[Docs] [txt|pdf] [draft-ietf-sip-pu...] [Diff1] [Diff2]

PROPOSED STANDARD

Network Working Group                                      A. Niemi, Ed.
Request for Comments: 3903                                         Nokia
Category: Standards Track                                   October 2004


              Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Extension
                      for Event State Publication

Status of this Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).

Abstract

   This document describes an extension to the Session Initiation
   Protocol (SIP) for publishing event state used within the SIP Events
   framework.  The first application of this extension is for the
   publication of presence information.

   The mechanism described in this document can be extended to support
   publication of any event state for which there exists an appropriate
   event package.  It is not intended to be a general-purpose mechanism
   for transport of arbitrary data, as there are better-suited
   mechanisms for this purpose.

Table of Contents

   1.   Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.   Definitions and Document Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.   Overall Operation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.   Constructing PUBLISH Requests  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
        4.1.  Identification of Published Event State. . . . . . . .   6
        4.2.  Creating Initial Publication . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
        4.3.  Refreshing Event State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
        4.4.  Modifying Event State  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
        4.5.  Removing Event State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   5.   Processing PUBLISH Responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   6.   Processing PUBLISH Requests  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   7.   Processing OPTIONS Requests  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   8.   Use of Entity-tags in PUBLISH  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13



Niemi                       Standards Track                     [Page 1]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


        8.1.  General Notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
        8.2.  Client Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
        8.3.  Server Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   9.   Controlling the Rate of Publication  . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   10.  Considerations for Event Packages using PUBLISH  . . . . . .  15
        10.1. PUBLISH Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
        10.2. PUBLISH Response Bodies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
        10.3. Multiple Sources for Event State . . . . . . . . . . .  16
        10.4. Event State Segmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
        10.5. Rate of Publication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   11.  Protocol Element Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
        11.1. New Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
              11.1.1. PUBLISH Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
        11.2. New Response Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
              11.2.1. "412 Conditional Request Failed" Response Code  19
        11.3. New Header Fields  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
              11.3.1. "SIP-ETag" Header Field  . . . . . . . . . . .  20
              11.3.2. "SIP-If-Match" Header Field  . . . . . . . . .  20
   12.  Augmented BNF Definitions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
   13.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
        13.1. Methods  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
        13.2. Response Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
        13.3. Header Field Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
   14.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
        14.1. Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
        14.2. Denial of Service Attacks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
        14.3. Replay Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
        14.4. Man in the Middle Attacks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
        14.5. Confidentiality  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
   15.  Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
   16.  Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
   17.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
   18.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
        18.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
        18.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
   Author's Address. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
   Full Copyright Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32

1.  Introduction

   This specification provides a framework for the publication of event
   state from a user agent to an entity that is responsible for
   compositing this event state and distributing it to interested
   parties through the SIP Events [1] framework.







Niemi                       Standards Track                     [Page 2]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


   In addition to defining an event publication framework, this
   specification defines a concrete usage of that framework for the
   publication of presence state [2] by a presence user agent [3] to a
   presence compositor, which has a tightly coupled relationship with
   the presence agent [1].

   The requirements and model for presence publication are documented in
   [10].  This specification will address each of those requirements.

   The mechanism described in this document can be extended to support
   publication of any event state for which there exists an appropriate
   event package as defined in [1].  For instance, an application of SIP
   events for message waiting indications [11] might choose to collect
   the statuses of voice-mail boxes across a set of user agents using
   the PUBLISH mechanism.  The compositor in such an application would
   then be responsible for collecting and distributing this state to the
   subscribers of the event package.

   Each application that makes use of the PUBLISH mechanism in the
   publication of event state will need to adhere to the guidelines set
   in Section 10.  The mechanism described in this document is not
   intended to be a general-purpose mechanism for transport of arbitrary
   data, as there are better-suited mechanisms for this purpose.

2.  Definitions and Document Conventions

   In addition to the definitions of RFC 2778 [3], RFC 3265 [1], and RFC
   3261 [4], this document introduces some new concepts:

   Event State: State information for a resource, associated with an
      event package and an address-of-record.

   Event Publication Agent (EPA): The User Agent Client (UAC) that
      issues PUBLISH requests to publish event state.

   Event State Compositor (ESC): The User Agent Server (UAS) that
      processes PUBLISH requests, and is responsible for compositing
      event state into a complete, composite event state of a resource.

   Presence Compositor: A type of Event State Compositor that is
      responsible for compositing presence state for a presentity.

   Publication: The act of an EPA sending a PUBLISH request to an ESC to
      publish event state.

   Event Hard State: The steady-state or default event state of a
      resource, which the ESC may use in the absence of, or in addition
      to, soft state publications.



Niemi                       Standards Track                     [Page 3]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


   Event Soft State: Event state published by an EPA using the PUBLISH
      mechanism.  A protocol element (i.e., an entity-tag) is used to
      identify a specific soft state entity at the ESC.  Soft state has
      a defined lifetime and will expire after a negotiated amount of
      time.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119 [5]
   and indicate requirement levels for compliant implementations.

      Indented passages such as this one are used in this document to
      provide additional information and clarifying text.  They do not
      contain descriptions of normative protocol behavior.

3.  Overall Operation

   This document defines a new SIP method, PUBLISH, for publishing event
   state.  PUBLISH is similar to REGISTER in that it allows a user to
   create, modify, and remove state in another entity which manages this
   state on behalf of the user.  Addressing a PUBLISH request is
   identical to addressing a SUBSCRIBE request.  The Request-URI of a
   PUBLISH request is populated with the address of the resource for
   which the user wishes to publish event state.  The user may in turn
   have multiple User Agents or endpoints that publish event state.
   Each endpoint may publish its own unique state, out of which the
   event state compositor generates the composite event state of the
   resource.  In addition to a particular resource, all published event
   state is associated with a specific event package.  Through a
   subscription to that event package, the user is able to discover the
   composite event state of all of the active publications.

   A User Agent Client (UAC) that publishes event state is labeled an
   Event Publication Agent (EPA).  For presence, this is the familiar
   Presence User Agent (PUA) role as defined in [2].  The entity that
   processes the PUBLISH request is known as an Event State Compositor
   (ESC).  For presence, this is the familiar Presence Agent (PA) role
   as defined in [2].

   PUBLISH requests create soft state in the ESC.  This event soft state
   has a defined lifetime and will expire after a negotiated amount of
   time, requiring the publication to be refreshed by subsequent PUBLISH
   requests.  There may also be event hard state provisioned for each
   resource for a particular event package.  This event state represents
   the resource state that is present at all times, and does not expire.
   The ESC may use event hard state in the absence of, or in addition
   to, event soft state provided through the PUBLISH mechanism.  Setting




Niemi                       Standards Track                     [Page 4]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


   this event hard state or configuring the ESC policy regarding the
   aggregation of different event state is out of the scope of this
   specification.

