[Docs] [txt|pdf] [draft-ietf-magma-...] [Diff1] [Diff2] [Errata]

PROPOSED STANDARD
Errata Exist
Network Working Group                                          B. Fenner
Request for Comments: 4605                                 AT&T Research
Category: Standards Track                                          H. He
                                                                  Nortel
                                                             B. Haberman
                                                                 JHU-APL
                                                              H. Sandick
                                          Little River Elementary School
                                                             August 2006


              Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) /
     Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD)-Based Multicast Forwarding
                         ("IGMP/MLD Proxying")

Status of This Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).

Abstract

   In certain topologies, it is not necessary to run a multicast routing
   protocol.  It is sufficient for a device to learn and proxy group
   membership information and simply forward multicast packets based
   upon that information.  This document describes a mechanism for
   forwarding based solely upon Internet Group Management Protocol
   (IGMP) or Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) membership information.

1.  Introduction

   This document applies spanning tree multicast routing [MCAST] to an
   Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) or Multicast Listener
   Discovery (MLD)-only environment.  The topology is limited to a tree,
   since we specify no protocol to build a spanning tree over a more
   complex topology.  The root of the tree is assumed to be connected to
   a wider multicast infrastructure.







Fenner, et al.              Standards Track                     [Page 1]

RFC 4605          IGMP/MLD-Based Multicast Forwarding        August 2006


1.1.  Motivation

   In a simple tree topology, it is not necessary to run a multicast
   routing protocol.  It is sufficient to learn and proxy group
   membership information and simply forward multicast packets based
   upon that information.  One typical example of such a tree topology
   can be found on an edge aggregation box such as a Digital Subscriber
   Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM).  In most deployment scenarios, an
   edge box has only one connection to the core network side and has
   many connections to the customer side.

   Using IGMP/MLD-based forwarding to replicate multicast traffic on
   devices such as the edge boxes can greatly simplify the design and
   implementation of those devices.  By not supporting more complicated
   multicast routing protocols such as Protocol Independent Multicast
   (PIM) or Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP), it
   reduces not only the cost of the devices but also the operational
   overhead.  Another advantage is that it makes the proxy devices
   independent of the multicast routing protocol used by the core
   network routers.  Hence, proxy devices can be easily deployed in any
   multicast network.

   Robustness in an edge box is usually achieved by using a hot spare
   connection to the core network.  When the first connection fails, the
   edge box fails over to the second connection.  IGMP/MLD-based
   forwarding can benefit from such a mechanism and use the spare
   connection for its redundant or backup connection to multicast
   routers.  When an edge box fails over to the second connection, the
   proxy upstream connection can also be updated to the new connection.

1.2.  Applicability Statement

   The IGMP/MLD-based forwarding only works in a simple tree topology.
   The tree must be manually configured by designating upstream and
   downstream interfaces on each proxy device.  In addition, the IP
   addressing scheme applied to the proxying tree topology SHOULD be
   configured to ensure that a proxy device can win the IGMP/MLD Querier
   election to be able to forward multicast traffic.  There are no other
   multicast routers except the proxy devices within the tree, and the
   root of the tree is expected to be connected to a wider multicast
   infrastructure.  This protocol is limited to a single administrative
   domain.

   In more complicated scenarios where the topology is not a tree, a
   more robust failover mechanism is desired, or more than one
   administrative domain is involved, a multicast routing protocol
   should be used.




Fenner, et al.              Standards Track                     [Page 2]

RFC 4605          IGMP/MLD-Based Multicast Forwarding        August 2006


1.3.  Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

   This document is a product of the Multicast & Anycast Group
   Membership (MAGMA) working group within the Internet Engineering Task
   Force.  Comments are solicited and should be addressed to the working
   group's mailing list at magma@ietf.org and/or the authors.

2.  Definitions

2.1.  Upstream Interface

   A proxy device's interface in the direction of the root of the tree.
   Also called the "Host interface".

2.2.  Downstream Interface

   Each of a proxy device's interfaces that is not in the direction of
   the root of the tree.  Also called the "Router interfaces".

