[Docs] [txt|pdf] [draft-ietf-enum-pstn] [Diff1] [Diff2] [IPR]

Updated by: 6118 PROPOSED STANDARD

Network Working Group                                       J. Livingood
Request for Comments: 4769                  Comcast Cable Communications
Category: Standards Track                                     R. Shockey
                                                                 NeuStar
                                                           November 2006


            IANA Registration for an Enumservice Containing
    Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) Signaling Information

Status of This Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2006).

Abstract

   This document registers the Enumservice type "pstn" and subtype "tel"
   using the URI scheme 'tel', as well as the subtype "sip" using the
   URI scheme 'sip' as per the IANA registration process defined in the
   ENUM specification, RFC 3761.  This Enumservice is used to facilitate
   the routing of telephone calls in those countries where number
   portability exists.





















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Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................3
   2. Distribution of Data ............................................4
   3. ENUM Service Registration for PSTN ..............................5
      3.1. ENUM Service Registration for PSTN with Subtype "tel" ......5
      3.2. ENUM Service Registration for PSTN with Subtype "sip" ......5
   4. Examples ........................................................6
      4.1. Example of a Ported Number, Using a 'tel' URI Scheme .......6
      4.2. Example of a Ported Number, Using a 'sip' URI Scheme .......6
      4.3. Example of a Non-Ported Number, Using a 'tel' URI Scheme ...7
      4.4. Example of a Non-Ported Number, Using a 'sip' URI Scheme ...7
      4.5. Example Using a Regular Expression .........................7
   5. Implementation Recommendations ..................................7
      5.1. Call Processing When Multiple Records Are Returned .........7
      5.2. NAPTR Configuration issues .................................8
   6. Examples of E2U+pstn in Call Processing .........................8
      6.1. Dialed Number Not Available On-Net .........................8
      6.2. Dialed Number Available On-Net and on the PSTN .............9
   7. Security Considerations .........................................9
   8. IANA Considerations ............................................10
   9. Acknowledgements ...............................................10
   10. References ....................................................10
      10.1. Normative References .....................................10
      10.2. Informative References ...................................11


























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1.  Introduction

   ENUM (E.164 Number Mapping, RFC 3761 [1]) is a technology that
   transforms E.164 numbers (The International Public Telecommunication
   Numbering Plan, ITU-T Recommendation E.164 [2]) into domain names and
   then uses DNS (Domain Name System, RFC 1034 [3]) delegation through
   NS records and NAPTR records (Dynamic Delegation Discovery System
   (DDDS) Part Three: The Domain Name System (DNS) Database, RFC 3403
   [4]) to look up what services are available for a specific domain
   name.

   This document registers Enumservices according to the guidelines
   given in RFC 3761 [1] to be used for provisioning in the services
   field of a NAPTR [4] resource record to indicate the types of
   functionality associated with an end point and/or telephone number.
   The registration is defined within the DDDS (Dynamic Delegation
   Discovery System [4][5][6][7][8]) hierarchy, for use with the "E2U"
   DDDS Application defined in RFC 3761.

   Number Portability allows telephone subscribers to keep their
   telephone numbers when they change service providers, move to a new
   location, or change the subscribed services [14].  In many countries,
   such as the United States and Canada, the functions of naming and
   addressing on the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) have been
   abstracted.  In the case of a ported number, the dialed number is not
   directly routable on the PSTN and must be translated into a routing
   number for call completion.  Other numbers, which are not ported, and
   which can be routed directly on the PSTN based on the dialed number,
   are typically assigned to carriers and other entities in large blocks
   or pools.  Number Portability and other numbering information are
   distributed in a variety of methods and formats around the world.

   The Enumservices described here could enable service providers to
   place ported numbers, pooled numbers, and blocks of numbers and their
   associated PSTN contact information, into externally available or
   highly locally cached ENUM databases.  This, in turn, could enable
   such parties to consolidate all telephone number lookups in their
   networks into a single ENUM lookup, thereby simplifying call routing
   and network operations, which would then result in either an on-net
   (IP-based) response or an off-net (PSTN-based) response.

   The following Enumservice is registered with this document: "pstn" to
   indicate PSTN routing data, including number portability data, non-
   ported telephone number data (individually or in number blocks), and
   other PSTN-oriented data that is associated with E.164 telephone
   numbers.  The purpose of this Enumservice is to provide routing
   information for telephone numbers that do not designate an endpoint
   resident on the public Internet or a private/peered Internet Protocol



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   (IP) network.  Thus, these are numbers that are only routable via the
   traditional PSTN, even if the call originates from an IP network.
   The URIs returned in this service may use the TEL URI parameters
   defined in RFC 4694 [10], and implementations must be prepared to
   accept them.

