[Docs] [txt|pdf] [draft-black-snmp-uri] [Diff1] [Diff2]

PROPOSED STANDARD

Network Working Group                                           D. Black
Request for Comments: 4088                               EMC Corporation
Category: Standards Track                                  K. McCloghrie
                                                           Cisco Systems
                                                        J. Schoenwaelder
                                         International University Bremen
                                                               June 2005


           Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) Scheme for the
               Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

Status of This Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005).

Abstract

   The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) and the Internet
   Standard Management Framework are widely used for the management of
   communication devices, creating a need to specify SNMP access
   (including access to SNMP MIB object instances) from non-SNMP
   management environments.  For example, when out-of-band IP management
   is used via a separate management interface (e.g., for a device that
   does not support in-band IP access), a uniform way to indicate how to
   contact the device for management is needed.  Uniform Resource
   Identifiers (URIs) fit this need well, as they allow a single text
   string to indicate a management access communication endpoint for a
   wide variety of IP-based protocols.

   This document defines a URI scheme so that SNMP can be designated as
   the protocol used for management.  The scheme also allows a URI to
   designate one or more MIB object instances.










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Table of Contents

   1. Introduction..................................................  2
   2. Usage.........................................................  3
   3. Syntax of an SNMP URI.........................................  4
      3.1. Relative Reference Considerations........................  5
   4. Semantics and Operations......................................  6
      4.1. SNMP Service URIs........................................  6
      4.2. SNMP Object URIs.........................................  7
           4.2.1. SNMP Object URI Data Access.......................  8
      4.3. OID Groups in SNMP URIs.................................. 10
      4.4. Interoperability Considerations.......................... 10
   5. Examples...................................................... 11
   6. Security Considerations....................................... 12
      6.1. SNMP URI to SNMP Gateway Security Considerations......... 13
   7. IANA Considerations........................................... 14
   8. Normative References.......................................... 14
   9. Informative References........................................ 15
   10. Acknowledgements............................................. 16
   Appendix A. Registration Template................................ 17

1.  Introduction

   SNMP and the Internet-Standard Management Framework were originally
   devised to manage IP devices via in-band means, in which management
   access is primarily via the same interface(s) used to send and
   receive IP traffic.  SNMP's wide adoption has resulted in its use for
   managing communication devices that do not support in-band IP access
   (e.g., Fibre Channel devices); a separate out-of-band IP interface is
   often used for management.  URIs provide a convenient way to locate
   that interface and specify the protocol to be used for management;
   one possible scenario is for an in-band query to return a URI that
   indicates how the device is managed.  This document specifies a URI
   scheme to permit SNMP (including a specific SNMP context) to be
   designated as the management protocol by such a URI.  This scheme
   also allows a URI to refer to specific object instances within an
   SNMP MIB.

   For a detailed overview of the documents that describe the current
   Internet-Standard Management Framework, please refer to Section 7 of
   [RFC3410].

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].






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2.  Usage

   There are two major classes of SNMP URI usage: configuration and
   gateways between SNMP and other protocols that use SNMP URIs.

   An SNMP URI used for configuration indicates the location of
   management information as part of the configuration of an application
   containing an SNMP manager.  The URI can be obtained from a
   configuration file or may be provided by a managed device (see
   Section 1 for an example).  Management information is exchanged
   between the SNMP manager and agent, but it does not flow beyond the
   manager, as shown in the following diagram:

                               ***********  SNMP-Request   *********
                               *         *================>*       *
                URI ---------->* Manager *                 * Agent *
                               *         *<================*       *
                               ***********  SNMP-Response  *********
                                    ^
                                    |
      Other Config Info ------------+

   Additional configuration information (e.g., a security secret or key)
   may be provided via an interface other than that used for the URI.
   For example, when a managed device provides an SNMP URI in an
   unprotected fashion, that device should not provide a secret or key
   required to use the URI.  The secret or key should instead be pre-
   configured in or pre-authorized to the manager; see Section 6.