2.3.  Group Mode

   In IPv4 environments, for each multicast group, a group is in IGMP
   version 1 (IGMPv1) [RFC1112] mode if an IGMPv1 report is heard.  A
   group is in IGMP version 2 (IGMPv2) [RFC2236] mode if an IGMPv2
   report is heard but no IGMPv1 report is heard.  A group is in IGMP
   version 3 (IGMPv3) [RFC3376] mode if an IGMPv3 report is heard but no
   IGMPv1 or IGMPv2 report is heard.


   In IPv6 environments, for each multicast group, a group is in MLD
   version 1 (MLDv1) [RFC2710] mode if an MLDv1 report is heard.  MLDv1
   is equivalent to IGMPv2.  A group is in MLD version 2 (MLDv2) [MLDv2]
   mode if an MLDv2 report is heard but no MLDv1 report is heard.  MLDv2
   is equivalent to IGMPv3.

2.4.  Subscription

   When a group is in IGMPv1 or IGMPv2/MLDv1 mode, the subscription is a
   group membership on an interface.  When a group is in IGMPv3/MLDv2
   mode, the subscription is an IGMPv3/MLDv2 state entry, i.e., a
   (multicast address, group timer, filter-mode, source-element list)
   tuple, on an interface.





Fenner, et al.              Standards Track                     [Page 3]

RFC 4605          IGMP/MLD-Based Multicast Forwarding        August 2006


2.5.  Membership Database

   The database maintained at each proxy device into which the
   membership information of each of its downstream interfaces is
   merged.  The membership database is a set of membership records of
   the form:

         (multicast-address, filter-mode, source-list)

   Please refer to IGMPv3/MLDv2 [RFC3376, MLDv2] specifications for the
   definition of the fields "filter-mode" and "source-list".  The
   operational behaviors of the membership database is defined in
   section 4.1.

3.  Abstract Protocol Definition

   A proxy device performing IGMP/MLD-based forwarding has a single
   upstream interface and one or more downstream interfaces.  These
   designations are explicitly configured; there is no protocol to
   determine what type each interface is.  It performs the router
   portion of the IGMP [RFC1112, RFC2236, RFC3376] or MLD [RFC2710,
   MLDv2] protocol on its downstream interfaces, and the host portion of
   IGMP/MLD on its upstream interface.  The proxy device MUST NOT
   perform the router portion of IGMP/MLD on its upstream interface.

   The proxy device maintains a database consisting of the merger of all
   subscriptions on any downstream interface.  Refer to Section 4 for
   the details about the construction and maintenance of the membership
   database.

   The proxy device sends IGMP/MLD membership reports on the upstream
   interface when queried and sends unsolicited reports or leaves when
   the database changes.

   When the proxy device receives a packet destined for a multicast
   group (channel in Source-Specific Multicast (SSM)), it uses a list
   consisting of the upstream interface and any downstream interface
   that has a subscription pertaining to this packet and on which it is
   the IGMP/MLD Querier.  This list may be built dynamically or cached.
   It removes the interface on which this packet arrived from the list
   and forwards the packet to the remaining interfaces (this may include
   the upstream interface).

   Note that the rule that a proxy device must be the querier in order
   to forward packets restricts the IP addressing scheme used; in
   particular, the IGMP/MLD-based forwarding devices must be given the
   lowest IP addresses of any potential IGMP/MLD Querier on the link, in
   order to win the IGMP/MLD Querier election.  IGMP/MLD Querier



Fenner, et al.              Standards Track                     [Page 4]

RFC 4605          IGMP/MLD-Based Multicast Forwarding        August 2006


   election rule defines that the Querier that has the lowest IP address
   wins the election.  (The IGMP/MLD Querier election rule is defined in
   IGMP/MLD specifications as part of the IGMP/MLD behavior.)  So in an
   IGMP/MLD-based forwarding-only environment, if non-proxy device wins
   the IGMP/MLD Querier election, no packets will flow.

