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PROPOSED STANDARD
Errata Exist
Network Working Group                                          E. Gunduz
Request for Comments: 4698                                      RIPE NCC
Category: Standards Track                                      A. Newton
                                                          VeriSign, Inc.
                                                                 S. Kerr
                                                                RIPE NCC
                                                            October 2006


                 IRIS: An Address Registry (areg) Type
             for the Internet Registry Information Service

Status of This Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).

Abstract

   This document describes an IRIS registry schema for IP address and
   Autonomous System Number information.  The schema extends the
   necessary query and result operations of IRIS to provide the
   functional information service needs for syntaxes and results used by
   Internet Protocol address registries.




















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Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................3
   2. Document Terminology ............................................3
   3. Schema Description ..............................................3
      3.1. Query Derivatives ..........................................4
           3.1.1. <findContacts> Query ................................4
           3.1.2. <findOrganizations> .................................4
           3.1.3. <findAutonomousSystemsByName> and
                  <findNetworksByName> ................................5
           3.1.4. <findNetworksByAddress> .............................5
           3.1.5. <findNetworksByHandle> ..............................6
           3.1.6. <findASByNumber> ....................................6
           3.1.7. <findByContact> .....................................7
           3.1.8. <findNetworksByNameServer> ..........................7
           3.1.9. Contact Search Group ................................8
           3.1.10. Common Search Group ................................8
           3.1.11. Match Parameters ...................................8
      3.2. Result Derivatives .........................................9
           3.2.1. <ipv4Network> and <ipv6Network> Results .............9
           3.2.2. <autonomousSystem> Result ..........................10
           3.2.3. <contact> Result ...................................11
           3.2.4. <organization> Result ..............................12
           3.2.5. Contact References .................................12
           3.2.6. Common Result Child Elements .......................13
      3.3. Support for <iris:lookupEntity> ...........................13
   4. Terminology for Nesting of Networks ............................14
   5. Formal XML Syntax ..............................................18
   6. BEEP Transport Compliance ......................................31
      6.1. Message Pattern ...........................................31
      6.2. Server Authentication .....................................31
   7. URI Resolution .................................................31
      7.1. Application Service Label .................................31
      7.2. Operational Considerations ................................31
      7.3. Top-Down Resolution .......................................31
   8. Internationalization Considerations ............................32
   9. IANA Considerations ............................................32
   10. Security Considerations .......................................32
   11. References ....................................................33
      11.1. Normative References .....................................33
      11.2. Informative References ...................................33
   Appendix A. Privacy Considerations ................................34
   Appendix B. Example Requests and Responses ........................34
      B.1. Example 1 .................................................34
      B.2. Example 2 .................................................36
   Appendix C. Specificity Examples ..................................39
   Appendix D. Contributors ..........................................46
   Appendix E. Acknowledgements ......................................46



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1.  Introduction

   An Internet address registry stores information about:

   o  address ranges

   o  autonomous system number ranges

   o  associated contacts and organizations

   o  name servers

   This information is interrelated, and Internet address registries
   store this information and the information's interrelationships in a
   manner befitting the needs of each Internet address registry and its
   constituents.  This document specifies a method for accessing and
   retrieving this information in a common XML format.

   This document describes an IRIS namespace for Internet address
   registries using an XML Schema [8] derived from and using the IRIS
   [2] schema.  This schema and registry type are provided to
   demonstrate the extensibility of the IRIS framework beyond the use of
   domains, a criteria defined in CRISP [4].

   The schema given is this document is specified using the Extensible
   Markup Language (XML) 1.0 as described in XML [5], XML Schema
   notation as described in XML_SD [7] and XML_SS [8], and XML
   Namespaces as described in XML_NS [6].

   Examples of client/server XML exchanges with this registry type are
   available in Appendix B.

2.  Document Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [1].

3.  Schema Description

   IRIS requires the derivation of both query and result elements by a
   registry schema.  Descriptions for these follow.

   The descriptions contained within this section refer to XML elements
   and attributes and their relation to the exchange of data within the
   protocol.  These descriptions also contain specifications outside the
   scope of the formal XML syntax.  Therefore, this section will use
   terms defined by RFC 2119 [1] to describe the specification outside



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   the scope of the formal XML syntax.  While reading this section,
   please reference Section 5 for needed details on the formal XML
   syntax.

3.1.  Query Derivatives

3.1.1.  <findContacts> Query

   <findContacts> searches for contacts given search constraints.

   The allowable search fields are handled by one of the elements in the
   "contactSearchGroup" (see Section 3.1.9) or the element
   <organizationId>.  The <organizationId> element constrains the query
   based on the organization ID (handle) associated with contacts.  This
   element is an "exactMatchParameter" (see Section 3.1.11).

   This query also provides optional <language> elements containing
   language tags.  Clients MAY use these elements to give a hint about
   the natural language(s) of the affected element.  Servers MAY use
   this information in processing the query, such as tailoring
   normalization routines to aid in more effective searches.

   The client SHOULD pass the names unchanged to the server, and the
   implementation of the server decides if the search is case sensitive
   or not.

3.1.2.  <findOrganizations>

   <findOrganizations> searches for organizations given search
   constraints.

   The allowable search fields are handled by one of the elements in the
   "commonSearchGroup" (see Section 3.1.10) or the element
   <organizationName>.  This element is an
   "exactOrPartialMatchParameter" (see Section 3.1.11).

   This query also provides optional <language> elements containing
   language tags.  Clients MAY use these elements to give a hint about
   the natural language(s) of the affected element.  Servers MAY use
   this information in processing the query, such as tailoring
   normalization routines to aid in more effective searches.

   The client SHOULD pass the names unchanged to the server, and the
   implementation of the server decides if the search is case sensitive
   or not.






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3.1.3.  <findAutonomousSystemsByName> and <findNetworksByName>

   The <findAutonomousSystemsByName> and <findNetworksByName> elements
   allow searches by name of autonomous systems and networks,
   respectively.  Both have the same format.

   The child element <name> is an "exactOrPartialMatchParameter" (see
   Section 3.1.11).

   This query also provides optional <language> elements containing
   language tags.  Clients MAY use these elements to give a hint about
   the natural language(s) of the affected element.  Servers MAY use
   this information in processing the query, such as tailoring
   normalization routines to aid in more effective searches.

   The client SHOULD pass the names unchanged to the server, and the
   implementation of the server decides if the search is case sensitive
   or not.

3.1.4.  <findNetworksByAddress>

   The <findNetworksByAddress> element is a query for a network given a
   related IP address or IP address range.  It has the following child
   elements:

   o  <ipv4Address> - has a child <start> element containing the
      starting IPv4 address of the network and an optional child of
      <end> containing the ending IPv4 address of the network.  Clients
      MUST convert any short-form notation to the fully-qualified
      notation.

   o  <ipv6Address> - same as <ipv4Address>, but the child addresses
      contain IPv6 addresses.  Clients MUST convert any short-form
      notation to the fully-qualified notation.

   o  <specificity> - determines the network specificity for the search
      (see Section 4).  Valid values are "exact-match", "all-less-
      specific", "one-level-less-specific", "all-more-specific", and
      "one-level-more-specific".  This element may have the optional
      attribute 'allowEquivalences'.  When it is set to "true", the
      result set should include networks with equivalent starting and
      ending addresses.  The default value for 'allowEquivalences' is
      "false".

   The results from this query MUST be either <ipv4Network> or
   <ipv6Network> results.  More than one network result MAY be returned.