   The body of a PUBLISH request carries the published event state.  In
   response to every successful PUBLISH request, the ESC assigns an
   identifier to the publication in the form of an entity-tag.  This
   identifier is then used by the EPA in any subsequent PUBLISH request
   that modifies, refreshes or removes the event state of that
   publication.  When event state expires or is explicitly removed, the
   entity-tag associated with it becomes invalid.  A publication for an
   invalid entity-tag will naturally fail, and the EPA needs to start
   anew and resend its event state without referencing a previous
   entity-tag.

4.  Constructing PUBLISH Requests

   PUBLISH requests create, modify, and remove event state associated
   with an address-of-record.  A suitably authorized third party may
   also perform publication on behalf of a particular address-of-record.

   Except as noted, the construction of the PUBLISH request and the
   behavior of clients sending a PUBLISH request are identical to the
   general UAC behavior described in Section 8.1 and Section 17.1 of RFC
   3261 [4].

   If necessary, clients may probe for the support of PUBLISH using the
   OPTIONS request defined in SIP [4].  The presence of "PUBLISH" in the
   "Allow" header field in a response to an OPTIONS request indicates
   support for the PUBLISH method.  In addition, the "Allow-Events"
   header field indicates the supported event packages.

      Note that it is possible for the OPTIONS request to fork, and
      consequently return a response from a User Agent other than the
      ESC.  In that case, support for the PUBLISH method may not be
      appropriately represented for that particular Request-URI.

   A PUBLISH request does not establish a dialog.  A UAC MAY include a
   Route header field in a PUBLISH request based on a pre-existing route
   set as described in Section 8.1 of RFC 3261 [4].  The Record-Route
   header field has no meaning in PUBLISH requests or responses, and
   MUST be ignored if present.  In particular, the UAC MUST NOT create a
   new route set based on the presence or absence of a Record-Route
   header field in any response to a PUBLISH request.

   The PUBLISH request MAY contain a Contact header field, but including
   one in a PUBLISH request has no meaning in the event publication
   context and will be ignored by the ESC.  An EPA MAY send a PUBLISH



Niemi                       Standards Track                     [Page 5]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


   request within an existing dialog.  In that case, the request is
   received in the context of any media session or sessions associated
   with that dialog.

      Note that while sending a PUBLISH request within an existing
      dialog is not prohibited, it will typically not result in the
      expected behavior.  Unless the other end of the dialog is also an
      ESC, it will probably reject the request.

   EPAs MUST NOT send a new PUBLISH request (not a re-transmission) for
   the same Request-URI, until they have received a final response from
   the ESC for the previous one or the previous PUBLISH request has
   timed out.

4.1.  Identification of Published Event State

   Identification of published event state is provided by three pieces
   of information: Request-URI, event type, and (optionally) an entity-
   tag.

   The Request-URI of a PUBLISH request contains enough information to
   route the request to the appropriate entity per the request routing
   procedures outlined in RFC 3261 [4].  It also contains enough
   information to identify the resource whose event state is to be
   published, but not enough information to determine the type of the
   published event state.

   For determining the type of the published event state, the EPA MUST
   include a single Event header field in PUBLISH requests.  The value
   of this header field indicates the event package for which this
   request is publishing event state.

   For each successful PUBLISH request, the ESC will generate and assign
   an entity-tag and return it in the SIP-ETag header field of the 2xx
   response.

   When updating previously published event state, PUBLISH requests MUST
   contain a single SIP-If-Match header field identifying the specific
   event state that the request is refreshing, modifying or removing.
   This header field MUST contain a single entity-tag that was returned
   by the ESC in the SIP-ETag header field of the response to a previous
   publication.

   The PUBLISH request MAY contain a body, which contains event state
   that the client wishes to publish.  The content format and semantics
   are dependent on the event package identified in the Event header
   field.




Niemi                       Standards Track                     [Page 6]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


   The presence of a body and the SIP-If-Match header field determine
   the specific operation that the request is performing, as described
   in Table 1.

      +-----------+-------+---------------+---------------+
      | Operation | Body? | SIP-If-Match? | Expires Value |
      +-----------+-------+---------------+---------------+
      | Initial   | yes   | no            | > 0           |
      | Refresh   | no    | yes           | > 0           |
      | Modify    | yes   | yes           | > 0           |
      | Remove    | no    | yes           | 0             |
      +-----------+-------+---------------+---------------+

                 Table 1: Publication Operations

   An 'Initial' publication sets the initial event state for a
   particular EPA. There may, of course, already be event state
   published by other EPAs (for the same address-of-record). That state
   is unaffected by an initial publication.  A 'Refresh' publication
   refreshes the lifetime of a previous publication, whereas a 'Modify'
   publication modifies the event state of a previous publication.  A
   'Remove' publication requests immediate removal of event state.
   These operations are described in more detail in the following
   sections.

4.2.  Creating Initial Publication

   An initial publication is a PUBLISH request created by the EPA and
   sent to the ESC that establishes soft state for the event package
   indicated in the Event header field of the request, and bound to the
   address in the Request-URI of the request.

   An initial PUBLISH request MUST NOT contain a SIP-If-Match header
   field.  However, if the EPA expects an appropriate, locally stored
   entity-tag to still be valid, it SHOULD first try to modify that
   event state as described in Section 4.4, instead of submitting an
   initial publication.

   An initial PUBLISH request MUST contain a body that contains the
   published event state.

   An initial PUBLISH request MAY contain a single Expires header field.
   This value indicates the suggested lifetime of the event state
   publication.







Niemi                       Standards Track                     [Page 7]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


   The ESC may lower the suggested lifetime of the publication, but it
   will never extend it.  If an Expires header field is not present, the
   EPA is indicating its desire for the ESC to choose.  The Expires
   header field in a 2xx response to the initial PUBLISH indicates the
   actual duration for which the publication will remain active.  Unless
   refreshed before this lifetime is exceeded, the publication will
   expire.

4.3.  Refreshing Event State

   An EPA is responsible for refreshing its previously established
   publications before their expiration interval has elapsed.  To
   refresh a publication, the EPA MUST create a PUBLISH request that
   includes in a SIP-If-Match header field the entity-tag of the
   publication to be refreshed.

   The SIP-If-Match header field containing an entity-tag conditions the
   PUBLISH request to refresh a specific event state established by a
   prior publication.  If the entity-tag matches previously published
   event state at the ESC, the refresh succeeds, and the EPA receives a
   2xx response.

   Like the 2xx response to an initial PUBLISH request, the 2xx response
   to a refresh PUBLISH request will contain a SIP-ETag header field
   with an entity-tag.  The EPA MUST store this entity-tag, replacing
   any existing entity-tag for the refreshed event state.  See Section
   8.2 for more information on the EPA handling of entity-tags.

   If there is no matching event state, e.g., the event state to be
   refreshed has already expired, the EPA receives a 412 (Conditional
   Request Failed) response to the PUBLISH request.

   A publication refresh MAY contain a single Expires header field.
   This value indicates the suggested lifetime of the event state.

   The ESC may lower the suggested lifetime of the publication refresh,
   but it will never extend it.  If an Expires header field is not
   present, the EPA is indicating its desire for the ESC to choose.  The
   Expires header field in a 2xx response to the publication refresh
   indicates the actual duration for which the publication will remain
   active.

   A publication refresh only extends the expiration time of already
   existing event state.  It does not affect that event state in any
   other way.  Therefore, a PUBLISH request that refreshes event state
   MUST NOT have a body.





Niemi                       Standards Track                     [Page 8]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


4.4.  Modifying Event State

   Modifying event state closely resembles the creation of initial event
   state.  However, instead of establishing completely new event state
   at the ESC, already existing event state is updated with modified
   event state.  The nature of this update depends on the content of the
   body, and the semantics associated with the format of that body.

   To modify event state, the EPA MUST construct a PUBLISH request that
   includes in a SIP-If-Match header field the entity-tag of the event
   state publication to be modified.  A PUBLISH request that modifies
   event state MUST contain a body that includes the modified event
   state.

   The SIP-If-Match header field conditions the PUBLISH request to
   modify a specific event state established by a prior publication, and
   identified by the entity-tag.  If the entity-tag matches previously
   published event state at the ESC, that event state is replaced by the
   event state carried in the PUBLISH request, and the EPA receives a
   2xx response.

   Like the 2xx response to an initial PUBLISH request, the 2xx response
   to a modifying PUBLISH request will contain a SIP-ETag header field
   with an entity-tag.  The EPA MUST store this entity-tag, replacing
   any existing entity-tag for the modified event state.  See Section
   8.2 for more information on the EPA handling of entity-tags.

   If there is no matching event state at the ESC, e.g., the event state
   to be modified has already expired, the EPA receives a 412
   (Conditional Request Failed) response to the PUBLISH request.

   A modifying PUBLISH request MAY contain a single Expires header
   field.  This value indicates the suggested lifetime of the event
   state publication.

   The ESC may lower the suggested lifetime of the publication, but it
   will never extend it.  If an Expires header field is not present, the
   EPA is indicating its desire for the ESC to choose.  The Expires
   header field in a 2xx response to the modifying PUBLISH request
   indicates the actual duration for which the publication will remain
   active.  Unless refreshed before this lifetime is exceeded, the
   publication will expire.

4.5.  Removing Event State

   Event state established by a prior publication may also be explicitly
   removed.




Niemi                       Standards Track                     [Page 9]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


   To request the immediate removal of event state, an EPA MUST create a
   PUBLISH request with an Expires value of "0", and set the SIP-If-
   Match header field to contain the entity-tag of the event state
   publication to be removed.

      Note that removing event state is effectively a publication
      refresh suggesting an infinitesimal expiration interval.
      Consequently, the refreshed event state expires immediately after
      being refreshed.

   Similar to an event state refresh, the removal of event state only
   affects the expiry of the event state.  Therefore, a PUBLISH request
   that removes event state MUST NOT contain a body.

5.  Processing PUBLISH Responses

   When processing responses to PUBLISH requests, the steps in Section
   8.1.2 of RFC 3261 [4] apply.

   If an EPA receives a 412 (Conditional Request Failed) response, it
   MUST NOT reattempt the PUBLISH request.  Instead, to publish event
   state, the EPA SHOULD perform an initial publication, i.e., a PUBLISH
   request without a SIP-If-Match header field, as described in Section
   4.2.  The EPA MUST also discard the entity-tag that produced this
   error response.

   If an EPA receives a 423 (Interval Too Brief) response to a PUBLISH
   request, it MAY retry the publication after changing the expiration
   interval in the Expires header field to be equal to or greater than
   the expiration interval within the Min-Expires header field of the
   423 (Interval Too Brief) response.

6.  Processing PUBLISH Requests

   The Event State Compositor (ESC) is a User Agent Server (UAS) that
   processes and responds to PUBLISH requests, and maintains a list of
   publications for a given address-of-record.  The ESC has to know
   (e.g., through configuration) the set of addresses for which it
   maintains event state.

   The ESC MUST ignore the Record-Route header field if it is included
   in a PUBLISH request.  The ESC MUST NOT include a Record-Route header
   field in any response to a PUBLISH request.  The ESC MUST ignore the
   Contact header field if one is present in a PUBLISH request.







Niemi                       Standards Track                    [Page 10]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


   PUBLISH requests with the same Request-URI MUST be processed in the
   order that they are received.  PUBLISH requests MUST also be
   processed atomically, meaning that a particular PUBLISH request is
   either processed completely or not at all.

   When receiving a PUBLISH request, the ESC follows the steps defining
   general UAS behavior in Section 8.2 of RFC 3261 [4].  In addition,
   for PUBLISH specific behavior the ESC follows these steps:

   1. The ESC inspects the Request-URI to determine whether this request
      is targeted to a resource for which the ESC is responsible for
      maintaining event state.  If not, the ESC MUST return a 404 (Not
      Found) response and skip the remaining steps.

      It may also be that the Request-URI points to a domain that the
      ESC is not responsible for.  In that case, the UAS receiving the
      request can assume the role of a proxy server and forward the
      request to a more appropriate target.

   2. The ESC examines the Event header field of the PUBLISH request.
      If the Event header field is missing or contains an event package
      which the ESC does not support, the ESC MUST respond to the
      PUBLISH request with a 489 (Bad Event) response, and skip the
      remaining steps.

   3. The ESC examines the SIP-If-Match header field of the PUBLISH
      request for the presence of a request precondition.

      *  If the request does not contain a SIP-If-Match header field,
         the ESC MUST generate and store a locally unique entity-tag for
         identifying the publication.  This entity-tag is associated
         with the event-state carried in the body of the PUBLISH
         request.

      *  Else, if the request has a SIP-If-Match header field, the ESC
         checks whether the header field contains a single entity-tag.
         If not, the request is invalid, and the ESC MUST return with a
         400 (Invalid Request) response and skip the remaining steps.

      *  Else, the ESC extracts the entity-tag contained in the SIP-If-
         Match header field and matches that entity-tag against all
         locally stored entity-tags for this resource and event package.
         If no match is found, the ESC MUST reject the publication with
         a response of 412 (Conditional Request Failed), and skip the
         remaining steps.






Niemi                       Standards Track                    [Page 11]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


   4. The ESC processes the Expires header field value from the PUBLISH
      request.

      *  If the request has an Expires header field, that value MUST be
         taken as the requested expiration.

      *  Else, a locally-configured default value MUST be taken as the
         requested expiration.

      *  The ESC MAY choose an expiration less than the requested
         expiration interval.  Only if the requested expiration interval
         is greater than zero and less than a locally-configured
         minimum, the ESC MAY reject the publication with a response of
         423 (Interval Too Brief), and skip the remaining steps.  This
         response MUST contain a Min-Expires header field that states
         the minimum expiration interval the ESC is willing to honor.