   The service parameters defined in RFC 3761 indicate that a "type" and
   a "subtype" may be specified.  Within this set of specifications, the
   convention is assumed that the "type" (being the more generic term)
   defines the service and the "subtype" defines the URI scheme.

   When only one URI scheme is associated with a given service, it
   should be assumed that an additional URI scheme to be used with this
   service may be added at a later time.  Thus, the subtype is needed to
   identify the specific Enumservice intended.

2.  Distribution of Data

   The distribution of number portability data is often highly
   restricted, either by contract or regulation of a National Regulatory
   Authority (NRA); therefore, NAPTR records specified herein may or may
   not be part of the e164.arpa DNS tree.

   The authors believe that it is more likely that these records will be
   distributed on a purely private basis.  Distribution of this NAPTR
   data could be either (a) on a private basis (within a service
   provider's internal network, or on a private basis between one or
   more parties using a variety of security mechanisms to prohibit
   general public access), (b) openly available or, (c) distributed by
   the relevant number portability organization or other industry
   organization, but possibly on a national basis and subject to or in
   accordance with national regulatory policy.

   If such data were distributed nationally, the national telephone
   numbering authority, or some other regulatory body or numbering
   organization, may have jurisdiction.  Such a body may choose to
   restrict distribution of the data in such a way that it may not pass
   over that country's national borders.













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3.  ENUM Service Registration for PSTN

3.1.  ENUM Service Registration for PSTN with Subtype "tel"

   Enumservice Name: "pstn"

   Enumservice Type: "pstn"

   Enumservice Subtype: "tel"

   URI Scheme: 'tel:'

   Functional Specification:

   These Enumservices indicate that the remote resource identified can
   be addressed by the associated URI scheme in order to initiate a
   telecommunication session, which may include two-way voice or other
   communications, to the PSTN.  These URIs may contain number
   portability data as specified in RFC 4694 [10].

   Security Considerations: See Section 7.

   Intended Usage: COMMON

   Authors:

   Jason Livingood (jason_livingood@cable.comcast.com)
   Richard Shockey (richard.shockey@neustar.biz)

   Any other information the author deems interesting:

   A Number Portability Dip Indicator (npdi) should be used in practice
   (see examples below in Section 4).

3.2.  ENUM Service Registration for PSTN with Subtype "sip"

   Enumservice Name: "pstn"

   Enumservice Type: "pstn"

   Enumservice Subtype: "sip"

   URI Scheme: 'sip:'








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   Functional Specification:

   These Enumservices indicate that the remote resource identified can
   be addressed by the associated URI scheme in order to initiate a
   telecommunication session, which may include two-way voice or other
   communications, to the PSTN.

   Security Considerations: See Section 7.

   Intended Usage: COMMON

   Authors:

   Jason Livingood (jason_livingood@cable.comcast.com)
   Richard Shockey (richard.shockey@neustar.biz)

   Any other information the author deems interesting:

   A Number Portability Dip Indicator (npdi) should be used in practice
   (see examples below in Section 4).

4.  Examples

   The following sub-sections document several examples for illustrative
   purposes.  These examples shall in no way limit the various forms
   that this Enumservice may take.

4.1.  Example of a Ported Number, Using a 'tel' URI Scheme

   $ORIGIN 3.2.1.0.5.5.5.5.1.2.1.e164.arpa.
      NAPTR 10 100 "u" "E2U+pstn:tel"
      "!^.*$!tel:+1-215-555-0123;npdi;rn=+1-215-555-0199!".

   In this example, a Routing Number (rn) and a Number Portability Dip
   Indicator (npdi) are used as shown in RFC 4694 [10].  The 'npdi'
   field is included in order to prevent subsequent lookups in legacy-
   style PSTN databases.

4.2.  Example of a Ported Number, Using a 'sip' URI Scheme

   $ORIGIN 3.2.1.0.5.5.5.5.1.2.1.e164.arpa.
      NAPTR 10 100 "u" "E2U+pstn:sip"
      "!^.*$!sip:+1-215-555-0123;npdi;rn=+1-215-555-0199
   @gw.example.com;user=phone!".

   In this example, a Routing Number (rn) and a Number Portability Dip
   Indicator (npdi) are used as shown in RFC 4694 [10].  The 'npdi'
   field is included in order to prevent subsequent lookups in legacy-



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   style PSTN databases.  The method of conversion from a tel to a SIP
   URI is as demonstrated in RFC 3261, Section 19.1.6 [11], as well as
   in RFC 4694, Section 6 [10].