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3.1.5.  <findNetworksByHandle>

   The <findNetworksByHandle> element is a query for a network given a
   the handle of a related network.  It has the following child
   elements:

   o  <networkHandle> - specifies the network handle.

   o  <specificity> - determines the network specificity for the search
      (see Section 4).  Valid values are "all-less-specifics", "one-
      level-less-specifics", "all-more-specifics", and "one-level-more-
      specifics".

   The results from this query MUST be either <ipv4Network> or
   <ipv6Network> results.  More than one network result MAY be returned.

   This query could be used to discover the parentage relationships
   between networks that have the same starting and ending addresses.

   The client SHOULD pass handles unchanged to the server, and the
   implementation of the server decides if the search is case sensitive
   or not.

3.1.6.  <findASByNumber>

   The <findASByNumber> element allows a search for autonomous systems
   given an autonomous system number (ASN) range.  It has the following
   child elements:

   o  <asNumberStart> - specifies the start of the ASN range.

   o  <asNumberEnd> - specifies the end of the ASN range.

   o  <specificity> - determines the range specificity for the search
      (see Section 4).  Valid values are "exact-match", "all-less-
      specific", "one-level-less-specific", "all-more-specific", and
      "one-level-more-specific".  This element may have the optional
      attribute 'allowEquivalences'.  When it is set to "true", the
      result set should include ranges with equivalent starting and
      ending numbers.  The default value for 'allowEquivalences' is
      "false".

   The results from this query MUST be <autonomousSystem> results.  More
   than one result MAY be returned.







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3.1.7.  <findByContact>

   The <findByContact> element allows a search for autonomous systems,
   IP networks, and organizations on fields associated with that
   entity's contact.  The optional search element <returnedResultType>
   MUST restrict the results to autonomous systems, IPv4 networks, IPv6
   networks, or organizations using the values 'returnASs',
   'returnIPv4Networks', 'returnIPv6Networks', and
   'returnOrganizations', respectively.

   The allowable search fields are handled with either the
   <contactHandle> element or one of the elements in the
   "contactSearchGroup" (see Section 3.1.9).  The <contactHandle>
   element allows for the entities to be selected based on the contact
   having the specified contact handle, and it is an
   "exactMatchParameter" type (see Section 3.1.11).  The client SHOULD
   pass these search fields unchanged to the server, and the
   implementation of the server decides if the search is case sensitive
   or not.

   The query MAY also be constrained further using the optional <role>
   element.  The contents of this element signify the role the contact
   has with the entity.  The allowable values for this element are
   "adminContact", "nocContact", "techContact", "abuseContact", and
   "otherContact".

   This query also provides optional <language> elements containing
   language tags.  Clients MAY use these elements to give a hint about
   the natural language(s) of the affected element.  Servers MAY use
   this information in processing the query, such as tailoring
   normalization routines to aid in more effective searches.

   The results from this query MUST be <ipv4Network> results,
   <ipv6Network> results, <autonomousSystem> results, or <organization>
   results.  More than one result MAY be returned, and the results MAY
   be of mixed types.

3.1.8.  <findNetworksByNameServer>

   The <findNetworksByNameServer> element allows a search for IP
   networks based on their associated name servers.  The <nameServer>
   element contains the fully qualified domain name of the name server.
   The optional search element <returnedResultType> MUST restrict the
   results to IPv4 networks or IPv6 networks using the values
   'returnIPv4Networks' and 'returnIPv6Networks', respectively.






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   The results from this query MUST be <ipv4Network> or <ipv6Network>
   results.  More than one result MAY be returned, and the results MAY
   be of mixed types.

3.1.9.  Contact Search Group

   Some of the queries above have similar query constraints for
   searching on contacts.  This section describes those common
   parameters.

   <commonName> allows the query to be constrained based on the common
   name of the contact.  This constraint is an
   "exactOrPartialMatchParameter" (see Section 3.1.11).

   This group also contains all the members of the "commonSearchGroup"
   (see Section 3.1.10).

3.1.10.  Common Search Group

   Some of the queries above have similar query constraints for
   searching on contacts.  This section describes those common
   parameters.

   <eMail> constrains the query based on the e-mail address of the
   contact.  This constraint is a "domainResource" type (see
   Section 3.1.11).

   The <city>, <region>, <country>, and <postalCode> elements restrict
   the scope of the query based on the city, region, country, or postal
   code of the contact, respectively.  These constraints are all
   "exactMatchParameter" types (see Section 3.1.11).  The contents of
   <country> MUST be compliant with ISO 3166 [9] two-character country
   codes.

3.1.11.  Match Parameters

   Some of the queries above have constraints that match strings using
   matching parameters.  This section describes those matching
   parameters.

   Elements of type "exactMatchParameter" will have one child element of
   <exactMatch>.  The contents of this child element are to match
   exactly in the use of the constraint.

   Elements of type "partialMatchParameter" will have either a
   <beginsWith> child element with an optional <endsWith> child element
   or an <endsWith> child element.  The content of the <beginsWith>




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   element specifies the beginning character sequence for the
   constraint.  The content of the <endsWith> element specifies the
   ending character sequence for the constraint.

   Elements of type "exactOrPartialMatchParameter" can have either the
   child element allowed with the "exactMatchParameter" type or the
   child elements allowed with the "partialMatchParameter" type.

   Elements of type "domainResource" can have either the child element
   allowed with the "exactMatchParameter" type or a child element of
   <inDomain>.  This parameter type is meant to match email, SIP,
   Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP), and other types of
   "user@domain" addresses.  When this parameter is specified with the
   <exactMatch> child element, the constraint is based on the whole
   email address.  When this parameter is specified with the <inDomain>
   child element, the constraint is based on any email address within
   the domain given.  The <inDomain> MUST only contain a valid domain
   name (i.e., no '@' symbol), and the matching SHOULD take place only
   on the domain given (i.e., no partial matches with respect to
   substrings or parent domains).

3.2.  Result Derivatives

3.2.1.  <ipv4Network> and <ipv6Network> Results

   The <ipv4Network> and <ipv6Network> share a common definition of
   'ipNetworkType'.  It has the following child elements:

   o  <networkHandle> contains the registry-unique assigned handle for
      this network.

   o  <name> contains a human-friendly name for the network.

   o  <startAddress> contains the first IP address of the network.

   o  <endAddress> contains the last IP address of the network.

   o  <networkType> contains a string denoting the type of network.

   o  <networkTypeInfo> is an entity reference to a definition of the
      values explained in a plain natural language.  The referent MUST
      be a <simpleEntity> as defined by [2].

   o  <nameServer> contains the domain name of a nameserver responsible
      for reverse-DNS mapping for this network.






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   o  <organization> contains an entity reference to the organization
      assigned this network.  The referent MUST be an <organization>
      (Section 3.2.4) result.

   o  One of the following:

      *  <parent> contains an entity reference to the parent network of
         this network.  The referent MUST be an <ipv4Network>
         (Section 3.2.1) result if this reference is a child of
         <ipv4Network>.  The referent MUST be an <ipv6Network>
         (Section 3.2.1) result if this reference is a child of
         <ipv6Network>.

      *  <noParent> signifies that this network has no parent network.

   o  Contact references (see Section 3.2.5).

   o  Common child elements (see Section 3.2.6).

