fibre Channel Backbone (FC-BB), ANSI INCITS.342:2001, December
        12, 2001.

   [3]  Fibre Channel Backbone -2 (FC-BB-2), ANSI INCITS.372:2003, July
        25, 2003.

   [4]  Fibre Channel Switch Fabric -2 (FC-SW-2), ANSI INCITS.355:2001,
        December 12, 2001.

   [5]  Fibre Channel Framing and Signaling (FC-FS), ANSI
        INCITS.373:2003, October 27, 2003.

   [6]  Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol", STD 7, RFC 793,
        September 1981.







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   [7]  Braden, R., "Requirements for Internet Hosts -- Communication
        Layers", STD 3, RFC 1122, October 1989.

   [8]  Jacobson, V., Braden, R. and D. Borman, "TCP Extensions for High
        Performance", RFC 1323, May 1992.

   [9]  Eastlake, D., Crocker, S. and J. Schiller, "Randomness
        Recommendations for Security", RFC 1750, December 1994.

   [10] Kent, S. and R. Atkinson, "Security Architecture for the
        Internet Protocol", RFC 2401, November 1998.

   [11] Krawczyk, H., Bellare, M. and R. Canetti, "HMAC: Keyed- Hashing
        for Message Authentication", RFC 2104, February 1997.

   [12] Kent, S. and R. Atkinson, "IP Encapsulating Security Payload
        (ESP)", RFC 2406, November 1998.

   [13] Piper, D., "The Internet IP Security Domain of Interpretation of
        ISAKMP", RFC 2407, November 1998.

   [14] Harkins, D. and D. Carrel, "The Internet Key Exchange (IKE)",
        RFC 2409, November 1998.

   [15] Glenn, R. and S. Kent, "The NULL Encryption Algorithm and Its
        Use With IPsec", RFC 2410, November 1998.

   [16] Pereira, R. and R. Adams, "The ESP CBC-Mode Cipher Algorithms",
        RFC 2451, November 1998.

   [17] Guttman, E., Perkins, C., Veizades, J. and M. Day, "Service
        Location Protocol, version 2", RFC 2608, July 1999.

   [18] Floyd, S., Mahdavi, J., Mathis, M. and M. Podolsky, "SACK
        Extension", RFC 2883, July 2000.

   [19] Weber, R., Rajagopal, M., Travostino, F., O'Donnell, M., Monia,
        C. and M. Merhar, "Fibre Channel (FC) Frame Encapsulation", RFC
        3643, December 2003.

   [20] Peterson, D., "Finding Fibre Channel over TCP/IP (FCIP) Entities
        Using Service Location Protocol version 2 (SLPv2)", RFC 3822,
        July 2004.

   [21] Aboba, B., Tseng, J., Walker, J., Rangan, V. and F. Travostino,
        "Securing Block Storage Protocols over IP", RFC 3723, April
        2004.




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   [22] Frankel, S., Glenn, R. and S. Kelly, "The AES-CBC Cipher
        Algorithm and Its Use with IPsec", RFC 3602, September 2003.

   [23] Frankel, S. and H. Herbert, "The AES-XCBC-MAC-96 Algorithm and
        Its Use With IPsec", RFC 3566, September 2003.

11.2.  Informative References

   [24] Jacobson, V., Braden, R. and D. Borman, "TCP Extensions for High
        Performance", RFC 1323, May 1992.

   [25] Braden, R., Clark, D. and S. Shenker, "Integrated Services in
        the Internet Architecture: an Overview", RFC 1633, June 1994.

   [26] Mills, D., "Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) Version 4 for
        IPv4, IPv6 and OSI", RFC 2030, October 1996.

   [27] Orman, H., "The OAKLEY Key Determination Protocol", RFC 2412,
        November 1998.

   [28] Nichols, K., Blake, S., Baker, F. and D. Black, "Definition of
        the Differentiated Services Field (DS Field) in the IPv4 and
        Ipv6 Headers", RFC 2474, December 1998.

   [29] Blake, S., Black, D., Carlson, M., Davies, E., Wang, Z. and W.
        Weiss, "An Architecture for Differentiated Services", RFC 2475,
        December 1998.

   [30] Heinanen, J., Baker, F., Weiss, W. and J. Wroclawski,  "An
        Assured Forwarding PHB", RFC 2597, June 1999.

   [31] Jacobson, V., Nichols, K. and K. Poduri, "An Expedited
        Forwarding PHB Group", RFC 2598, June 1999.

   [32] Rosen, E., Viswanathan, A. and R. Callon, "Multiprotocol Label
        Switching Architecture", RFC 3031, January, 2001.

   [33] Patel, B., Aboba, B., Kelly, S. and V. Gupta, "Dynamic Host
        Configuration Protocol (DHCPv4) Configuration of IPsec Tunnel
        Mode", RFC 3456, January 2003.

   [34] Kembel, R., "The Fibre Channel Consultant: A Comprehensive
        Introduction", Northwest Learning Associates, 1998.








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12.  Acknowledgments

   The developers of this specification thank Mr. Jim Nelson for his
   assistance with FC-FS related issues.

   The developers of this specification express their appreciation to
   Mr. Mallikarjun Chadalapaka and Mr. David Black for their detailed
   and helpful reviews.











































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Appendix A - Fibre Channel Bit and Byte Numbering Guidance

   Both Fibre Channel and IETF standards use the same byte transmission
   order.  However, the bit and byte numbering is different.