   For example, the figure below shows an IGMP/MLD-based forwarding-only
   environment:

           LAN 1  --------------------------------------
                  Upstream |              | Upstream
                           A(non-proxy)   B(proxy)
                Downstream |(lowest IP)   | Downstream
           LAN 2  --------------------------------------

   Device A has the lowest IP address on LAN 2, but it is not a proxy
   device.  According to IGMP/MLD Querier election rule, A will win the
   election on LAN 2 since it has the lowest IP address.  Device B will
   not forward traffic to LAN 2 since it is not the querier on LAN 2.


   The election of a single forwarding proxy is necessary to avoid local
   loops and redundant traffic for links that are considered downstream
   links by multiple IGMP/MLD-based forwarders.  This rule "piggy-backs"
   forwarder election on IGMP/MLD Querier election.  The use of the
   IGMP/MLD Querier election process to choose the forwarding proxy
   delivers similar functionality on the local link as the PIM Assert
   mechanism.  On a link with only one IGMP/MLD-based forwarding device,
   this rule MAY be disabled (i.e., the device MAY be configured to
   forward packets to an interface on which it is not the querier).
   However, the default configuration MUST include the querier rule, for
   example, for redundancy purposes, as shown in the figure below:

           LAN 1  --------------------------------------
                  Upstream |              | Upstream
                           A              B
                Downstream |              | Downstream
           LAN 2  --------------------------------------

   LAN 2 can have two proxy devices, A and B.  In such a configuration,
   one proxy device must be elected to forward the packets.  This
   document requires that the forwarder must be the IGMP/MLD querier.
   So proxy device A will forward packets to LAN 2 only if A is the
   querier.  In the above figure, if A is the only proxy device, A can
   be configured to forward packets even though B is the querier.






Fenner, et al.              Standards Track                     [Page 5]

RFC 4605          IGMP/MLD-Based Multicast Forwarding        August 2006


   Note that this does not protect against an "upstream loop".  For
   example, see the figure below:


           LAN 1  --------------------------------------
                  Upstream |              | Downstream
                           A              B
                Downstream |              | Upstream
           LAN 2  --------------------------------------

   B will unconditionally forward packets from LAN 1 to LAN 2, and A
   will unconditionally forward packets from LAN 2 to LAN 1.  This will
   cause an upstream loop.  A multicast routing protocol that employs a
   tree building algorithm is required to resolve loops like this.

3.1.  Topology Restrictions

   This specification describes a protocol that works only in a simple
   tree topology.  The tree must be manually configured by designating
   upstream and downstream interfaces on each proxy device, and the root
   of the tree is expected to be connected to a wider multicast
   infrastructure.

3.2.  Supporting Senders

   In order for senders to send from inside the proxy tree, all traffic
   is forwarded towards the root.  The multicast router(s) connected to
   the wider multicast infrastructure should be configured to treat all
   systems inside the proxy tree as though they were directly connected;
   e.g., for Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM)
   [PIM-SM], these routers should Register-encapsulate traffic from new
   sources within the proxy tree just as they would directly-connected
   sources.

   This information is likely to be manually configured; IGMP/MLD-based
   multicast forwarding provides no way for the routers upstream of the
   proxy tree to know what networks are connected to the proxy tree.  If
   the proxy topology is congruent with some routing topology, this
   information MAY be learned from the routing protocol running on the
   topology; e.g., a router may be configured to treat multicast packets
   from all prefixes learned from routing protocol X via interface Y as
   though they were from a directly connected system.









Fenner, et al.              Standards Track                     [Page 6]

RFC 4605          IGMP/MLD-Based Multicast Forwarding        August 2006


4.  Proxy Device Behavior

   This section describes an IGMP/MLD-based multicast forwarding
   device's actions in more detail.

4.1.  Membership Database

   The proxy device performs the router portion of the IGMP/MLD protocol
   on each downstream interface.  For each interface, the version of
   IGMP/MLD used is explicitly configured and defaults to the highest
   version supported by the system.

   The output of this protocol is a set of subscriptions; this set is
   maintained separately on each downstream interface.  In addition, the
   subscriptions on each downstream interface are merged into the
   membership database.