3.2.2.  <autonomousSystem> Result

   The <autonomousSystem> element represents an assigned or allocated
   autonomous system number range.  It has the following children:

   o  <asHandle> contains a registry-unique assigned handle for this
      autonomous system number range.

   o  <asNumberStart> contains an integer indicating the starting number
      for the autonomous system number range.

   o  <asNumberEnd> contains an integer indicating the ending number for
      the autonomous system number range.

   o  <name> contains a human-readable name for this autonomous system.

   o  <organization> contains an entity reference to the organization
      assigned or allocated this autonomous system number range.  The
      referent MUST be an <organization> (Section 3.2.4) result.

   o  One of the following:

      *  <parent> contains an entity reference to the parent autonomous
         system of this autonomous system.  The referent MUST be an
         <autonomousSystem> (Section 3.2.2) result.

      *  <noParent> signifies that this autonomous system has no parent
         autonomous system.




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   o  Contact references (see Section 3.2.5).

   o  Common child elements (see Section 3.2.6).

3.2.3.  <contact> Result

   The <contact> element represents the registration of a point of
   contact.  It has the following child elements:

   o  <contactHandle> contains the registry-unique assigned handle for
      this contact.

   o  <commonName> specifies the name of the contact.

   o  <eMail> contains the email address for this contact.

   o  <sip> contains the sip address for this contact.

   o  <organization> contains an entity reference to the organization
      associated with this contact.  The referent MUST be an
      <organization> (Section 3.2.4) result.

   o  <postalAddress> contains information for reaching the contact via
      postal mail.  It is composed of the following child elements:

      *  <address> contains the address for this contact.

      *  <city> contains the city where this contact is located.

      *  <region> contains the national region where this contact is
         located.

      *  <postalCode> contains the postal code where this contact is
         located.

      *  <country> contains the country code where this contact is
         located.  This MUST be compliant with ISO 3166 [9]
         two-character country codes.

   o  <phone> contains child elements describing the phone number of the
      contact.  The child elements are <number>, <extension>, and
      <type>.

   o  Common child elements (see Section 3.2.6).







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3.2.4.  <organization> Result

   The <organization> element represents an organization.  It has the
   following child elements:

   o  <name> contains the name of the organization.

   o  <id> contains a registry-unique identifier for this organization.

   o  <eMail> contains the email address for this organization.

   o  <postalAddress> contains a information for reaching the
      organization via postal mail.  It is composed of the following
      child elements:

      *  <address> contains the address for this organization.

      *  <city> contains the city where this organization is located.

      *  <region> contains the national region where this organization
         is located.

      *  <postalCode> contains the postal code where this organization
         is located.

      *  <country> contains the country code where this organization is
         located.  This MUST be compliant with ISO 3166 [9]
         two-character country codes.

   o  <phone> contains child elements describing the phone number of the
      contact.  The child elements are <number>, <extension>, and
      <type>.

   o  Contact references (see Section 3.2.5).

   o  Common child elements (see Section 3.2.6).

3.2.5.  Contact References

   The registry schema defined in Section 5 normalizes out a group of
   elements used to reference contacts.  This group is used by many of
   the result types for this registry.  The group has the following
   elements, each of which may appear as many times as needed.  The
   referent of each MUST be <contact> (Section 3.2.3) results.

   o  <adminContact>

   o  <techContact>



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   o  <nocContact>

   o  <abuseContact>

   o  <otherContact>

3.2.6.  Common Result Child Elements

   The registry schema defined in Section 5 normalizes out a group of
   common elements that are used most among the result types.  The group
   has the following elements:

   o  <numberResourceRegistry> contains an entity reference to the
      number resource registry of record.  The referent MUST be an
      <organization> (Section 3.2.4) result.

   o  <registrationDate> contains the date of first registration.

   o  <lastUpdatedDate> contains the date when the registration was last
      updated.

   o  The <iris:seeAlso> element contains an entity reference specifying
      an entity that is indirectly associated with this result object.
      This element can be used for comments and remarks.

3.3.  Support for <iris:lookupEntity>

   The following types of entity classes are recognized by the
   <lookupEntity> query of IRIS for this registry:

   o  ipv4-handle - a registry-unique identifier specifying an IPv4
      network.  Queries with these names will yield a <ipv4Network>
      result.

   o  ipv6-handle - a registry-unique identifier specifying an IPv6
      network.  Queries with these names will yield a <ipv6Network>
      result.

   o  as-handle - a registry-unique identifier specifying an autonomous
      system.  It yields a result of <autonomousSystem>.

   o  contact-handle - a registry-unique identifier of a contact.
      Yields a result of <contact>.

   o  organization-id - a registry-unique identifier of an organization.
      Yields a result of <organization>.

   o  The entity names of these entity classes are case insensitive.



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4.  Terminology for Nesting of Networks

   The following terms are defined for describing the nesting of IP
   networks.

   o  More specific: Given two networks, A and B, A is more specific
      than B if network B includes all space of network A, and if
      network B is larger than network A.

   o  Less specific: Opposite of more specific.  The network B is less
      specific than network A if network A's space is completely
      included in network B and if network A is smaller than network B.

   o  Most specific: Given a set of networks, the network or networks
      that are more specific than zero or more specific of the other
      networks in the set, and that are not less specific of any of the
      networks in the set.

   o  Least specific: Given a set of networks, the network or networks
      that are not more specific to any of the other networks in the
      set.

   Examples:

   +-------------------------------------------------------+
   |                                                       |
   | Given the networks A, B, C, and D as follows:         |
   |                                                       |
   |    A    |---------------------------------|           |
   |    B                    |-----------------|           |
   |    C                       |---------|                |
   |    D      |-------|                                   |
   |                                                       |
   |                                                       |
   | Network A is less specific than B, C, and D.          |
   | Network B is more specific than A.                    |
   | Among these four networks, A is the least specific,   |
   |   and C and D are the most specific.                  |
   |                                                       |
   +-------------------------------------------------------+

                        Figure 1: Nesting Example 1









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   +-------------------------------------------------------+
   |                                                       |
   | Given networks E, F, and G:                           |
   |                                                       |
   |    E   |----------|                                   |
   |    F                |--------------|                  |
   |    G     |---|                                        |
   |                                                       |
   | Networks E and F are least specific networks.         |
   | Networks F and G are most specific networks.          |
   |                                                       |
   +-------------------------------------------------------+

                        Figure 2: Nesting Example 2

   The following definitions assume that there are no overlapping
   networks in the database.  A network overlaps with another one when
   they encompass each other's space partially.  Examples:

     A   |---------------------|
     B       |----------------------------|

                        Figure 3: Nesting Example 3

   Here, networks A and B are overlapping networks because network A
   encompasses network B's space partially, and network B encompasses
   network A's space partially.

     C   |------------------|
     D   |---------|

                        Figure 4: Nesting Example 4

   Here, networks C and D are NOT overlapping networks because even if
   network D encompasses a part of network C's space, network C does not
   encompass network D's space partially (it encompasses network D
   completely).

   The address directory can contain more than one network with the same
   range.  They are said to be exact match networks.

   The parent/child relationship in the internet address directory is
   unidirectional.  That is, there might also be parent/child
   relationship with exact match networks, but a network cannot be a
   parent and a child of its exact match network at the same time.






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   The following are nested matching searches:

   (1) all less specifics search: Given a range, find all the networks
       that contain that range (i.e., all less specifics and exact
       matches).  These networks are the networks that fulfill the
       following condition:

   (start(network) <= start(search)) AND (end(network) >= end(search))

   (2) one-level less specifics search: Given a range, find only the
       most specific network that contains that range (could be multiple
       networks, but usually single).  This is the set of networks from
       (1), with the provision that no network in the return set is
       contained by any other network in the set.  If there are exact
       match networks in the set from (1), they both must appear in the
       result set.  The result set may contain a network that is exact
       match to the query range, if the search allows exact matches.