4.3.  Example of a Non-Ported Number, Using a 'tel' URI Scheme

   $ORIGIN 3.2.1.0.5.5.5.5.1.2.1.e164.arpa.
      NAPTR 10 100 "u" "E2U+pstn:tel"
      "!^.*$!tel:+1-215-555-0123;npdi!".

   In this example, a Number Portability Dip Indicator (npdi) is used
   [10].  The 'npdi' field is included in order to prevent subsequent
   lookups in legacy-style PSTN databases.

4.4.  Example of a Non-Ported Number, Using a 'sip' URI Scheme

   $ORIGIN 3.2.1.0.5.5.5.5.1.2.1.e164.arpa.
      NAPTR 10 100 "u" "E2U+pstn:sip"
      "!^.*$!sip:+1-215-555-0123;npdi@gw.example.com;user=phone!".

   In this example, a Number Portability Dip Indicator (npdi) is used
   [10].  The 'npdi' field is included in order to prevent subsequent
   lookups in legacy-style PSTN databases.  The method of conversion
   from a tel to a SIP URI is as demonstrated in RFC 3261, Section 
   19.1.6 [11], as well as in RFC 4694, Section 6 [10].

4.5.  Example Using a Regular Expression

   $ORIGIN 3.2.1.0.5.5.5.5.1.2.1.e164.arpa.
      NAPTR 10 100 "u" "E2U+pstn:tel"
      "!(^.*)$!tel:\1;npdi!".

   In this example, a regular expression replacement function is used to
   reduce the size of the NAPTR record.  The tel URI uses "\1", which
   would dynamically replace the expression with the TN plus the leading
   "+" -- in this case, +1-215-555-0123.

5.  Implementation Recommendations

5.1.  Call Processing When Multiple Records Are Returned

   It is likely that both E2U+sip and E2U+pstn Enumservice type records
   will be returned for a given query.  In this case, this could result
   in what is essentially an on-net and off-net pstn record.  Thus, one
   record gives the associated address on an IP network, while the other
   gives the associated address on the PSTN.  As with multiple records
   resulting from a typical ENUM query of the e164.arpa tree, it is up
   to the application using an ENUM resolver to determine which



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   record(s) to use and which record(s) to ignore.  Implementers should
   take this into consideration and build logic into their applications
   that can select appropriately from multiple records based on
   business, network, or other rules.  For example, such a resolver
   could be configured to grant preference to the on-net record, or
   execute other logic, as required by the application.

5.2.  NAPTR Configuration issues

   It has been suggested that tel URIs may be easier and more efficient
   to use in practice than SIP URIs.  In addition, the use of tel URIs
   may result in somewhat smaller NAPTR records, which, when considering
   adding hundreds of millions of these records to the DNS, could have a
   substantial impact on the processing and storage requirements for
   service providers or other entities making use of this Enumservice
   type.

   Implementers may wish to consider using regular expressions in order
   to reduce the size of individual NAPTRs.  This will have a
   significant effect on the overall size of the database involved.
   Using the example in Section 4.5, above, this is 11 bytes per record.

6. Examples of E2U+pstn in Call Processing

   These are examples of how a switch, proxy, or other calling
   application may make use of this Enumservice type during the call
   initiation process.

6.1.  Dialed Number Not Available On-Net

   When the dialed number is not available on-net, the call processing
   is as follows.

   a) A user, which is connected to a calling application, dials an
      E.164 telephone number: +1-215-555-0123.

   b) The calling application uses the dialed number to form a NAPTR
      record: 3.2.1.0.5.5.5.5.1.2.1.e164.arpa.

   c) The DNS finds an E2U+pstn:tel record and returns a tel URI for
      processing by the calling application: tel:+1-215-555-0123;npdi.

   d) The calling application uses routing logic to determine which
      media gateway is the closest to this number and routes the call
      appropriately.






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6.2.  Dialed Number Available On-Net and on the PSTN

   When the dialed number is available on-net and on the PSTN, the call
   processing is as follows.

   a) A user, which is connected to a calling application, dials an
      E.164 telephone number: 1-215-555-0123.

   b) The calling application uses the dialed number to form a NAPTR
      record: 3.2.1.0.5.5.5.5.1.2.1.e164.arpa.

   c) The DNS finds both an E2U+pstn record, as well as an E2U+sip
      record, since this number happens to be on the IP network of a
      connected network.

   d) The calling application prioritizes the on-net record first:
      sip:+1-215-555-0123;npdi@gw.example.com;user=phone.

   e) The calling application sets up the SIP call to gw.example.com.

   f) Should the IP call route fail for whatever reason, the calling
      application may be able to utilize the E2U+pstn record to invoke a
      fallback route to a media gateway that is connected to the PSTN.

