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INFORMATIONAL

Network Working Group                                       S. Josefsson
Request for Comments: 4027                                    April 2005
Category: Informational


                     Domain Name System Media Types

Status of This Memo

   This memo provides information for the Internet community.  It does
   not specify an Internet standard of any kind.  Distribution of this
   memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005).

Abstract

   This document registers the media types application/dns and text/dns
   in accordance with RFC 2048.  The application/dns media type is used
   to identify data on the detached Domain Name System (DNS) format
   described in RFC 2540.  The text/dns media type is used to identify
   master files as described in RFC 1035.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1
   2.  MIME Type Registration of application/dns  . . . . . . . . . .  2
   3.  MIME Type Registration of text/dns . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   4.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   5.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   6.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   A.  Disclaimer and License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
       Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
       Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
       Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
       Full Copyright Statements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6

1.  Introduction

   Domain Name System (DNS) [1] information is traditionally stored in
   text files, so-called master files or zone files.  The format is
   described in section 5 of RFC 1035 [2].

   DNS data can also be stored in a "detached" format, intended for
   archiving purposes, described in RFC 2540 [4].




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   This document registers MIME media types for the two data formats,
   with the registration procedures described in RFC 2048 [3].

2.  MIME Type Registration of application/dns

   To: ietf-types@iana.org
   Subject: Registration of MIME media type application/dns

   MIME media type name: application

   MIME subtype name: dns

   Required parameters: None.

   Optional parameters: None.

   Encoding considerations: The data format is binary, and data must be
   transfered unmodified.  Using encodings intended for textual parts is
   not recommended.

   Security considerations: This media type identifies content as being
   detached DNS information, as documented in RFC 2540 [4].  This data
   may be security relevant as per RFC 2538 [7] or may be secured
   information as per RFC 2535 [6].  Securing the content further may be
   done with standard techniques, such as OpenPGP [5] or CMS [9], but
   this is outside of the scope here.  Further security assessments are
   not available at this point.

   Interoperability considerations: The encoding of detached DNS
   information is, unlike textual master files, well defined.  No
   further interoperability considerations are known.

   Published specification: The format of data that could be tagged with
   this media type is documented in RFC 2540 [4].

   Applications that use this media type: DNS-related software,
   including software storing and using certificates stored in DNS.

   Additional information:
     Magic number(s): None.
     File extension(s): Unknown.
     Macintosh File Type Code(s): Unknown.

   Person & email address to contact for further information:

   Simon Josefsson simon@josefsson.org

   Intended usage: LIMITED USE



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   Author/change controller: simon@josefsson.org

3.  MIME Type Registration of text/dns

   To: ietf-types@iana.org
   Subject: Registration of MIME media type text/dns

   MIME media type name: text

   MIME subtype name: dns

   Required parameters: None.

   Optional parameters: None.

   Encoding considerations: The data is textual and should be transfered
   in a line-oriented mode.  Text literals may contain CRLF within the
   text.  Binary transport is possible between systems that use the same
   end-of-line conventions.  Master files are in general ASCII, but
   non-ASCII octet values may occur and are treated as opaque values by
   DNS software (compare RFC 1035, section 5).  The master file format
   permits encoding arbitrary octet values by using the "\DDD" encoding.
   The use of "\DDD" encoding can be more reliable than transporting
   non-ASCII through MIME transports, if data passes through a gateway
   that re-encodes the character data.

   Security considerations: This media type identifies content as being
   DNS information in "master file" format, as documented in RFC 1035
   [2].  The DNS data may be security relevant as per to RFC 2538 [7],
   or may be secured information as per to RFC 2535 [6].  Securing the
   content further may be done with standard techniques, such as OpenPGP
   [5] or CMS [9], but this is outside of the scope here.  Further
   security assessments are not available at this point.

   Interoperability considerations: There are interoperability concerns
   with master files, due to the widespread use of vendor-specific
   extensions.  Non-ASCII comments within master files may have been
   encoded in locally chosen character sets, which may be difficult to
   transport interoperably.  Non-ASCII data in general can become
   corrupted by re-encoding gateways.  To achieve interoperability, one
   can use the master file format described in the specification and the
   "\DDD" encoding for non-ASCII octets.  Further interoperability
   issues with unrecognized RR types exist, which may be handled as
   discussed in section 5 of RFC 3597 [8].

   Published specification: The format of data that could be tagged with
   this MIME type is documented in RFC 1035 [2].




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   Applications that use this media type: DNS-related software,
   including software storing and using certificates stored in DNS.

   Additional information:
     Magic number(s): None.
     File extension(s): 'soa' and 'zone' are known to be used.
     Macintosh file type code(s): Unknown.

   Person & email address to contact for further information:

   Simon Josefsson simon@josefsson.org

   Intended usage: LIMITED USE

   Author/change controller: simon@josefsson.org

4.  Security Considerations

   Security considerations are discussed in the security considerations
   clauses of the MIME registrations in sections 2 and 3.

5.  IANA Considerations

   The IANA has registered the MIME media types application/dns and
   text/dns by using the registration templates in sections 2 and 3, as
   per the procedure described in RFC 2048 [3].

6.  Acknowledgements

   Thanks to D. Eastlake for suggesting text/dns.  Thanks to Keith Moore
   and Alfred Hoenes for reviewing this document.  The author
   acknowledges the RSA Laboratories for supporting the work that led to
   this document.


















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A.  Disclaimer and License

   Regarding this entire document or any portion of it, the author makes
   no guarantees and is not responsible for any damage resulting from
   its use.  The author grants irrevocable permission to anyone to use,
   modify, and distribute it in any way that does not diminish the
   rights of anyone else to use, modify, and distribute it, provided
   that redistributed derivative works do not contain misleading author
   or version information.  Derivative works need not be licensed under
   similar terms.

Normative References

   [1]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities", STD
        13, RFC 1034, November 1987.

   [2]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
        specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987.

   [3]  Freed, N., Klensin, J., and J. Postel, "Multipurpose Internet
        Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Four: Registration Procedures", BCP
        13, RFC 2048, November 1996.

   [4]  Eastlake 3rd, D., "Detached Domain Name System (DNS)
        Information", RFC 2540, March 1999.

Informative References

   [5]  Callas, J., Donnerhacke, L., Finney, H., and R. Thayer, "OpenPGP
        Message Format", RFC 2440, November 1998.

   [6]  Eastlake 3rd, D., "Domain Name System Security Extensions", RFC
        2535, March 1999.

   [7]  Eastlake 3rd, D. and O. Gudmundsson, "Storing Certificates in
        the Domain Name System (DNS)", RFC 2538, March 1999.

   [8]  Gustafsson, A., "Handling of Unknown DNS Resource Record (RR)
        Types", RFC 3597, September 2003.

   [9]  Housley, R., "Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)", RFC 3852,
        July 2004.

Author's Address

   Simon Josefsson

   EMail: simon@josefsson.org



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RFC 4027             Domain Name System Media Types           April 2005


Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005).

   This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
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Acknowledgement

   Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
   Internet Society.







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