       A  |-------------------------------|
       B  |---------------------------|
       C            |-------|
       Query  |- - - - - - - - - -|

                          Figure 5: Nesting Example 5

       In the above case, the query must return B.

       A  |-------------------------------|
       B  |---------------------------|
       C  |---------------------------|
       D            |-------|
       Query  |- - - - - - - - - -|

                          Figure 6: Nesting Example 6

       Here, the query must return B and C (they are exact matches of
       each other).

       A  |-------------------------------|
       B  |---------------------------|
       C  |---------------------------|
       D            |-------|
       Query        |- - - -|

                          Figure 7: Nesting Example 7






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       Here, the query must return B and C (they are exact matches of
       each other).  D must not be in the result set, as it is exact
       match to the query if the search specifies that exact matches of
       query range should not appear in the result set.

       In Figure 7, if the search specifies that exact matches to the
       query range are allowed in the result set, then only D must be
       returned.

   (3) all more specifics search: Given a range, find all the networks
       that are fully within that range.  The search contains a flag
       that specifies if an exact match to the query range should appear
       in the result set or not.  Thus, the result set may or may not
       contain the exact match to the query range, as instructed by the
       search.

   (start(network) >= start(search)) AND (end(network) <= end(search))

   (4) one-level more specifics search: Given a range, find only the
       least specific networks that are fully within that range.  This
       is the set of networks from (3), with the provision that no
       network in the return set contains any other network in the
       return set.

       Query   |- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -|

       A       |------------------|
       B                           |-------------------------|
       C           |--------|
       D                                      |---------|

                          Figure 8: Nesting Example 8

   (5) exact match search: Given a range, find the networks that begin
       and end on the same IP addresses as the range.  That is, the
       networks that fulfill the following condition:

   (start(network) = start(search)) AND (end(network) = end(search))

   (6) Given a range, find the exact match network if it exists, and if
       it does not, perform the (2) search.

   The following are parent-child relationship searches:

   (7) Given a network handle, find the network that is the direct (one
       level up) parent of the network with the given handle.





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   (8) Given a network handle, find the network or networks that are
       direct (one level down) children of the network with the handle
       given.

5.  Formal XML Syntax

   This IP address registry is specified in the XML Schema notation.
   The formal syntax presented here is a complete schema representation
   suitable for automated validation of an XML instance when combined
   with the formal schema syntax of IRIS.


   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <schema xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
     xmlns:areg="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:areg1"
     xmlns:iris="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:iris1"
     targetNamespace="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:areg1"
     elementFormDefault="qualified" >

     <import namespace="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:iris1" />

     <annotation>
       <documentation> IP address registry schema derived from IRIS
         schema </documentation>
     </annotation>

     <!-- ========================================= -->
     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Query Types                               -->
     <!--                                           -->

     <!-- ========================================= -->
     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Find Autonomous Systems By Name           -->
     <!-- Find Networks By Name                     -->
     <!--                                           -->

     <complexType name="findByNameType" >
       <complexContent>
         <extension base="iris:queryType">
           <sequence>
             <element name="name"
               type="areg:exactOrPartialMatchParameter" />
             <element name="language" type="language" minOccurs="0"
               maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
           </sequence>
         </extension>
       </complexContent>



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     </complexType>

     <element name="findNetworksByName" type="areg:findByNameType"
       substitutionGroup="iris:query" />
     <element name="findAutonomousSystemsByName"
       type="areg:findByNameType"
       substitutionGroup="iris:query" />

     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Address/Address Range type for            -->
     <!--   Find Network                            -->
     <!--                                           -->

     <complexType name="addressRangeType">
       <sequence>
         <element name="start" type="token" />
         <element name="end" type="token" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" />
       </sequence>
     </complexType>

     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Find Networks By Address                  -->
     <!--                                           -->

     <complexType name="findNetworksByAddressType" >
       <complexContent>
         <extension base="iris:queryType">
           <sequence>
             <choice>
               <element name="ipv4Address" type="areg:addressRangeType"
                 />
               <element name="ipv6Address" type="areg:addressRangeType"
                 />
             </choice>
             <element name="specificity">
               <complexType>
                 <simpleContent>
                   <extension base="areg:specificityType" >
                     <attribute name="allowEquivalences" type="boolean"
                       default="false" />
                   </extension>
                 </simpleContent>
               </complexType>
             </element>
           </sequence>
         </extension>
       </complexContent>
     </complexType>



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     <element name="findNetworksByAddress"
       type="areg:findNetworksByAddressType"
       substitutionGroup="iris:query" />

     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Find AS By Number                         -->
     <!--                                           -->

     <complexType name="findASByNumberType" >
       <complexContent>
         <extension base="iris:queryType">
           <sequence>
             <element name="asNumberStart" type="token" />
             <element name="asNumberEnd" type="token" minOccurs="0"
               maxOccurs="1" />
             <element name="specificity">
               <complexType>
                 <simpleContent>
                   <extension base="areg:specificityType" >
                     <attribute name="allowEquivalences" type="boolean"
                       default="false" />
                   </extension>
                 </simpleContent>
               </complexType>
             </element>
           </sequence>
         </extension>
       </complexContent>
     </complexType>

     <element name="findASByNumber" type="areg:findASByNumberType"
       substitutionGroup="iris:query" />

     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Specificity Type                          -->
     <!--                                           -->

     <simpleType name="specificityType">
       <restriction base="string">
         <enumeration value="exact-match" />
         <enumeration value="all-less-specific" />
         <enumeration value="one-level-less-specific" />
         <enumeration value="all-more-specific" />
         <enumeration value="one-level-more-specific" />
       </restriction>
     </simpleType>

     <!--                                           -->



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     <!-- Find By Contact                           -->
     <!--                                           -->

     <complexType name="findByContactType">
       <complexContent>
         <extension base="iris:queryType">
           <sequence>
             <choice>
               <group ref="areg:contactSearchGroup" />
               <element name="contactHandle"
                 type="areg:exactMatchParameter" />
             </choice>
             <element name="returnedResultType" minOccurs="0"
               maxOccurs="1" >
               <simpleType>
                 <restriction base="string" >
                   <enumeration value="returnASs" />
                   <enumeration value="returnIPv4Networks" />
                   <enumeration value="returnIPv6Networks" />
                   <enumeration value="returnOrganizations" />
                 </restriction>
               </simpleType>
             </element>
             <element name="role" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" >
               <simpleType>
                 <restriction base="string" >
                   <enumeration value="adminContact" />
                   <enumeration value="techContact" />
                   <enumeration value="nocContact" />
                   <enumeration value="abuseContact" />
                   <enumeration value="otherContact" />
                 </restriction>
               </simpleType>
             </element>
             <element name="language" type="language" minOccurs="0"
               maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
           </sequence>
         </extension>
       </complexContent>
     </complexType>

     <element name="findByContact" type="areg:findByContactType"
       substitutionGroup="iris:query" />

     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Find Networks By Handle                   -->
     <!--                                           -->




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     <complexType name="findNetworksByHandleType" >
       <complexContent>
         <extension base="iris:queryType">
           <sequence>
             <element name="networkHandle" type="token" />
             <element name="specificity"
               type="areg:specificitySubsetType" />
           </sequence>
         </extension>
       </complexContent>
     </complexType>

     <element name="findNetworksByHandle"
       type="areg:findNetworksByHandleType"
       substitutionGroup="iris:query" />

     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Specificity Subtype                       -->
     <!--                                           -->