   The membership database is a set of membership records of the form:

   (multicast-address, filter-mode, source-list)

   Each record is the result of the merge of all subscriptions for that
   record's multicast-address on downstream interfaces.  If some
   subscriptions are IGMPv1 or IGMPv2/MLDv1 subscriptions, these
   subscriptions are converted to IGMPv3/MLDv2 subscriptions.  The
   IGMPv3/MLDv2 and the converted subscriptions are first preprocessed
   to remove the timers in the subscriptions and, if the filter mode is
   EXCLUDE, to remove every source whose source timer > 0.  Then the
   preprocessed subscriptions are merged using the merging rules for
   multiple memberships on a single interface (specified in Section 3.2
   of the IGMPv3 specification [RFC3376] and in Section 4.2 of the MLDv2
   specification [MLDv2]) to create the membership record.  For example,
   there are two downstream interfaces, I1 and I2, that have
   subscriptions for multicast address G.  I1 has an IGMPv2/MLDv1
   subscription that is (G).  I2 has an IGMPv3/MLDv2 subscription that
   has membership information (G, INCLUDE, (S1, S2)).  The I1's
   subscription is converted to an IGMPv3/MLDv2 subscription that has
   membership information (G, EXCLUDE, NULL).  Then the subscriptions
   are preprocessed and merged, and the final membership record is (G,
   EXCLUDE, NULL).

   The proxy device performs the host portion of the IGMP/MLD protocol
   on the upstream interface.  If there is an IGMPv1 or IGMPv2/MLDv1
   querier on the upstream network, then the proxy device will perform
   IGMPv1 or IGMPv2/MLDv1 on the upstream interface accordingly.
   Otherwise, it will perform IGMPv3/MLDv2.





Fenner, et al.              Standards Track                     [Page 7]

RFC 4605          IGMP/MLD-Based Multicast Forwarding        August 2006


   If the proxy device performs IGMPv3/MLDv2 on the upstream interface,
   then when the composition of the membership database changes, the
   change in the database is reported on the upstream interface as
   though this proxy device were a host performing the action.  If the
   proxy device performs IGMPv1 or IGMPv2/MLDv1 on the upstream
   interface, then when the membership records are created or deleted,
   the changes are reported on the upstream interface.  All other
   changes are ignored.  When the proxy device reports using IGMPv1 or
   IGMPv2/MLDv1, only the multicast address field in the membership
   record is used.

4.2.  Forwarding Packets

   A proxy device forwards packets received on its upstream interface to
   each downstream interface based upon the downstream interface's
   subscriptions and whether or not this proxy device is the IGMP/MLD
   Querier on each interface.  A proxy device forwards packets received
   on any downstream interface to the upstream interface, and to each
   downstream interface other than the incoming interface based upon the
   downstream interfaces' subscriptions and whether or not this proxy
   device is the IGMP/MLD Querier on each interface.  A proxy device MAY
   use a forwarding cache in order not to make this decision for each
   packet, but MUST update the cache using these rules any time any of
   the information used to build it changes.

4.3.  SSM Considerations

   To support Source-Specific Multicast (SSM), the proxy device should
   be compliant with the specification about using IGMPv3 for SSM [SSM].
   Note that the proxy device should be compliant with both the IGMP
   Host Requirement and the IGMP Router Requirement for SSM since it
   performs IGMP Host Portion on the upstream interface and IGMP Router
   Portion on each downstream interface.

   An interface can be configured to perform IGMPv1 or IGMPv2.  In this
   scenario, the SSM semantic will not be maintained for that interface.
   However, a proxy device that supports this document should ignore
   those IGMPv1 or IGMPv2 subscriptions sent to SSM addresses.  And more
   importantly, the packets with source-specific addresses SHOULD NOT be
   forwarded to interfaces with IGMPv2 or IGMPv1 subscriptions for these
   addresses.

5.  Security Considerations

   Since only the Querier forwards packets, the IGMP/MLD Querier
   election process may lead to black holes if a non-forwarder is
   elected Querier.  An attacker on a downstream LAN can cause itself to
   be elected Querier, and as a result, no packets would be forwarded.



Fenner, et al.              Standards Track                     [Page 8]

RFC 4605          IGMP/MLD-Based Multicast Forwarding        August 2006


   However, there are some operational ways to avoid this problem.  It
   is fairly common for an operator to number the routers starting from
   the bottom of the subnet.  So an operator SHOULD assign the subnet's
   lowest IP address(es) to a proxy (proxies) in order for the proxy
   (proxies) to win the querier election.