   Fibre Channel bit and byte numbering can be observed if the data
   structure heading, shown in figure 11, is cut and pasted at the top
   of figure 7, figure 9, and figure 17.

   W|------------------------------Bit------------------------------|
   o|                                                               |
   r|3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1                    |
   d|1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0|

   Figure 11:  Fibre Channel Data Structure Bit and Byte Numbering

   Fibre Channel bit numbering for the pFlags field can be observed if
   the data structure heading, shown in figure 12, is cut and pasted at
   the top of figure 8.

       |----------------Bit--------------------|
       |                                       |
       | 31   30   29   28   27   26   25   24 |

   Figure 12:  Fibre Channel pFlags Bit Numbering

   Fibre Channel bit numbering for the Connection Usage Flags field can
   be observed if the data structure heading, shown in figure 13, is cut
   and pasted at the top of figure 10.

   |------------------------------Bit------------------------------|
   |                                                               |
   |   31      30      29      28      27      26      25      24  |

   Figure 13:  Fibre Channel Connection Usage Flags Bit Numbering

Appendix B - IANA Considerations

   IANA has made the following port assignments to FCIP:

      - fcip-port 3225/tcp FCIP
      - fcip-port 3225/udp FCIP

   IANA has changed the authority for these port allocations to
   reference this RFC.

   Use of UDP with FCIP is prohibited even though IANA has allocated a
   port.



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   The FC Frame encapsulation used by this specification employs
   Protocol# value 1, as described in the IANA Considerations appendix
   of the FC Frame Encapsulation [19] specification.

Appendix C - FCIP Usage of Addresses and Identifiers

   In support of network address translators, FCIP does not use IP
   Addresses to identify FCIP Entities or FCIP_LEPs.  The only use of IP
   Addresses for identification occurs when initiating new TCP connect
   requests (see section 8.1.2.3) where the IP Address destination of
   the TCP connect request is used to answer the question: "Have
   previous TCP connect requests been made to the same destination FCIP
   Entity?"  The correctness of this assumption is further checked by
   sending the Destination FC Fabric Entity World Wide Name in the FCIP
   Special Frame (FSF) and having the value checked by the FCIP Entity
   that receives the TCP connect request and FSF (see section 8.1.3).

   For the purposes of processing incoming TCP connect requests, the
   source FCIP Entity is identified by the Source FC Fabric Entity World
   Wide Name and Source FC/FCIP Entity Identifier fields in the FSF sent
   from the TCP connect requestor to the TCP connect recipient as the
   first bytes following the TCP connect request (see section 8.1.2.3
   and section 8.1.3).

   FC-BB-2 [3] provides the definitions for each of the following FSF
   fields:

      -  Source FC Fabric Entity World Wide Name,
      -  Source FC/FCIP Entity Identifier, and
      -  Destination FC Fabric Entity World Wide Name.

   As described in section 8.1.3, FCIP Entities segregate their
   FCIP_LEPs between:

   -  Connections resulting from TCP connect requests initiated by the
      FCIP Entity, and

   -  Connections resulting from TCP connect requests received by the
      FCIP Entity.

   Within each of these two groups, the following information is used to
   further identify each FCIP_LEP:

      -  Source FC Fabric Entity World Wide Name,
      -  Source FC/FCIP Entity Identifier, and
      -  Destination FC Fabric Entity World Wide Name.





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Appendix D - Example of Synchronization Recovery Algorithm

   The contents of this annex are informative.

   Synchronization may be recovered as specified in section 5.6.2.3.  An
   example of an algorithm for searching the bytes delivered to the
   Encapsulated Frame Receiver Portal for a valid FCIP Frame header is
   provided in this annex.

   This resynchronization uses the principle that a valid FCIP data
   stream must contain at least one valid header every 2176 bytes (the
   maximum length of an encapsulated FC Frame).  Although other data
   patterns containing apparently valid headers may be contained in the
   stream, the FC CRC or FCIP Frame validity of the data patterns
   contained in the data stream will always be either interrupted by or
   resynchronized with the valid FCIP Frame headers.

   Consider the case shown in figure 14.  A series of short FCIP Frames,
   perhaps from a trace, are embedded in larger FCIP Frames, say as a
   result of a trace file being transferred from one disk to another.
   The headers for the short FCIP Frames are denoted SFH and the long
   FCIP Frame headers are marked as LFH.

      +-+--+-+----+-+----+-+----+-+-+-+---+-+---
      |L|  |S|    |S|    |S|    |S| |L|   |S|
      |F|  |F|    |F|    |F|    |F| |F|   |F|...
      |H|  |H|    |H|    |H|    |H| |H|   |H|
      +-+--+-+----+-+----+-+----+-+-+-+---+-+---
      |                             |
      |<---------2176 bytes-------->|

      Figure 14:  Example of resynchronization data stream

   A resynchronization attempt that starts just to the right of an LFH
   will find several SFH FCIP Frames before discovering that they do not
   represent the transmitted stream of FCIP Frames.  Within 2176 bytes
   plus or minus, however, the resynchronization attempt will encounter
   an SFH whose length does not match up with the next SFH because the
   LFH will fall in the middle of the short FCIP Frame pushing the next
   header farther out in the byte stream.

   Note that the resynchronization algorithm cannot forward any
   prospective FC Frames to the FC Frame Transmitter Portal because,
   until synchronization is completely established, there is no
   certainty that anything that looked like an FCIP Frame really was
   one.  For example, an SFH might fortuitously contain a length that





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   points exactly to the beginning of an LFH.  The LFH would identify
   the correct beginning of a transmitted FCIP Frame, but that in no way
   guarantees that the SFH was also a correct FCIP Frame header.

   There exist some data streams that cannot be resynchronized by this
   algorithm.  If such a data stream is encountered, the algorithm
   causes the TCP Connection to be closed.

   The resynchronization assumes that security and authentication
   procedures outside the FCIP Entity are protecting the valid data
   stream from being replaced by an intruding data stream containing
   valid FCIP data.

   The following steps are one example of how an FCIP_DE might
   resynchronize with the data stream entering the Encapsulated Frame
   Receiver Portal.

   1) Search for candidate and strong headers:

      The data stream entering the Encapsulated Frame Receiver Portal is
      searched for 12 bytes in a row containing the required values for:

         a) Protocol field,
         b) Version field,
         c) ones complement of the Protocol field,
         d) ones complement of the Version field,
         e) replication of encapsulation word 0 in word 1, and
         f) pFlags field and its ones complement.

      If such a 12-byte grouping is found, the FCIP_DE assumes that it
      has identified bytes 0-2 of a candidate FCIP encapsulation header.

      All bytes up to and including the candidate header byte are
      discarded.

      If no candidate header has been found after searching a specified
      number of bytes greater than some multiple of 2176 (the maximum
      length of an FCIP Frame), resynchronization has failed and the
      TCP/IP connection is closed.

      Word 3 of the candidate header contains the Frame Length and Flags
      fields and their ones complements.  If the fields are consistent
      with their ones complements, the candidate header is considered a
      strong candidate header.  The Frame Length field is used to
      determine where in the byte stream the next strong candidate
      header should be and processing continues at step 2).





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   2) Use multiple strong candidate headers to locate a verified
      candidate header:

      The Frame Length in one strong candidate header is used to skip
      incoming bytes until the expected location of the next strong
      candidate header is reached.  Then the tests described in step 1)
      are applied to see if another strong candidate header has
      successfully been located.

      All bytes skipped and all bytes in all strong candidate headers
      processed are discarded.

      Strong candidate headers continue to be verified in this way for
      at least 4352 bytes (twice the maximum length of an FCIP Frame).
      If at any time a verification test fails, processing restarts at
      step 1 and a retry counter is incremented.  If the retry counter
      exceeds 3 retries, resynchronization has failed and the TCP
      Connection is closed, and the FC entity is notified with the
      reason for the closure.

      After strong candidate headers have been verified for at least
      4352 bytes, the next header identified is a verified candidate
      header, and processing continues at step 3).

      Note: If a strong candidate header was part of the data content of
      an FCIP Frame, the FCIP Frame defined by that or a subsequent
      strong candidate header will eventually cross an actual header in
      the byte stream.  As a result it will either identify the actual
      header as a strong candidate header or it will lose
      synchronization again because of the extra 28 bytes in the length,
      returning to step 1 as described above.

   3) Use multiple strong candidate headers to locate a verified
      candidate header:

      Incoming bytes are inspected and discarded until the next verified
      candidate header is reached.  Inspection of the incoming bytes
      includes testing for other candidate headers using the criteria
      described in step 1.  Each verified candidate header is tested
      against the tests listed in section 5.6.2.2 as would normally be
      the case.

      Verified candidate headers continue to be located and tested in
      this way for a minimum of 4352 bytes (twice the maximum length of
      an FCIP Frame).  If all verified candidate headers encountered are
      valid, the last verified candidate header is a valid header.  At
      this point the FCIP_DE stops discarding bytes and begins normal




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      FCIP de-encapsulation, including for the first time since
      synchronization was lost, delivery of FC Frames through the FC
      Frame Transmitter Portal according to normal FCIP rules.

      If any verified candidate headers are invalid but meet all the
      requirements of a strong candidate header, increment the retry
      counter and return to step 2).  If any verified candidate headers
      are invalid and fail to meet the tests for a strong candidate
      header, or if inspection of the bytes between verified candidate
      headers discovers any candidate headers, increment the retry
      counter and return to step 1.  If the retry counter exceeds 4
      retries, resynchronization has failed and the TCP/IP connection is
      closed.






































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      A flowchart for this algorithm can be found in figure 15.

                        Synchronization is lost
                                 |
                    _____________v_______________
                   |                             |
                   | Search for candidate header |
      +----------->|                             |
      |            |   Found           Not Found |
      |            | (Strong candidate)          |
      |            |_____________________________|
      |                    |              |
      |                    |              + --------->close TCP
      |             _______v_____________________     Connection
      |            |                             |    and notify
      |            |   Enough strong candidate   |    the FC Entity
      |      +---->|     headers identified?     |    with the reason
      |      |     |                             |    for closure
      |      |     |     No               Yes    |
      |      |     |        (Verified candidate) |
      |      |     |_____________________________|
      |___________________|                |
      ^      |                             |
      |      |                             |
      |      |      _______________________v_____
      |      |     |                             |
      |      |     | Enough verified candidate   |
      |      |     |   headers validated?        |
      |      |     |                             |
      |      |     |     No               Yes    |
      |      |     |            (Resynchronized) |
      |      |     |_____________________________|
      |      |            |                |
      |      |      ______v__________      |      Resume
      |      |     |                 |     + ---> Normal
      |      |     | Synchronization |            De-encapsulation
      |      |     |      Lost?      |
      |      |     |                 |
      |      |     | No          Yes |
      |      |     |_________________|
      |      |        |           |
      |      |________|           |
      |___________________________|

      Figure 15:  Flow diagram of simple synchronization example






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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


Appendix E - Relationship between FCIP and IP over FC (IPFC)

   The contents of this annex are informative.

   IPFC (RFC 2625) describes the encapsulation of IP packets in FC
   Frames.  It is intended to facilitate IP communication over an FC
   network.

   FCIP describes the encapsulation of FC Frames in TCP segments, which
   in turn are encapsulated inside IP packets for transporting over an
   IP network.  It gives no consideration to the type of FC Frame that
   is being encapsulated.  Therefore, the FC Frame may actually contain
   an IP packet as described in the IP over FC specification (RFC
   2625).  In such a case, the data packet would have:

      -  Data Link Header
      -  IP Header
      -  TCP Header
      -  FCIP Header
      -  FC Header
      -  IP Header

   Note: The two IP headers would not be identical to each other.  One
   would have information pertaining to the final destination, while the
   other would have information pertaining to the FCIP Entity.

   The two documents focus on different objectives.  As mentioned above,
   implementation of FCIP will lead to IP encapsulation within IP.
   While perhaps inefficient, this should not lead to issues with IP
   communication.  One caveat: if a Fibre Channel device is
   encapsulating IP packets in an FC Frame (e.g., an IPFC device), and
   that device is communicating with a device running IP over a non-FC
   medium, a second IPFC device may need to act as a gateway between the
   two networks.  This scenario is not specifically addressed by FCIP.

   There is nothing in either of the specifications to prevent a single
   device from implementing both FCIP and IP-over-FC (IPFC), but this is
   implementation specific, and is beyond the scope of this document.













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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


Appendix F - FC Frame Format

   Note: All users of the words "character" or "characters" in this
   section refer to 8bit/10bit link encoding wherein each 8 bit
   "character" within a link frame is encoded as a 10 bit "character"
   for link transmission.  These words do not refer to ASCII, Unicode,
   or any other form of text characters, although octets from such
   characters will occur as 8 bit "characters" for this encoding.  This
   usage is employed here for consistency with the ANSI T11 standards
   that specify Fibre Channel.

   The contents of this annex are informative.

   All FC Frames have a standard format (see FC-FS [5]) much like LAN's
   802.x protocols.  However, the exact size of each FC Frame varies
   depending on the size of the variable fields.  The size of the
   variable field ranges from 0 to 2112-bytes as shown in the FC Frame
   Format in figure 16, resulting in the minimum size FC Frame of 36
   bytes and the maximum size FC Frame of 2148 bytes.  Valid FC Frame
   lengths are always a multiple of four bytes.

   +------+--------+-----------+----//-------+------+------+
   | SOF  |Frame   |Optional   |  Frame      | CRC  |  EOF |
   | (4B) |Header  |Header     | Payload     | (4B) | (4B) |
   |      |(24B)   |<----------------------->|      |      |
   |      |        | Data Field = (0-2112B)  |      |      |
   +------+--------+-----------+----//-------+------+------+

   Figure 16:  FC Frame Format

   SOF and EOF Delimiters

      On an FC link, Start-of-Frame (SOF) and End-Of-Frame (EOF) are
      called Ordered Sets and are sent as special words constructed from
      the 8B/10B comma character (K28.5) followed by three additional
      8B/10B data characters making them uniquely identifiable in the
      data stream.

      On an FC link, the SOF delimiter serves to identify the beginning
      of an FC Frame and prepares the receiver for FC Frame reception.
      The SOF contains information about the FC Frame's Class of
      Service, position within a sequence, and in some cases, connection
      status.

      The EOF delimiter identifies the end of the FC Frame and the final
      FC Frame of a sequence.  In addition, it serves to force the
      running disparity to negative.  The EOF is used to end the
      connection in connection-oriented classes of service.



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      A special EOF delimiter called EOFa (End Of Frame - Abort) is used
      to terminate a partial FC Frame resulting from a malfunction in a
      link facility during transmission.  Since an FCIP Entity functions
      like a transmission link with respect to the rest of the FC
      Fabric, FCIP_DEs may use EOFa in their error recovery procedures.

      It is therefore important to preserve the information conveyed by
      the delimiters across the IP-based network, so that the receiving
      FCIP Entity can correctly reconstruct the FC Frame in its original
      SOF and EOF format before forwarding it to its ultimate FC
      destination on the FC link.

      When an FC Frame is encapsulated and sent over a byte-oriented
      interface, the SOF and EOF delimiters are represented as sequences
      of four consecutive bytes, which carry the equivalent Class of
      Service and FC Frame termination information as the FC ordered
      sets.

      The representation of SOF and EOF in an encapsulation FC Frame is
      described in FC Frame Encapsulation [19].

   Frame Header

      The FC Frame Header is transparent to the FCIP Entity.  The FC
      Frame Header is 24 bytes long and has several fields that are
      associated with the identification and control of the payload.
      Current FC Standards allow up to 3 Optional Header fields [5]:

      - Network_Header (16-bytes)
      - Association_Header (32-bytes)
      - Device_Header (up to 64-bytes).

   Frame Payload

      The FC Frame Payload is transparent to the FCIP Entity.  An FC
      application level payload is called an Information Unit at the
      FC-4 Level.  This is mapped into the FC Frame Payload of the FC
      Frame.  A large Information Unit is segmented using a structure
      consisting of FC Sequences.  Typically, a Sequence consists of
      more than one FC Frame.  FCIP does not maintain any state
      information regarding the relationship of FC Frames within an FC
      Sequence.

   CRC

      The FC CRC is 4 bytes long and uses the same 32-bit polynomial
      used in FDDI and is specified in ANSI X3.139 Fiber Distributed
      Data Interface.  This CRC value is calculated over the entire FC



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      header and the FC payload; it does not include the SOF and EOF
      delimiters.

      Note: When FC Frames are encapsulated into FCIP Frames, the FC
      Frame CRC is untouched by the FCIP Entity.

Appendix G - FC Encapsulation Format

   This annex contains a reproduction of the FC Encapsulation Format
   [19] as it applies to FCIP Frames that encapsulate FC Frames.  The
   information in this annex is not intended to represent the FCIP
   Special Frame (FSF) that is described in section 7.

   The information in this annex was correct as of the time this
   specification was approved.  The information in this annex is
   informative only.

   If there are any differences between the information here and the FC
   Encapsulation Format specification [19], the FC Encapsulation Format
   specification takes precedence.

   If there are any differences between the information here and the
   contents of section 5.6.1, then the contents of section 5.6.1 take
   precedence.

   Figure 17 applies the requirements stated in section 5.6.1 and in the
   FC Encapsulation Frame format resulting in a summary of the FC Frame
   format.  Where FCIP requires specific values, those values are shown
   in hexadecimal in parentheses.  Detailed requirements for the FCIP
   usage of the FC Encapsulation Format are in section 5.6.1.





















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   W|------------------------------Bit------------------------------|
   o|                                                               |
   r|                    1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3|
   d|0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1|
    +---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
   0|   Protocol#   |    Version    |  -Protocol#   |   -Version    |
    |    (0x01)     |    (0x01)     |     (0xFE)    |    (0xFE)     |
    +---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
   1|   Protocol#   |    Version    |  -Protocol#   |   -Version    |
    |    (0x01)     |    (0x01)     |     (0xFE)    |    (0xFE)     |
    +---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
   2|    pFlags     |    Reserved   |    -pFlags    |  -Reserved    |
    |     (0x00)    |     (0x00)    |     (0xFF)    |    (0xFF)     |
    +-----------+---+---------------+-----------+---+---------------+
   3|   Flags   |   Frame Length    |   -Flags  |   -Frame Length   |
    |   (0x00)  |                   |   (0x3F)  |                   |
    +-----------+-------------------+-----------+-------------------+
   4|                      Time Stamp [integer]                     |
    +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   5|                      Time Stamp [fraction]                    |
    +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   6|                     CRC (Reserved in FCIP)                    |
    |                        (0x00-00-00-00)                        |
    +---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
   7|      SOF      |      SOF      |     -SOF      |     -SOF      |
    +---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
   8|                                                               |
    +-----            FC Frame content (see appendix F)        -----+
    |                                                               |
    +---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
   n|      EOF      |      EOF      |     -EOF      |     -EOF      |
    +---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+

   Figure 17:  FCIP Frame Format

   The names of fields are generally descriptive on their contents and
   the FC Encapsulation Format specification [19] is referenced for
   details.  Field names preceded by a minus sign are ones complement
   values of the named field.

   Note: Figure 17 does not represent the FSF that is described in
   section 7.









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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


Appendix H - FCIP Requirements on an FC Entity

   The contents of this annex are informative for FCIP but might be
   considered normative on FC-BB-2.

   The capabilities that FCIP requires of an FC Entity include:

   1) The FC Entity must deliver FC Frames to the correct FCIP Data
      Engine (in the correct FCIP Link Endpoint).

   2) Each FC Frame delivered to an FCIP_DE must be accompanied by a
      time value synchronized with the clock maintained by the FC Entity
      at the other end of the FCIP Link (see section 6).  If a
      synchronized time value is not available, a value of zero must
      accompany the FC Frame.

   3) When FC Frames exit FCIP Data Engine(s) via the FC Frame
      Transmitter Portal(s), the FC Entity should forward them to the FC
      Fabric.  However, before forwarding an FC Frame, the FC Entity
      must compute the end-to-end transit time for the FC Frame using
      the time value supplied by the FCIP_DE (taken from the FCIP
      header) and a synchronized time value (see section 6).  If the
      end-to-end transit time exceeds the requirements of the FC Fabric,
      the FC Entity is responsible for discarding the FC Frame.

   4) The only delivery ordering guarantee provided by FCIP is correctly
      ordered delivery of FC Frames between a pair of FCIP Data Engines.
      FCIP expects the FC Entity to implement all other FC Frame
      delivery ordering requirements.

   5) When a TCP connect request is received and that request would add
      a new TCP Connection to an existing FCIP_LEP, the FC Entity must
      authenticate the source of the TCP connect request before use of
      the new TCP connection is allowed.

   6) The FC Entity may participate in determining allowed TCP
      Connections, TCP Connection parameters, quality of service usage,
      and security usage by modifying interactions with the FCIP Entity
      that are modelled as a "shared" database in section 8.1.1.

   7) The FC Entity may require the FCIP Entity to perform TCP close
      requests.

   8) The FC Entity may recover from connection failures.

   9) The FC Entity must recover from events that the FCIP Entity cannot
      handle, such as:




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      a) loss of synchronization with FCIP Frame headers from the
         Encapsulated Frame Receiver Portal requiring resetting the TCP
         Connection; and

      b) recovering from FCIP Frames that are discarded as a result of
         synchronization problems (see section 5.6.2.2 and section
         5.6.2.3).

   10) The FC Entity must work cooperatively with the FCIP Entity to
       manage flow control problems in either the IP Network or FC
       Fabric.

   11) The FC Entity may test for failed TCP Connections.

       Note that the Fibre Channel standards must be consulted for a
       complete understanding of the requirements placed on an FC
       Entity.

       Table 2 shows the explicit interactions between the FCIP Entity
       and the FC Entity.

   +-------------+-----------------+-----------------------------------+
   |             |                 | Information/Parameter Passed and  |
   |             |                 |             Direction             |
   | Reference   |                 +-----------------+-----------------+
   |  Section    |    Condition    | FCIP Entity---> | <---FC Entity   |
   +-------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
   | 5.6         | FC Frame ready  |                 | Provide FC      |
   | FCIP Data   | for IP transfer |                 | Frame and       |
   | Engine      |                 |                 | time stamp at   |
   |             |                 |                 | FC Frame        |
   |             |                 |                 | Receiver Portal |
   +-------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
   | WWN = World Wide Name                                             |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |                           continued                               |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+

   Table 2:  FC/FCIP Entity pair interactions (part 1 of 5)












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   +-------------+-----------------+-----------------------------------+
   |             |                 | Information/Parameter Passed and  |
   |             |                 |             Direction             |
   | Reference   |                 +-----------------+-----------------+
   |  Section    |    Condition    | FCIP Entity---> | <---FC Entity   |
   +-------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
   |                           continued                               |
   +-------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
   | 5.6         | FCIP Frame      | Provide FC      |                 |
   | FCIP Data   | received from   | Frame and       |                 |
   | Engine      | IP Network      | time stamp at   |                 |
   |             |                 | FC Frame Trans- |                 |
   |             |                 | mitter Portal   |                 |
   +-------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
   | 5.6.2.2     | FCIP_DE         | Inform FC       |                 |
   | Errors      | discards bytes  | Entity that     |                 |
   | in FCIP     | delivered       | bytes have been |                 |
   | Headers and | through         | discarded with  |                 |
   | Discarding  | Encapsulated    | reason          |                 |
   | FCIP Frames | Frame Receiver  |                 |                 |
   |             | Portal          |                 |                 |
   +-------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
   | 5.6.2.3     | FCIP Entity     | Inform FC       |                 |
   | Synchron-   | closes TCP      | Entity that TCP |                 |
   | ization     | Connection due  | Connection has  |                 |
   | Failures    | to synchron-    | been closed     |                 |
   |             | ization failure | with reason     |                 |
   |             |                 | for closure     |                 |
   +-------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
   | 8.1.2.3     | Receipt of the  | Inform FC       |                 |
   | Connection  | echoed FSF      | Entity that TCP |                 |
   | Setup       | takes too long  | Connection has  |                 |
   | Following a | or the FSF      | been closed     |                 |
   | Successful  | contents have   | with reason     |                 |
   | TCP Connect | changed         | for closure     |                 |
   | Request     |                 |                 |                 |
   +-------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
   | WWN = World Wide Name                                             |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |                           continued                               |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+

   Table 2:  FC/FCIP Entity pair interactions (part 2 of 5)








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   +-------------+-----------------+-----------------------------------+
   |             |                 | Information/Parameter Passed and  |
   |             |                 |             Direction             |
   | Reference   |                 +-----------------+-----------------+
   |  Section    |    Condition    | FCIP Entity---> | <---FC Entity   |
   +-------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
   |                           continued                               |
   +-------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
   | 8.1.2.1     | New TCP         | Inform FC       |                 |
   | Non-Dynamic | Connection      | Entity of       |                 |
   | Creation of | created based   | new or existing |                 |
   | a New TCP   | on "shared"     | FCIP_LEP and    |                 |
   | Connections | database        | new FCIP_DE     |                 |
   |             | information     | along with      |                 |
   |             |                 | Destination FC  |                 |
   |             |                 | Fabric Entity   |                 |
   |             |                 | WWN, Connection |                 |
   |             |                 | Usage Flags,    |                 |
   |             |                 | Connection      |                 |
   |             |                 | Usage Code and  |                 |
   |             |                 | Connection      |                 |
   |             |                 | Nonce           |                 |
   +-------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
   | 8.1.2.2     | New TCP         | Inform FC       |                 |
   | Dynamic     | Connection      | Entity of       |                 |
   | Creation of | created based   | new or existing |                 |
   | a New TCP   | on SLP service  | FCIP_LEP and    |                 |
   | Connections | advertisement   | new FCIP_DE     |                 |
   |             | and "shared"    | along with      |                 |
   |             | database        | Destination FC  |                 |
   |             | information     | Fabric Entity   |                 |
   |             |                 | WWN, Connection |                 |
   |             |                 | Usage Flags,    |                 |
   |             |                 | Connection      |                 |
   |             |                 | Usage Code and  |                 |
   |             |                 | Connection      |                 |
   |             |                 | Nonce           |                 |
   +-------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
   | WWN = World Wide Name                                             |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |                           continued                               |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+

   Table 2:  FC/FCIP Entity pair interactions (part 3 of 5)







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   +-------------+-----------------+-----------------------------------+
   |             |                 | Information/Parameter Passed and  |
   |             |                 |             Direction             |
   | Reference   |                 +-----------------+-----------------+
   |  Section    |    Condition    | FCIP Entity---> | <---FC Entity   |
   +-------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
   |                           continued                               |
   +-------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
   | 8.1.3       | New TCP         | Inform FC       |                 |
   | Processing  | Connection      | Entity of       |                 |
   | Incoming    | created based   | new or existing |                 |
   | TCP Connect | on incoming TCP | FCIP_LEP and    |                 |
   | Requests    | Connect request | new FCIP_DE     |                 |
   |             | and "shared"    | along with      |                 |
   |             | database        | Source FC       |                 |
   |             | information     | Fabric Entity   |                 |
   |             |                 | WWN, Source     |                 |
   |             |                 | FC/FCIP Entity  |                 |
   |             |                 | Identifier,     |                 |
   |             |                 | Connection      |                 |
   |             |                 | Usage Flags,    |                 |
   |             |                 | Connection      |                 |
   |             |                 | Usage Code and  |                 |
   |             |                 | Connection      |                 |
   |             |                 | Nonce           |                 |
   +-------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
   | 8.1.3       | TCP Connect     | Request FC      | Yes or No       |
   | Processing  | Request wants   | Entity to       | answer about    |
   | Incoming    | to add a new    | authenticate    | whether the     |
   | TCP Connect | TCP Connection  | the source of   | source of the   |
   | Requests    | to an existing  | the TCP Connect | TCP Connect     |
   |             | FCIP_LEP        | Request         | Request can be  |
   |             |                 |                 | authenticated   |
   +-------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
   | 8.1.3       | Receipt of the  | Inform FC       |                 |
   | Processing  | FSF takes too   | Entity that TCP |                 |
   | Incoming    | long or         | Connection has  |                 |
   | TCP Connect | duplicate       | been closed     |                 |
   | Requests    | Connection      | with reason     |                 |
   |             | Nonce value     | for closure     |                 |
   +-------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
   | WWN = World Wide Name                                             |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |                           continued                               |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+

   Table 2:  FC/FCIP Entity pair interactions (part 4 of 5)




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   +-------------+-----------------+-----------------------------------+
   |             |                 | Information/Parameter Passed and  |
   |             |                 |             Direction             |
   | Reference   |                 +-----------------+-----------------+
   |  Section    |    Condition    | FCIP Entity---> | <---FC Entity   |
   +-------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
   |                           concluded                               |
   +-------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
   | 8.2         | FC Entity       | Acknowledgement | Identification  |
   | Closing TCP | determines      | of TCP          | of the FCIP_DE  |
   | Connections | that a TCP      | Connection      | whose TCP       |
   |             | Connection      | closure         | Connection      |
   |             | needs to be     |                 | needs to be     |
   |             | closed          |                 | closed          |
   +-------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
   | 8.4         | Discovery that  | Inform FC       |                 |
   | TCP         | TCP connectiv-  | Entity that TCP |                 |
   | Connection  | ity has been    | Connection has  |                 |
   | Considera-  | lost            | been closed     |                 |
   | tions       |                 | with reason     |                 |
   |             |                 | for closure     |                 |
   +-------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
   | 9.4.1       | IKE phase 1     | Inform FC       |                 |
   | FCIP        | failed, result- | Entity that TCP |                 |
   | Link        | ing in termin-  | Connection can  |                 |
   | Initializ-  | ation of link   | not be opened   |                 |
   | ation Steps | initialization  | with reason for |                 |
   |             |                 | failure         |                 |
   +-------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
   | 9.4.3       | Excessive       | Inform FC       |                 |
   | Handling    | numbers of      | Entity that TCP |                 |
   | data        | dropped         | Connection has  |                 |
   | integrity   | datagrams       | been closed     |                 |
   | and confi-  | detected and    | with reason     |                 |
   | dentiality  | TCP Connection  | for closure     |                 |
   | violations  | closed          |                 |                 |
   +-------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
   | RFC 3723    | TCP Connection  | Inform FC       |                 |
   |             | closed due to   | Entity that TCP |                 |
   | Handling SA | SA parameter    | Connection has  |                 |
   | parameter   | mismatch        | been closed     |                 |
   | mismatches  | problems        | with reason     |                 |
   |             |                 | for closure     |                 |
   +-------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
   | WWN = World Wide Name                                             |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+

   Table 2:  FC/FCIP Entity pair interactions (part 5 of 5)



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Editors and Contributors Acknowledgements

   During the development of this specification, Murali Rajagopal,
   Elizabeth Rodriguez, Vi Chau, and Ralph Weber served consecutively as
   editors.  Raj Bhagwat contributed substantially to the initial basic
   FCIP concepts.

   Venkat Rangan contributed the Security section and continues to
   coordinate security issues with the ips Working Group and IETF.

   Andy Helland contributed a substantial revision of Performance
   section, aligning it with TCP/IP QoS concepts.

   Dave Peterson contributed the dynamic discovery section and edits to
   RFC 3822.

   Anil Rijhsinghani contributed material related to the FCIP MIB and
   edits the FCIP MIB document.

   Bob Snively contributed material related to error detection and
   recovery including the bulk of the synchronization recovery example
   annex.

   Lawrence J. Lamers contributed numerous ideas focused on keeping FCIP
   compatible with B_Port devices.

   Milan Merhar contributed several of the FCIP conceptual modifications
   necessary to support NATs.

   Don Fraser contributed material related to link failure detection and
   reporting.

   Bill Krieg contributed a restructuring of the TCP Connection setup
   sections that made them more linear with respect to time and more
   readable.

   Several T11 leaders supported this effort and advised the editors of
   this specification regarding coordination with T11 documents and
   projects.  These T11 leaders are: Jim Nelson (Framing and Signaling),
   Neil Wanamaker (Framing and Signaling), Craig Carlson (Generic
   Services), Ken Hirata (Switch Fabric), Murali Rajagopal (Backbone),
   Steve Wilson (Switch Fabric), and Michael O'Donnell (Security
   Protocols).








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RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


Editors and Contributors Addresses

   Neil Wanamaker
   Akara
   10624 Icarus Court
   Austin, TX 78726
   USA

   Phone: +1 512 257 7633
   Fax: +1 512 257 7877
   EMail: nwanamaker@akara.com

   Ralph Weber
   ENDL Texas, representing Brocade
   Suite 102 PMB 178
   18484 Preston Road
   Dallas, TX 75252
   USA

   Phone: +1 214 912 1373
   EMail: roweber@ieee.org

   Elizabeth G. Rodriguez
   Dot Hill Systems Corp.
   6305 El Camino Real
   Carlsbad, CA 92009
   USA

   Phone: +1 760 431 4435
   EMail: elizabeth.rodriguez@dothill.com

   Steve Wilson
   Brocade Comm. Systems, Inc.
   1745 Technology Drive
   San Jose, CA. 95110
   USA

   Phone: +1 408 333 8128
   EMail: swilson@brocade.com












Rajagopal, et al.           Standards Track                    [Page 70]

RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


   Bob Snively
   Brocade Comm. Systems, Inc.
   1745 Technology Drive
   San Jose, CA 95110
   USA

   Phone: +1 408 303 8135
   EMail: rsnively@brocade.com

   David Peterson
   Cisco Systems - SRBU
   6450 Wedgwood Road
   Maple Grove, MN 55311
   USA

   Phone: +1 763 398 1007
   Cell: +1 612 802 3299
   EMail: dap@cisco.com

   Donald R. Fraser
   Hewlett-Packard
   301 Rockrimmon Blvd., Bldg. 5
   Colorado Springs, CO 80919
   USA

   Phone: +1 719 548 3272
   EMail: Don.Fraser@HP.com

   R. Andy Helland
   LightSand Communications, Inc.
   375 Los Coches Street
   Milpitas, CA 95035
   USA

   Phone: +1 408 404 3119
   Fax: +1 408 941 2166
   EMail: andyh@lightsand.com

   Raj Bhagwat
   LightSand Communications, Inc.
   24411 Ridge Route Dr.
   Suite 135
   Laguna Hills, CA 92653
   USA

   Phone: +1 949 837 1733 x104
   EMail: rajb@lightsand.com




Rajagopal, et al.           Standards Track                    [Page 71]

RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


   Bill Krieg
   Lucent Technologies
   200 Lucent Lane
   Cary, NC 27511
   USA

   Phone: +1 919 463 4020
   Fax: +1 919 463 4041
   EMail: bkrieg@lucent.com

   Michael E. O'Donnell
   McDATA Corporation
   310 Interlocken Parkway
   Broomfield, CO 80021
   USA

   Phone: +1 303 460 4142
   Fax: +1 303 465 4996
   EMail: modonnell@mcdata.com

   Anil Rijhsinghani
   McDATA Corporation
   310 Interlocken Parkway
   Broomfield, CO 80021
   USA

   Phone: +1 508 870 6593
   EMail: anil.rijhsinghani@mcdata.com

   Milan J. Merhar
   43 Nagog Park
   Pirus Networks
   Acton, MA 01720
   USA

   Phone: +1 978 206 9124
   EMail: Milan@pirus.com

   Craig W. Carlson
   QLogic Corporation
   6321 Bury Drive
   Eden Prairie, MN 55346
   USA

   Phone: +1 952 932 4064
   EMail: craig.carlson@qlogic.com





Rajagopal, et al.           Standards Track                    [Page 72]

RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


   Venkat Rangan
   Rhapsody Networks Inc.
   3450 W. Warren Ave.
   Fremont, CA 94538
   USA

   Phone: +1 510 743 3018
   Fax: +1 510 687 0136
   EMail: venkat@rhapsodynetworks.com

   Lawrence J. Lamers
   SAN Valley Systems, Inc.
   6320 San Ignacio Ave.
   San Jose, CA 95119-1209
   USA

   Phone: +1 408 234 0071
   EMail: ljlamers@ieee.org

   Murali Rajagopal
   Broadcom Corporation
   16215 Alton Parkway
   Irvine,CA 92619
   USA

   Phone: +1 949 450 8700
   EMail: muralir@broadcom.com

   Ken Hirata
   Vixel Corporation
   15245 Alton Parkway, Suite 100
   Irvine, CA 92618
   USA

   Phone: +1 949 788 6368
   Fax: +1 949 753 9500
   EMail: ken.hirata@vixel.com

   Vi Chau
   USA
   Email: vchau1@cox.net










Rajagopal, et al.           Standards Track                    [Page 73]

RFC 3821                          FCIP                         July 2004


Full Copyright Statement

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Rajagopal, et al.           Standards Track                    [Page 74]


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