     <simpleType name="specificitySubsetType">
       <restriction base="string">
         <enumeration value="all-less-specific" />
         <enumeration value="one-level-less-specific" />
         <enumeration value="all-more-specific" />
         <enumeration value="one-level-more-specific" />
       </restriction>
     </simpleType>

     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Find Contacts                             -->
     <!--                                           -->

     <complexType name="findContactsType">
       <complexContent>
         <extension base="iris:queryType">
           <sequence>
             <choice>
               <group ref="areg:contactSearchGroup" />
               <element name="organizationId"
                 type="areg:exactMatchParameter" />
             </choice>
             <element name="language" type="language" minOccurs="0"
               maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
           </sequence>
         </extension>
       </complexContent>
     </complexType>



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     <element name="findContacts" type="areg:findContactsType"
       substitutionGroup="iris:query" />

     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Find Organizations                        -->
     <!--                                           -->

     <complexType name="findOrganizationsType">
       <complexContent>
         <extension base="iris:queryType">
           <sequence>
             <choice>
               <element name="organizationName"
                 type="areg:exactOrPartialMatchParameter" />
               <group ref="areg:commonSearchGroup" />
             </choice>
             <element name="language" type="language" minOccurs="0"
               maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
           </sequence>
         </extension>
       </complexContent>
     </complexType>

     <element name="findOrganizations" type="areg:findOrganizationsType"
       substitutionGroup="iris:query" />

     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Find Networks by Name Server              -->
     <!--                                           -->

     <complexType name="findNetworksByNameServerType">
       <complexContent>
         <extension base="iris:queryType">
           <sequence>
             <element name="nameServer" type="normalizedString" />
             <element name="returnedResultType" minOccurs="0"
               maxOccurs="1" >
               <simpleType>
                 <restriction base="string" >
                   <enumeration value="returnIPv4Networks" />
                   <enumeration value="returnIPv6Networks" />
                 </restriction>
               </simpleType>
             </element>
           </sequence>
         </extension>
       </complexContent>
     </complexType>



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     <element name="findNetworksByNameServer"
       type="areg:findNetworksByNameServerType"
       substitutionGroup="iris:query" />

     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Contact Search Group                      -->
     <!--                                           -->

     <group name="contactSearchGroup">
       <choice>
         <element name="commonName"
           type="areg:exactOrPartialMatchParameter" />
         <group ref="areg:commonSearchGroup" />
       </choice>
     </group>

     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Common Search Group                       -->
     <!--                                           -->

     <group name="commonSearchGroup">
       <choice>
         <element name="eMail" type="areg:domainResourceParameter" />
         <element name="city" type="areg:exactMatchParameter" />
         <element name="region" type="areg:exactMatchParameter" />
         <element name="country" type="areg:exactMatchParameter" />
         <element name="postalCode" type="areg:exactMatchParameter" />
       </choice>
     </group>

     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Parameters for Search Groups              -->
     <!--                                           -->

     <complexType name="exactOrPartialMatchParameter">
       <choice>
         <group ref="areg:partialMatchGroup" />
         <group ref="areg:exactMatchGroup" />
       </choice>
     </complexType>

     <complexType name="exactMatchParameter">
       <group ref="areg:exactMatchGroup" />
     </complexType>

     <complexType name="partialMatchParameter">
       <sequence>
         <group ref="areg:partialMatchGroup" />



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       </sequence>
     </complexType>

     <complexType name="domainResourceParameter" >
       <choice>
         <group ref="areg:exactMatchGroup" />
         <element name="inDomain" type="token" />
       </choice>
     </complexType>

     <group name="partialMatchGroup">
       <choice>
         <sequence>
           <element name="beginsWith">
             <simpleType>
               <restriction base="token">
                 <minLength value="1"/>
               </restriction>
             </simpleType>
           </element>
           <element minOccurs="0" ref="areg:endsWith"/>
         </sequence>
         <element ref="areg:endsWith" />
       </choice>
     </group>

     <element name="endsWith">
       <simpleType>
         <restriction base="token">
           <minLength value="1"/>
         </restriction>
       </simpleType>
     </element>

     <group name="exactMatchGroup">
       <sequence>
         <element name="exactMatch" type="normalizedString" />
       </sequence>
     </group>

     <!-- ========================================= -->
     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Result Types                              -->
     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- ========================================= -->

     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- IPv4 and IPv6 Network Results             -->



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     <!--                                           -->

     <complexType name="ipNetworkType">
       <complexContent>
         <extension base="iris:resultType">
           <sequence>
             <element name="networkHandle" type="token"
               minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" />
             <element name="name" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1"
               type="normalizedString" />
             <element name="startAddress" type="token" />
             <element name="endAddress" type="token" />
             <sequence minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1">
               <element name="networkType" type="normalizedString"
                 minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1" />
               <element name="networkTypeInfo" type="iris:entityType"
                 minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" />
             </sequence>
             <element name="nameServer" type="normalizedString"
               minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded" />
             <element name="organization" type="iris:entityType"
               minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" />
             <choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" >
               <element name="parent" type="iris:entityType" />
               <element name="noParent">
               </element>
             </choice>
             <group ref="areg:contactGroup" />
             <group ref="areg:commonGroup" />
           </sequence>
         </extension>
       </complexContent>
     </complexType>

     <element name="ipv4Network" type="areg:ipNetworkType"
       substitutionGroup="iris:result" />

     <element name="ipv6Network" type="areg:ipNetworkType"
       substitutionGroup="iris:result" />

     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Autonomous System                         -->
     <!--                                           -->

     <complexType name="autonomousSystemType">
       <complexContent>
         <extension base="iris:resultType">
           <sequence>



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             <element name="asHandle" type="token"
               minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" />
             <element name="asNumberStart" type="integer" minOccurs="0"
               maxOccurs="1" />
             <element name="asNumberEnd" type="integer" minOccurs="0"
               maxOccurs="1" />
             <element name="name" type="normalizedString" minOccurs="0"
               maxOccurs="1" />
             <element name="organization" type="iris:entityType"
               minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" />
             <choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1">
               <element name="parent" type="iris:entityType" />
               <element name="noParent" />
             </choice>
             <group ref="areg:contactGroup" />
             <group ref="areg:commonGroup" />
           </sequence>
         </extension>
       </complexContent>
     </complexType>

     <element name="autonomousSystem" type="areg:autonomousSystemType"
       substitutionGroup="iris:result" />

     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Contact                                   -->
     <!--                                           -->

     <complexType name="contactType">
       <complexContent>
         <extension base="iris:resultType">
           <sequence>
             <element name="contactHandle" type="token"
               minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" />
             <element name="commonName" type="normalizedString"
               minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" />
             <element name="eMail" type="normalizedString" minOccurs="0"
               maxOccurs="unbounded" />
             <element name="sip" type="normalizedString" minOccurs="0"
               maxOccurs="unbounded" />
             <element name="organization" type="iris:entityType"
               minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded" />
             <element name="postalAddress" minOccurs="0"
               maxOccurs="unbounded">
               <complexType>
                 <sequence>
                   <element name="address" type="string" minOccurs="0"
                     maxOccurs="1" />



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                   <element name="city" type="string" minOccurs="0"
                     maxOccurs="1" />
                   <element name="region" type="string" minOccurs="0"
                     maxOccurs="1" />
                   <element name="postalCode" type="normalizedString"
                     minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" />
                   <element name="country" type="token" minOccurs="0"
                     maxOccurs="1" />
                 </sequence>
               </complexType>
             </element>
             <element name="phone" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded" >
               <complexType>
                 <sequence>
                   <element name="number" type="normalizedString" />
                   <element name="extension" type="normalizedString"
                     minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded" />
                   <element name="type" type="normalizedString"
                     minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" />
                 </sequence>
               </complexType>
             </element>
             <group ref="areg:commonGroup" />
           </sequence>
         </extension>
       </complexContent>
     </complexType>

     <element name="contact" type="areg:contactType"
       substitutionGroup="iris:result" />

     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Organization                              -->
     <!--                                           -->

     <complexType name="organizationType">
       <complexContent>
         <extension base="iris:resultType">
           <sequence>
             <element name="name" type="normalizedString"
               minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" />
             <element name="eMail" type="normalizedString" minOccurs="0"
               maxOccurs="unbounded" />
             <element name="id" type="token" />
             <element name="postalAddress" minOccurs="0"
               maxOccurs="unbounded">
               <complexType>
                 <sequence>



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                   <element name="address" type="string" minOccurs="0"
                     maxOccurs="1" />
                   <element name="city" type="string" minOccurs="0"
                     maxOccurs="1" />
                   <element name="region" type="string" minOccurs="0"
                     maxOccurs="1" />
                   <element name="postalCode" type="normalizedString"
                     minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" />
                   <element name="country" type="token" minOccurs="0"
                     maxOccurs="1" />
                 </sequence>
               </complexType>
             </element>
             <element name="phone" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded" >
               <complexType>
                 <sequence>
                   <element name="number" type="normalizedString" />
                   <element name="extension" type="normalizedString"
                     minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded" />
                   <element name="type" type="normalizedString"
                     minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" />
                 </sequence>
               </complexType>
             </element>
             <group ref="areg:contactGroup" />
             <group ref="areg:commonGroup" />
           </sequence>
         </extension>
       </complexContent>
     </complexType>

     <element name="organization" type="areg:organizationType"
       substitutionGroup="iris:result" />

     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Contact Group                             -->
     <!--                                           -->

     <group name="contactGroup">
       <sequence>
         <element name="adminContact" type="iris:entityType"
           minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded" />
         <element name="techContact" type="iris:entityType"
           minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded" />
         <element name="nocContact" type="iris:entityType" minOccurs="0"
           maxOccurs="unbounded" />
         <element name="abuseContact" type="iris:entityType"
           minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded" />



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         <element name="otherContact" type="iris:entityType"
           minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded" />
       </sequence>
     </group>

     <!--                                           -->
     <!-- Common Group                              -->
     <!--                                           -->

     <group name="commonGroup">
       <sequence>
         <element name="numberResourceRegistry" type="iris:entityType"
           minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" />
         <element name="registrationDate" type="dateTime" minOccurs="0"
           maxOccurs="1" />
         <element name="lastUpdatedDate" type="dateTime" minOccurs="0"
           maxOccurs="1" />
         <element ref="iris:seeAlso" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"
           />
       </sequence>
     </group>
   </schema>

                                 Figure 9



























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6.  BEEP Transport Compliance

   IRIS allows several extensions of the core capabilities.  This
   section outlines those extensions allowable by IRIS-BEEP [3].

6.1.  Message Pattern

   This registry type uses the default message pattern as described in
   IRIS-BEEP [3].

6.2.  Server Authentication

   This registry type uses the default server authentication method as
   described in IRIS-BEEP [3].

7.  URI Resolution

7.1.  Application Service Label

   See Section 9 for the application service label registration.

7.2.  Operational Considerations

   Address registries do not have natural links to DNS.  Using reverse
   DNS tree presents problems for IP address delegation (for example,
   delegations do not fall into byte boundaries, unlike reverse DNS),
   and DNS does not currently contain any information regarding
   autonomous system delegation.

   Therefore, in order for the top-down resolution to operate properly,
   it is requested that the IAB instruct IANA to insert and maintain a
   NAPTR DNS resource record for areg.iris.arpa, as described in
   Section 9.

7.3.  Top-Down Resolution

   The top-down alternative resolution method MUST be identified as
   'top' in IRIS URIs.

   The process for this condition is as follows:

   1.  The IRIS [2] direct-resolution process is tried against
       areg.iris.arpa.

   2.  If the direct-resolution process yields no server for which a
       connection can be made, then a negative response is returned, and
       no further action is taken.




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   It is RECOMMENDED that IRIS clients issuing AREG1 requests use the
   'top' resolution method when no resolution method has been explicitly
   given by a user.  IRIS servers accepting AREG1 requests that seek
   information for which they are not authoritative SHOULD refer clients
   using the 'top' resolution method.

8.  Internationalization Considerations

   This document lays out no new considerations for internationalization
   beyond those specified in IRIS [2].

9.  IANA Considerations

   The following URN has been registered with IANA according to the IANA
   considerations defined in IRIS [2]:

      urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:areg1

   The following S-NAPTR application service label has been registered
   with IANA according to the IANA considerations defined in IRIS [2]:

      AREG1

   Under instructions from the IAB, the IANA will create a new second
   level domain under .arpa called iris (i.e., iris.arpa.).  The
   contents of this new domain are to be under the control of the IAB.
   Under instructions from the IAB, the IANA will insert and maintain a
   NAPTR DNS resource record in the iris.arpa. domain for the name
   areg.iris.arpa.  The initial contents for that record is:

   areg.iris.arpa.
   ;;        order pref flags service                   re replacement
   IN NAPTR  100   10   ""    "AREG1:iris.xpc:iris.lwz" "" areg.nro.net

10.  Security Considerations

   This document lays out no new considerations for security precautions
   beyond those specified in IRIS [2].













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11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [1]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
        Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [2]  Newton, A. and M. Sanz, "IRIS: The Internet Registry Information
        Service (IRIS) Core Protocol", RFC 3981, January 2005.

   [3]  Newton, A. and M. Sanz, "Using the Internet Registry Information
        Service (IRIS) over the Blocks Extensible Exchange Protocol
        (BEEP)", RFC 3983, January 2005.

   [4]  Newton, A., "Cross Registry Internet Service Protocol (CRISP)
        Requirements", RFC 3707, February 2004.

11.2.  Informative References

   [5]  World Wide Web Consortium, "Extensible Markup Language (XML)
        1.0", W3C XML, February 1998,
        <http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/REC-xml-19980210>.

   [6]  World Wide Web Consortium, "Namespaces in XML", W3C XML
        Namespaces, January 1999,
        <http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-xml-names-19990114>.

   [7]  World Wide Web Consortium, "XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes",
        W3C XML Schema, October 2000,
        <http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xmlschema-2-20010502/>.

   [8]  World Wide Web Consortium, "XML Schema Part 1: Structures",
        W3C XML Schema, October 2000,
        <http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xmlschema-1-20010502/>.

   [9]  International Organization for Standardization, "Codes for the
        representation of names of countries, 3rd edition", ISO Standard
        3166, August 1988.













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Appendix A.  Privacy Considerations

   Internet address registries store contact details and other
   information that may be abused.  The XML Schema defined in this
   document purposefully makes the inclusion of any data in a response
   an option that is dependent on the needs and policies of the Internet
   address registry serving the data.

   Combined with the authentication mechanisms of an IRIS transfer
   protocol, Internet address registries may derive authorization
   policies to meet their needs without compromising general privacy
   policies.  As an example, the constituents of an Internet address
   registry may create a policy whereby NOC contact email addresses are
   only to be available to members of the Internet address registry.  To
   institute this policy, the XML elements for NOC contacts will never
   appear in a response to a user that has not been authenticated to be
   a member of the Internet address registry.

Appendix B.  Example Requests and Responses

   The examples in this section use the string "C:" to denote data sent
   by a client to a server and the string "S:" to denote data sent by a
   server to a client.