   IGMP/MLD-based forwarding does not provide the "upstream loop"
   detection mechanism described in Section 3.  Hence, to avoid the
   problems caused by an "upstream loop", it MUST be administratively
   assured that such loops don't exist when deploying IGMP/MLD Proxying.

   The IGMP/MLD information presented by the proxy to its upstream
   routers is the aggregation of all its downstream group membership
   information.  Any access control applied on the group membership
   protocol at the upstream router cannot be performed on a single
   subscriber.  That is, the access control will apply equally to all
   the interested hosts reachable via the proxy device.

6.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Erik Nordmark, Dave Thaler, Pekka
   Savola, Karen Kimball, and others for reviewing the specification and
   providing their comments.




























Fenner, et al.              Standards Track                     [Page 9]

RFC 4605          IGMP/MLD-Based Multicast Forwarding        August 2006


7.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3376]  Cain, B., Deering, S., Kouvelas, I., Fenner, B., and A.
              Thyagarajan, "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version
              3", RFC 3376, October 2002.

   [RFC2236]  Fenner, W., "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version
              2", RFC 2236, November 1997.

   [RFC1112]  Deering, S., "Host extensions for IP multicasting", STD 5,
              RFC 1112, August 1989.

   [RFC2710]  Deering, S., Fenner, W., and B. Haberman, "Multicast
              Listener Discovery (MLD) for IPv6", RFC 2710, October
              1999.

   [MLDv2]    Vida, R. and L. Costa, "Multicast Listener Discovery
              Version 2 (MLDv2) for IPv6", RFC 3810, June 2004.

   [SSM]      Holbrook, H., Cain, B., and B. Haberman, "Using Internet
              Group Management Protocol Version 3 (IGMPv3) and Multicast
              Listener Discovery Protocol Version 2 (MLDv2) for Source-
              Specific Multicast", RFC 4604, August 2006.

8.  Informative References

   [MCAST]    Deering, S., "Multicast Routing in a Datagram
              Internetwork", Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University, December
              1991.

   [PIM-SM]   Fenner, B., Handley, M., Holbrook, H., and I. Kouvelas,
              "Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM):
              Protocol Specification (Revised)", RFC 4601, August 2006.















Fenner, et al.              Standards Track                    [Page 10]

RFC 4605          IGMP/MLD-Based Multicast Forwarding        August 2006


Authors'  Addresses

   Bill Fenner
   AT&T Labs - Research
   1 River Oaks Place
   San Jose, CA 95134

   Phone: +1 408 493-8505
   EMail: fenner@research.att.com


   Haixiang He
   Nortel
   600 Technology Park Drive
   Billerica, MA  01821

   EMail: haixiang@nortel.com


   Brian Haberman
   Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab
   11100 Johns Hopkins Road
   Laurel, MD  20723-6099

   EMail: brian@innovationslab.net


   Hal Sandick
   Little River Elementary School
   2315 Snow Hill Road
   Durham, NC  27712

   EMail: sandick@nc.rr.com


















Fenner, et al.              Standards Track                    [Page 11]

RFC 4605          IGMP/MLD-Based Multicast Forwarding        August 2006


Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).

   This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
   contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
   retain all their rights.

   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
   OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
   ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
   INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE
   INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
   WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

Intellectual Property

   The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
   Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed to
   pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in
   this document or the extent to which any license under such rights
   might or might not be available; nor does it represent that it has
   made any independent effort to identify any such rights.  Information
   on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC documents can be
   found in BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any
   assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result of an
   attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of
   such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this
   specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository at
   http://www.ietf.org/ipr.

   The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
   copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
   rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement
   this standard.  Please address the information to the IETF at
   ietf-ipr@ietf.org.

Acknowledgement

   Funding for the RFC Editor function is provided by the IETF
   Administrative Support Activity (IASA).







Fenner, et al.              Standards Track                    [Page 12]


Html markup produced by rfcmarkup 1.109, available from https://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcmarkup/