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PROPOSED STANDARD

Network Working Group                                     P. Saint-Andre
Request for Comments: 3922                    Jabber Software Foundation
Category: Standards Track                                   October 2004


    Mapping the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) to
              Common Presence and Instant Messaging (CPIM)

Status of this Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).

Abstract

   This memo describes a mapping between the Extensible Messaging and
   Presence Protocol (XMPP) and the Common Presence and Instant
   Messaging (CPIM) specifications.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2
   2.  Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  Address Mapping  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   4.  Syntax Mapping of Instant Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   5.  Syntax Mapping of Presence Information . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   6.  XMPP-CPIM Gateway as Presence Service  . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
   7.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
   8.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
   Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
   Full Copyright Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34













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1.  Introduction

1.1.  Overview

   The Instant Messaging and Presence (IMPP) Working Group has defined
   an abstract framework for interoperability among instant messaging
   (IM) and presence systems that are compliant with [IMP-REQS].  This
   framework is commonly called Common Presence and Instant Messaging or
   "CPIM".  The CPIM family of specifications include a Common Profile
   for Instant Messaging [CPIM] (also called CPIM), a Common Profile for
   Presence [CPP], a CPIM Message Format [MSGFMT], and a Common Presence
   Information Data Format [PIDF].  (Note: To prevent confusion, Common
   Presence and Instant Messaging is referred to herein collectively as
   "the CPIM specifications", whereas the Common Profile for Instant
   Messaging is referred to as "CPIM".)

   This memo describes how the Extensible Messaging and Presence
   Protocol ([XMPP-CORE], [XMPP-IM]) maps to the abstract model
   contained in the CPIM specifications, mainly for the purpose of
   establishing gateways between XMPP services and non-XMPP services
   that conform to [IMP-REQS].  Such a gateway, referred to herein as an
   "XMPP-CPIM gateway", may be established to interpret the protocols of
   one service and translate them into the protocols of the other
   service.  We can visualize this relationship as follows:

     +-------------+        +-------------+        +------------+
     |             |        |             |        |            |
     |    XMPP     |        |  XMPP-CPIM  |        |  Non-XMPP  |
     |   Service   | <----> |   Gateway   | <----> |  Service   |
     |             |        |             |        |            |
     +-------------+        +-------------+        +------------+

   This memo defines a mapping for use by a gateway that translates
   between XMPP and a non-XMPP protocol via the CPIM specifications.
   Such a gateway is not an intermediate hop on a network of non-XMPP
   servers (whose native formats may or may not be defined by the CPIM
   specifications), but a dedicated translator between XMPP and a
   non-XMPP protocol, where the CPIM specifications define the common
   formats into which the protocols are translated for purposes of
   interworking.

   The mapping defined herein applies to instant messages and presence
   information that are not encrypted or signed for end-to-end security.
   For information about secure communications to or from an XMPP
   service through an XMPP-CPIM gateway, refer to [XMPP-E2E].






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1.2.  Terminology

   This memo inherits vocabulary defined in [IMP-MODEL].  Terms such as
   CLOSED, INSTANT INBOX, INSTANT MESSAGE, OPEN , PRESENCE SERVICE,
   PRESENTITY, SUBSCRIPTION, and WATCHER are used in the same meaning as
   defined therein.

   This memo also inherits vocabulary defined in [XMPP-CORE].  Terms
   such as ENTITY, NODE IDENTIFIER, DOMAIN IDENTIFIER, RESOURCE
   IDENTIFIER, MESSAGE STANZA, and PRESENCE STANZA are used in the same
   meaning as defined therein.

1.3.  Conventions Used in this Document

   The capitalized key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL",
   "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   [TERMS].

2.  Approach

   XMPP and CPIM are distinctly foreign technologies.  Therefore, care
   must be taken in mapping between XMPP and the abstract syntax defined
   by the CPIM specifications.

   At root, XMPP is a data transport protocol for streaming XML elements
   (called "stanzas") between any two endpoints on the network; message
   and presence stanzas are two of the core data elements defined in
   XMPP and are often used to exchange instant messages and presence
   information between IM users (although the inherent extensibility of
   XML enables applications to use the general semantics of these stanza
   types for other purposes).  XMPP is not based on [MIME]; instead,
   [XMPP-CORE] defines XML schemas for both message and presence stanzas
   (for example, the <body/> child of a message stanza contains XML
   character data that is usually intended to be read by a human user).

   The CPIM specifications provide common formats for instant messaging
   and presence through two [MIME] content-types: "Message/CPIM" for
   messages ([MSGFMT]) and "application/pidf+xml" for presence ([PIDF]).
   The syntax of "Message/CPIM" objects is similar to but stricter than
   that defined in [RFC2822], and provides the ability to include
   arbitrary MIME media types [MIMETYPES].  By contrast, each
   "application/pidf+xml" object is a complete XML document whose
   structure is defined by an XML schema.







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   The approach taken herein is to specify mappings from XMPP elements
   and attributes to the headers and MIME formats defined by [MSGFMT]
   and [PIDF] in order to comply with the semantics defined by [CPIM]
   and [CPP].  Naturally, mappings in the opposite direction are
   provided as well.

3.  Address Mapping

3.1.  Overview

   Address mapping may be required since the address formats used to
   identify XMPP entities (specified in [XMPP-CORE]) are different from
   those used to identify instant inboxes (the im: URI scheme specified
   in [CPIM]) and presentities (the pres: URI scheme specified in
   [CPP]).  In particular, different characters are allowed in im: and
   pres: URIs than are allowed in XMPP addresses:

   o  The following [US-ASCII] characters are allowed in im:/pres: URIs
      but not in XMPP addresses: #26; (&), #27; ('), and #2f; (/).
   o  Many non-US-ASCII (specifically, UTF-8) characters are allowed in
      XMPP addresses but not allowed in im:/pres: URIs, since XMPP
      allows internationalized local-part addresses.

   Note: In this document we discuss characters allowed in local-part
   addresses only (i.e., we have ruled the mapping of domain names as
   out of scope for the initial version of this document, since it is a
   matter for the Domain Name System and the translation of fully
   internationalized domain names).

3.2.  XMPP to CPIM

   The following is a high-level algorithm for mapping an XMPP address
   to an im: or pres: URI:

   1.  Split XMPP address into node identifier (local-part; mapping
       described in remaining steps), domain identifier (hostname;
       mapping is out of scope), and resource identifier (specifier for
       particular device or connection; discard this for cross-system
       interoperability)

   2.  Apply Nodeprep profile of [STRINGPREP] (as specified in
       [XMPP-CORE]) for canonicalization (OPTIONAL)

   3.  Translate #26; to &, #27; to ', and #2f; to / respectively

   4.  For each byte, if the byte is not in the set A-Za-z0-9!$*.?_~+=
       then change to %hexhex as described in Section 2.2.5 of
       [URL-GUIDE]



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   5.  Combine resulting local-part with mapped hostname to form
       local@domain address

   6.  Prepend with 'im:' scheme (for XMPP <message/> stanzas) or
       'pres:' scheme (for XMPP <presence/> stanzas)

3.3.  CPIM to XMPP

   The following is a high-level algorithm for mapping an im: or pres:
   URI to an XMPP address:

   1.  Remove URI scheme

   2.  Split at the first '@' character into local-part and hostname
       (mapping the latter is out of scope)

   3.  Translate %hexhex to equivalent octets as described in Section
       2.2.5 of [URL-GUIDE]

   4.  Treat result as a UTF-8 string

   5.  Translate & to #26;, ' to #27;, and / to #2f respectively

   6.  Apply Nodeprep profile of [STRINGPREP] (as specified in
       [XMPP-CORE]) for canonicalization (OPTIONAL)

   7.  Recombine local-part with mapped hostname to form local@domain
       address

4.  Syntax Mapping of Instant Messages

   This section describes how a gateway SHOULD map instant messages
   between an XMPP service and a non-XMPP service using a "Message/CPIM"
   object as the bearer of encapsulated text content in order to comply
   with the instant messaging semantics defined by [CPIM].

4.1.  Message Syntax Mapping from XMPP to CPIM Specifications

   This section defines the mapping of syntax primitives from XMPP
   message stanzas to "Message/CPIM" objects with encapsulated text
   content.

   Note: As specified in [MIME], the default Content-type of a MIME
   object is "Content-type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii".  Because XMPP
   uses the [UTF-8] character encoding exclusively, the encapsulated
   MIME object generated by an XMPP-CPIM gateway MUST set the





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   "Content-type" MUST be set to "text/plain" and the charset MUST be
   set to "utf-8".

4.1.1.  From Address

   The 'from' attribute of an XMPP message stanza maps to the 'From'
   header of a "Message/CPIM" object.  In XMPP, the sender's server
   stamps or validates the "from" address and sets its value to the full
   <user@host/resource> negotiated between client and server during
   authentication and resource binding as defined in [XMPP-CORE].  Thus
   an XMPP-CPIM gateway will receive from the sender's XMPP server a
   message stanza containing a "from" address of the form
   <user@host/resource>.  To map the 'from' attribute of an XMPP message
   stanza to the 'From' header of a "Message/CPIM" object, the gateway
   MUST remove the resource identifier, MUST append the "im:"  Instant
   Messaging URI scheme to the front of the address, and MAY include a
   CPIM "Formal-name" for the sender (if known).

   Example: From Address Mapping

   XMPP 'from' attribute
     <message from='juliet@example.com/balcony'>
       ...
     </message>

   CPIM 'From' header
     From: Juliet Capulet <im:juliet@example.com>

4.1.2.  To Address

   The 'to' attribute of an XMPP message stanza maps to the 'To' header
   of a "Message/CPIM" object.  In XMPP, the sender SHOULD include a
   'to' attribute on a message stanza, and MUST include it if the
   message is intended for delivery to another user.  Thus an XMPP-CPIM
   gateway will receive from the sender's XMPP server a message stanza
   containing a "to" address of the form <user@host> or
   <user@host/resource>.  To map the 'to' attribute of an XMPP message
   stanza to the 'To' header of a "Message/CPIM" object, the gateway
   MUST remove the resource identifier (if included), MUST append the
   "im:" Instant Messaging URI scheme to the front of the address, and
   MAY include a CPIM "Formal-name" for the recipient (if known).










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   Example: To Address Mapping

   XMPP 'to' attribute
     <message to='romeo@example.net/orchard'>
       ...
     </message>

   CPIM 'To' header
     To: Romeo Montague <im:romeo@example.net>

4.1.3.  Stanza ID

   An XMPP message stanza MAY possess an 'id' attribute, which is used
   by the sending application for the purpose of tracking stanzas and is
   not a globally-unique identifier such as is defined by the MIME
   Content-ID header.  Because the XMPP 'id' attribute does not have the
   same meaning as the MIME Content-ID header, it SHOULD NOT be mapped
   to that header; however, if the 'id' is known to be unique (e.g., if
   it is generated to be unique by the XMPP server and that fact is
   known by the XMPP-CPIM gateway), then it SHOULD be so mapped.

4.1.4.  Message Type

   An XMPP message stanza MAY possess a 'type' attribute, which is used
   by the sending application to capture the conversational context of
   the message.  There is no mapping of an XMPP 'type' attribute to a
   "Message/CPIM" header, common MIME features, or encapsulated text
   content.  Therefore if an XMPP stanza received by an XMPP-CPIM
   gateway possesses a 'type' attribute, the gateway SHOULD ignore the
   value provided.

4.1.5.  Message Thread

   An XMPP message stanza MAY contain a <thread/> child element to
   specify the conversation thread in which the message is situated.
   There is no mapping of an XMPP <thread/> element to a "Message/CPIM"
   header, common MIME features, or encapsulated text content. Therefore
   if an XMPP message stanza received by an XMPP-CPIM gateway contains a
   <thread/> child element, the gateway SHOULD ignore the value
   provided.

4.1.6.  Message Subject

   An XMPP message stanza MAY include a <subject/> child element.  If
   included, it maps to the 'Subject' header of a "Message/CPIM" object.
   To map the XMPP <subject/> element to the 'Subject' header of a
   "Message/CPIM" object, the gateway SHOULD simply map the XML
   character data of the XMPP <subject/> element to the value of the



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   'Subject' header.  The <subject/> element MAY include an 'xml:lang'
   attribute specifying the language in which the subject is written. If
   an 'xml:lang' attribute is provided, it MUST be mapped by including
   ';lang=tag' after the header name and colon, where 'tag' is the value
   of the 'xml:lang' attribute.

   Example: Subject Mapping

   XMPP <subject/> element
     <subject>Hi!</subject>
     <subject xml:lang='cz'>Ahoj!</subject>

   CPIM 'Subject' header
     Subject: Hi!
     Subject:;lang=cz Ahoj!

4.1.7.  Message Body

   The <body/> child element of an XMPP message stanza is used to
   provide the primary meaning of the message.  The XML character data
   of the XMPP <body/> element maps to the encapsulated text message
   content.

   Example: Message Body

   XMPP message <body/>
     <message>
       <body>Wherefore art thou, Romeo?</body>
     </message>

   Encapsulated MIME text content
     Content-type: text/plain; charset=utf-8
     Content-ID: <123456789@example.net>

     Wherefore art thou, Romeo?

4.1.8.  Message Extensions

   As defined in [XMPP-CORE], an XMPP message stanza may contain
   "extended" content in any namespace in order to supplement or extend
   the semantics of the core message stanza.  With the exception of
   extended information qualified by the
   'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-e2e' namespace as defined in [XMPP-E2E],
   an XMPP-CPIM gateway SHOULD ignore such information and not pass it
   through the gateway to the intended recipient.  No mapping for such
   information is defined.





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4.1.9.  Gateway-Generated CPIM Syntax

   CPIM specifies the existence of "Message/CPIM" headers in addition to
   those described above, but there is no exact analogue for those
   headers in the core XMPP specifications.  These include:

   o  cc -- specifies the address of an entity that is to receive a
      "courtesy copy" of the message (i.e., a non-primary addressee)
   o  DateTime -- specifies the datetime at which the message was sent
   o  NS -- specifies the namespace of a feature extension
   o  Require -- specifies mandatory-to-recognize features

   An XMPP-CPIM gateway MAY independently generate such headers based on
   its own information (e.g., the datetime at which it received a
   message stanza from an XMPP entity) or based on data encoded in
   non-core XMPP extensions, but rules for doing so are out of scope for
   this memo.