B.1.  Example 1

   The following is an example of entity lookup for the contact-handle
   of 'JN560-RIR1'.

   C: <?xml version="1.0"?>
   C: <request xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:iris1"
   C:   xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
   C:   xsi:schemaLocation="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:iris1 iris.xsd" >
   C:
   C:   <searchSet>
   C:
   C:     <lookupEntity
   C:       registryType="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:areg1"
   C:       entityClass="contact-handle"
   C:       entityName="JN560-RIR1" />
   C:
   C:   </searchSet>
   C:
   C: </request>

   S: <?xml version="1.0"?>
   S: <iris:response
   S:   xmlns:iris="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:iris1"



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   S:   xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:areg1"
   S:   xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
   S:
   S:   <iris:resultSet>
   S:     <iris:answer>
   S:
   S:       <contact
   S:         authority="rir.example.net"
   S:         registryType="areg1"
   S:         entityClass="contact-handle"
   S:         entityName="JN560-RIR1">
   S:
   S:         <contactHandle>JN560-RIR1</contactHandle>
   S:
   S:         <commonName>Bob Smurd</commonName>
   S:
   S:         <organization
   S:           iris:referentType="organization"
   S:           authority="rir.example.net"
   S:           registryType="areg1"
   S:           entityClass="organization-id"
   S:           entityName="ORGX">
   S:           <iris:displayName
   S:             language="en">
   S:             Organization X, Inc.
   S:           </iris:displayName>
   S:         </organization>
   S:
   S:         <phone>
   S:           <number>+1-703-555-5555</number>
   S:           <type>office</type>
   S:         </phone>
   S:
   S:       </contact>
   S:
   S:     </iris:answer>
   S:   </iris:resultSet>
   S:
   S: </iris:response>

                           Figure 11: Example 1










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B.2.  Example 2

   The following example shows a query to find the IP networks
   containing a given address.

   C: <?xml version="1.0"?>
   C: <request xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:iris1"
   C:          xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
   C:
   C:   <searchSet>
   C:     <findNetworksByAddress
   C:       xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:areg1">
   C:
   C:       <ipv4Address>
   C:         <start>192.0.2.134</start>
   C:       </ipv4Address>
   C:
   C:       <specificity
   C:         allowEquivalences="true"
   C:         >one-level-less-specific</specificity>
   C:
   C:     </findNetworksByAddress>
   C:   </searchSet>
   C:
   C: </request>

   S: <?xml version="1.0"?>
   S: <iris:response xmlns:iris="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:iris1"
   S:   xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
   S:
   S:   <iris:resultSet>
   S:     <iris:answer>
   S:       <areg:ipv4Network
   S:         xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:areg1"
   S:         xmlns:areg="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:areg1"
   S:         xsi:schemaLocation="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:areg1 areg.xsd"
   S:         authority="rir.example.net" registryType="areg1"
   S:         entityClass="ipv4-handle" entityName="NET-192-0-2-128-1" >
   S:         <networkHandle>
   S:           NET-192-0-2-128-1
   S:         </networkHandle>
   S:         <name>
   S:           UU-192-0-2-D6
   S:         </name>
   S:         <startAddress>
   S:           192.0.2.128
   S:         </startAddress>
   S:         <endAddress>



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   S:           192.0.2.255
   S:         </endAddress>
   S:         <networkType>reassigned</networkType>
   S:         <organization
   S:           iris:referentType="areg:organization"
   S:           authority="rir.example.net" registryType="areg1"
   S:           entityClass="organization-id" entityName="ORGX">
   S:           <iris:displayName language="en">
   S:             Organization X, Inc.
   S:           </iris:displayName>
   S:         </organization>
   S:         <parent
   S:           iris:referentType="areg:ipv4Network"
   S:           authority="rir.example.net" registryType="areg1"
   S:           entityClass="ipv4-handle" entityName="NET-192-0-2-0-1"/>
   S:         <techContact
   S:           iris:referentType="areg:contact"
   S:           authority="rir.example.net" registryType="areg1"
   S:           entityClass="contact-handle" entityName="JN560-RIR1">
   S:           <iris:displayName language="en">
   S:             Smurd, Bob
   S:           </iris:displayName>
   S:         </techContact>
   S:         <registrationDate>
   S:           2002-11-18T00:00:00-00:00
   S:         </registrationDate>
   S:         <lastUpdatedDate>
   S:           2002-11-18T00:00:00-00:00
   S:         </lastUpdatedDate>
   S:         <iris:seeAlso
   S:           iris:referentType="ANY"
   S:           authority="rir.example.net" registryType="areg1"
   S:           entityClass="local" entityName="portability-notice"/>
   S:       </areg:ipv4Network>
   S:       <areg:ipv4Network
   S:         xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:areg1"
   S:         xmlns:areg="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:areg1"
   S:         xsi:schemaLocation="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:areg1 areg.xsd"
   S:         authority="rir.example.net" registryType="areg1"
   S:         entityClass="ipv4-handle" entityName="NET-192-0-2-0-2" >
   S:         <networkHandle>
   S:           NET-192-0-2-0-2
   S:         </networkHandle>
   S:         <name>
   S:           UU-192-0-2-0-D5
   S:         </name>
   S:         <startAddress>
   S:           192.0.2.0



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   S:         </startAddress>
   S:         <endAddress>
   S:           192.0.2.255
   S:         </endAddress>
   S:         <networkType>direct allocation</networkType>
   S:         <nameServer>auth03.ns.example.org</nameServer>
   S:         <nameServer>auth00.ns.example.org</nameServer>
   S:         <organization
   S:           iris:referentType="areg:organization"
   S:           authority="rir.example.net" registryType="areg1"
   S:           entityClass="organization-id" entityName="ORGY">
   S:           <iris:displayName language="en">
   S:             Organization Y, Inc.
   S:           </iris:displayName>
   S:         </organization>
   S:         <parent
   S:           iris:referentType="areg:ipv4Network"
   S:           authority="rir.example.net" registryType="areg1"
   S:           entityClass="ipv4-handle" entityName="NET-192-0-2-0-1"/>
   S:         <techContact
   S:           iris:referentType="areg:contact"
   S:           authority="rir.example.net" registryType="areg1"
   S:           entityClass="contact-handle" entityName="OA12-RIR1" />
   S:         <registrationDate>
   S:           2000-10-27T00:00:00-00:00
   S:         </registrationDate>
   S:         <lastUpdatedDate>
   S:           2002-02-13T00:00:00-00:00
   S:         </lastUpdatedDate>
   S:         <iris:seeAlso
   S:           iris:referentType="ANY"
   S:           authority="rir.example.net" registryType="areg1"
   S:           entityClass="local" entityName="portability-notice"/>
   S:       </areg:ipv4Network>
   S:     </iris:answer>
   S:     <iris:additional>
   S:       <iris:simpleEntity
   S:         authority="rir.example.net" registryType="areg1"
   S:         entityClass="local" entityName="portability-notice" >
   S:         <iris:property name="portability" language="en">
   S:           Addresses within this block are non-portable.
   S:         </iris:property>









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   S:       </iris:simpleEntity>
   S:     </iris:additional>
   S:   </iris:resultSet>
   S:
   S: </iris:response>

                           Figure 12: Example 2

Appendix C.  Specificity Examples

   This section includes examples to clarify specificity options for
   network and ASN searches.