   For gateway usage, clients employ SNMP URIs to request management
   information via an SNMP URI to SNMP gateway (also called an SNMP
   gateway in this document).  The SNMP manager within the SNMP gateway
   accesses the management information and returns it to the requesting
   client, as shown in the following diagram:

                                SNMP gateway
           **********     URI    ***********  SNMP-Request   *********
           *        *===========>*         *================>*       *
           * Client *            * Manager *                 * Agent *
           *        *<===========*         *<================*       *
           **********    Info    ***********  SNMP-Response  *********
                                    ^
                                    |
      Other Config Info ------------+

   Additional configuration information (e.g., security secrets or keys)
   may be provided via an interface other than that used for the URI.
   For example, some types of security information, including secrets



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   and keys, should be pre-configured in or pre-authorized to the
   manager rather than be provided by the client; see Section 6.

3.  Syntax of an SNMP URI

   An SNMP URI has the following ABNF [RFC2234] syntax, based on the
   ABNF syntax rules for userinfo, host, port, and (path) segment in
   [RFC3986] and the ABNF syntax rule for HEXDIG in [RFC2234]:

      snmp-uri        = "snmp://" snmp-authority [ context [ oids ]]

      snmp-authority  = [ securityName "@" ] host [ ":" port ]
      securityName    = userinfo    ; SNMP securityName

      context         = "/" contextName [ ";" contextEngineID ]
      contextName     = segment     ; SNMP contextName
      contextEngineID = 1*(HEXDIG HEXDIG)    ; SNMP contextEngineID

      oids            = "/" ( oid / oid-group ) [ suffix ]
      oid-group       = "(" oid *( "," oid ) ")"
      oid             = < as specified by [RFC 3061] >
      suffix          = "+" / ".*"

   The userinfo and (path) segment ABNF rules are reused for syntax
   only.  In contrast, host and port have both the syntax and semantics
   specified in [RFC3986].  See [RFC3411] for the semantics of
   securityName, contextEngineID, and contextName.

   The snmp-authority syntax matches the URI authority syntax in Section
   3.2 of [RFC3986], with the additional restriction that the userinfo
   component of an authority (when present) MUST be an SNMP
   securityName.  If the securityName is empty or not given, the entity
   making use of an SNMP URI is expected to know what SNMP securityName
   to use if one is required.  Inclusion of authentication information
   (e.g., passwords) in URIs has been deprecated (see Section 3.2.1 of
   [RFC3986]), so any secret or key required for SNMP access must be
   provided via other means that may be out-of-band with respect to
   communication of the URI.  If the port is empty or not given, port
   161 is assumed.

   If the contextName is empty or not given, the zero-length string ("")
   is assumed, as it is the default SNMP context.  An SNMP
   contextEngineID is a variable-format binary element that is usually
   discovered by an SNMP manager.  An SNMP URI encodes a contextEngineID
   as hexadecimal digits corresponding to a sequence of bytes.  If the
   contextEngineID is empty or not given, the context engine is to be
   discovered by querying the SNMP agent at the specified host and port;
   see Section 4.1 below.  The contextEngineID component of the URI



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   SHOULD be present if more than one context engine at the designated
   host and port supports the designated context.

   An SNMP URI that designates the default SNMP context ("") MAY end
   with the "/" character that introduces the contextName component.  An
   SNMP URI MUST NOT end with the "/" character that introduces an oid
   or oid-group component, as the empty string is not a valid OID for
   SNMP.

   The encoding rules specified in [RFC3986] MUST be used for SNMP URIs,
   including the use of percent encoding ("%" followed by two hex
   digits) as needed to represent characters defined as reserved in
   [RFC3986] and any characters not allowed in a URI.  SNMP permits any
   UTF-8 character to be used in a securityName or contextName; all
   multi-byte UTF-8 characters in an SNMP URI MUST be percent encoded as
   specified in Sections 2.1 and 2.5 of [RFC3986].  These requirements
   are a consequence of reusing the ABNF syntax rules for userinfo and
   segment from [RFC3986].

   SNMP URIs will generally be short enough to avoid implementation
   string-length limits (e.g., that may occur at 255 characters).  Such
   limits may be a concern for large OID groups; relative references to
   URIs (see Section 4.2 of [RFC3986]) may provide an alternative in
   some circumstances.

   Use of IP addresses in SNMP URIs is acceptable in situations where
   dependence on availability of DNS service is undesirable or must be
   avoided; otherwise, IP addresses should not be used (see [RFC1900]
   for further explanation).

3.1.  Relative Reference Considerations

   Use of the SNMP default context (zero-length string) within an SNMP
   URI can result in a second instance of "//" in the URI, such as the
   following:

      snmp://<host>//<oid>

   This is allowed by [RFC3986] syntax; if a URI parser does not handle
   the second "//" correctly, the parser is broken and needs to be
   fixed.  This example is important because use of the SNMP default
   context in SNMP URIs is expected to be common.

   On the other hand, the second occurrence of "//" in an absolute SNMP
   URI affects usage of relative references to that URI (see Section 4.2
   of [RFC3986]) because a "//" at the start of a relative reference
   always introduces a URI authority component (host plus optional
   userinfo and/or port; see [RFC3986]).  Specifically, a relative



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   reference of the form //<oid2> will not work, because the "//" will
   cause <oid2> to be parsed as a URI authority, resulting in a syntax
   error when the parser fails to find a host in <oid2> .  To avoid this
   problem, relative references that start with "//" but do not contain
   a URI authority component MUST NOT be used.  Functionality equivalent
   to any such forbidden relative reference can be obtained by prefixing
   "." or ".." to the forbidden relative reference (e.g., ..//<oid2>).
   The prefix to use depends on the base URI.

4.  Semantics and Operations

   An SNMP URI that does not include any OIDs is called an SNMP service
   URI because it designates a communication endpoint for access to SNMP
   management service.  An SNMP URI that includes one or more OIDs is
   called an SNMP object URI because it designates one or more object
   instances in an SNMP MIB.  The expected means of using an SNMP URI is
   to employ an SNMP manager to access the SNMP context designated by
   the URI via the SNMP agent at the host and port designated by the
   URI.

4.1.  SNMP Service URIs

   An SNMP service URI does not designate a data object, but rather an
   SNMP context to be accessed by a service; the telnet URI scheme
   [RFC1738] is another example of URIs that designate service access.
   If the contextName in the URI is empty or not given, "" (the zero-
   length string) is assumed, as it is the default SNMP context.

   If a contextEngineID is given in an SNMP service URI, the context
   engine that it designates is to be used.  If the contextEngineID is
   empty or not given in the URI, the context engine is to be
   discovered; the context engine to be used is the one that supports
   the context designated by the URI.  The contextEngineID component of
   the URI SHOULD be present if more than one context engine at the
   designated host and port supports the designated context.

   Many common uses of SNMP URIs are expected to omit (i.e., default)
   the contextEngineID because they do not involve SNMP proxy agents,
   which are the most common reason for multiple SNMP context engines to
   exist at a single host and port.  Specifically, when an SNMP agent is
   local to the network interface that it manages, the agent will
   usually have only one context engine, in which case it is safe to
   omit the contextEngineID component of an SNMP URI.  In addition, many
   SNMP agents that are local to a network interface support only the
   default SNMP context (zero-length string).






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4.2.  SNMP Object URIs

   An SNMP object URI contains one or more OIDs.  The URI is used by
   first separating the OID or OID group (including its preceding slash
   plus any parentheses and suffix) and then processing the resulting
   SNMP service URI as specified in Section 4.1 (above) to determine the
   SNMP context to be accessed.  The OID or OID group is then used to
   generate SNMP operations directed to that SNMP context.

   The semantics of an SNMP object URI depend on whether the OID or OID
   group has a suffix and what that suffix is.  There are three possible
   formats; in each case, the MIB object instances are designated within
   the SNMP context specified by the service URI portion of the SNMP
   object URI.  The semantics of an SNMP object URI that contains a
   single OID are as follows:

      (1) An OID without a suffix designates the MIB object instance
          named by the OID.

      (2) An OID with a "+" suffix designates the lexically next MIB
          object instance following the OID.

      (3) An OID with a ".*" suffix designates the set of MIB object
          instances for which the OID is a strict lexical prefix; this
          does not include the MIB object instance named by the OID.

   An OID group in an SNMP URI consists of a set of OIDs in parentheses.
   In each case, the OID group semantics are the extension of the single
   OID semantics to each OID in the group (e.g., a URI with a "+" suffix
   designates the set of MIB object instances consisting of the
   lexically next instance for each OID in the OID group).

   When there is a choice among URI formats to designate the same MIB
   object instance or instances, the above list is in order of
   preference (no suffix is most preferable), as it runs from most
   precise to least precise.  This is because an OID without a suffix
   precisely designates an object instance, whereas a "+" suffix
   designates the next object instance, which may change, and the ".*"
   suffix could designate multiple object instances.  Multiple
   syntactically distinct SNMP URIs SHOULD NOT be used to designate the
   same MIB object instance or set of instances, as this may cause
   unexpected results in URI-based systems that use string comparison to
   test URIs for equality.

   SNMP object URIs designate the data to be accessed, as opposed to the
   specific SNMP operations to be used for access; Section 4.2.1
   provides examples of how SNMP operations can be used to access data
   for SNMP object URIs.  Nonetheless, any applicable SNMP operation,



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   including GetBulk, MAY be used to access data for all or part of one
   or more SNMP object URIs (e.g., via use of multiple variable bindings
   in a single operation); it is not necessary to use the specific
   operations described in Section 4.2.1 as long as the results
   (returned variable bindings or error) could have been obtained by
   following Section 4.2.1's descriptions.  The use of relative
   references that do not change the contextName (i.e., ./<oid>) should
   be viewed as a hint that optimization of SNMP access across multiple
   SNMP URIs may be possible.

   An SNMP object URI MAY also be used to specify a MIB object instance
   or instances to be written; this causes generation of an SNMP Set
   operation instead of a Get.  The "+" and ".*" suffixes MUST NOT be
   used in this case; any attempt to do so is an error that MUST NOT
   generate any SNMP Set operations.  Values to be written to the MIB
   object instance or instances are not specified within an SNMP object
   URI.

   SNMP object URIs designate data in SNMP MIBs and hence do not provide
   the means to generate all possible SNMP protocol operations.  For
   example, data access for an SNMP object URI cannot directly generate
   either Snmpv2-Trap or InformRequest notifications, although side
   effects of data access could cause such notifications (depending on
   the MIB).  In addition, whether and how GetBulk is used for an SNMP
   object URI with a ".*" suffix is implementation specific.

4.2.1.  SNMP Object URI Data Access

   Data access based on an SNMP object URI returns an SNMP variable
   binding for each MIB object instance designated by the URI, or an
   SNMP error if the operation fails.  An SNMP variable binding binds a
   variable name (OID) to a value or an SNMP exception (see [RFC3416]).
   The SNMP operation or operations needed to access data designated by
   an SNMP object URI depend on the OID or OID group suffix or absence
   thereof.  The following descriptions are not the only method of
   performing data access for an SNMP object URI; any suitable SNMP
   operations may be used as long as the results (returned variable
   bindings or error) are functionally equivalent.

      (1) For an OID or OID group without a suffix, an SNMP Get
          operation is generated using each OID as a variable binding
          name.  If an SNMP error occurs, that error is the result of
          URI data access; otherwise, the returned variable binding or
          bindings are the result of URI data access.  Note that any
          returned variable binding may contain an SNMP "noSuchObject"
          or "noSuchInstance" exception.





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      (2) For an OID or OID group with a "+" suffix, an SNMP GetNext
          operation is generated using each OID as a variable binding
          name.  If an SNMP error occurs, that error is the result of
          URI data access; otherwise, the returned variable binding or
          bindings are the result of URI data access.  Note that any
          returned variable binding may contain an SNMP "endOfMibView"
          exception.

      (3) For an OID or OID group with a ".*" suffix, an SNMP GetNext
          operation is initially generated using each OID as a variable
          binding name.  If the result is an SNMP error, that error is
          the result of URI data access.  If all returned variable
          bindings contain either a) an OID for which the corresponding
          URI OID is not a lexical prefix or b) an SNMP "endOfMibView"
          exception, then the returned variable bindings are the result
          of URI data access.

          Otherwise, the results of the GetNext operation are saved, and
          another SNMP GetNext operation is generated using the newly
          returned OIDs as variable binding names.  This is repeated
          (save the results and generate a GetNext with newly returned
          OIDs as variable binding names) until all the returned
          variable bindings from a GetNext contain either a) an OID for
          which the corresponding URI OID is not a lexical prefix or b)
          an SNMP "endOfMibView" exception.  The results from all of the
          GetNext operations are combined to become the overall result
          of URI data access; this may include variable bindings whose
          OID is not a lexical extension of the corresponding URI OID.
          If the OID subtrees (set of OIDs for which a specific URI OID
          is a lexical prefix) are not the same size for all OIDs in the
          OID group, the largest subtree determines when this iteration
          ends.  SNMP GetBulk operations MAY be used to optimize this
          iterated access.

          Whenever a returned variable binding contains an OID for which
          the corresponding URI OID is not a lexical prefix or an SNMP
          "endOfMibView" exception, iteration of that element of the OID
          group MAY cease, reducing the number of variable bindings used
          in subsequent GetNext operations.  In this case, the results
          of URI data access for the SNMP URI will not consist entirely
          of OID-group-sized sets of variable bindings.  Even if this
          does not occur, the last variable binding returned for each
          member of the OID group will generally contain an SNMP
          "endOfMibView" exception or an OID for which the corresponding
          URI OID is not a lexical prefix.






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4.3.  OID Groups in SNMP URIs

   Parenthesized OID groups in SNMP URIs are intended to support MIB
   object instances for which access via a single SNMP operation is
   required to ensure consistent results.  Therefore, the OIDs within an
   OID group in an SNMP URI SHOULD be accessed by a single SNMP
   operation containing a variable binding corresponding to each OID in
   the group.  A specific example involves the InetAddress and
   InetAddressType textual conventions defined in [RFC4001], for which
   the format of an InetAddress instance is specified by an associated
   InetAddressType instance.  If two such associated instances are read
   via separate SNMP operations, the resulting values could be
   inconsistent (e.g., due to an intervening Set), causing the
   InetAddress value to be interpreted incorrectly.

   This single operation requirement ("SHOULD") also applies to each OID
   group resulting from iterated access for an SNMP URI with a ".*"
   suffix.  When members of an SNMP URI OID group differ in the number
   of OIDs for which each is a lexical prefix, this iteration may
   overrun by returning numerous variable bindings for which the
   corresponding OID in the OID group is not a lexical prefix.  Such
   overrun can be avoided by using relative references within the same
   context (i.e., ./<oid>.* ) when it is not important to access
   multiple MIB object instances in a single SNMP operation.

4.4.  Interoperability Considerations

   This document defines a transport-independent "snmp" scheme that is
   intended to accommodate SNMP transports other than UDP.  UDP is the
   default transport for access to information specified by an SNMP URI
   for backward compatibility with existing usage, but other transports
   MAY be used.  If more than one transport can be used (e.g., SNMP over
   TCP [RFC3430] in addition to SNMP over UDP), the information or SNMP
   service access designated by an SNMP URI SHOULD NOT depend on which
   transport is used (for SNMP over TCP, this is implied by Section 2 of
   [RFC3430]).

   An SNMP URI designates use of SNMPv3 as specified by [RFC3416],
   [RFC3417], and related documents, but older versions of SNMP MAY be
   used in accordance with [RFC3584] when usage of such older versions
   is unavoidable.  For SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c, the securityName,
   contextName, and contextEngineID elements of an SNMP URI are mapped
   to/from the community name, as described in [RFC3584].  When the
   community name is kept secret as a weak form of authentication, this
   mapping should be configured so that these three elements do not
   reveal information about the community name.  If this is not done,
   then any SNMP URI component that would disclose significant
   information about a secret community name SHOULD be omitted.  Note



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   that some community names contain reserved characters (e.g., "@")
   that require percent encoding when they are used in an SNMP URI.
   SNMP versions (e.g., v3) have been omitted from the SNMP URI scheme
   to permit use of older versions of SNMP, as well as any possible
   future successor to SNMPv3.

5.  Examples

      snmp://example.com

   This example designates the default SNMP context at the SNMP agent at
   port 161 of host example.com .

      snmp://tester5@example.com:8161

   This example designates the default SNMP context at the SNMP agent at
   port 8161 of host example.com and indicates that the SNMP
   securityName "tester5" is to be used to access that agent.  A
   possible reason to use a non-standard port is for testing a new
   version of SNMP agent code.

      snmp://example.com/bridge1

   This example designates the "bridge1" SNMP context at example.com.
   Because the contextEngineID component of the URI is omitted, there
   SHOULD be at most one SNMP context engine at example.com that
   supports the "bridge1" context.

      snmp://example.com/bridge1;800002b804616263

   This example designates the "bridge1" context at snmp.example.com via
   the SNMP context engine 800002b804616263 (string representation of a
   hexadecimal value).  This avoids ambiguity if any other context
   engine supports a "bridge1" context.  The above two examples are
   based on the figure in Section 3.3 of [RFC3411].

      snmp://example.com//1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3.0
      snmp://example.com//1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3+
      snmp://example.com//1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3.*

   These three examples all designate the sysUpTime.0 object instance in
   the SNMPv2-MIB or RFC1213-MIB for the default SNMP context ("") at
   example.com as sysUpTime.0 is:

      a) designated directly by OID 1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3.0,

      b) the lexically next MIB object instance after the OID
         1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3, and



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      c) the only MIB object instance whose OID has 1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3 as a
         lexical prefix.

   These three examples are provided for illustrative purposes only, as
   multiple syntactically distinct URIs SHOULD NOT be used to designate
   the same MIB object instance, in order to avoid unexpected results in
   URI-based systems that use string comparison to test URIs for
   equality.

      snmp://example.com/bridge1/1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.8.*

   This example designates the ifOperStatus column of the IF-MIB in the
   bridge1 SNMP context at example.com.

      snmp://example.com//(1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.7,1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.8).*

   This example designates all (ifAdminStatus, ifOperStatus) pairs in
   the IF-MIB in the default SNMP context at example.com.

6.  Security Considerations

   An intended use of this URI scheme is designation of the location of
   management access to communication devices.  Such location
   information may be considered sensitive in some environments, making
   it important to control access to this information and possibly even
   to encrypt it when it is sent over the network.  All uses of this URI
   scheme should provide security mechanisms appropriate to the
   environments in which such uses are likely to be deployed.

   The SNMP architecture includes control of access to management
   information (see Section 4.3 of [RFC3411]).  An SNMP URI does not
   contain sufficient security information to obtain access in all
   situations, as the SNMP URI syntax is incapable of encoding SNMP
   securityModels, SNMP securityLevels, and credential or keying
   information for SNMP securityNames.  Other means are necessary to
   provide such information; one possibility is out-of-band pre-
   configuration of the SNMP manager, as shown in the diagrams in
   Section 2.

   By itself, the presence of a securityName in an SNMP URI does not
   authorize use of that securityName to access management information.
   Instead, the SNMP manager SHOULD match the securityName in the URI to
   an SNMP securityName and associated security information that have
   been pre-configured for use by the manager.  If an SNMP URI contains
   a securityName that the SNMP manager is not provisioned to use, SNMP
   operations for that URI SHOULD NOT be generated.





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   SNMP versions prior to SNMPv3 did not include adequate security.
   Even if the network itself is secure (for example, via use of IPsec),
   there is no control over who on the secure network is allowed to
   access and GET/SET (read/change/create/delete) the objects in MIB
   modules.  It is RECOMMENDED that implementers consider the security
   features provided by the SNMPv3 framework (see [RFC3410], Section 8,
   for an overview), including full support for SNMPv3 cryptographic
   mechanisms (for authentication and privacy).  This is of additional
   importance for MIB elements considered sensitive or vulnerable
   because GETs have side effects.

   Further, deployment of SNMP versions prior to SNMPv3 is NOT
   RECOMMENDED.  Instead, it is RECOMMENDED to deploy SNMPv3 and to
   enable cryptographic security.  It is then a customer/operator
   responsibility to ensure that the SNMP entity giving access to a MIB
   module instance is properly configured to give access to the objects
   only to those principals (users) that have legitimate rights to
   indeed GET or SET (read/change/create/delete) them.

6.1.  SNMP URI to SNMP Gateway Security Considerations

   Additional security considerations apply to SNMP gateways that
   generate SNMP operations for SNMP URIs and return the results to
   clients (see Section 2) because management information is
   communicated beyond the SNMP framework.  In general, an SNMP gateway
   should have some knowledge of the structure and function of the
   management information that it accesses via SNMP.  Among other
   benefits, this allows an SNMP gateway to avoid SNMP access control
   failures because the gateway can reject an SNMP URI that will cause
   such failures before generating any SNMP operations.

   SNMP gateways SHOULD impose authorization or access-control checks on
   all clients.  If an SNMP gateway does not impose authorization or
   access controls, the gateway MUST NOT automatically obtain or use
   SNMP authentication material for arbitrary securityNames, as doing so
   would defeat SNMP's access controls.  Instead, all SNMP gateways
   SHOULD authenticate each client and check the client's authorization
   to use a securityName in an SNMP URI before using the securityName on
   behalf of that client.

   An SNMP gateway is also responsible for ensuring that all of its
   communication is appropriately secured.  Specifically, an SNMP
   gateway SHOULD ensure that communication of management information
   with any client is protected to at least the SNMP securityLevel used
   for the corresponding SNMP access (see Section 3.4.3 of [RFC3411] for
   more information on securityLevel).  If the client provides SNMP
   security information, the SNMP gateway SHOULD authenticate the client
   and SHOULD ensure that an authenticated cryptographic integrity check



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   is used for that communication to prevent modification of the
   security information.  In addition, if a client provides any key or
   secret, the SNMP gateway SHOULD ensure that encryption is used in
   addition to the integrity check for that communication to prevent
   disclosure of keys or secrets.

   There are management objects defined in SNMP MIBs whose MAX-ACCESS is
   read-write and/or read-create.  Such objects may be considered
   sensitive or vulnerable in some network environments.  SNMP gateway
   support for SNMP SET operations in a non-secure environment without
   proper protection can have a negative effect on network operations.
   The individual MIB module specifications, and especially their
   security considerations, should be consulted for further information.

   Some readable objects in some MIB modules (i.e., objects with a MAX-
   ACCESS other than not-accessible) may be considered sensitive or
   vulnerable in some network environments.  It is thus important to
   control even GET access to these objects via an SNMP gateway and
   possibly to even encrypt the values of these objects when they are
   sent over the network.  The individual MIB module specifications, and
   especially their security considerations, should be consulted for
   further information.  This consideration also applies to objects for
   which read operations have side effects.

7.  IANA Considerations

   The IANA has registered the URL registration template found in
   Appendix A in accordance with [RFC2717].

8.  Normative References

   [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
             Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2234] Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
             Specifications: ABNF", RFC 2234, November 1997.

   [RFC3061] Mealling, M., "A URN Namespace of Object Identifiers", RFC
             3061, February 2001.

   [RFC3411] Harrington, D., Presuhn, R., and B. Wijnen, "An
             Architecture for Describing Simple Network Management
             Protocol (SNMP) Management Frameworks", STD 62, RFC 3411,
             December 2002.

   [RFC3416] Presuhn, R., "Version 2 of the Protocol Operations for the
             Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)", STD 62, RFC
             3416, December 2002.



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   [RFC3417] Presuhn, R., "Transport Mappings for the Simple Network
             Management Protocol (SNMP)", STD 62, RFC 3417, December
             2002.

   [RFC3584] Frye, R., Levi, D., Routhier, S., and B. Wijnen,
             "Coexistence between Version 1, Version 2, and Version 3 of
             the Internet-standard Network Management Framework", BCP
             74, RFC 3584, August 2003.

   [RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
             Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, RFC
             3986, January 2005.

9.  Informative References

   [RFC1738] Berners-Lee, T., Masinter, L., and M. McCahill, "Uniform
             Resource Locators (URL)", RFC 1738, December 1994.

   [RFC1900] Carpenter, B. and Y. Rekhter, "Renumbering Needs Work", RFC
             1900, February 1996.

   [RFC2717] Petke, R. and I. King, "Registration Procedures for URL
             Scheme Names", BCP 35, RFC 2717, November 1999.

   [RFC3410] Case, J., Mundy, R., Partain, D., and B. Stewart,
             "Introduction and Applicability Statements for Internet-
             Standard Management Framework", RFC 3410, December 2002.

   [RFC3430] Schoenwaelder, J., "Simple Network Management Protocol Over
             Transmission Control Protocol Transport Mapping", RFC 3430,
             December 2002.

   [RFC3617] Lear, E., "Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) Scheme and
             Applicability Statement for the Trivial File Transfer
             Protocol (TFTP)", RFC 3617, October 2003.

   [RFC4001] Daniele, M., Haberman, B., Routhier, S., and J.
             Schoenwaelder, "Textual Conventions for Internet Network
             Addresses", RFC 4001, February 2005.












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10.  Acknowledgements

   Portions of this document were adapted from Eliot Lear's TFTP URI
   scheme specification [RFC3617].  Portions of the security
   considerations were adapted from the widely used security
   considerations "boilerplate" for MIB modules.  Comments from Ted
   Hardie, Michael Mealing, Larry Masinter, Frank Strauss, Bert Wijnen,
   Steve Bellovin, the mreview@ops.ietf.org mailing list and the
   uri@w3c.org mailing list on earlier versions of this document have
   resulted in significant improvements and are gratefully acknowledged.









































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Appendix A.  Registration Template

   URL scheme name: snmp
   URL scheme syntax: Section 3
   Character encoding considerations: Section 3
   Intended usage: Sections 1 and 2
   Applications and/or protocols which use this scheme: SNMP, all
      versions, see [RFC3410] and [RFC3584].  Also SNMP over TCP,
      see [RFC3430].
   Interoperability considerations: Section 4.4
   Security considerations: Section 6
   Relevant publications: See [RFC3410] for list.  Also [RFC3430]
      and [RFC3584].
   Contact: David L. Black, see below
   Author/Change Controller: IESG

Authors' Addresses

   David L. Black
   EMC Corporation
   176 South Street
   Hopkinton, MA 01748

   Phone: +1 (508) 293-7953
   EMail: black_david@emc.com


   Keith McCloghrie
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   170 West Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA USA 95134

   Phone: +1 (408) 526-5260
   EMail: kzm@cisco.com


   Juergen Schoenwaelder
   International University Bremen
   P.O. Box 750 561
   28725 Bremen
   Germany

   Phone: +49 421 200 3587
   EMail: j.schoenwaelder@iu-bremen.de







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Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005).

   This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
   contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
   retain all their rights.

   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
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   INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE
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   The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
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Acknowledgement

   Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
   Internet Society.







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