7.  Security Considerations

   DNS, as used by ENUM, is a global, distributed database.  Should
   implementers of this specification use e164.arpa or any other
   publicly available domain as the tree for maintaining PSTN
   Enumservice data, this information would be visible to anyone
   anonymously.  While this is not qualitatively different from
   publication in a telephone directory, it does open or ease access to
   such data without any indication that such data has been accessed or
   by whom it has been accessed.

   Such data harvesting by third parties is often used to generate lists
   of targets for unsolicited information.  Thus, a third party could
   use this to generate a list that they can use to make unsolicited
   "telemarketing" phone calls.  Many countries have do-not-call
   registries or other legal or regulatory mechanisms in place to deal
   with such abuses.

   As noted earlier, carriers, service providers, and other users may
   simply choose not to publish such information in the public e164.arpa
   tree.  They may instead simply publish this in their internal ENUM
   routing database that is only able to be queried by trusted elements





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   of their network, such as softswitches and SIP proxy servers.  They
   may also choose to publish such information in a carrier-only branch
   of the E164.ARPA tree, should one be created.

   Although an E.164 telephone number does not appear to reveal as much
   identity information about a user as a name in the format
   sip:username@hostname or email:username@hostname, the information is
   still publicly available; thus, there is still the risk of unwanted
   communication.

   An analysis of threats specific to the dependence of ENUM on the DNS
   and the applicability of DNSSEC [12] to this is provided in RFC 3761
   [1].  A thorough analysis of threats to the DNS itself is covered in
   RFC 3833 [13].

8.  IANA Considerations

   This document registers the 'pstn' Enumservice type and the subtype
   "tel" and "sip" under the Enumservice registry described in the IANA
   considerations in RFC 3761.  Details of this registration are
   provided in Section 3 of this document.

9.  Acknowledgements

   The authors wish to thank Lawrence Conroy, Tom Creighton, Jason
   Gaedtke, Jaime Jimenez, Chris Kennedy, Alexander Mayrhofer, Doug
   Ranalli, Jonathan Rosenberg, Bob Walter, and James Yu for their
   helpful discussions of this topic, and detailed reviews of this
   document.  The authors also wish to thank the IETF's ENUM Working
   Group for helpful feedback in refining and developing this document.

10. References

10.1.  Normative References

   [1]  Faltstrom, P. and M. Mealling, "The E.164 to Uniform Resource
        Identifiers (URI) Dynamic Delegation Discovery System (DDDS)
        Application (ENUM)", RFC 3761, April 2004.

   [2]  ITU-T, "The International Public Telecommunication Number Plan",
        Recommendation E.164, February 2005.

   [3]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities", STD
        13, RFC 1034, November 1987.

   [4]  Mealling, M., "Dynamic Delegation Discovery System (DDDS) Part
        Three: The Domain Name System (DNS) Database", RFC 3403, October
        2002.



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   [5]  Mealling, M., "Dynamic Delegation Discovery System (DDDS) Part
        One: The Comprehensive DDDS", RFC 3401, October 2002.

   [6]  Mealling, M., "Dynamic Delegation Discovery System (DDDS) Part
        Two: The Algorithm", RFC 3402, October 2002.

   [7]  Mealling, M., "Dynamic Delegation Discovery System (DDDS) Part
        Four: The Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI)", RFC 3404, October
        2002.

   [8]  Mealling, M., "Dynamic Delegation Discovery System (DDDS) Part
        Five: URI.ARPA Assignment Procedures", BCP 65, RFC 3405, October
        2002.

   [9]  Schulzrinne, H., "The tel URI for Telephone Numbers", RFC 3966,
        December 2004.

   [10] Yu, J., "Number Portability Parameters for the "tel" Uniform
        Resource Identifier", RFC 4694, October 2006.

   [11] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston, A.,
        Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E. Schooler, "SIP:
        Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261, June 2002.

10.2.  Informative References

   [12] Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. Rose,
        "Protocol Modifications for the DNS Security Extensions", RFC
        4035, March 2005.

   [13] Atkins, D. and R. Austein, "Threat Analysis of the Domain Name
        System (DNS)", RFC 3833, August 2004.

   [14] Foster, M., McGarry, T., and J. Yu, "Number Portability in the
        Global Switched Telephone Network (GSTN): An Overview", RFC
        3482, February 2003.















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Authors' Addresses

   Jason Livingood
   Comcast Cable Communications
   1500 Market Street
   Philadelphia, PA 19102
   USA

   Phone: +1-215-981-7813
   EMail: jason_livingood@cable.comcast.com


   Richard Shockey
   NeuStar
   46000 Center Oak Plaza
   Sterling, VA 20166
   USA

   Phone: +1-571-434-5651
   EMail: richard.shockey@neustar.biz































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Full Copyright Statement

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