4.2.  Message Syntax Mapping from CPIM Specifications to XMPP

   This section defines the mapping of syntax primitives from
   "Message/CPIM" objects with encapsualted text content to XMPP message
   stanzas.

4.2.1.  From Address

   The 'From' header of a "Message/CPIM" object maps to the 'from'
   attribute of an XMPP message stanza.  To map the CPIM 'From' header
   to the XMPP 'from' attribute, the gateway MUST remove the "im:"
   Instant Messaging URI scheme from the front of the address and MUST
   remove the CPIM "Formal-name" (if provided).

   Example: From Address Mapping

   CPIM 'From' header
     From: Romeo Montague <im:romeo@example.net>

   XMPP 'from' attribute
     <message from='romeo@example.net'>
       ...
     </message>

4.2.2.  To Address

   The 'To' header of a "Message/CPIM" object maps to the 'to' attribute
   of an XMPP message stanza.  To map the CPIM 'To' header to the XMPP
   'to' attribute, the gateway MUST remove the "im:" Instant Messaging
   URI scheme from the front of the address and MUST remove the CPIM



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   "Formal-name" (if provided).  If the gateway possesses knowledge of
   the resource identifier in use by the XMPP entity, the gateway MAY
   append the resource identifier to the address.

   Example: To Address Mapping

   CPIM 'To' header
     To: Juliet Capulet <im:juliet@example.com>

   XMPP 'to' attribute
     <message to='juliet@example.com/balcony'>
       ...
     </message>

4.2.3.  Courtesy Copy

   The core XMPP specification does not include syntax for specifying a
   "courtesy copy" (non-primary addressee) for a message stanza.
   Therefore, if an XMPP-CPIM gateway receives a "Message/CPIM" object
   that contains a 'cc' header, it SHOULD NOT pass the information
   contained in that header on to the XMPP recipient.

4.2.4.  DateTime Header

   The core XMPP specification does not include syntax for specifying
   the datetime at which a message stanza was sent.  Therefore, if an
   XMPP-CPIM gateway receives a "Message/CPIM" object that contains a
   'DateTime' header, it SHOULD NOT pass the information contained in
   that header on to the XMPP recipient.

4.2.5.  Message Subject

   The 'Subject' header of a "Message/CPIM" object maps to the
   <subject/> child element of an XMPP message stanza.  To map the CPIM
   'Subject' header to the XMPP <subject/> element, the gateway SHOULD
   simply map the value of the 'Subject' header to the XML character
   data of the XMPP <subject/> element.  The 'Subject' header MAY
   specify the "lang" in which the subject is written.  If "lang"
   information is provided, it MUST be mapped to the 'xml:lang'
   attribute of the <subject/> element, where the value of the
   'xml:lang' attribute is the "tag" value supplied in the string
   ';lang=tag' included after the CPIM 'Subject' header name and colon.









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   Example: Subject Mapping

   CPIM 'Subject' header
     Subject: Hi!
     Subject:;lang=cz Ahoj!

   XMPP <subject/> element
     <subject>Hi!</subject>
     <subject xml:lang='cz'>Ahoj!</subject>

4.2.6.  Header Extensions

   "Message/CPIM" objects MAY include an optional 'NS' header to specify
   the namespace of a feature extension.  An XMPP-CPIM gateway MUST NOT
   pass such headers through to the XMPP recipient, and no mapping for
   such headers is defined.

4.2.7.  Require Header

   "Message/CPIM" objects MAY include an optional 'Require' header to
   specify mandatory-to-recognize features.  In general, such a header
   would be included by the non-XMPP sending application to (1) insist
   that the receiving application needs to understand functionality
   specified by a particular header or (2) indicate that some non-header
   semantics need to be implemented by the receiving application in
   order to understand the contents of the message (e.g.,
   "Locale.MustRenderKanji").  Because the mandatory-to-recognize
   features would be required of the XMPP receiving application rather
   than the XMPP-CPIM gateway itself, the gateway cannot properly handle
   the 'Require' header without detailed knowledge about the
   capabilities of the XMPP receiving application.  Therefore, it seems
   appropriate that the XMPP-CPIM gateway SHOULD return a warning or
   error to the non-XMPP sending application if it includes one or more
   'Require' headers in a "Message/CPIM" object; the exact nature of the
   warning or error will depend on the nature of the non-XMPP technology
   used by the foreign system, and is not defined herein.  Furthermore,
   any mapping of the 'Require' header into XMPP or an XMPP extension is
   left up to the implementation or to a future specification.

4.2.8.  MIME Content-ID

   XMPP does not include an element or attribute that captures a
   globally unique ID as is defined for the Content-ID MIME header as
   specified in [MIME].  If an XMPP-CPIM gateway receives a MIME object
   that includes a Content-ID, it MAY provide the Content-ID as the
   value of the message stanza's 'id' attribute, but this is OPTIONAL.





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   Example: Content-ID for Encapsulated Object

   MIME header
     Content-ID: <123456789@example.net>

   XMPP 'id' attribute (OPTIONAL)
     <message id='123456789@example.net'>
       ...
     </message>

4.2.9.  Message Body

   If the Content-type of an encapsulated MIME object is "text/plain",
   then the encapsulated text message content maps to the XML character
   data of the <body/> child element of an XMPP message stanza.

   Example: Message Body

   Encapsulated MIME text content
     Content-type: text/plain; charset=utf-8
     Content-ID: <123456789@example.net>

     Wherefore art thou?

   XMPP message <body/>
     <message id='123456789@example.net'>
       <body>Wherefore art thou?</body>
     </message>

   If the Content-Type is not "text/plain", the XMPP-CPIM gateway MAY
   map the content to an XMPP extension but MUST NOT map it to the
   <body/> child of the XMPP message stanza, which is allowed to contain
   XML character data only.  The only exception to this rule is a
   multi-part MIME object of the kind specified in [XMPP-E2E], which is
   to be mapped as described in that memo.

   If the charset is "US-ASCII" or "UTF-8", the gateway MUST map the
   "Message/CPIM" object; otherwise it SHOULD NOT.

4.2.10.  Gateway-Generated XMPP Syntax

   XMPP specifies the existence of a 'type' attribute for XMPP message
   stanzas, which enables the sender to define the conversational
   context of the message.  There is no exact analogue for this
   attribute in CPIM.  An XMPP-CPIM gateway MAY independently generate
   the 'type' attribute based on its own information, but this is
   OPTIONAL and rules for doing so are out of scope for this memo.




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5.  Syntax Mapping of Presence Information

   This section describes how a gateway SHOULD map presence information
   between an XMPP service and a non-XMPP service using a "Message/CPIM"
   object as the bearer of an encapsulated [PIDF] object in order to
   comply with the presence semantics defined by [CPP].

5.1.  Presence Syntax Mapping from XMPP to CPIM Specifications

   This section defines the mapping of syntax primitives from XMPP
   presence stanzas to "Message/CPIM" objects with encapsulated
   "application/pidf+xml" objects.

   Note: As specified in [MIME], the default Content-type of a MIME
   object is "Content-type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii".  Because XMPP
   uses the [UTF-8] character encoding exclusively and because PIDF
   specifies the "application/pidf+xml" MIME type, the encapsulated MIME
   object generated by an XMPP-CPIM gateway for presence information
   MUST set the 'Content-type' header for that object.  The
   "Content-type" MUST be set to "application/pidf+xml" and the charset
   MUST be set to "utf-8".

5.1.1.  From Address

   The 'from' attribute of an XMPP presence stanza maps to the 'From'
   header of a "Message/CPIM" object.  In XMPP, the sender's server
   stamps or validates the "from" address and sets its value to the
   <user@host/resource> negotiated between client and server during
   authenticating and resource binding as defined in [XMPP-CORE].  Thus
   an XMPP-CPIM gateway will receive from the sender's XMPP server a
   presence stanza containing a "from" address of the form
   <user@host/resource>.  To map the 'from' attribute of an XMPP
   presence stanza to the 'From' header of a "Message/CPIM" object, the
   gateway MUST remove the resource identifier, MUST append the "im:"
   Instant Messaging URI scheme to the front of the address, and MAY
   include a CPIM "Formal-name" for the sender (if known).

   Example: From Address Mapping

   XMPP 'from' attribute
     <presence from='juliet@example.com/balcony'>
       ...
     </presence>

   CPIM 'From' header
     From: Juliet Capulet <im:juliet@example.com>





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   In addition, the 'from' attribute of an XMPP presence stanza maps to
   the 'entity' attribute of a PIDF <presence/> root element.  To map
   the XMPP 'from' attribute to the PIDF 'entity' attribute, the gateway
   MUST remove the resource identifier and MUST append the "pres:"
   Instant Messaging URI scheme to the front of the address.

   Example: From Address Mapping (PIDF)

   XMPP 'from' attribute
     <presence from='juliet@example.com/balcony'>
       ...
     </presence>

   PIDF 'entity' attribute
     <presence entity='pres:juliet@example.com'>
       ...
     </presence>

   Finally, an XMPP-CPIM gateway SHOULD map the resource identifier of
   the XMPP address contained in the XMPP 'from' attribute to the 'id'
   attribute of the PIDF <tuple/> child element.

   Example: Resource Identifier Mapping

   XMPP 'from' attribute
     <presence from='juliet@example.com/balcony'>
       ...
     </presence>

   PIDF 'id' for <tuple/>
     <presence entity='pres:juliet@example.com'>
       <tuple id='balcony'>
         ...
       </tuple>
     </presence>

5.1.2.  To Address

   The 'to' attribute of an XMPP presence stanza maps to the 'To' header
   of a "Message/CPIM" object.  In XMPP, the sender MAY include a 'to'
   attribute on a presence stanza, and MUST include it if the presence
   stanza is intended for delivery directly to another user (presence
   stanzas intended for broadcasting are stamped with a 'to' address by
   the sender's server).  Thus an XMPP-CPIM gateway will receive from
   the sender's XMPP server a presence stanza containing a "to" address
   of the form <user@host> or <user@host/resource>.  To map the 'to'
   attribute of an XMPP presence stanza to the 'To' header of a
   "Message/CPIM" object, the gateway MUST remove the resource



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   identifier (if included), MUST append the "im:" Instant Messaging URI
   scheme to the front of the address, and MAY include a CPIM
   "Formal-name" for the recipient (if known).

   Example: To Address Mapping

   XMPP 'to' attribute
     <presence to='romeo@example.net/orchard'>
       ...
     </presence>

   CPIM 'To' header
     To: Romeo Montague <im:romeo@example.net>

5.1.3.  Stanza ID

   An XMPP presence stanza MAY possess an 'id' attribute, which is used
   by the sending application for the purpose of tracking stanzas and is
   not a globally-unique identifier such as is defined by the MIME
   Content-ID header.  Because the XMPP 'id' attribute does not have the
   same meaning as the MIME Content-ID header, it SHOULD NOT be mapped
   to that header; however, if the 'id' is known to be unique (e.g., if
   it is generated to be unique by the XMPP server and that fact is
   known by the XMPP-CPIM gateway), then it SHOULD be so mapped.

5.1.4.  Presence Type

   An XMPP presence stanza MAY possess a 'type' attribute.  If no 'type'
   attribute is included, the presence stanza indicates that the sender
   is available; this state maps to the PIDF basic presence type of
   OPEN.  If the 'type' attribute has a value of "unavailable", the
   presence stanza indicates that the sender is no longer available;
   this state maps to the PIDF basic presence type of CLOSED.  Thus both
   the absence of a 'type' attribute and a 'type' attribute set to a
   value of "unavailable" correspond to the [CPP] "notify operation".
   All other presence types are used to manage presence subscriptions or
   probe for current presence; mappings for these other presence types
   are defined under XMPP-CPIM Gateway as Presence Service (Section 6).

   Example: Available Presence

   XMPP available presence
     <presence from='juliet@example.com/balcony'/>

   PIDF basic presence (OPEN)
     <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
     <presence xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf'
               entity='pres:juliet@example.com'>



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       <tuple id='balcony'>
         <status>
           <basic>open</basic>
         </status>
       </tuple>
     </presence>

   Example: Unavailable Presence

   XMPP unavailable presence
     <presence from='juliet@example.com/balcony' type='unavailable'/>

   PIDF basic presence (CLOSED)
     <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
     <presence xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf'
               entity='pres:romeo@example.net'>
       <tuple id='balcony'>
         <status>
           <basic>closed</basic>
         </status>
       </tuple>
     </presence>

5.1.5.  Show Element

   The <show/> child element of an XMPP presence stanza provides
   additional information about the sender's availability.  The XML
   character data of the XMPP <show/> element maps to extended <status/>
   content in PIDF.  The defined values of the <show/> element are
   'away', 'chat', 'dnd', and 'xa'; as soon as values are specified for
   extended status states in the 'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:im'
   namespace, the XMPP values will be mapped to the PIDF values.

   Example: Show Element

   XMPP <show/> element
     <presence from='juliet@example.com/balcony'>
       <show>away</show>
     </presence>

   PIDF extended presence information
     <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
     <presence xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf'
               xmlns:im='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:im'
               entity='pres:juliet@example.com'>
       <tuple id='balcony'>
         <status>
           <basic>open</basic>



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           <im:im>away</im:im>
         </status>
       </tuple>
     </presence>

5.1.6.  Status Element

   The <status/> child element of an XMPP presence stanza provides a
   user-defined, natural-language description of the sender's detailed
   availability state.  The XMPP <status/> element maps to the PIDF
   <note/> child of the PIDF <tuple/> element.

   Example: Status Element

   XMPP <status/> element
     <presence from='juliet@example.com/balcony'>
       <show>away</show>
       <status>retired to the chamber</status>
     </presence>

   PIDF <note/> element
     <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
     <presence xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf'
               xmlns:im='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:im'
               entity='pres:juliet@example.com'>
       <tuple id='balcony'>
         <status>
           <basic>open</basic>
           <im:im>away</im:im>
         </status>
         <note>retired to the chamber</note>
       </tuple>
     </presence>

5.1.7.  Presence Priority

   An XMPP presence stanza MAY contain a <priority/> child element whose
   value is an integer between -128 and +127.  The value of this element
   MAY be mapped to the 'priority' attribute of the <contact/> child of
   the PIDF <tuple/> element.  If the value of the XMPP <priority/>
   element is negative, an XMPP-CPIM gateway MUST NOT map the value. The
   range of allowable values for the PIDF 'priority' attribute is any
   decimal number from zero to one inclusive, with a maximum of three
   decimal places.  If an XMPP-CPIM gateway maps these values, it SHOULD
   treat XMPP <priority>0</priority> as PIDF priority='0' and XMPP
   <priority>127</priority> as PIDF priority='1', mapping intermediate
   values appropriately so that they are unique (e.g., XMPP priority 1
   to PIDF priority 0.007, XMPP priority 2 to PIDF priority 0.015, and



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   so on up through mapping XMPP priority 126 to PIDF priority 0.992;
   note that this is an example only, and that the exact mapping shall
   be determined by the XMPP-CPIM gateway).

   Example: Presence Priority

   XMPP <status/> element
     <presence from='juliet@example.com/balcony'>
       <priority>13</priority>
     </presence>

   PIDF <note/> element
     <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
     <presence xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf'
               entity='pres:juliet@example.com'>
       <tuple id='balcony'>
         ...
         <contact priority='0.102'>im:juliet@example.com</contact>
       </tuple>
     </presence>

5.1.8.  Presence Extensions

   As defined in [XMPP-CORE], an XMPP presence stanza may contain
   "extended" content in any namespace in order to supplement or extend
   the semantics of the core presence stanza.  With the exception of
   extended information qualified by the
   'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-e2e' namespace as defined in [XMPP-E2E],
   an XMPP-CPIM gateway SHOULD ignore such information and not pass it
   through the gateway to the intended recipient.  No mapping for such
   information is defined.

5.1.9.  Gateway-Generated CPIM and PIDF Syntax

5.1.9.1.  CPIM Message Headers

   CPIM specifies the existence of "Message/CPIM" headers in addition to
   those described above, but there is no exact analogue for those
   headers in the core XMPP specifications.  These include:

   o  cc -- specifies the address of an entity that is to receive a
      "courtesy copy" of the presence information (i.e., a non-primary
      addressee)

   o  DateTime -- specifies the datetime at which the presence
      information was sent

   o  NS -- specifies the namespace of a feature extension



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   o  Subject -- specifies the subject or topic of the encapsulated
      "Message/CPIM" object

   o  Require -- specifies mandatory-to-recognize features

   An XMPP-CPIM gateway MAY independently generate such headers based on
   its own information (e.g., the datetime at which it received a
   presence stanza from an XMPP entity) or based on data encoded in
   non-core XMPP extensions, but rules for doing so are out of scope for
   this memo.

5.1.9.2.  PIDF Elements

   PIDF specifies the existence of XML elements in addition to those
   described above, but there is no exact analogue for those XML
   elements in the core XMPP specifications.  These include:

   o  <contact/> -- specifies an address (e.g., an im:, tel:, or mailto:
      URI) at which one may communicate with the presentity; an
      XMPP-CPIM gateway MAY include this element, in which case it
      SHOULD set its value to the <user@host> of the XMPP sender,
      prepended by the "im:" Instant Messaging URI scheme.

   o  <timestamp/> -- specifies the datetime at which the presence
      information was sent; an XMPP-CPIM gateway MAY independently
      generate this element based on its own information (e.g., the
      datetime at which it received the presence stanza from an XMPP
      entity) or based on data encoded in non-core XMPP extensions, but
      rules for doing so are out of scope for this memo.

5.2.  Presence Syntax Mapping from CPIM Specifications to XMPP

   This section defines the mapping of syntax primitives from
   "Message/CPIM" objects with encapsulated "application/pidf+xml"
   objects to XMPP presence stanzas.

   Note: An XMPP-CPIM gateway MUST NOT map to an XMPP presence stanza a
   "Message/CPIM" object whose encapsulated MIME object has a
   Content-type other than "application/pidf+xml" (with the exception of
   multi-part MIME objects as specified in [XMPP-E2E]).

5.2.1.  From Address

   The 'From' header of a "Message/CPIM" object maps to the <user@host>
   portion of the 'from' attribute of an XMPP presence stanza, and the
   'id' attribute of the PIDF <tuple/> child element maps to the
   resource identifier portion XMPP 'from' attribute.  Therefore, to map
   the CPIM and PIDF information to the XMPP 'from' attribute, the



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   gateway MUST remove the "im:" Instant Messaging URI scheme from the
   front of the address and MUST remove the CPIM "Formal-name" (if
   provided) in order to generate the <user@host> portion of the XMPP
   'from' attribute, then add a '/' character followed by the value of
   the PIDF <tuple/> element's 'id' attribute.

   Example: From Address Mapping

   CPIM 'From' header
     From: Romeo Montague <im:romeo@example.net>

   XMPP 'from' attribute
     <presence from='romeo@example.net'>
       ...
     </presence>

   Example: Resource Identifier Mapping

   XMPP 'from' attribute
     <presence from='juliet@example.com/balcony'>
       ...
     </presence>

   PIDF 'id' for <tuple/>
     <presence entity='pres:juliet@example.com'>
       <tuple id='balcony'>
         ...
       </tuple>
     </presence>

5.2.2.  To Address

   The 'To' header of a "Message/CPIM" object maps to the 'to' attribute
   of an XMPP presence stanza.  To map the CPIM 'To' header to the XMPP
   'to' attribute, the gateway MUST remove the "im:" Instant Messaging
   URI scheme from the front of the address and MUST remove the CPIM
   "Formal-name" (if provided).  If the gateway possesses knowledge of
   the resource identifier in use by the XMPP entity, the gateway MAY
   append the resource identifier to the address.












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   Example: To Address Mapping

   CPIM 'To' header
     To: Juliet Capulet <im:juliet@example.com>

   XMPP 'to' attribute
     <presence to='juliet@example.com/balcony'>
       ...
     </presence>

5.2.3.  Courtesy Copy

   The core XMPP specification does not include syntax for specifying a
   "courtesy copy" (non-primary addressee) for a presence stanza.
   Therefore, if an XMPP-CPIM gateway receives a "Message/CPIM" object
   with encapsulated PIDF object that contains a 'cc' header, it SHOULD
   NOT pass the information contained in that header on to the XMPP
   recipient.

5.2.4.  DateTime Header

   The core XMPP specification does not include syntax for specifying
   the datetime at which a presence stanza was sent.  Therefore, if an
   XMPP-CPIM gateway receives a "Message/CPIM" object with encapsulated
   PIDF object that contains a 'DateTime' header, it SHOULD NOT pass the
   information contained in that header on to the XMPP recipient.

5.2.5.  Subject Header

   An XMPP presence stanza contains no information that can be mapped to
   the 'Subject' header of a "Message/CPIM" object.  Therefore, if an
   XMPP-CPIM gateway receives a "Message/CPIM" object with encapsulated
   PIDF object that contains a 'Subject' header, it SHOULD NOT pass the
   information contained in that header on to the XMPP recipient.

5.2.6.  Header Extensions

   "Message/CPIM" objects MAY include an optional 'NS' header to specify
   the namespace of a feature extension.  An XMPP-CPIM gateway MUST NOT
   pass such headers through to the XMPP recipient, and no mapping for
   such headers is defined.

5.2.7.  Require Header

   "Message/CPIM" objects MAY include an optional 'Require' header to
   specify mandatory-to-recognize features.  An XMPP-CPIM gateway MUST
   NOT pass such headers through to the XMPP recipient, and no mapping
   for such headers is defined.



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5.2.8.  MIME Content-ID

   XMPP does not include an element or attribute that captures a
   globally unique ID as is defined for the Content-ID MIME header as
   specified in [MIME].  If an XMPP-CPIM gateway receives a MIME object
   that includes a Content-ID, it MAY provide the Content-ID as the
   value of the presence stanza's 'id' attribute, but this is OPTIONAL.

   Example: Content-ID for Encapsulated Object

   MIME header
     Content-ID: <123456789@example.net>

   XMPP 'id' attribute (OPTIONAL)
     <presence id='123456789@example.net'>
       ...
     </presence>

5.2.9.  Basic Presence Status

   The basic presence status types defined in PIDF are OPEN and CLOSED.
   The PIDF basic presence status of OPEN maps to an XMPP presence
   stanza that possesses no 'type' attribute (indicating default
   availability).  The PIDF basic presence status of CLOSED maps to an
   XMPP presence stanza that possesses a 'type' attribute with a value
   of "unavailable".

   Example: OPEN Presence

   PIDF basic presence (OPEN)
     <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
     <presence xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf'
               entity='pres:romeo@example.net'>
       <tuple id='orchard'>
         <status>
           <basic>open</basic>
         </status>
       </tuple>
     </presence>

   XMPP available presence
     <presence from='romeo@example.net/orchard'/>









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   Example: CLOSED Presence

   PIDF basic presence (CLOSED)
     <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
     <presence xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf'
               entity='pres:romeo@example.net'>
       <tuple id='orchard'>
         <status>
           <basic>closed</basic>
         </status>
       </tuple>
     </presence>

   XMPP unavailable presence
     <presence from='romeo@example.net/orchard'
               type='unavailable'/>

5.2.10.  Extended Status Information

   PIDF documents may contain extended <status/> content.  As of this
   writing there are no pre-defined extended status states that can be
   mapped to the defined values of the XMPP <show/> element ('away',
   'chat', 'dnd', and 'xa').  Once PIDF extensions for such extended
   status states are defined within the Internet Standards Process, a
   gateway SHOULD map those extensions; however, any such mapping is out
   of scope for this memo, since the relevant PIDF extensions have not
   yet been defined.

   Example: Extended Status Information (provisional)

   PIDF extended presence information
     <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
     <presence xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf'
               xmlns:im='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:im'
               entity='pres:romeo@example.net'>
       <tuple id='orchard'>
         <status>
           <basic>open</basic>
           <im:im>busy</im:im>
         </status>
       </tuple>
     </presence>

   XMPP <show/> element
     <presence from='romeo@example.net/orchard'>
       <show>dnd</show>
     </presence>




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5.2.11.  Note Element

   A PIDF <tuple/> element may contain a <note/> child that provides a
   user-defined, natural-language description of the sender's detailed
   availability state.  The PIDF <note/> element maps to the XMPP
   <status/> element.

   Example: Note Element

   PIDF <note/> element
     <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
     <presence xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf'
               xmlns:im='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:im'
               entity='pres:romeo@example.net'>
       <tuple id='orchard'>
         <status>
           <basic>open</basic>
           <im:im>busy</im:im>
         </status>
         <note>Wooing Juliet</note>
       </tuple>
     </presence>

   XMPP <status/> element
     <presence from='romeo@example.net/orchard'>
       <show>dnd</show>
       <status>Wooing Juliet</status>
     </presence>

   A PIDF document with zero tuples MAY contain one or more <note/>
   elements as direct children of the PIDF <presence/> element.  There
   is no mapping of such a PIDF document to an XMPP presence stanza; an
   entity on the non-XMPP side of an XMPP-CPIM gateway SHOULD NOT send
   such a PIDF document to an XMPP recipient if possible, and an
   XMPP-CPIM gateway MUST NOT map such a PIDF document to an XMPP
   presence stanza (see Zero Resources (Section 6.3.2)).

5.2.12.  Contact Element

   A PIDF document may contain a <contact/> element specifying the URI
   of an address at which the principal can be contacted (e.g., an im:,
   tel:, or mailto: URI).  The core XMPP specification does not include
   syntax for specifying the URI of a contact address, since the contact
   address is implicit in the 'from' attribute of the XMPP presence
   stanza.  Therefore, if an XMPP-CPIM gateway receives a "Message/CPIM"
   object with encapsulated PIDF object that contains a <contact/>





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   element, it SHOULD NOT pass the XML character data of the <contact/>
   element on to the XMPP recipient.  (However, see Inclusion of
   Complete PIDF Document (Section 5.2.15) below.)

   Example: PIDF Contact Element

   PIDF <contact/> element
     <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
     <presence xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf'
               entity='pres:romeo@example.net'>
       <tuple id='orchard'>
         ...
         <contact>im:romeo@example.net</contact>
       </tuple>
     </presence>

   XMPP presence stanza
     <presence from='romeo@example.net/orchard'/>

5.2.13.  Presence Priority

   The <contact/> child of the PIDF <tuple/> element MAY possess a
   'priority' attribute whose value is a decimal number between zero and
   one (with a maximum of three decimal places).  The value of this
   attribute MAY be mapped to the <priority/> child element of an XMPP
   presence stanza.  An XMPP-CPIM gateway MUST NOT map PIDF priority
   values to negative values of the XMPP <priority/> element.  If an
   XMPP-CPIM gateway maps these values, it SHOULD treat PIDF
   priority='0' as XMPP <priority>0</priority> and PIDF priority='1' as
   <priority>127</priority>, mapping intermediate values appropriately
   so that they are unique (e.g., PIDF priorities between 0.001 and
   0.007 to XMPP priority 1, PIDF priorities between 0.008 and 0.015 to
   XMPP priority 2, and so on up through mapping PIDF priorities between
   0.992 and 0.999 to XMPP priority 126; note that this is an example
   only, and that the exact mapping shall be determined by the XMPP-CPIM
   gateway).

5.2.14.  Timestamp Element

   The core XMPP specification does not include syntax for specifying
   the datetime or timestamp at which a presence stanza was sent.
   Therefore, if an XMPP-CPIM gateway receives a "Message/CPIM" object
   with encapsulated PIDF object that contains a <timestamp/> element,
   it SHOULD NOT pass the XML character data of the <timestamp/> element
   on to the XMPP recipient.






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5.2.15.  Inclusion of Complete PIDF Document

   Certain PIDF elements do not map to XMPP presence stanza syntax
   (e.g., the XML character data of the <contact/> element).  However,
   an XMPP client may be able to handle such information by parsing a
   native PIDF document.  To make this possible, an XMPP-CPIM gateway
   MAY include the complete PIDF document as a child element of the
   presence stanza, as described in [XMPP-PIDF].  If an XMPP client does
   not understand this extended data, it naturally MUST ignore it.

6.  XMPP-CPIM Gateway as Presence Service

   [CPP] defines semantics for an abstract presence service.  An
   XMPP-CPIM gateway MAY function as such a presence service, and if so
   an XMPP entity can use defined XMPP syntax to interact with the
   gateway's presence service.  Because [PIDF] does not specify syntax
   for semantic operations such as subscribe, this section defines only
   the XMPP interactions with the presence service offered by an
   XMPP-CPIM gateway, not the translation of such XMPP syntax into PIDF.
   (Note: Detailed information about XMPP presence services can be found
   in [XMPP-IM]; as much as possible, an XMPP-CPIM gateway SHOULD
   implement the syntax, semantics, and server business rules defined
   therein.)

6.1.  Requesting a Subscription

   If an XMPP entity wants to subscribe to the presence information of a
   non-XMPP presentity through an XMPP-CPIM gateway, it MUST send a
   presence stanza of type "subscribe" to the target presentity.  The
   syntax mapping is as follows:

   o  The XMPP 'from' attribute (user@host) MUST be mapped to the CPP
      "watcher parameter" field (pres:user@host).  The XMPP-CPIM gateway
      MUST append the "pres:" Presence URI scheme to the front of the
      address.

   o  The XMPP 'to' attribute (user@host) MUST be mapped to the CPP
      "target parameter" field (pres:user@host).  The XMPP-CPIM gateway
      MUST append the "pres:" Presence URI scheme to the front of the
      address.

   o  There is no XMPP mapping for the CPP "duration parameter", since
      XMPP subscriptions are active until they have been explicitly
      "unsubscribed".

   o  The XMPP 'id' attribute SHOULD be mapped to the CPP "TransID"
      field.




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   If the target presentity approves the subscription request (through
   whatever protocol it uses to interact with the gateway), the
   XMPP-CPIM gateway MUST return a presence stanza of type "subscribed"
   to the XMPP entity and notify the XMPP entity of the target's current
   available presence.  Thereafter, until the subscription is cancelled,
   the gateway MUST notify the subscribing XMPP entity every time the
   target's presence information changes.

   If the target presentity denies the subscription request, the
   XMPP-CPIM gateway MUST return a presence stanza of type
   "unsubscribed" to the XMPP entity and MUST NOT invoke the notify
   operation.

   In addition to the approval and denial cases, one of the following
   exceptions may occur:

   o  The target parameter (XMPP "to" address) does not refer to a valid
      presentity; if this exception occurs, the XMPP-CPIM gateway MUST
      return an <item-not-found/> stanza error to the XMPP entity.

   o  Access control rules do not permit the entity to subscribe to the
      target; if this exception occurs, the XMPP-CPIM gateway MUST
      return a <forbidden/> stanza error to the XMPP entity.

   o  There exists a pre-existing subscription or in-progress subscribe
      operation between the XMPP entity and the target presentity; if
      this exception occurs, the XMPP-CPIM gateway SHOULD return a
      <conflict/> stanza error to the XMPP entity.

   XMPP services assume that a subscription is active until it is
   explicitly terminated.  However, non-XMPP services may implement
   subscriptions of limited duration, which must be periodically
   refreshed in order to mimic the permanence of XMPP subscriptions.
   Therefore, an XMPP-to-CPIM gateway may need to send such refreshes to
   the non-XMPP entity on behalf of the XMPP entity to that the
   subscription does not expire.  Whether such refreshes are necessary
   depends on the native protocol implemented by the CPIM-aware non-XMPP
   service to which the gateway is translating.

6.2.  Receiving a Subscription Request

   If a non-XMPP presentity wants to subscribe to the presence
   information of an XMPP entity through an XMPP-CPIM gateway, it MUST
   use whatever protocol it uses to interact with the gateway in order
   to request the subscription; subject to local access rules, the
   gateway MUST then send a presence stanza of type "subscribe" to the
   XMPP entity from the non-XMPP watcher.  The syntax mapping is as
   follows:



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   o  The CPP "watcher parameter" field (pres:user@host) MUST be mapped
      to the XMPP 'from' attribute (user@host).  The XMPP-CPIM gateway
      MUST remove the "pres:" Presence URI scheme from the front of the
      address.

   o  The CPP "target parameter" field (pres:user@host) MUST be mapped
      to the XMPP 'to' attribute (user@host).  The XMPP-CPIM gateway
      MUST remove the "pres:" Presence URI scheme from the front of the
      address.

   o  There is no XMPP mapping for the CPP "duration parameter", since
      XMPP subscriptions are active until they have been explicitly
      "unsubscribed".

   o  The CPP "TransID" field SHOULD be mapped to the XMPP 'id'
      attribute.

   If the target XMPP entity approves the subscription request, it MUST
   send a presence stanza of type "subscribed" to the watcher
   presentity.  The XMPP-CPIM gateway MUST then notify the watcher
   presentity of the target XMPP entity's current available presence.
   Thereafter, until the subscription is cancelled, the gateway MUST
   notify the watcher presentity every time the target's presence
   information changes.

   If the target XMPP entity denies the subscription request, it MUST
   send a presence stanza of type "unsubscribed" to the watcher
   presentity.  The XMPP-CPIM gateway MUST NOT invoke the notify
   operation.

   In addition to the approval and denial cases, one of the following
   exceptions MAY occur:

   o  The target parameter (XMPP "to" address) does not refer to a valid
      XMPP entity

   o  Access control rules do not permit the watcher presentity to
      subscribe to the target XMPP entity

   o  There exists a pre-existing subscription or in-progress subscribe
      operation between the watcher presentity and the target XMPP
      entity

   If any of these exceptions occurs, the XMPP-CPIM gateway MUST inform
   the watcher presentity of failure.






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   XMPP services assume that a subscription is active until it is
   explicitly terminated.  With the exception of handling duration
   parameters whose value is zero, handling duration parameters will be
   highly dependent on the implementation and requirements of the
   XMPP-CPIM gateway.  Since there are no explicit requirements for
   supporting a "duration parameter" specified in either [IMP-MODEL] or
   [IMP-REQS], duration parameter mapping is a local issue that falls
   outside the scope of this memo.  However, an XMPP-CPIM gateway MAY
   keep track of the duration parameter if received from an entity on
   the non-XMPP service and delete the subscription after that duration
   parameter expires.

6.3.  The Notify Operation

   An XMPP-CPIM gateway invokes the CPP "notify operation" whenever the
   presence information associated with an XMPP entity or CPP presentity
   changes and there are subscribers to that information on the other
   side of the gateway.  The syntax mapping for presence information
   related to a notify operation is defined under Mapping for Presence
   (Section 5).

6.3.1.  Multiple Resources

   Semantically, PIDF contains the notion of multiple presence "tuples".
   Normally, a PIDF document will contain at least one tuple but MAY
   contain more than one tuple (or zero tuples, for which see next
   section).  In the terminology of XMPP, each tuple would map to
   presence information for a separate resource.  However, XMPP does not
   include the ability to send presence information about more than one
   resource at a time, since the resource that generates the presence
   information is contained in the 'from' address of a presence stanza.
   Therefore, an XMPP-CPIM gateway that acts as a presence service
   SHOULD split a PIDF document that contains multiple tuples into
   multiple XMPP presence stanzas, and SHOULD generate only one PIDF
   document (with multiple tuples) if an XMPP user currently has
   multiple connected resources.

   In the interest of not multiplying XMPP stanzas beyond necessity, an
   XMPP-CPIM gateway SHOULD generate an XMPP presence stanza only if the
   presence information contained in a PIDF tuple communicates a change
   in the availability status of the device or application associated
   with that tuple ID.

   In the interest of complying with the PIDF recommendation to provide
   information about multiple "resources" in multiple tuples rather than
   in multiple PIDF documents, an XMPP-CPIM gateway SHOULD include





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   information about all of an XMPP user's resources in one PIDF
   document (with one tuple for each resource), even if the availability
   status of only one resource has changed.

6.3.2.  Zero Resources

   A PIDF document may contain zero tuples.  For example:

   PIDF Document with Zero Tuples

     <presence entity='pres:juliet@example.com'
               xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf'/>

   Because (1) the 'entity' attribute of a PIDF <presence/> element maps
   to the <user@host> portion of an XMPP address and (2) the 'id'
   attribute of a PIDF <tuple/> element maps to the resource identifier
   portion of an XMPP address, a PIDF document that contains zero tuples
   would provide presence information about a <user@host> rather than a
   <user@host/resource> when mapped to XMPP.  Although the notion of
   presence notifications about a mere user rather than one of the
   user's resources is nearly meaningless in the XMPP context, an
   XMPP-CPIM gateway SHOULD map a PIDF document with zero tuples to an
   XMPP presence stanza whose 'from' address is the user@host of the
   non-XMPP entity.  However, an XMPP-CPIM gateway MUST NOT generate a
   PIDF document with zero <tuple/> children when receiving a presence
   stanza from an XMPP entity (i.e., all PIDF documents communicated by
   the gateway to a non-XMPP service MUST contain at least one <tuple/>
   element).

6.4.  Unsubscribing

   If an XMPP entity wants to unsubscribe from the presence of a
   non-XMPP presentity through an XMPP-CPIM gateway, it MUST send a
   presence stanza of type "unsubscribe" to the target presentity.  The
   syntax mapping is as follows:

   o  The XMPP 'from' attribute (user@host) MUST be mapped to the CPP
      "watcher parameter" field (pres:user@host).  The XMPP-CPIM gateway
      MUST append the "pres:" Presence URI scheme to the front of the
      address.

   o  The XMPP 'to' attribute (user@host) MUST be mapped to the CPP
      "target parameter" field (pres:user@host).  The XMPP-CPIM gateway
      MUST append the "pres:" Presence URI scheme to the front of the
      address.

   o  The CPP "duration parameter" MUST be set to zero.




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   o  The XMPP 'id' attribute SHOULD be mapped to the CPP "TransID"
      field.

   If the target parameter (XMPP "to" address) does not refer to a valid
   presentity, the XMPP-CPIM gateway MUST return an <item-not-found/>
   stanza error to the XMPP entity.

   Upon receiving the presence stanza of type "unsubscribe" from the
   XMPP entity, the XMPP-CPIM gateway MUST NOT send further presence
   notifications to the XMPP entity.

6.5.  Cancelling a Subscription

   If an XMPP entity wants to cancel a non-XMPP presentity's
   subscription to the entity's presence through an XMPP-CPIM gateway,
   it MUST send a presence stanza of type "unsubscribed" to the target
   presentity.  The syntax mapping is as follows:

   o  The XMPP 'from' attribute (user@host) MUST be mapped to the CPP
      "watcher parameter" field (pres:user@host).  The XMPP-CPIM gateway
      MUST add the "pres:" Presence URI scheme to the front of the
      address.

   o  The XMPP 'to' attribute (user@host) MUST be mapped to the CPP
      "target parameter" field (pres:user@host).  The XMPP-CPIM gateway
      MUST add the "pres:" Presence URI scheme to the front of the
      address.
   o  The CPP "duration parameter" MUST be set to zero.

   o  The XMPP 'id' attribute SHOULD be mapped to the CPP "TransID"
      field.

   Upon receiving the presence stanza of type "unsubscribed" from the
   XMPP entity, the XMPP-CPIM gateway MUST NOT send further presence
   notifications to the watcher presentity.

7.  Security Considerations

   Detailed security considerations for instant messaging and presence
   protocols are given in [IMP-REQS], specifically in Sections 5.1
   through 5.4.

   This document specifies methods for exchanging instant messages and
   presence information through a gateway that implements [CPIM] and
   [CPP].  Such a gateway MUST be compliant with the minimum security
   requirements of the instant messaging and presence protocols with
   which it interfaces.  The introduction of gateways to the security
   model of instant messaging and presence in RFC 2779 also introduces



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   some new risks.  In particular, end-to-end security properties
   (especially confidentiality and integrity) between instant messaging
   and presence user agents that interface through an XMPP-CPIM gateway
   can be provided only if common formats are supported; these formats
   are specified fully in [XMPP-E2E].

8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [CPIM]       Peterson, J., "Common Profile for Instant Messaging
                (CPIM)", RFC 3860, August 2004.

   [CPP]        Peterson, J., "Common Profile for Presence (CPP)", RFC
                3859, August 2004.

   [IMP-MODEL]  Day, M., Rosenberg, J., and H. Sugano, "A Model for
                Presence and Instant Messaging", RFC 2778, February
                2000.

   [IMP-REQS]   Day, M., Aggarwal, S., Mohr, G., and J. Vincent,
                "Instant Messaging / Presence Protocol Requirements",
                RFC 2779, February 2000.

   [MIME]       Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
                Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message
                Bodies", RFC 2045, November 1996.

   [MSGFMT]     Klyne, G. and D. Atkins, "Common Presence and Instant
                Messaging (CPIM): Message Format", RFC 3862, August
                2004.

   [PIDF]       Sugano, H., Fujimoto, S., Klyne, G., Bateman, A., Carr,
                W., and J. Peterson, "Presence Information Data Format
                (PIDF)", RFC 3863, August 2004.

   [STRINGPREP] Hoffman, P. and M. Blanchet, "Preparation of
                Internationalized Strings (stringprep)", RFC 3454,
                December 2002.

   [TERMS]      Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
                Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [URL-GUIDE]  Masinter, L., Alvestrand, H., Zigmond, D., and R. Petke,
                "Guidelines for new URL Schemes", RFC 2718, November
                1999.





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   [US-ASCII]   Cerf, V., "ASCII format for network interchange", RFC
                20, October 1969.

   [UTF-8]      Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
                10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003.

   [XMPP-CORE]  Saint-Andre, P., Ed., "Extensible Messaging and Presence
                Protocol (XMPP): Core", RFC 3920, October 2004.

   [XMPP-E2E]   Saint-Andre, P., Ed., "End-to-End Signing and Object
                Encryption in the Extensible Messaging and Presence
                Protocol (XMPP)", RFC 3923, October 2004.

   [XMPP-IM]    Saint-Andre (ed.), P., "Extensible Messaging and
                Presence Protocol (XMPP): Instant Messaging and
                Presence", RFC 3921, October 2004.

8.2.  Informative References

   [RFC2822]    Resnick, P., Ed., "Internet Message Format", RFC 2822,
                April 2001.

   [MIMETYPES]  Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
                Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types", RFC 2046,
                November 1996.

   [XMPP-PIDF]  Saint-Andre, P., "Transporting Presence Information
                Data/Format (PIDF) over the Extensible Messaging and
                Presence Protocol (XMPP)", Work in Progress, February
                2004.

Author's Address

   Peter Saint-Andre
   Jabber Software Foundation

   EMail: stpeter@jabber.org














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Full Copyright Statement

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   Internet Society.







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