   A    |------------------|                     192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.15

   B                        |------------------| 192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.31

   C    |--------------|                         192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.9

   D                        |---------------|    192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.30

   E                        |---------------|    192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.30

   F    |--------|                               192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.5

   G              |----|                         192.0.2.6  - 192.0.2.9


                        Contents of the DB

                     Figure 13: Specificity Example 1




















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   A    |------------------|                     192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.15

   B                        |------------------| 192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.31

   C    |--------------|                         192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.9

   D                        |---------------|    192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.30

   E                        |---------------|    192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.30

   F    |--------|                               192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.5

   G              |----|                         192.0.2.6  - 192.0.2.9

   Query|- - - - - - - |                         192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.9


                        Exact match (1)

                        Result: C

                     Figure 14: Specificity Example 2


   A    |------------------|                     192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.15

   B                        |------------------| 192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.31

   C    |--------------|                         192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.9

   D                        |---------------|    192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.30

   E                        |---------------|    192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.30

   F    |--------|                               192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.5

   G              |----|                         192.0.2.6  - 192.0.2.9

   Query|- - - - - - - - |                       192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.12


                         Exact match (2)

                         Result: None

                     Figure 15: Specificity Example 3





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   A    |------------------|                     192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.15

   B                        |------------------| 192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.31

   C    |--------------|                         192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.9

   D                        |---------------|    192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.30

   E                        |---------------|    192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.30

   F    |--------|                               192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.5

   G              |----|                         192.0.2.6  - 192.0.2.9

   Query|- - - - - - - - - |                     192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.15


                All more specifics, allowEquivalences = false

                Result: C, F, & G (A is not included; exact match)

                     Figure 16: Specificity Example 4


   A    |------------------|                     192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.15

   B                        |------------------| 192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.31

   C    |--------------|                         192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.9

   D                        |---------------|    192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.30

   E                        |---------------|    192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.30

   F    |--------|                               192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.5

   G              |----|                         192.0.2.6  - 192.0.2.9

   Query|- - - - - - - - - |                     192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.15


                All more specifics, allowEquivalences = true

                Result: A, C, F, & G (A is included; exact match)

                     Figure 17: Specificity Example 5





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   A    |------------------|                     192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.15

   B                        |------------------| 192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.31

   C    |--------------|                         192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.9

   D                        |---------------|    192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.30

   E                        |---------------|    192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.30

   F    |--------|                               192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.5

   G              |----|                         192.0.2.6  - 192.0.2.9

   Query|- - - - - - - - - |                     192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.15


                One level more specifics, allowEquivalences = false

                Result: C

                     Figure 18: Specificity Example 6


   A    |------------------|                     192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.15

   B                        |------------------| 192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.31

   C    |--------------|                         192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.9

   D                        |---------------|    192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.30

   E                        |---------------|    192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.30

   F    |--------|                               192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.5

   G              |----|                         192.0.2.6  - 192.0.2.9

   Query|- - - - - - - - - |                     192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.15


                One level more specifics, allowEquivalences = true

                Result: A

                     Figure 19: Specificity Example 7





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   A    |------------------|                     192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.15

   B                        |------------------| 192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.31

   C    |--------------|                         192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.9

   D                        |---------------|    192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.30

   E                        |---------------|    192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.30

   F    |--------|                               192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.5

   G              |----|                         192.0.2.6  - 192.0.2.9

   Query          |- - |                         192.0.2.6  - 192.0.2.9


                All less specifics, allowEquivalences = true

                Result: A, C, & G (G is included; exact match)

                     Figure 20: Specificity Example 8


   A    |------------------|                     192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.15

   B                        |------------------| 192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.31

   C    |--------------|                         192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.9

   D                        |---------------|    192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.30

   E                        |---------------|    192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.30

   F    |--------|                               192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.5

   G              |----|                         192.0.2.6  - 192.0.2.9

   Query          |- - |                         192.0.2.6  - 192.0.2.9


                All less specifics, allowEquivalences = false

                Result: A & C (G is not included; exact match)

                     Figure 21: Specificity Example 9





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   A    |------------------|                     192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.15

   B                        |------------------| 192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.31

   C    |--------------|                         192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.9

   D                        |---------------|    192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.30

   E                        |---------------|    192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.30

   F    |--------|                               192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.5

   G              |----|                         192.0.2.6  - 192.0.2.9

   Query          |- - |                         192.0.2.6  - 192.0.2.9


                One level less specifics, allowEquivalences = true

                Result: G (the exact match)

                     Figure 22: Specificity Example 10


   A    |------------------|                     192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.15

   B                        |------------------| 192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.31

   C    |--------------|                         192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.9

   D                        |---------------|    192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.30

   E                        |---------------|    192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.30

   F    |--------|                               192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.5

   G              |----|                         192.0.2.6  - 192.0.2.9

   Query          |- - |                         192.0.2.6  - 192.0.2.9


                One level less specifics, allowEquivalences = false

                Result: C

                     Figure 23: Specificity Example 11





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   A    |------------------|                     192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.15

   B                        |------------------| 192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.31

   C    |--------------|                         192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.9

   D                        |---------------|    192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.30

   E                        |---------------|    192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.30

   F    |--------|                               192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.5

   G              |----|                         192.0.2.6  - 192.0.2.9

   Query|- - - - - - |                           192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.8


             One level less specifics, allowEquivalences = false or true

             Result: C

                     Figure 24: Specificity Example 12


   A    |------------------|                     192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.15

   B                        |------------------| 192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.31

   C    |--------------|                         192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.9

   D                        |---------------|    192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.30

   E                        |---------------|    192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.30

   F    |--------|                               192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.5

   G              |----|                         192.0.2.6  - 192.0.2.9

   Query  =  E


                  Find parent (Query argument is a handle)

                  Result: D

                     Figure 25: Specificity Example 13





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   A    |------------------|                     192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.15

   B                        |------------------| 192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.31

   C    |--------------|                         192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.9

   D                        |---------------|    192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.30

   E                        |---------------|    192.0.2.16 - 192.0.2.30

   F    |--------|                               192.0.2.0  - 192.0.2.5

   G              |----|                         192.0.2.6  - 192.0.2.9

   Query  =  D


                   Find child (Query argument is a handle)

                   Result: E

                     Figure 26: Specificity Example 14

Appendix D.  Contributors

   David Blacka and Tim Christensen made substantial contributions to
   this document.

Appendix E.  Acknowledgements

   Eric Hall, William Leibzon, April Marine, George Michaelson, Tim
   Christensen Cathy Murphy, Andrei Robachevsky, Marcos Sanz, Frederico
   Neves, Ted Hardie, and many others contributed constructively in the
   mailing list discussions and IETF Meeting sessions.

















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Authors' Addresses

   Engin Gunduz
   RIPE NCC
   Singel 258
   Amsterdam  1016AB
   The Netherlands

   Phone: +31 20 535 4444
   EMail: e.gunduz@computer.org


   Andrew L. Newton
   VeriSign, Inc.
   21345 Ridgetop Circle
   Sterling, VA  20166
   USA

   Phone: +1 703 948 3382
   EMail: andy@hxr.us


   Shane W. Kerr
   RIPE NCC
   Singel 258
   Amsterdam  1016AB
   The Netherlands

   Phone: +31 20 535 4444
   EMail: shane@time-travellers.org





















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Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).

   This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
   contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
   retain all their rights.

   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
   OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
   ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
   INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE
   INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
   WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

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   The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
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   Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any
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   The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
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   this standard.  Please address the information to the IETF at
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Acknowledgement

   Funding for the RFC Editor function is provided by the IETF
   Administrative Support Activity (IASA).







Gunduz, et al.              Standards Track                    [Page 48]


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