   5. The ESC processes the published event state contained in the body
      of the PUBLISH request.  If the content type of the request does
      not match the event package, or is not understood by the ESC, the
      ESC MUST reject the request with an appropriate response, such as
      415 (Unsupported Media Type), and skip the remainder of the steps.

      *  The ESC stores the event state delivered in the body of the
         PUBLISH request and identified by the associated entity-tag,
         updating any existing event state for that entity-tag.  The
         expiration value is set to the chosen expiration interval.

      *  If the request has no message body and contained no entity-tag,
         the ESC SHOULD reject the request with an appropriate response,
         such as 400 (Invalid Request), and skip the remainder of the
         steps.  Alternatively, in case either ESC local policy or the
         event package has defined semantics for an initial publication
         containing no message body, the ESC MAY accept it.

      *  Else, the event state identified by the entity-tag is
         refreshed, setting the expiration value to the chosen
         expiration interval.

      *  If the chosen expiration interval has a special value of "0",
         the event state identified by the entity-tag MUST be
         immediately removed.  The ESC MUST NOT store any event state as
         a result of such a request.








Niemi                       Standards Track                    [Page 12]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


      The processing of the PUBLISH request MUST be atomic.  If internal
      errors (such as the inability to access a back-end database) occur
      before processing is complete, the publication MUST NOT succeed,
      and the ESC MUST fail with an appropriate error response, such as
      504 (Server Time-out), and skip the last step.

   6. The ESC returns a 200 (OK) response.  The response MUST contain an
      Expires header field indicating the expiration interval chosen by
      the ESC.  The response MUST also contain a SIP-ETag header field
      that contains a single entity-tag identifying the publication.
      The ESC MUST generate a new entity-tag for each successful
      publication, replacing any previous entity-tag associated with
      that event state. The generated entity-tag MUST be unique from any
      other entity-tags currently assigned to event state associated
      with that Request-URI, and MUST be different from any entity-tag
      assigned previously to event state for that Request-URI.  See
      Section 8.3 for more information on the ESC handling of entity-
      tags.

7.  Processing OPTIONS Requests

   A client may probe the ESC for the support of PUBLISH using the
   OPTIONS request defined in SIP [4].  The ESC processes OPTIONS
   requests as defined in Section 11.2 of RFC 3261 [4].  In the response
   to an OPTIONS request, the ESC SHOULD include "PUBLISH" to the list
   of allowed methods in the Allow header field.  Also, it SHOULD list
   the supported event packages in an Allow-Events header field.

   The Allow header field may also be used to specifically announce
   support for PUBLISH messages when registering.  (See SIP Capabilities
   [12] for details).

8.  Use of Entity-tags in PUBLISH

   This section makes a general overview of the entity-tags usage in
   PUBLISH.  It is informative in nature and thus contains no normative
   protocol description.

8.1.  General Notes

   The PUBLISH mechanism makes use of entity-tags, as defined in HTTP/
   1.1 [13].  While the main functionality is preserved, the syntax and
   semantics for entity-tags and the corresponding header fields is
   adapted specifically for use with the PUBLISH method.  The main
   differences are:

   o  The syntax for entity-tags is a token instead of quoted-string.
      There is also no prefix defined for indicating a weak entity-tag.



Niemi                       Standards Track                    [Page 13]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


   o  A PUBLISH precondition can only apply to a single entity-tag, so
      request preconditions with multiple entity-tags are not allowed.

   o  A request precondition can't apply to "any" entity, namely there
      is no special "*" entity-tag value defined for PUBLISH.

   o  Whereas in HTTP/1.1 returning an entity-tag is optional for origin
      servers, in PUBLISH ESCs are required to always return an entity-
      tag for a successful publication.

   The main motivation for the above adaptation is that PUBLISH is
   conceptually an HTTP PUT, for which only a subset of the features in
   cache validation using entity-tags is allowed in HTTP/1.1.  It makes
   little sense to enable features other than this subset for event
   state publication.

   To make it apparent that the entity-tags usage in PUBLISH is similar
   but not identical to HTTP/1.1, we have not adopted the header field
   names directly from HTTP/1.1, but rather have created similar but
   distinct names, as can be seen in Section 11.

8.2.  Client Usage

   Each successful publication will get assigned an entity-tag which is
   then delivered to the EPA in the response to the PUBLISH request.
   The EPA needs to store that entity-tag, replacing any previous
   entity-tag for that event state.  If a request fails with a 412
   (Conditional Request Failed) response, the EPA discards the entity-
   tag that caused the failure.

   Entity-tags are opaque tokens to the EPA.  The EPA cannot infer any
   further semantics from an entity-tag beyond a simple identifier, or
   assume a specific formatting.  An entity-tag may be a monotonically
   increasing counter, but it may also be a totally random token.  It is
   up to the ESC implementation as to what the formatting of an entity-
   tag is.

8.3.  Server Usage

   Entity-tags are generated and maintained by the ESC.  They are part
   of the state maintained by the ESC that also includes the actual
   event state and its remaining expiration interval.  An entity-tag is
   generated and stored for each successful event state publication, and
   returned to the EPA in a 200 (OK) response.  Each event state
   publication from the EPA that updates a previous publication will
   include an entity-tag that the ESC can use as a search key in the set
   of active publications.




Niemi                       Standards Track                    [Page 14]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


   The way in which an entity-tag is generated is an implementation
   decision.  One possible way to generate an entity-tag is to implement
   it as an integer counter that is incremented by one for each
   successfully processed publication.  Other, equally valid ways for
   generating entity-tags exist, and this document makes no
   recommendations or preference for a single way.

9.  Controlling the Rate of Publication

   As an entity responsible for aggregating state information from
   potentially many sources, the ESC can be subject to considerable
   amounts of publication traffic.  There are ways to reduce the amount
   of PUBLISH requests that the ESC receives:

   o  Choice of the expiration interval for a publication can be
      affected by the ESC.  It can insist that an EPA chooses a longer
      expiration value to what it suggests, in case the ESC's local
      default minimum expiration value is not reached.  Maintaining a
      longer default minimum expiration value at the ESC reduces the
      rate at which publications are refreshed.

   o  Another way of reducing publication traffic is to use a SIP-level
      push-back to quench a specific source of publication traffic.  To
      push back on publications from a particular source, the ESC MAY
      respond to a PUBLISH request with a 503 (Service Unavailable), as
      defined in RFC 3261 [4].  This response SHOULD contain a Retry-
      After header field indicating the time interval that the
      publication source is required to wait until sending another
      PUBLISH request.

   At the time of writing this specification, work on managing load in
   SIP is starting, which may be able to provide further tools for
   managing load in event state publication systems.

10.  Considerations for Event Packages using PUBLISH

   This section discusses several issues which should be taken into
   consideration when applying the PUBLISH mechanism to event packages.
   It also demonstrates how these issues are handled when using PUBLISH
   for presence publication.

   Any future event package specification SHOULD include a discussion of
   its considerations for using PUBLISH.  At a minimum those
   considerations SHOULD address the issues presented in this chapter,
   and MAY include additional considerations.






Niemi                       Standards Track                    [Page 15]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


10.1.  PUBLISH Bodies

   The body of the PUBLISH request typically carries the published event
   state.  Any application of the PUBLISH mechanism for a given event
   package MUST define what content type or types are expected in
   PUBLISH requests.  Each event package MUST also describe the
   semantics associated with that content type, and MUST prescribe a
   default, mandatory to implement MIME type.

   This document defines the semantics of the presence publication
   requests (event package "presence") when the Common Profile for
   Presence (CPP) Presence Information Data Format (PIDF) [6] is used.
   A PUA that uses PUBLISH to publish presence state to the PA MUST
   support the PIDF presence format.  It MAY support other formats.

10.2.  PUBLISH Response Bodies

   The response to a PUBLISH request indicates whether the request was
   successful or not.  In general, the body of such a response will be
   empty unless the event package defines explicit meaning for such a
   body.

   There is no such meaning for the body of a response to a presence
   publication.

10.3.  Multiple Sources for Event State

   For some event packages, the underlying model is that of a single
   entity responsible for aggregating event state (ESC), and multiple
   sources, out of which only some may be using the PUBLISH mechanism.

      Note that sources for event state other than those using the
      PUBLISH mechanism are explicitly allowed.  However, it is beyond
      the scope of this document to define such interfaces.

   Event packages that make use of the PUBLISH mechanism SHOULD describe
   whether this model for event state publication is applicable, and MAY
   describe specific mechanisms used for aggregating publications from
   multiple sources.

   For presence, a PUA can publish presence state for just a subset of
   the tuples that may be composited into the presence document that
   watchers receive in a NOTIFY.  The mechanism by which the ESC
   aggregates this information is a matter of local policy and out of
   the scope of this specification.






Niemi                       Standards Track                    [Page 16]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


10.4.  Event State Segmentation

   For some event packages, there exists a natural decomposition of
   event state into segments.  Each segment is defined as one of
   potentially many identifiable sections in the published event state.
   Any event package whose content type supports such segmentation of
   event state, SHOULD describe the way in which these event state
   segments are identified by the ESC.

   In presence publication, the EPA MUST keep the "id" attributes of
   tuples consistent in the context of an entity-tag.  If a publication
   modifies the contents of a tuple, that tuple MUST maintain its
   original "id".  The ESC will interpret each tuple in the context of
   the entity-tag with which the request arrived.  A tuple whose "id" is
   missing compared to the original publication will be considered as
   being removed.  Similarly, a tuple is interpreted as being added if
   its "id" attribute is one that the original publication did not
   contain.

10.5.  Rate of Publication

   Controlling the rate of publication is discussed in Section 9.
   Individual event packages MAY in turn define recommendations (SHOULD
   or MUST strength) on absolute maximum rates at which publications are
   allowed to be generated by a single EPA.

   There are no rate limiting recommendations for presence publication.

11.  Protocol Element Definitions

   This section describes the extensions required for event publication
   in SIP.

11.1.  New Methods

11.1.1.  PUBLISH Method

   "PUBLISH" is added to the definition of the element "Method" in the
   SIP message grammar.  As with all other SIP methods, the method name
   is case sensitive.  PUBLISH is used to publish event state to an
   entity responsible for compositing this event state.

   Table 2 and Table 3 extend Tables 2 and 3 of RFC 3261 [4] by adding
   an additional column, defining the header fields that can be used in
   PUBLISH requests and responses.  The keys in these tables are
   specified in Section 20 of RFC 3261 [4].





Niemi                       Standards Track                    [Page 17]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


   +---------------------+---------+---------+
   | Header Field        |  where  | PUBLISH |
   +---------------------+---------+---------+
   | Accept              |    R    |    o    |
   | Accept              |   2xx   |    -    |
   | Accept              |   415   |    m*   |
   | Accept-Encoding     |    R    |    o    |
   | Accept-Encoding     |   2xx   |    -    |
   | Accept-Encoding     |   415   |    m*   |
   | Accept-Language     |    R    |    o    |
   | Accept-Language     |   2xx   |    -    |
   | Accept-Language     |   415   |    m*   |
   | Alert-Info          |         |    -    |
   | Allow               |    R    |    o    |
   | Allow               |    r    |    o    |
   | Allow               |   405   |    m    |
   | Allow-Events        |    R    |    o    |
   | Allow-Events        |   489   |    m    |
   | Authentication-Info |   2xx   |    o    |
   | Authorization       |    R    |    o    |
   | Call-ID             |    c    |    m    |
   | Call-Info           |         |    o    |
   | Contact             |    R    |    -    |
   | Contact             |   1xx   |    -    |
   | Contact             |   2xx   |    -    |
   | Contact             |   3xx   |    o    |
   | Contact             |   485   |    o    |
   | Content-Disposition |         |    o    |
   | Content-Encoding    |         |    o    |
   | Content-Language    |         |    o    |
   | Content-Length      |         |    t    |
   | Content-Type        |         |    *    |
   | CSeq                |    c    |    m    |
   | Date                |         |    o    |
   | Event               |    R    |    m    |
   | Error-Info          | 300-699 |    o    |
   | Expires             |         |    o    |
   | Expires             |   2xx   |    m    |
   | From                |    c    |    m    |
   | In-Reply-To         |    R    |    -    |
   | Max-Forwards        |    R    |    m    |
   | Min-Expires         |   423   |    m    |
   | MIME-Version        |         |    o    |
   | Organization        |         |    o    |
   +---------------------+---------+---------+

     Table 2: Summary of header fields, A--O




Niemi                       Standards Track                    [Page 18]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


   +---------------------+-----------------+---------+
   | Header Field        |      where      | PUBLISH |
   +---------------------+-----------------+---------+
   | Priority            |        R        |    o    |
   | Proxy-Authenticate  |       407       |    m    |
   | Proxy-Authenticate  |       401       |    o    |
   | Proxy-Authorization |        R        |    o    |
   | Proxy-Require       |        R        |    o    |
   | Record-Route        |                 |    -    |
   | Reply-To            |                 |    -    |
   | Require             |                 |    o    |
   | Retry-After         | 404,413,480,486 |    o    |
   | Retry-After         |     500,503     |    o    |
   | Retry-After         |     600,603     |    o    |
   | Route               |        R        |    c    |
   | Server              |        r        |    o    |
   | Subject             |        R        |    o    |
   | Supported           |        R        |    o    |
   | Supported           |       2xx       |    o    |
   | Timestamp           |                 |    o    |
   | To                  |       c(1)      |    m    |
   | Unsupported         |       420       |    o    |
   | User-Agent          |                 |    o    |
   | Via                 |        R        |    m    |
   | Via                 |        rc       |    m    |
   | Warning             |        r        |    o    |
   | WWW-Authenticate    |       401       |    m    |
   | WWW-Authenticate    |       407       |    o    |
   +---------------------+-----------------+---------+

         Table 3: Summary of header fields, P--Z

11.2.  New Response Codes

11.2.1.  "412 Conditional Request Failed" Response Code

   The 412 (Conditional Request Failed) response is added to the
   "Client-Error" header field definition.  412 (Conditional Request
   Failed) is used to indicate that the precondition given for the
   request has failed.











Niemi                       Standards Track                    [Page 19]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


11.3.  New Header Fields

   Table 4, Table 5, and Table 6 expand on Table 3 in SIP [4], as
   amended by the changes in Section 11.1.

   +--------------+-------+-------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
   | Header Field | where | proxy | ACK | BYE | CAN | INF | INV |
   +--------------+-------+-------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
   | SIP-ETag     |  2xx  |       |  -  |  -  |  -  |  -  |  -  |
   | SIP-If-Match |   R   |       |  -  |  -  |  -  |  -  |  -  |
   +--------------+-------+-------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+

              Table 4: Summary of header fields, P--Z

   +--------------+-------+-------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
   | Header Field | where | proxy | NOT | OPT | PRA | REG | SUB |
   +--------------+-------+-------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
   | SIP-ETag     |  2xx  |       |  -  |  -  |  -  |  -  |  -  |
   | SIP-If-Match |   R   |       |  -  |  -  |  -  |  -  |  -  |
   +--------------+-------+-------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+

              Table 5: Summary of header fields, P--Z

    +--------------+-------+-------+-----+-----+-----+---------+
    | Header Field | where | proxy | UPD | MSG | REF | PUBLISH |
    +--------------+-------+-------+-----+-----+-----+---------+
    | SIP-ETag     |  2xx  |       |  -  |  -  |  -  |    m    |
    | SIP-If-Match |   R   |       |  -  |  -  |  -  |    o    |
    +--------------+-------+-------+-----+-----+-----+---------+

              Table 6: Summary of header fields, P--Z

11.3.1.  "SIP-ETag" Header Field

   SIP-ETag is added to the definition of the element "general-header"
   in the SIP message grammar.  Usage of this header is described in
   Section 4 and Section 6.

11.3.2.  "SIP-If-Match" Header Field

   SIP-If-Match is added to the definition of the element "general-
   header" in the SIP message grammar.  Usage of this header is
   described in Section 4 and Section 6.








Niemi                       Standards Track                    [Page 20]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


12.  Augmented BNF Definitions

   This section describes the syntax extensions required for event
   publication in SIP.  The formal syntax definitions described in this
   section are expressed in the Augmented BNF [7] format used in SIP
   [4], and contain references to elements defined therein.

      PUBLISHm           = %x50.55.42.4C.49.53.48 ; PUBLISH in caps.
      extension-method   = PUBLISHm / token
      SIP-ETag           = "SIP-ETag" HCOLON entity-tag
      SIP-If-Match       = "SIP-If-Match" HCOLON entity-tag
      entity-tag         = token

13.  IANA Considerations

   This document registers a new method name, a new response code and
   two new header field names.

13.1.  Methods

   This document registers a new SIP method, defined by the following
   information, which has been added to the method and response-code
   sub-registry under http://www.iana.org/assignments/sip-parameters.

      Method Name:   PUBLISH
      Reference:     [RFC3903]

13.2.  Response Codes

   This document registers a new response code.  This response code is
   defined by the following information, which has been added to the
   method and response-code sub-registry under
   http://www.iana.org/assignments/sip-parameters.

      Response Code Number:   412
      Default Reason Phrase:  Conditional Request Failed

13.3.  Header Field Names

   This document registers two new SIP header field names.  These
   headers are defined by the following information, which has been
   added to the header sub-registry under
   http://www.iana.org/assignments/sip-parameters.

      Header Name:    SIP-ETag
      Compact Form:   (none)





Niemi                       Standards Track                    [Page 21]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


      Header Name:    SIP-If-Match
      Compact Form:   (none)

14.  Security Considerations

14.1.  Access Control

   Since event state may be considered sensitive information, the ESC
   should have the ability to selectively accept publications from
   authorized sources only, based on the identity of the EPA.

   The state agent SHOULD authenticate the EPA, and SHOULD apply its
   authorization policies (e.g., based on access control lists) to all
   requests.  The composition model makes no assumptions that all input
   sources for an ESC are on the same network, or in the same
   administrative domain.

   ESCs and EPAs MUST implement Digest for authenticating PUBLISH
   requests, as defined in RFC 3261 [4].  The exact methods for creating
   and manipulating access control policies in the ESC are outside the
   scope of this document.

14.2.  Denial of Service Attacks

   The creation of state at the ESC upon receipt of a PUBLISH request
   can be used by attackers to consume resources on a victim's machine,
   possibly rendering it unusable.

   To reduce the chances of such an attack, implementations of ESCs
   SHOULD require authentication of PUBLISH requests.  Implementations
   MUST support Digest authentication, as defined in RFC 3261 [4].

   Also, the ESC SHOULD throttle incoming publications and the
   corresponding notifications resulting from the changes in event
   state.  As a first step, careful selection of default minimum Expires
   header field values for the supported event packages at an ESC can
   help limit refreshes of event state.

   Additional throttling and debounce logic at the ESC is advisable to
   further reduce the notification traffic produced as a result of a
   PUBLISH request.

14.3.  Replay Attacks

   Replaying a PUBLISH request can have detrimental effects.  An
   attacker may be able to perform any event state publication it
   witnessed being performed at some point in the past, by replaying
   that PUBLISH request.  Among other things, such a replay message may



Niemi                       Standards Track                    [Page 22]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


   be used to spoof old event state information, although a versioning
   mechanism, e.g., a timestamp, in the state information may help
   mitigate such an attack.

   To prevent replay attacks, implementations MUST support Digest
   authentication with replay protection, as defined in RFC 3261 [4].
   Further mechanisms for countering replay attacks are discussed in SIP
   [4].

14.4.  Man in the Middle Attacks

   Even with authentication, man-in-the-middle attacks using PUBLISH may
   be used to install arbitrary event state information, modify or
   remove existing event state information in publications, or even
   remove event state altogether at an ESC.

   To prevent such attacks, implementations SHOULD, at a minimum,
   provide integrity protection across the To, From, Event, SIP-If-
   Match, Route, and Expires header fields and the bodies of PUBLISH
   requests.

   If the ESC receives event state in a PUBLISH request which is
   integrity protected using a security association that is not with the
   ESC (e.g., integrity protection is applied end-to-end, from publisher
   to subscriber), the state agent coupled with the ESC MUST NOT modify
   the event state before exposing it to the subscribers of this event
   state in NOTIFY requests.  This is to preserve the end-to-end
   integrity of the event state.

   For integrity protection, ESCs MUST implement TLS [8], and MUST
   support both mutual and one-way authentication, and MUST also support
   the SIPS URI scheme defined in SIP [4].  EPAs SHOULD be capable of
   initiating TLS and SHOULD support the SIPS URI scheme.  ESCs and EPAs
   MAY support S/MIME [9] for integrity protection, as defined in SIP
   [4].

14.5.  Confidentiality

   The state information contained in a PUBLISH message may potentially
   contain sensitive information.  Implementations MAY encrypt such
   information to ensure confidentiality.

   For providing confidentiality, ESCs MUST implement TLS [8], MUST
   support both mutual and one-way authentication, and MUST also support
   the SIPS URI scheme defined in SIP [4].  EPAs SHOULD be capable of
   initiating TLS and SHOULD support the SIPS URI scheme.  ESCs and EPAs
   MAY support S/MIME [9] for encryption of event state information, as
   defined in SIP [4].



Niemi                       Standards Track                    [Page 23]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


15.  Examples

   This section shows an example of using the PUBLISH method for
   publishing a presence document from a presence user agent to a
   presence agent.  The watcher in this example is subscribing to the
   presentity's presence information from the PA.  The PUA may also
   SUBSCRIBE to its own presence to see the composite presence state
   exposed by the PA.  This is an optional but likely step for the PUA,
   and is not shown in this example.

   When the value of the Content-Length header field is "..." this means
   that the value should be whatever the computed length of the body is.

          PUA                     PA                      WATCHER
         (EPA)                   (ESC)
           |                       |                         |
           |                       | <---- M1: SUBSCRIBE --- |
           |                       |                         |
           |                       | ----- M2: 200 OK -----> |
           |                       |                         |
           |                       | ----- M3: NOTIFY -----> |
           |                       |                         |
           |                       | <---- M4: 200 OK ------ |
           |                       |                         |
           |                       |                         |
           | ---- M5: PUBLISH ---> |                         |
           |                       |                         |
           | <--- M6: 200 OK ----  |                         |
           |                       |                         |
           |                       | ----- M7: NOTIFY -----> |
           |                       |                         |
           |                       | <---- M8: 200 OK ------ |
           |                       |                         |
           | ---- M9: PUBLISH ---> |                         |
           |                       |                         |
           | <--- M10: 200 OK ---  |                         |
           |                       |                         |
           |                       |                         |
           | --- M11: PUBLISH ---> |                         |
           |                       |                         |
           | <-- M12: 200 OK ----  |                         |
           |                       |                         |
           |                       | ----- M13: NOTIFY ----> |
           |                       |                         |
           |                       | <---- M14: 200 OK ----- |
           |                       |                         |





Niemi                       Standards Track                    [Page 24]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


   Message flow:

   M1: The watcher initiates a new subscription to the
      presentity@example.com's presence agent.

      SUBSCRIBE sip:presentity@example.com SIP/2.0
      Via: SIP/2.0/UDP host.example.com;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7
      To: <sip:presentity@example.com>
      From: <sip:watcher@example.com>;tag=12341234
      Call-ID: 12345678@host.example.com
      CSeq: 1 SUBSCRIBE
      Max-Forwards: 70
      Expires: 3600
      Event: presence
      Contact: sip:user@host.example.com
      Content-Length: 0

   M2: The presence agent for presentity@example.com processes the
      subscription request and creates a new subscription.  A 200 (OK)
      response is sent to confirm the subscription.

      SIP/2.0 200 OK
      Via: SIP/2.0/UDP host.example.com;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7
       ;received=192.0.2.1
      To: <sip:presentity@example.com>;tag=abcd1234
      From: <sip:watcher@example.com>;tag=12341234
      Call-ID: 12345678@host.example.com
      CSeq: 1 SUBSCRIBE
      Contact: sip:pa.example.com
      Expires: 3600
      Content-Length: 0

   M3: In order to complete the process, the presence agent sends the
      watcher a NOTIFY with the current presence state of the
      presentity.

      NOTIFY sip:user@host.example.com SIP/2.0
      Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pa.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK8sdf2
      To: <sip:watcher@example.com>;tag=12341234
      From: <sip:presentity@example.com>;tag=abcd1234
      Call-ID: 12345678@host.example.com
      CSeq: 1 NOTIFY
      Max-Forwards: 70
      Event: presence
      Subscription-State: active; expires=3599
      Contact: sip:pa.example.com
      Content-Type: application/pidf+xml
      Content-Length: ...



Niemi                       Standards Track                    [Page 25]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


      [PIDF document]

   M4: The watcher confirms receipt of the NOTIFY request.

      SIP/2.0 200 OK
      Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pa.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK8sdf2
       ;received=192.0.2.2
      To: <sip:watcher@example.com>;tag=12341234
      From: <sip:presentity@example.com>;tag=abcd1234
      Call-ID: 12345678@host.example.com
      CSeq: 1 NOTIFY

   M5: A presence user agent (acting for the presentity) initiates a
       PUBLISH request to the presence agent in order to update it with
       new presence information.  The Expires header field indicates the
       suggested duration for this event soft state.

      PUBLISH sip:presentity@example.com SIP/2.0
      Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pua.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK652hsge
      To: <sip:presentity@example.com>
      From: <sip:presentity@example.com>;tag=1234wxyz
      Call-ID: 81818181@pua.example.com
      CSeq: 1 PUBLISH
      Max-Forwards: 70
      Expires: 3600
      Event: presence
      Content-Type: application/pidf+xml
      Content-Length: ...

      [Published PIDF document]

   M6: The presence agent receives, and accepts the presence
      publication.  The published data is incorporated into the
      presentity's presence information.

      SIP/2.0 200 OK
      Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pua.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK652hsge
       ;received=192.0.2.3
      To: <sip:presentity@example.com>;tag=1a2b3c4d
      From: <sip:presentity@example.com>;tag=1234wxyz
      Call-ID: 81818181@pua.example.com
      CSeq: 1 PUBLISH
      SIP-ETag: dx200xyz
      Expires: 1800

   M7: The presence agent determines that a reportable change has been
      made to the presentity's presence information, and sends a
      new presence notification to the watcher.



Niemi                       Standards Track                    [Page 26]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


      NOTIFY sip:user@host.example.com SIP/2.0
      Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pa.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK4cd42a
      To: <sip:watcher@example.com>;tag=12341234
      From: <sip:presentity@example.com>;tag=abcd1234
      Call-ID: 12345678@host.example.com
      CSeq: 2 NOTIFY
      Max-Forwards: 70
      Event: presence
      Subscription-State: active; expires=3400
      Contact: sip:pa.example.com
      Content-Type: application/pidf+xml
      Content-Length: ...

      [New PIDF document]

   M8: The watcher confirms receipt of the NOTIFY request.

      SIP/2.0 200 OK
      Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pa.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK4cd42a
       ;received=192.0.2.2
      To: <sip:watcher@example.com>;tag=12341234
      From: <sip:presentity@example.com>;tag=abcd1234
      Call-ID: 12345678@host.example.com
      CSeq: 2 NOTIFY
      Content-Length: 0

   M9: The PUA determines that the event state it previously published
      is about to expire, and refreshes that event state.

      PUBLISH sip:presentity@example.com SIP/2.0
      Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pua.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK771ash02
      To: <sip:presentity@example.com>
      From: <sip:presentity@example.com>;tag=1234kljk
      Call-ID: 98798798@pua.example.com
      CSeq: 1 PUBLISH
      Max-Forwards: 70
      SIP-If-Match: dx200xyz
      Expires: 3600
      Event: presence
      Content-Length: 0

   M10: The presence agent receives, and accepts the publication
      refresh.  The timers regarding the expiration of the specific
      event state identified by the entity-tag are updated.  As always,
      the ESC returns an entity-tag in the response to a successful
      PUBLISH.  Note that no actual state change has occurred, so the
      watchers will receive no NOTIFYs.




Niemi                       Standards Track                    [Page 27]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


      SIP/2.0 200 OK
      Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pua.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK771ash02
       ;received=192.0.2.3
      To: <sip:presentity@example.com>;tag=2affde434
      From: <sip:presentity@example.com>;tag=1234kljk
      Call-ID: 98798798@pua.example.com
      CSeq: 1 PUBLISH
      SIP-ETag: kwj449x
      Expires: 1800

   M11: The PUA of the presentity detects a change in the user's
      presence state.  It initiates a PUBLISH request to the presence
      agent to modify the published presence information with the recent
      change.

      PUBLISH sip:presentity@example.com SIP/2.0
      Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pua.example.com;branch=z9hG4bKcdad2
      To: <sip:presentity@example.com>
      From: <sip:presentity@example.com>;tag=54321mm
      Call-ID: 5566778@pua.example.com
      CSeq: 1 PUBLISH
      Max-Forwards: 70
      SIP-If-Match: kwj449x
      Expires: 3600
      Event: presence
      Content-Type: application/pidf+xml
      Content-Length: ...

      [Published PIDF Document]

   M12: The presence agent receives, and accepts the modifying
       publication.  The published data is incorporated into the
       presentity's presence information, updating the previous
       publication from the same PUA.

      SIP/2.0 200 OK
      Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pua.example.com;branch=z9hG4bKcdad2
       ;received=192.0.2.3
      To: <sip:presentity@example.com>;tag=effe22aa
      From: <sip:presentity@example.com>;tag=54321mm
      Call-ID: 5566778@pua.example.com
      CSeq: 1 PUBLISH
      SIP-ETag: qwi982ks
      Expires: 3600

   M13: The presence agent determines that a reportable change has been
       made to the presentity's presence document, and sends a
       new presence notification to all active subscriptions.



Niemi                       Standards Track                    [Page 28]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


      NOTIFY sip:user@host.example.com SIP/2.0
      Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pa.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK32defd3
      To: <sip:watcher@example.com>;tag=12341234
      From: <sip:presentity@example.com>;tag=abcd1234
      Call-ID: 12345678@host.example.com
      CSeq: 2 NOTIFY
      Max-Forwards: 70
      Event: presence
      Subscription-State: active; expires=3400
      Contact: sip:pa.example.com
      Content-Type: application/pidf+xml
      Content-Length: ...

      [New PIDF document]

   M14: The watcher confirms receipt of the NOTIFY request.

      SIP/2.0 200 OK
      Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pa.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK32defd3
       ;received=192.0.2.3
      To: <sip:watcher@example.com>;tag=12341234
      From: <sip:presentity@example.com>;tag=abcd1234
      Call-ID: 12345678@host.example.com
      CSeq: 2 NOTIFY
      Content-Length: 0

16.  Contributors

   The original contributors to this specification are:

      Ben Campbell
      Estacado Systems

      Sean Olson
      Microsoft

      Jon Peterson
      Neustar, Inc.

      Jonathan Rosenberg
      dynamicsoft

      Brian Stucker
      Nortel Networks, Inc.







Niemi                       Standards Track                    [Page 29]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


17.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank the SIMPLE Working Group for their
   collective effort, and specifically the following people for their
   review and support of this work: Henning Schulzrinne, Paul Kyzivat,
   Hisham Khartabil, George Foti, Keith Drage, Samir Srivastava, Arun
   Kumar, Adam Roach, Pekka Pessi, Kai Wang, Cullen Jennings, Mikko
   Lonnfors, Eva-Maria Leppanen, Ernst Horvath, Thanos Diacakis, Oded
   Cnaan, Rohan Mahy, and Dean Willis.

18.  References

18.1.  Normative References

   [1]  Roach, A., "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)-Specific Event
        Notification", RFC 3265, June 2002.

   [2]  Rosenberg, J., "A Presence Event Package for the Session
        Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC 3856, August 2004.

   [3]  Day, M., Rosenberg, J., and H. Sugano, "A Model for Presence and
        Instant Messaging", RFC 2778, February 2000.

   [4]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston, A.,
        Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E. Schooler, "SIP:
        Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261, June 2002.

   [5]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
        Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [6]  Sugano, H., Fujimoto, S., Klyne, G., Bateman, A., Carr, W., and
        J.  Peterson, "Presence Information Data Format (PIDF)", RFC
        3863, August 2004.

   [7]  Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
        Specifications: ABNF", RFC 2234, November 1997.

   [8]  Dierks, T. and C. Allen, "The TLS Protocol Version 1.0", RFC
        2246, January 1999.

   [9]  Ramsdell, B., Ed., "Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
        (S/MIME) Version 3.1 Message Specification", RFC 3851, July
        2004.








Niemi                       Standards Track                    [Page 30]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


19.2.  Informative References

   [10] Campbell, B., "SIMPLE Presence Publication Requirements", Work
        in Progress, February 2003.

   [11] Mahy, R., "A Message Summary and Message Waiting Indication
        Event Package for the  Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC
        3842, August 2004.

   [12] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., and P. Kyzivat, "Indicating User
        Agent Capabilities in the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)",
        RFC 3840, August 2004.

   [13] Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H., Masinter, L.,
        Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol --
        HTTP/1.1", RFC 2616, June 1999.

Author's Address

   Aki Niemi (editor)
   Nokia
   P.O. Box 407
   NOKIA GROUP, FIN  00045
   Finland

   Phone: +358 50 389 1644
   EMail: aki.niemi@nokia.com
























Niemi                       Standards Track                    [Page 31]

RFC 3903              SIP Event State Publication           October 2004


Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).

   This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
   contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
   retain all their rights.

   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
   OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
   ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
   INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE
   INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
   WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

Intellectual Property

   The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
   Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed to
   pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in
   this document or the extent to which any license under such rights
   might or might not be available; nor does it represent that it has
   made any independent effort to identify any such rights.  Information
   on the IETF's procedures with respect to rights in IETF Documents can
   be found in BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any
   assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result of an
   attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of
   such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this
   specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository at
   http://www.ietf.org/ipr.

   The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
   copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
   rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement
   this standard.  Please address the information to the IETF at ietf-
   ipr@ietf.org.

Acknowledgement

   Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
   Internet Society.







Niemi                       Standards Track                    [Page 32]


Html markup produced by rfcmarkup 1.109, available from https://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcmarkup/