[Docs] [txt|pdf] [draft-ietf-rddp-r...] [Diff1] [Diff2] [IPR]

Updated by: 7146 PROPOSED STANDARD

Network Working Group                                           R. Recio
Request for Comments: 5040                                    B. Metzler
Category: Standards Track                                IBM Corporation
                                                               P. Culley
                                                              J. Hilland
                                                 Hewlett-Packard Company
                                                               D. Garcia
                                                            October 2007


          A Remote Direct Memory Access Protocol Specification

Status of This Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Abstract

   This document defines a Remote Direct Memory Access Protocol (RDMAP)
   that operates over the Direct Data Placement Protocol (DDP protocol).
   RDMAP provides read and write services directly to applications and
   enables data to be transferred directly into Upper Layer Protocol
   (ULP) Buffers without intermediate data copies.  It also enables a
   kernel bypass implementation.























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Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................4
      1.1. Architectural Goals ........................................4
      1.2. Protocol Overview ..........................................5
      1.3. RDMAP Layering .............................................7
   2. Glossary ........................................................8
      2.1. General ....................................................8
      2.2. LLP .......................................................10
      2.3. Direct Data Placement (DDP) ...............................11
      2.4. Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) ........................13
   3. ULP and Transport Attributes ...................................15
      3.1. Transport Requirements and Assumptions ....................15
      3.2. RDMAP Interactions with the ULP ...........................16
   4. Header Format ..................................................19
      4.1. RDMAP Control and Invalidate STag Field ...................20
      4.2. RDMA Message Definitions ..................................23
      4.3. RDMA Write Header .........................................24
      4.4. RDMA Read Request Header ..................................24
      4.5. RDMA Read Response Header .................................26
      4.6. Send Header and Send with Solicited Event Header ..........26
      4.7. Send with Invalidate Header and Send with SE and
           Invalidate Header .........................................26
      4.8. Terminate Header ..........................................26
   5. Data Transfer ..................................................32
      5.1. RDMA Write Message ........................................32
      5.2. RDMA Read Operation .......................................33
           5.2.1. RDMA Read Request Message ..........................33
           5.2.2. RDMA Read Response Message .........................35
      5.3. Send Message Type .........................................36
      5.4. Terminate Message .........................................37
      5.5. Ordering and Completions ..................................38
   6. RDMAP Stream Management ........................................41
      6.1. Stream Initialization .....................................41
      6.2. Stream Teardown ...........................................42
           6.2.1. RDMAP Abortive Termination .........................43
   7. RDMAP Error Management .........................................43
      7.1. RDMAP Error Surfacing .....................................44
      7.2. Errors Detected at the Remote Peer on Incoming
           RDMA Messages .............................................45
   8. Security Considerations ........................................46
      8.1. Summary of RDMAP-Specific Security Requirements ...........46
           8.1.1. RDMAP (RNIC) Requirements ..........................47
           8.1.2. Privileged Resource Manager Requirements ...........48
      8.2. Security Services for RDMAP ...............................49
           8.2.1. Available Security Services ........................49
           8.2.2. Requirements for IPsec Services for RDMAP ..........50
   9. IANA Considerations ............................................51



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   10. References ....................................................52
      10.1. Normative References .....................................52
      10.2. Informative References ...................................53
   Appendix A. DDP Segment Formats for RDMA Messages .................54
      A.1. DDP Segment for RDMA Write ................................54
      A.2. DDP Segment for RDMA Read Request .........................55
      A.3. DDP Segment for RDMA Read Response ........................56
      A.4. DDP Segment for Send and Send with Solicited Event ........56
      A.5. DDP Segment for Send with Invalidate and Send with SE and
           Invalidate ................................................57
      A.6. DDP Segment for Terminate .................................58
   Appendix B. Ordering and Completion Table .........................59
   Appendix C. Contributors ..........................................61

Table of Figures

   Figure 1: RDMAP Layering ...........................................7
   Figure 2: Example of MPA, DDP, and RDMAP Header Alignment over TCP .8
   Figure 3: DDP Control, RDMAP Control, and Invalidate STag Fields ..20
   Figure 4: RDMA Usage of DDP Fields ................................22
   Figure 5: RDMA Message Definitions ................................23
   Figure 6: RDMA Read Request Header Format .........................24
   Figure 7: Terminate Header Format .................................27
   Figure 8: Terminate Control Field .................................27
   Figure 9: Terminate Control Field Values ..........................29
   Figure 10: Error Type to RDMA Message Mapping .....................32
   Figure 11: RDMA Write, DDP Segment Format .........................54
   Figure 12: RDMA Read Request, DDP Segment Format ..................55
   Figure 13: RDMA Read Response, DDP Segment Format .................56
   Figure 14: Send and Send with Solicited Event, DDP Segment Format .56
   Figure 15: Send with Invalidate and Send with SE and Invalidate,
              DDP Segment Format .....................................57
   Figure 16: Terminate, DDP Segment Format ..........................58
   Figure 17: Operation Ordering .....................................59

















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1.  Introduction

   Today, communications over TCP/IP typically require copy operations,
   which add latency and consume significant CPU and memory resources.
   The Remote Direct Memory Access Protocol (RDMAP) enables removal of
   data copy operations and enables reduction in latencies by allowing a
   local application to read or write data on a remote computer's memory
   with minimal demands on memory bus bandwidth and CPU processing
   overhead, while preserving memory protection semantics.

   RDMAP is layered on top of Direct Data Placement (DDP) and uses the
   two buffer models available from DDP.  DDP-related terminology is
   discussed in Section 2.3.  As RDMAP builds on DDP, the reader is
   advised to become familiar with [DDP].

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

1.1.  Architectural Goals

   RDMAP has been designed with the following high-level architectural
   goals:

   *  Provide a data transfer operation that allows a Local Peer to
      transfer up to 2^32 - 1 octets directly into a previously
      Advertised Buffer (i.e., Tagged Buffer) located at a Remote Peer
      without requiring a copy operation.  This is referred to as the
      RDMA Write data transfer operation.

   *  Provide a data transfer operation that allows a Local Peer to
      retrieve up to 2^32 - 1 octets directly from a previously
      Advertised Buffer (i.e., Tagged Buffer) located at a Remote Peer
      without requiring a copy operation.  This is referred to as the
      RDMA Read data transfer operation.

   *  Provide a data transfer operation that allows a Local Peer to send
      up to 2^32 - 1 octets directly into a buffer located at a Remote
      Peer that has not been explicitly Advertised.  This is referred to
      as the Send (Send with Invalidate, Send with Solicited Event, and
      Send with Solicited Event and Invalidate) data transfer operation.

   *  Enable the local ULP to use the Send Operation Type (includes
      Send, Send with Invalidate, Send with Solicited Event, and Send
      with Solicited Event and Invalidate) to signal to the remote ULP
      the Completion of all previous Messages initiated by the local
      ULP.




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   *  Provide for all operations on a single RDMAP Stream to be reliably
      transmitted in the order that they were submitted.

   *  Provide RDMAP capabilities independently for each Stream when the
      LLP supports multiple data Streams within an LLP connection.

1.2.  Protocol Overview

   RDMAP provides seven data transfer operations.  Except for the RDMA
   Read operation, each operation generates exactly one RDMA Message.
   Following is a brief overview of the RDMA Operations and RDMA
   Messages:

   1.  Send - A Send operation uses a Send Message to transfer data from
       the Data Source into a buffer that has not been explicitly
       Advertised by the Data Sink.  The Send Message uses the DDP
       Untagged Buffer Model to transfer the ULP Message into the Data
       Sink's Untagged Buffer.

   2.  Send with Invalidate - A Send with Invalidate operation uses a
       Send with Invalidate Message to transfer data from the Data
       Source into a buffer that has not been explicitly Advertised by
       the Data Sink.  The Send with Invalidate Message includes all
       functionality of the Send Message, with one addition: an STag
       field is included in the Send with Invalidate Message.  After the
       message has been Placed and Delivered at the Data Sink, the
       Remote Peer's buffer identified by the STag can no longer be
       accessed remotely until the Remote Peer's ULP re-enables access
       and Advertises the buffer.

   3.  Send with Solicited Event (Send with SE) - A Send with Solicited
       Event operation uses a Send with Solicited Event Message to
       transfer data from the Data Source into an Untagged Buffer at the
       Data Sink.  The Send with Solicited Event Message is similar to
       the Send Message, with one addition: when the Send with Solicited
       Event Message has been Placed and Delivered, an Event may be
       generated at the recipient, if the recipient is configured to
       generate such an Event.

   4.  Send with Solicited Event and Invalidate (Send with SE and
       Invalidate) - A Send with Solicited Event and Invalidate
       operation uses a Send with Solicited Event and Invalidate Message
       to transfer data from the Data Source into a buffer that has not
       been explicitly Advertised by the Data Sink.  The Send with
       Solicited Event and Invalidate Message is similar to the Send
       with Invalidate Message, with one addition: when the Send with





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       Solicited Event and Invalidate Message has been Placed and
       Delivered, an Event may be generated at the recipient, if the
       recipient is configured to generate such an Event.

   5.  Remote Direct Memory Access Write - An RDMA Write operation uses
       an RDMA Write Message to transfer data from the Data Source to a
       previously Advertised Buffer at the Data Sink.

       The ULP at the Remote Peer, which in this case is the Data Sink,
       enables the Data Sink Tagged Buffer for access and Advertises the
       buffer's size (length), location (Tagged Offset), and Steering
       Tag (STag) to the Data Source through a ULP-specific mechanism.
       The ULP at the Local Peer, which in this case is the Data Source,
       initiates the RDMA Write operation.  The RDMA Write Message uses
       the DDP Tagged Buffer Model to transfer the ULP Message into the
       Data Sink's Tagged Buffer.  Note: the STag associated with the
       Tagged Buffer remains valid until the ULP at the Remote Peer
       invalidates it or the ULP at the Local Peer invalidates it
       through a Send with Invalidate or Send with Solicited Event and
       Invalidate.

   6.  Remote Direct Memory Access Read - The RDMA Read operation
       transfers data to a Tagged Buffer at the Local Peer, which in
       this case is the Data Sink, from a Tagged Buffer at the Remote
       Peer, which in this case is the Data Source.  The ULP at the Data
       Source enables the Data Source Tagged Buffer for access and
       Advertises the buffer's size (length), location (Tagged Offset),
       and Steering Tag (STag) to the Data Sink through a ULP-specific
       mechanism.  The ULP at the Data Sink enables the Data Sink Tagged
       Buffer for access and initiates the RDMA Read operation.  The
       RDMA Read operation consists of a single RDMA Read Request
       Message and a single RDMA Read Response Message, and the latter
       may be segmented into multiple DDP Segments.

       The RDMA Read Request Message uses the DDP Untagged Buffer Model
       to Deliver the STag, starting Tagged Offset, and length for both
       the Data Source and Data Sink Tagged Buffers to the Remote Peer's
       RDMA Read Request Queue.

       The RDMA Read Response Message uses the DDP Tagged Buffer Model
       to Deliver the Data Source's Tagged Buffer to the Data Sink,
       without any involvement from the ULP at the Data Source.

       Note: the Data Source STag associated with the Tagged Buffer
       remains valid until the ULP at the Data Source invalidates it or
       the ULP at the Data Sink invalidates it through a Send with





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       Invalidate or Send with Solicited Event and Invalidate.  The Data
       Sink STag associated with the Tagged Buffer remains valid until
       the ULP at the Data Sink invalidates it.

   7.  Terminate - A Terminate operation uses a Terminate Message to
       transfer to the Remote Peer information associated with an error
       that occurred at the Local Peer.  The Terminate Message uses the
       DDP Untagged Buffer Model to transfer the Message into the Data
       Sink's Untagged Buffer.

1.3.  RDMAP Layering

   RDMAP is dependent on DDP, subject to the requirements defined in
   Section 3.1, "Transport Requirements and Assumptions".  Figure 1,
   "RDMAP Layering", depicts the relationship between Upper Layer
   Protocols (ULPs), RDMAP, DDP protocol, the framing layer, and the
   transport.  For LLP protocol definitions of each LLP, see [MPA],
   [TCP], and [SCTP].

                 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                 |                                     |
                 |     Upper Layer Protocol (ULP)      |
                 |                                     |
                 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                 |                                     |
                 |              RDMAP                  |
                 |                                     |
                 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                 |                                     |
                 |           DDP protocol              |
                 |                                     |
                 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                 |                 |                   |
                 |       MPA       |                   |
                 |                 |                   |
                 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+       SCTP        |
                 |                 |                   |
                 |       TCP       |                   |
                 |                 |                   |
                 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                       Figure 1: RDMAP Layering

   If RDMAP is layered over DDP/MPA/TCP, then the respective headers and
   ULP Payload are arranged as follows (Note: For clarity, MPA header
   and CRC fields are included but MPA markers are not shown):





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     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                                                               |
    //                           TCP Header                        //
    |                                                               |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |         MPA Header            |                               |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
    |                                                               |
    //                        DDP Header                           //
    |                                                               |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                                                               |
    //                        RDMA Header                          //
    |                                                               |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                                                               |
    //                        ULP Payload                          //
    //                 (shown with no pad bytes)                   //
    //                                                             //
    |                                                               |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                           MPA CRC                             |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 2: Example of MPA, DDP, and RDMAP Header Alignment over TCP

2.  Glossary

2.1.  General

   Advertisement (Advertised, Advertise, Advertisements, Advertises) -
       the act of informing a Remote Peer that a local RDMA Buffer is
       available to it.  A Node makes available an RDMA Buffer for
       incoming RDMA Read or RDMA Write access by informing its RDMA/DDP
       peer of the Tagged Buffer identifiers (STag, base address, and
       buffer length).  This Advertisement of Tagged Buffer information
       is not defined by RDMA/DDP and is left to the ULP.  A typical
       method would be for the Local Peer to embed the Tagged Buffer's
       Steering Tag, base address, and length in a Send Message destined
       for the Remote Peer.

   Completion - Refer to "RDMA Completion" in Section 2.4.

   Completed - See "RDMA Completion" in Section 2.4.

   Complete - See "RDMA Completion" in Section 2.4.



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   Completes - See "RDMA Completion" in Section 2.4.

   Data Sink - The peer receiving a data payload.  Note that the Data
       Sink can be required to both send and receive RDMA/DDP Messages
       to transfer a data payload.

   Data Source - The peer sending a data payload.  Note that the Data
       Source can be required to both send and receive RDMA/DDP Messages
       to transfer a data payload.

   Data Delivery (Delivery, Delivered, Delivers) - Delivery is defined
       as the process of informing the ULP or consumer that a particular
       Message is available for use.  This is specifically different
       from "Placement", which may generally occur in any order, while
       the order of "Delivery" is strictly defined.  See "Data
       Placement" in Section 2.3.

   Delivery - See Data Delivery in Section 2.1.

   Delivered - See Data Delivery in Section 2.1.

   Delivers - See Data Delivery in Section 2.1.

   Fabric - The collection of links, switches, and routers that connect
       a set of Nodes with RDMA/DDP protocol implementations.

   Fence (Fenced, Fences) - To block the current RDMA Operation from
       executing until prior RDMA Operations have Completed.

   iWARP - A suite of wire protocols comprised of RDMAP, DDP, and MPA.
       The iWARP protocol suite may be layered above TCP, SCTP, or other
       transport protocols.

   Local Peer - The RDMA/DDP protocol implementation on the local end of
       the connection.  Used to refer to the local entity when
       describing a protocol exchange or other interaction between two
       Nodes.

   Node - A computing device attached to one or more links of a Fabric
       (network).  A Node in this context does not refer to a specific
       application or protocol instantiation running on the computer.  A
       Node may consist of one or more RNICs installed in a host
       computer.

   Placement - See "Data Placement" in Section 2.3.

   Placed - See "Data Placement" in Section 2.3.




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   Places - See "Data Placement" in Section 2.3.

   Remote Peer - The RDMA/DDP protocol implementation on the opposite
       end of the connection.  Used to refer to the remote entity when
       describing protocol exchanges or other interactions between two
       Nodes.

   RNIC - RDMA Network Interface Controller.  In this context, this
       would be a network I/O adapter or embedded controller with iWARP
       and Verbs functionality.

   RNIC Interface (RI) - The presentation of the RNIC to the Verbs
       Consumer as implemented through the combination of the RNIC and
       the RNIC driver.

   Termination - See "RDMAP Abortive Termination" in Section 2.4.

   Terminated - See "RDMAP Abortive Termination" in Section 2.4.

   Terminate - See "RDMAP Abortive Termination" in Section 2.4.

   Terminates - See "RDMAP Abortive Termination" in Section 2.4.

   ULP - Upper Layer Protocol.  The protocol layer above the one
       currently being referenced.  The ULP for RDMA/DDP is expected to
       be an OS, Application, adaptation layer, or proprietary device.
       The RDMA/DDP documents do not specify a ULP -- they provide a set
       of semantics that allow a ULP to be designed to utilize RDMA/DDP.

   ULP Payload - The ULP data that is contained within a single protocol
       segment or packet (e.g., a DDP Segment).

   Verbs - An abstract description of the functionality of an RNIC
       Interface.  The OS may expose some or all of this functionality
       via one or more APIs to applications.  The OS will also use some
       of the functionality to manage the RNIC Interface.

2.2.  LLP

   LLP - Lower Layer Protocol.  The protocol layer beneath the protocol
       layer currently being referenced.  For example, for DDP, the LLP
       is SCTP, MPA, or other transport protocols.  For RDMA, the LLP is
       DDP.

   LLP Connection - Corresponds to an LLP transport-level connection
       between the peer LLP layers on two Nodes.





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   LLP Stream - Corresponds to a single LLP transport-level Stream
       between the peer LLP layers on two Nodes.  One or more LLP
       Streams may map to a single transport-level LLP connection.  For
       transport protocols that support multiple Streams per connection
       (e.g., SCTP), an LLP Stream corresponds to one transport-level
       Stream.

   MULPDU - Maximum ULPDU.  The current maximum size of the record that
       is acceptable for DDP to pass to the LLP for transmission.

   ULPDU - Upper Layer Protocol Data Unit.  The data record defined by
       the layer above MPA.

2.3.  Direct Data Placement (DDP)

   Data Placement (Placement, Placed, Places) - For DDP, this term is
       specifically used to indicate the process of writing to a data
       buffer by a DDP implementation.  DDP Segments carry Placement
       information, which may be used by the receiving DDP
       implementation to perform Data Placement of the DDP Segment ULP
       Payload.  See "Data Delivery".

   DDP Abortive Teardown - The act of closing a DDP Stream without
       attempting to Complete in-progress and pending DDP Messages.

   DDP Graceful Teardown - The act of closing a DDP Stream such that all
       in-progress and pending DDP Messages are allowed to Complete
       successfully.

   DDP Control Field - A fixed 16-bit field in the DDP Header.  The DDP
       Control Field contains an 8-bit field whose contents are reserved
       for use by the ULP.

   DDP Header - The header present in all DDP segments.  The DDP Header
       contains control and Placement fields that are used to define the
       final Placement location for the ULP Payload carried in a DDP
       Segment.

   DDP Message - A ULP-defined unit of data interchange, which is
       subdivided into one or more DDP segments.  This segmentation may
       occur for a variety of reasons, including segmentation to respect
       the maximum segment size of the underlying transport protocol.

   DDP Segment - The smallest unit of data transfer for the DDP
       protocol.  It includes a DDP Header and ULP Payload (if present).
       A DDP Segment should be sized to fit within the underlying
       transport protocol MULPDU.




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   DDP Stream - A sequence of DDP Messages whose ordering is defined by
       the LLP.  For SCTP, a DDP Stream maps directly to an SCTP Stream.
       For MPA, a DDP Stream maps directly to a TCP connection, and a
       single DDP Stream is supported.  Note that DDP has no ordering
       guarantees between DDP Streams.

   Direct Data Placement - A mechanism whereby ULP data contained within
       DDP Segments may be Placed directly into its final destination in
       memory without processing of the ULP.  This may occur even when
       the DDP Segments arrive out of order.  Out-of-order Placement
       support may require the Data Sink to implement the LLP and DDP as
       one functional block.

   Direct Data Placement Protocol (DDP) - Also, a wire protocol that
       supports Direct Data Placement by associating explicit memory
       buffer placement information with the LLP payload units.

   Message Offset (MO) - For the DDP Untagged Buffer Model, specifies
       the offset, in bytes, from the start of a DDP Message.

   Message Sequence Number (MSN) - For the DDP Untagged Buffer Model,
       specifies a sequence number that is increasing with each DDP
       Message.

   Queue Number (QN) - For the DDP Untagged Buffer Model, identifies a
       destination Data Sink queue for a DDP Segment.

   Steering Tag - An identifier of a Tagged Buffer on a Node, valid as
       defined within a protocol specification.

   STag - Steering Tag

   Tagged Buffer - A buffer that is explicitly Advertised to the Remote
       Peer through exchange of an STag, Tagged Offset, and length.

   Tagged Buffer Model - A DDP data transfer model used to transfer
       Tagged Buffers from the Local Peer to the Remote Peer.

   Tagged DDP Message - A DDP Message that targets a Tagged Buffer.

   Tagged Offset (TO) - The offset within a Tagged Buffer on a Node.

   Untagged Buffer - A buffer that is not explicitly Advertised to the
       Remote Peer.  Untagged Buffers support one of the two available
       data transfer mechanisms called the Untagged Buffer Model.  An
       Untagged Buffer is used to send asynchronous control messages to
       the Remote Peer for RDMA Read, Send, and Terminate requests.
       Untagged Buffers handle Untagged DDP Messages.



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   Untagged Buffer Model - A DDP data transfer model used to transfer
       Untagged Buffers from the Local Peer to the Remote Peer.

   Untagged DDP Message - A DDP Message that targets an Untagged Buffer.

2.4.  Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA)

   Completion Queues (CQs) - Logical components of the RNIC Interface
       that conceptually represent how an RNIC notifies the ULP about
       the completion of the transmission of data, or the completion of
       the reception of data; see [RDMASEC].

   Event - An indication provided by the RDMAP layer to the ULP to
       indicate a Completion or other condition requiring immediate
       attention.

   Invalidate STag - A mechanism used to prevent the Remote Peer from
       reusing a previous explicitly Advertised STag, until the Local
       Peer makes it available through a subsequent explicit
       Advertisement.  The STag cannot be accessed remotely until it is
       explicitly Advertised again.

   RDMA Completion (Completion, Completed, Complete, Completes) - For
       RDMA, Completion is defined as the process of informing the ULP
       that a particular RDMA Operation has performed all functions
       specified for the RDMA Operations, including Placement and
       Delivery.  The Completion semantic of each RDMA Operation is
       distinctly defined.

   RDMA Message - A data transfer mechanism used to fulfill an RDMA
       Operation.

   RDMA Operation - A sequence of RDMA Messages, including control
       Messages, to transfer data from a Data Source to a Data Sink.
       The following RDMA Operations are defined: RDMA Writes, RDMA
       Read, Send, Send with Invalidate, Send with Solicited Event, Send
       with Solicited Event and Invalidate, and Terminate.

   RDMA Protocol (RDMAP) - A wire protocol that supports RDMA Operations
       to transfer ULP data between a Local Peer and the Remote Peer.

   RDMAP Abortive Termination (Termination, Terminated, Terminate,
       Terminates) - The act of closing an RDMAP Stream without
       attempting to Complete in-progress and pending RDMA Operations.

   RDMAP Graceful Termination - The act of closing an RDMAP Stream such
       that all in-progress and pending RDMA Operations are allowed to
       Complete successfully.



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   RDMA Read - An RDMA Operation used by the Data Sink to transfer the
       contents of a source RDMA buffer from the Remote Peer to the
       Local Peer.  An RDMA Read operation consists of a single RDMA
       Read Request Message and a single RDMA Read Response Message.

   RDMA Read Request - An RDMA Message used by the Data Sink to request
       the Data Source to transfer the contents of an RDMA buffer.  The
       RDMA Read Request Message describes both the Data Source and Data
       Sink RDMA buffers.

   RDMA Read Request Queue - The queue used for processing RDMA Read
       Requests.  The RDMA Read Request Queue has a DDP Queue Number of
       1.

   RDMA Read Response - An RDMA Message used by the Data Source to
       transfer the contents of an RDMA buffer to the Data Sink, in
       response to an RDMA Read Request.  The RDMA Read Response Message
       only describes the data sink RDMA buffer.

   RDMAP Stream - An association between a pair of RDMAP
       implementations, possibly on different Nodes, which transfer ULP
       data using RDMA Operations.  There may be multiple RDMAP Streams
       on a single Node.  An RDMAP Stream maps directly to a single DDP
       Stream.

   RDMA Write - An RDMA Operation that transfers the contents of a
       source RDMA Buffer from the Local Peer to a destination RDMA
       Buffer at the Remote Peer using RDMA.  The RDMA Write Message
       only describes the Data Sink RDMA buffer.

   Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) - A method of accessing memory on
       a remote system in which the local system specifies the remote
       location of the data to be transferred.  Employing an RNIC in the
       remote system allows the access to take place without
       interrupting the processing of the CPU(s) on the system.

   Send - An RDMA Operation that transfers the contents of a ULP Buffer
       from the Local Peer to an Untagged Buffer at the Remote Peer.

   Send Message Type - A Send Message, Send with Invalidate Message,
       Send with Solicited Event Message, or Send with Solicited Event
       and Invalidate Message.

   Send Operation Type - A Send Operation, Send with Invalidate
       Operation, Send with Solicited Event Operation, or Send with
       Solicited Event and Invalidate Operation.





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   Solicited Event (SE) - A facility by which an RDMA Operation sender
       may cause an Event to be generated at the recipient, if the
       recipient is configured to generate such an Event, when a Send
       with Solicited Event Message or Send with Solicited Event and
       Invalidate Message is received.  Note: The Local Peer's ULP can
       use the Solicited Event mechanism to ensure that Messages
       designated as important to the ULP are handled in an expeditious
       manner by the Remote Peer's ULP.  The ULP at the Local Peer can
       indicate a given Send Message Type is important by using the Send
       with Solicited Event Message or Send with Solicited Event and
       Invalidate Message.  The ULP at the Remote Peer can choose to
       only be notified when valid Send with Solicited Event Messages
       and/or Send with Solicited Event and Invalidate Messages arrive
       and handle other valid incoming Send Messages or Send with
       Invalidate Messages at its leisure.

   Terminate - An RDMA Message used by a Node to pass an error
       indication to the peer Node on an RDMAP Stream.  This operation
       is for RDMAP use only.

   ULP Buffer - A buffer owned above the RDMAP layer and Advertised to
       the RDMAP layer either as a Tagged Buffer or an Untagged ULP
       Buffer.

   ULP Message - The ULP data that is handed to a specific protocol
       layer for transmission.  Data boundaries are preserved as they
       are transmitted through iWARP.

3.  ULP and Transport Attributes

3.1.  Transport Requirements and Assumptions

   RDMAP MUST be layered on top of the Direct Data Placement Protocol
   [DDP].

   RDMAP requires the following DDP support:

   *  RDMAP uses three queues for Untagged Buffers:

      *  Queue Number 0 (used by RDMAP for Send, Send with Invalidate,
         Send with Solicited Event, and Send with Solicited Event and
         Invalidate operations).

      *  Queue Number 1 (used by RDMAP for RDMA Read operations).

      *  Queue Number 2 (used by RDMAP for Terminate operations).

   *  DDP maps a single RDMA Message to a single DDP Message.



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   *  DDP uses the STag and Tagged Offset provided by the RDMAP for
      Tagged Buffer Messages (i.e., RDMA Write and RDMA Read Response).

   *  When the DDP layer Delivers an Untagged DDP Message to the RDMAP
      layer, DDP provides the length of the DDP Message.  This ensures
      that RDMAP does not have to carry a length field in its header.

   *  When the RDMAP layer provides an RDMA Message to the DDP layer,
      DDP must insert the RsvdULP field value provided by the RDMAP
      layer into the associated DDP Message.

   *  When the DDP layer Delivers a DDP Message to the RDMAP layer, DDP
      provides the RsvdULP field.

   *  The RsvdULP field must be 1 octet for DDP Tagged Messages and 5
      octets for DDP Untagged Messages.

   *  DDP propagates to RDMAP all operation or protection errors (used
      by RDMAP Terminate) and, when appropriate, the DDP Header fields
      of the DDP Segment that encountered the error.

   *  If an RDMA Operation is aborted by DDP or a lower layer, the
      contents of the Data Sink buffers associated with the operation
      are considered indeterminate.

   *  DDP, in conjunction with the lower layers, provides reliable, in-
      order Delivery.

3.2.  RDMAP Interactions with the ULP

   RDMAP provides the ULP with access to the following RDMA Operations
   as defined in this specification:

   *  Send

   *  Send with Solicited Event

   *  Send with Invalidate

   *  Send with Solicited Event and Invalidate

   *  RDMA Write

   *  RDMA Read







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   For Send Operation Types, the following are the interactions between
   the RDMAP layer and the ULP:

   *  At the Data Source:

      *  The ULP passes to the RDMAP layer the following:

         *  ULP Message Length

         *  ULP Message

         *  An indication of the Send Operation Type, where the valid
            types are: Send, Send with Solicited Event, Send with
            Invalidate, or Send with Solicited Event and Invalidate.

         *  An Invalidate STag, if the Send Operation Type was Send with
            Invalidate or Send with Solicited Event and Invalidate.

      *  When the Send Operation Type Completes, an indication of the
         Completion results.

   *  At the Data Sink:

      *  If the Send Operation Type Completed successfully, the RDMAP
         layer passes the following information to the ULP Layer:

         *  ULP Message Length

         *  ULP Message

         *  An Event, if the Data Sink is configured to generate an
            Event.

         *  An Invalidated STag, if the Send Operation Type was Send
            with Invalidate or Send with Solicited Event and Invalidate.

      *  If the Send Operation Type Completed in error, the Data Sink
         RDMAP layer will pass up the corresponding error information to
         the Data Sink ULP and send a Terminate Message to the Data
         Source RDMAP layer.  The Data Source RDMAP layer will then pass
         up the Terminate Message to the ULP.

   For RDMA Write operations, the following are the interactions between
   the RDMAP layer and the ULP:

   *  At the Data Source:

      *  The ULP passes to the RDMAP layer the following:



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         *  ULP Message Length

         *  ULP Message

         *  Data Sink STag

         *  Data Sink Tagged Offset

         *  When the RDMA Write operation Completes, an indication of
            the Completion results.

   *  At the Data Sink:

      *  If the RDMA Write completed successfully, the RDMAP layer does
         not Deliver the RDMA Write to the ULP.  It does Place the ULP
         Message transferred through the RDMA Write Message into the ULP
         Buffer.

      *  If the RDMA Write completed in error, the Data Sink RDMAP layer
         will pass up the corresponding error information to the Data
         Sink ULP and send a Terminate Message to the Data Source RDMAP
         layer.  The Data Source RDMAP layer will then pass up the
         Terminate Message to the ULP.

   For RDMA Read operations, the following are the interactions between
   the RDMAP layer and the ULP:

   *  At the Data Sink:

      *  The ULP passes to the RDMAP layer the following:

         *  ULP Message Length

         *  Data Source STag

         *  Data Sink STag

         *  Data Source Tagged Offset

         *  Data Sink Tagged Offset

      *  When the RDMA Read operation Completes, an indication of the
         Completion results.

   *  At the Data Source:

      *  If no error occurred while processing the RDMA Read Request,
         the Data Source will not pass up any information to the ULP.



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      *  If an error occurred while processing the RDMA Read Request,
         the Data Source RDMAP layer will pass up the corresponding
         error information to the Data Source ULP and send a Terminate
         Message to the Data Sink RDMAP layer.  The Data Sink RDMAP
         layer will then pass up the Terminate Message to the ULP.

   For STags made available to the RDMAP layer, following are the
   interactions between the RDMAP layer and the ULP:

   *  If the ULP enables an STag, the ULP passes the following to the
      RDMAP layer:

      *  STag;

      *  range of Tagged Offsets that are associated with a given STag;

      *  remote access rights (read, write, or read and write)
         associated with a given, valid STag; and

      *  association between a given STag and a given RDMAP Stream.

   *  If the ULP disables an STag, the ULP passes to the RDMAP layer the
      STag.

   If an error occurs at the RDMAP layer, the RDMAP layer may pass back
   error information (e.g., the content of a Terminate Message) to the
   ULP.

4.  Header Format

   The control information of RDMA Messages is included in DDP
   protocol-defined header fields, with the following exceptions:

   *  The first octet reserved for ULP usage on all DDP Messages in the
      DDP Protocol (i.e., the RsvdULP Field) is used by RDMAP to carry
      the RDMA Message Opcode and the RDMAP version.  This octet is
      known as the RDMAP Control Field in this specification.  For Send
      with Invalidate and Send with Solicited Event and Invalidate,
      RDMAP uses the second through fifth octets, provided by DDP on
      Untagged DDP Messages, to carry the STag that will be Invalidated.

   *  The RDMA Message length is passed by the RDMAP layer to the DDP
      layer on all outbound transfers.

   *  For RDMA Read Request Messages, the RDMA Read Message Size is
      included in the RDMA Read Request Header.





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   *  The RDMA Message length is passed to the RDMAP layer by the DDP
      layer on inbound Untagged Buffer transfers.

   *  Two RDMA Messages carry additional RDMAP headers.  The RDMA Read
      Request carries the Data Sink and Data Source buffer descriptions,
      including buffer length.  The Terminate carries additional
      information associated with the error that caused the Terminate.

4.1.  RDMAP Control and Invalidate STag Field

   The version of RDMAP defined by this specification uses all 8 bits of
   the RDMAP Control Field.  The first octet reserved for ULP use in the
   DDP Protocol MUST be used by the RDMAP to carry the RDMAP Control
   Field.  The ordering of the bits in the first octet MUST be as
   defined in Figure 3, "DDP Control, RDMAP Control, and Invalidate STag
   Fields".  For Send with Invalidate and Send with Solicited Event and
   Invalidate, the second through fifth octets of the DDP RsvdULP field
   MUST be used by RDMAP to carry the Invalidate STag.  Figure 3 depicts
   the format of the DDP Control and RDMAP Control fields.  (Note: In
   Figure 3, the DDP Header is offset by 16 bits to accommodate the MPA
   header defined in [MPA].  The MPA header is only present if DDP is
   layered on top of MPA.)

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
                                   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                   |T|L| Resrv | DV| RV|Rsv| Opcode|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                     Invalidate STag                           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 3: DDP Control, RDMAP Control, and Invalidate STag Fields

   All RDMA Messages handed by the RDMAP layer to the DDP layer MUST
   define the value of the Tagged flag in the DDP Header.  Figure 4,
   "RDMA Usage of DDP Fields", MUST be used to define the value of the
   Tagged flag that is handed to the DDP layer for each RDMA Message.

   Figure 4 defines the value of the RDMA Opcode field that MUST be used
   for each RDMA Message.

   Figure 4 defines when the STag, Queue Number, and Tagged Offset
   fields MUST be provided for each RDMA Message.








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   For this version of the RDMAP, all RDMA Messages MUST have:

   *  Bits 24-25; RDMA Version field: 01b for an RNIC that complies with
      this RDMA protocol specification.  00b for an RNIC that complies
      with the RDMA Consortium's RDMA protocol specification.  Both
      version numbers are valid.  Interoperability is dependent on MPA
      protocol version negotiation (e.g., MPA marker and MPA CRC).

   *  Bits 26-27; Reserved.  MUST be set to zero by sender, ignored by
      the receiver.

   *  Bits 28-31; OpCode field: see Figure 4.

   *  Bits 32-63; Invalidate STag.  However, this field is only valid
      for Send with Invalidate and Send with Solicited Event and
      Invalidate Messages (see Figure 4).

      For Send, Send with Solicited Event, RDMA Read Request, and
      Terminate, the Invalidate STag field MUST be set to zero on
      transmit and ignored by the receiver.































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   -------+-----------+-------+------+-------+-----------+--------------
   RDMA   | Message   | Tagged| STag | Queue | Invalidate| Message
   Message| Type      | Flag  | and  | Number| STag      | Length
   OpCode |           |       | TO   |       |           | Communicated
          |           |       |      |       |           | between DDP
          |           |       |      |       |           | and RDMAP
   -------+-----------+-------+------+-------+-----------+--------------
   0000b  | RDMA Write| 1     | Valid| N/A   | N/A       | Yes
          |           |       |      |       |           |
   -------+-----------+-------+------+-------+-----------+--------------
   0001b  | RDMA Read | 0     | N/A  | 1     | N/A       | Yes
          | Request   |       |      |       |           |
   -------+-----------+-------+------+-------+-----------+--------------
   0010b  | RDMA Read | 1     | Valid| N/A   | N/A       | Yes
          | Response  |       |      |       |           |
   -------+-----------+-------+------+-------+-----------+--------------
   0011b  | Send      | 0     | N/A  | 0     | N/A       | Yes
          |           |       |      |       |           |
   -------+-----------+-------+------+-------+-----------+--------------
   0100b  | Send with | 0     | N/A  | 0     | Valid     | Yes
          | Invalidate|       |      |       |           |
   -------+-----------+-------+------+-------+-----------+--------------
   0101b  | Send with | 0     | N/A  | 0     | N/A       | Yes
          | SE        |       |      |       |           |
   -------+-----------+-------+------+-------+-----------+--------------
   0110b  | Send with | 0     | N/A  | 0     | Valid     | Yes
          | SE and    |       |      |       |           |
          | Invalidate|       |      |       |           |
   -------+-----------+-------+------+-------+-----------+--------------
   0111b  | Terminate | 0     | N/A  | 2     | N/A       | Yes
          |           |       |      |       |           |
   -------+-----------+-------+------+-------+-----------+--------------
   1000b  |           |
   to     | Reserved  |               Not Specified
   1111b  |           |
   -------+-----------+-------------------------------------------------

                    Figure 4: RDMA Usage of DDP Fields

   Note:  N/A means Not Applicable.











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4.2.  RDMA Message Definitions

   The following figure defines which RDMA Headers MUST be used on each
   RDMA Message and which RDMA Messages are allowed to carry ULP
   Payload:

   -------+-----------+-------------------+-------------------------
   RDMA   | Message   | RDMA Header Used  | ULP Message allowed in
   Message| Type      |                   | the RDMA Message
   OpCode |           |                   |
          |           |                   |
   -------+-----------+-------------------+-------------------------
   0000b  | RDMA Write| None              | Yes
          |           |                   |
   -------+-----------+-------------------+-------------------------
   0001b  | RDMA Read | RDMA Read Request | No
          | Request   | Header            |
   -------+-----------+-------------------+-------------------------
   0010b  | RDMA Read | None              | Yes
          | Response  |                   |
   -------+-----------+-------------------+-------------------------
   0011b  | Send      | None              | Yes
          |           |                   |
   -------+-----------+-------------------+-------------------------
   0100b  | Send with | None              | Yes
          | Invalidate|                   |
   -------+-----------+-------------------+-------------------------
   0101b  | Send with | None              | Yes
          | SE        |                   |
   -------+-----------+-------------------+-------------------------
   0110b  | Send with | None              | Yes
          | SE and    |                   |
          | Invalidate|                   |
   -------+-----------+-------------------+-------------------------
   0111b  | Terminate | Terminate Header  | No
          |           |                   |
   -------+-----------+-------------------+-------------------------
   1000b  |           |
   to     | Reserved  |            Not Specified
   1111b  |           |
   -------+-----------+-------------------+-------------------------

                  Figure 5: RDMA Message Definitions








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4.3.  RDMA Write Header

   The RDMA Write Message does not include an RDMAP header.  The RDMAP
   layer passes to the DDP layer an RDMAP Control Field.  The RDMA Write
   Message is fully described by the DDP Headers of the DDP Segments
   associated with the Message.

   See Appendix A for a description of the DDP Segment format associated
   with RDMA Write Messages.

4.4.  RDMA Read Request Header

   The RDMA Read Request Message carries an RDMA Read Request Header
   that describes the Data Sink and Data Source Buffers used by the RDMA
   Read operation.  The RDMA Read Request Header immediately follows the
   DDP header.  The RDMAP layer passes to the DDP layer an RDMAP Control
   Field.  The following figure depicts the RDMA Read Request Header
   that MUST be used for all RDMA Read Request Messages:

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                     Data Sink STag (SinkSTag)                 |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                                                               |
    +                  Data Sink Tagged Offset (SinkTO)             +
    |                                                               |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                  RDMA Read Message Size (RDMARDSZ)            |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                     Data Source STag (SrcSTag)                |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                                                               |
    +                 Data Source Tagged Offset (SrcTO)             +
    |                                                               |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

               Figure 6: RDMA Read Request Header Format

      Data Sink Steering Tag: 32 bits.

           The Data Sink Steering Tag identifies the Data Sink's Tagged
           Buffer.  This field MUST be copied, without interpretation,
           from the RDMA Read Request into the corresponding RDMA Read
           Response; this field allows the Data Sink to place the
           returning data.  The STag is associated with the RDMAP Stream
           through a mechanism that is outside the scope of the RDMAP
           specification.



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      Data Sink Tagged Offset: 64 bits.

           The Data Sink Tagged Offset specifies the starting offset, in
           octets, from the base of the Data Sink's Tagged Buffer, where
           the data is to be written by the Data Source.  This field is
           copied from the RDMA Read Request into the corresponding RDMA
           Read Response and allows the Data Sink to place the returning
           data.  The Data Sink Tagged Offset MAY start at an arbitrary
           offset.

           The Data Sink STag and Data Sink Tagged Offset fields
           describe the buffer to which the RDMA Read data is written.

           Note: the DDP layer protects against a wrap of the Data Sink
           Tagged Offset.

      RDMA Read Message Size: 32 bits.

           The RDMA Read Message Size is the amount of data, in octets,
           read from the Data Source.  A single RDMA Read Request
           Message can retrieve from 0 to 2^32-1 data octets from the
           Data Source.

      Data Source Steering Tag: 32 bits.

           The Data Source Steering Tag identifies the Data Source's
           Tagged Buffer.  The STag is associated with the RDMAP Stream
           through a mechanism that is outside the scope of the RDMAP
           specification.

      Data Source Tagged Offset: 64 bits.

           The Tagged Offset specifies the starting offset, in octets,
           that is to be read from the Data Source's Tagged Buffer.  The
           Data Source Tagged Offset MAY start at an arbitrary offset.

           The Data Source STag and Data Source Tagged Offset fields
           describe the buffer from which the RDMA Read data is read.

   See Section 7.2, "Errors Detected at the Remote Peer on Incoming RDMA
   Messages", for a description of error checking required upon
   processing of an RDMA Read Request at the Data Source.









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4.5.  RDMA Read Response Header

   The RDMA Read Response Message does not include an RDMAP header.  The
   RDMAP layer passes to the DDP layer an RDMAP Control Field.  The RDMA
   Read Response Message is fully described by the DDP Headers of the
   DDP Segments associated with the Message.

   See Appendix A for a description of the DDP Segment format associated
   with RDMA Read Response Messages.

4.6.  Send Header and Send with Solicited Event Header

   The Send and Send with Solicited Event Messages do not include an
   RDMAP header.  The RDMAP layer passes to the DDP layer an RDMAP
   Control Field.  The Send and Send with Solicited Event Messages are
   fully described by the DDP Headers of the DDP Segments associated
   with the Messages.

   See Appendix A for a description of the DDP Segment format associated
   with Send and Send with Solicited Event Messages.

4.7.  Send with Invalidate Header and Send with SE and Invalidate Header

   The Send with Invalidate and Send with Solicited Event and Invalidate
   Messages do not include an RDMAP header.  The RDMAP layer passes to
   the DDP layer an RDMAP Control Field and the Invalidate STag field
   (see section 4.1 RDMAP Control and Invalidate STag Field).  The Send
   with Invalidate and Send with Solicited Event and Invalidate Messages
   are fully described by the DDP Headers of the DDP Segments associated
   with the Messages.

   See Appendix A for a description of the DDP Segment format associated
   with Send and Send with Solicited Event Messages.

4.8.  Terminate Header

   The Terminate Message carries a Terminate Header that contains
   additional information associated with the cause of the Terminate.
   The Terminate Header immediately follows the DDP header.  The RDMAP
   layer passes to the DDP layer an RDMAP Control Field.  The following
   figure depicts a Terminate Header that MUST be used for the Terminate
   Message:









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     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |       Terminate Control             |      Reserved           |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |  DDP Segment Length  (if any) |                               |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
    |                                                               |
    //                                                             //
    |                  Terminated DDP Header (if any)               |
    +                                                               +
    |                                                               |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                                                               |
    //                                                             //
    |                 Terminated RDMA Header (if any)               |
    +                                                               +
    |                                                               |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                 Figure 7: Terminate Header Format

      Terminate Control: 19 bits.

          The Terminate Control field MUST have the format defined in
          Figure 8 below.

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    | Layer | EType |   Error Code  |HdrCt|
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                    Figure 8: Terminate Control Field

   *  Figure 9, "Terminate Control Field Values", defines the valid
      values that MUST be used for this field.

      *  Layer: 4 bits.

         Identifies the layer that encountered the error.

      *  EType (RDMA Error Type): 4 bits.

         Identifies the type of error that caused the Terminate.  When
         the error is detected at the RDMAP layer, the RDMAP layer
         inserts the Error Type into this field.  When the error is
         detected at an LLP layer, an LLP layer creates the Error Type



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RFC 5040              RDMA Protocol Specification           October 2007


         and the DDP layer passes it up to the RDMAP layer, and the
         RDMAP layer inserts it into this field.

      *  Error Code: 8 bits.

         This field identifies the specific error that caused the
         Terminate.  When the error is detected at the RDMAP layer, the
         RDMAP layer creates the Error Code.  When the error is detected
         at an LLP layer, the LLP layer creates the Error Code, the DDP
         layer passes it up to the RDMAP layer, and the RDMAP layer
         inserts it into this field.

      *  HdrCt: 3 bits.

         Header control bits:

         *  M: bit 16.  DDP Segment Length valid.  See Figure 10 for
            when this bit SHOULD be set.

         *  D: bit 17.  DDP Header Included.  See Figure 10 for when
            this bit SHOULD be set.

         *  R: bit 18.  RDMAP Header Included.  See Figure 10 for when
            this bit SHOULD be set.



























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   -------+-----------+-------+-------------+------+--------------------
   Layer  | Layer     | Error | Error Type  | Error| Error Code Name
          | Name      | Type  | Name        | Code |
   -------+-----------+-------+-------------+------+--------------------
          |           | 0000b | Local       | None | None - This error
          |           |       | Catastrophic|      | type does not have
          |           |       | Error       |      | an error code. Any
          |           |       |             |      | value in this field
          |           |       |             |      | is acceptable.
          |           +-------+-------------+------+--------------------
          |           |       |             | 00X  | Invalid STag
          |           |       |             +------+--------------------
          |           |       |             | 01X  | Base or bounds
          |           |       |             |      | violation
          |           |       | Remote      +------+--------------------
          |           | 0001b | Protection  | 02X  | Access rights
          |           |       | Error       |      | violation
          |           |       |             +------+--------------------
   0000b  | RDMA      |       |             | 03X  | STag not associated
          |           |       |             |      | with RDMAP Stream
          |           |       |             +------+--------------------
          |           |       |             | 04X  | TO wrap
          |           |       |             +------+--------------------
          |           |       |             | 09X  | STag cannot be
          |           |       |             |      | Invalidated
          |           |       |             +------+--------------------
          |           |       |             | FFX  | Unspecified Error
          |           +-------+-------------+------+--------------------
          |           |       |             | 05X  | Invalid RDMAP
          |           |       |             |      | version
          |           |       |             +------+--------------------
          |           |       |             | 06X  | Unexpected OpCode
          |           |       | Remote      +------+--------------------
          |           | 0010b | Operation   | 07X  | Catastrophic error,
          |           |       | Error       |      | localized to RDMAP
          |           |       |             |      | Stream
          |           |       |             +------+--------------------
          |           |       |             | 08X  | Catastrophic error,
          |           |       |             |      | global
          |           |       |             +------+--------------------
          |           |       |             | 09X  | STag cannot be
          |           |       |             |      | Invalidated
          |           |       |             +------+--------------------
          |           |       |             | FFX  | Unspecified Error







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   -------+-----------+-------+-------------+------+--------------------
   0001b  | DDP       | See DDP Specification [DDP] for a description of
          |           | the values and names.
   -------+-----------+-------+-----------------------------------------
   0010b  | LLP       | For MPA, see MPA Specification [MPA] for a
          |(e.g., MPA)| description of the values and names.
   -------+-----------+-------+-----------------------------------------

              Figure 9: Terminate Control Field Values

      Reserved: 13 bits.  This field MUST be set to zero on transmit,
      ignored on receive.

      DDP Segment Length: 16 bits

           The length handed up by the DDP layer when the error was
           detected.  It MUST be valid if the M bit is set.  It MUST be
           present when the D bit is set.

      Terminated DDP Header: 112 bits for Tagged Messages and 144 bits
      for Untagged Messages.

           The DDP Header of the incoming Message that is associated
           with the Terminate.  The DDP Header is not present if the
           Terminate Error Type is a Local Catastrophic Error.  It MUST
           be present if the D bit is set.

      Terminated RDMA Header: 224 bits.

           The Terminated RDMA Header is only sent back if the terminate
           is associated with an RDMA Read Request Message.  It MUST be
           present if the R bit is set.

           If the terminate occurs before the first RDMA Read Request
           byte is processed, the original RDMA Read Request Header is
           sent back.

           If the terminate occurs after the first RDMA Read Request
           byte is processed, the RDMA Read Request Header is updated to
           reflect the current location of the RDMA Read operation that
           is in process:

               *  Data Sink STag = Data Sink STag originally sent in the
                  RDMA Read Request.







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               *  Data Sink Tagged Offset = Current offset into the Data
                  Sink Tagged Buffer.  For example, if the RDMA Read
                  Request was terminated after 2048 octets were sent,
                  then the Data Sink Tagged Offset = the original Data
                  Sink Tagged Offset + 2048.

               *  Data Message size = Number of bytes left to transfer.

               *  Data Source STag = Data Source STag in the RDMA Read
                  Request.

               *  Data Source Tagged Offset = Current offset into the
                  Data Source Tagged Buffer.  For example, if the RDMA
                  Read Request was terminated after 2048 octets were
                  sent, then the Data Source Tagged Offset = the
                  original Data Source Tagged Offset + 2048.

   Note: if a given LLP does not define any termination codes for the
   RDMAP Termination message to use, then none would be used for that
   LLP.

   Figure 10, "Error Type to RDMA Message Mapping", maps layer name and
   error types to each RDMA Message type:




























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   ---------+-------------+------------+------------+-----------------
   Layer    | Error Type  | Terminate  | Terminate  | What type of
   Name     | Name        | Includes   | Includes   | RDMA Message can
            |             | DDP Header | RDMA Header| cause the error
            |             | and DDP    |            |
            |             | Segment    |            |
            |             | Length     |            |
   ---------+-------------+------------+------------+-----------------
            | Local       | No         | No         | Any
            | Catastrophic|            |            |
            | Error       |            |            |
            +-------------+------------+------------+-----------------
            | Remote      | Yes, if    | Yes        | Only RDMA Read
   RDMA     | Protection  | possible   |            | Request, Send
            | Error       |            |            | with Invalidate,
            |             |            |            | and Send with SE
            |             |            |            | and Invalidate
            +-------------+------------+------------+-----------------
            | Remote      | Yes, if    | No         | Any
            | Operation   | possible   |            |
            | Error       |            |            |
   ---------+-------------+------------+------------+-----------------
   DDP      | See DDP Spec| Yes        | No         | Any
            | [DDP]       |            |            |
   ---------+-------------+------------+------------+-----------------
   LLP      | See LLP Spec| No         | No         | Any
            | (e.g., MPA) |            |            |

            Figure 10: Error Type to RDMA Message Mapping

5.  Data Transfer

5.1.  RDMA Write Message

   An RDMA Write is used by the Data Source to transfer data to a
   previously Advertised Tagged Buffer at the Data Sink.  The RDMA Write
   Message has the following semantics:

   *  An RDMA Write Message MUST reference a Tagged Buffer.  That is,
      the Data Source RDMAP layer MUST request that the DDP layer mark
      the Message as Tagged.

   *  A valid RDMA Write Message MUST NOT be delivered to the Data
      Sink's ULP (i.e., it is placed by the DDP layer).

   *  At the Remote Peer, when an invalid RDMA Write Message is
      delivered to the Remote Peer's RDMAP layer, an error is surfaced
      (see Section 7.1, "RDMAP Error Surfacing").



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   *  The Tagged Offset of a Tagged Buffer MAY start at a non-zero
      value.

   *  An RDMA Write Message MAY target all or part of a previously
      Advertised Buffer.

   *  The RDMAP does not define how the buffer(s) are used by an
      outbound RDMA Write or how they are addressed.  For example, an
      implementation of RDMA may choose to allow a gather-list of non-
      contiguous data blocks to be the source of an RDMA Write.  In this
      case, the data blocks would be combined by the Data Source and
      sent as a single RDMA Write Message to the Data Sink.

   *  The Data Source RDMAP layer MUST issue RDMA Write Messages to the
      DDP layer in the order they were submitted by the ULP.

   *  At the Data Source, a subsequent Send (Send with Invalidate, Send
      with Solicited Event, or Send with Solicited Event and Invalidate)
      Message MAY be used to signal Delivery of previous RDMA Write
      Messages to the Data Sink, if the ULP chooses to signal Delivery
      in this fashion.

   *  If the Local Peer wishes to write to multiple Tagged Buffers on
      the Remote Peer, the Local Peer MUST use multiple RDMA Write
      Messages.  That is, a single RDMA Write Message can only write to
      one remote Tagged Buffer.

   *  The Data Source MAY issue a zero-length RDMA Write Message.

5.2.  RDMA Read Operation

   The RDMA Read operation MUST consist of a single RDMA Read Request
   Message and a single RDMA Read Response Message.

5.2.1.  RDMA Read Request Message

   An RDMA Read Request is used by the Data Sink to transfer data from a
   previously Advertised Tagged Buffer at the Data Source to a Tagged
   Buffer at the Data Sink.  The RDMA Read Request Message has the
   following semantics:

   *  An RDMA Read Request Message MUST reference an Untagged Buffer.
      That is, the Local Peer's RDMAP layer MUST request that the DDP
      mark the Message as Untagged.

   *  One RDMA Read Request Message MUST consume one Untagged Buffer.





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   *  The Remote Peer's RDMAP layer MUST process an RDMA Read Request
      Message.  A valid RDMA Read Request Message MUST NOT be delivered
      to the Data Sink's ULP (i.e., it is processed by the RDMAP layer).

   *  At the Remote Peer, when an invalid RDMA Read Request Message is
      delivered to the Remote Peer's RDMAP layer, an error is surfaced
      (see Section 7.1, "RDMAP Error Surfacing").

   *  An RDMA Read Request Message MUST reference the RDMA Read Request
      Queue.  That is, the Local Peer's RDMAP layer MUST request that
      the DDP layer set the Queue Number field to one.

   *  The Local Peer MUST pass to the DDP layer RDMA Read Request
      Messages in the order they were submitted by the ULP.

   *  The Remote Peer MUST process the RDMA Read Request Messages in the
      order they were sent.

   *  If the Local Peer wishes to read from multiple Tagged Buffers on
      the Remote Peer, the Local Peer MUST use multiple RDMA Read
      Request Messages.  That is, a single RDMA Read Request Message
      MUST only read from one remote Tagged Buffer.

   *  AN RDMA Read Request Message MAY target all or part of a
      previously Advertised Buffer.

   *  If the Data Source receives a valid RDMA Read Request Message, it
      MUST respond with a valid RDMA Read Response Message.

   *  The Data Sink MAY issue a zero-length RDMA Read Request Message by
      setting the RDMA Read Message Size field to zero in the RDMA Read
      Request Header.

   *  If the Data Source receives a non-zero-length RDMA Read Message
      Size, the Data Source RDMAP MUST validate the Data Source STag and
      Data Source Tagged Offset contained in the RDMA Read Request
      Header.

   *  If the Data Source receives an RDMA Read Request Header with the
      RDMA Read Message Size set to zero, the Data Source RDMAP:

      *  MUST NOT validate the Data Source STag and Data Source Tagged
         Offset contained in the RDMA Read Request Header, and

      *  MUST respond with a zero-length RDMA Read Response Message.






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5.2.2.  RDMA Read Response Message

   The RDMA Read Response Message uses the DDP Tagged Buffer Model to
   Deliver the contents of a previously requested Data Source Tagged
   Buffer to the Data Sink, without any involvement from the ULP at the
   Remote Peer.  The RDMA Read Response Message has the following
   semantics:

   *  The RDMA Read Response Message for the associated RDMA Read
      Request Message travels in the opposite direction.

   *  An RDMA Read Response Message MUST reference a Tagged Buffer.
      That is, the Data Source RDMAP layer MUST request that the DDP
      mark the Message as Tagged.

   *  The Data Source MUST ensure that a sufficient number of Untagged
      Buffers are available on the RDMA Read Request Queue (Queue with
      DDP Queue Number 1) to support the maximum number of RDMA Read
      Requests negotiated by the ULP.

   *  The RDMAP layer MUST Deliver the RDMA Read Response Message to the
      ULP.

   *  At the Remote Peer, when an invalid RDMA Read Response Message is
      delivered to the Remote Peer's RDMAP layer, an error is surfaced
      (see Section 7.1, "RDMAP Error Surfacing").

   *  The Tagged Offset of a Tagged Buffer MAY start at a non-zero
      value.

   *  The Data Source RDMAP layer MUST pass RDMA Read Response Messages
      to the DDP layer, in the order that the RDMA Read Request Messages
      were received by the RDMAP layer, at the Data Source.

   *  The Data Sink MAY validate that the STag, Tagged Offset, and
      length of the RDMA Read Response Message are the same as the STag,
      Tagged Offset, and length included in the corresponding RDMA Read
      Request Message.

   *  A single RDMA Read Response Message MUST write to one remote
      Tagged Buffer.  If the Data Sink wishes to read multiple Tagged
      Buffers, the Data Sink can use multiple RDMA Read Request
      Messages.








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5.3.  Send Message Type

   The Send Message Type uses the DDP Untagged Buffer Model to transfer
   data from the Data Source into an Untagged Buffer at the Data Sink.

   *  A Send Message Type MUST reference an Untagged Buffer.  That is,
      the Local Peer's RDMAP layer MUST request that the DDP layer mark
      the Message as Untagged.

   *  One Send Message Type MUST consume one Untagged Buffer.

      *  The ULP Message sent using a Send Message Type MAY be less than
         or equal to the size of the consumed Untagged Buffer.  The
         RDMAP layer communicates to the ULP the size of the data
         written into the Untagged Buffer.

      *  If the ULP Message sent via Send Message Type is larger than
         the Data Sink's Untagged Buffer, it is an error (see Section
         9.1, "RDMAP Error Surfacing").

   *  At the Remote Peer, the Send Message Type MUST be Delivered to the
      Remote Peer's ULP in the order they were sent.

   *  After the Send with Solicited Event or Send with Solicited Event
      and Invalidate Message is Delivered to the ULP, the RDMAP MAY
      generate an Event, if the Data Sink is configured to generate such
      an Event.

   *  At the Remote Peer, when an invalid Send Message Type is Delivered
      to the Remote Peer's RDMAP layer, an error is surfaced (see
      Section 7.1, "RDMAP Error Surfacing").

   *  The RDMAP does not specify the structure of the buffer(s) used by
      an outbound RDMA Write nor does it specify how the buffer(s) are
      addressed.  For example, an implementation of RDMA may choose to
      allow a gather-list of non-contiguous data blocks to be the source
      of a Send Message Type.  In this case, the data blocks would be
      combined by the Data Source and sent as a single Send Message Type
      to the Data Sink.

   *  For a Send Message Type, the Local Peer's RDMAP layer MUST request
      that the DDP layer set the Queue Number field to zero.

   *  The Local Peer MUST issue Send Message Type Messages in the order
      they were submitted by the ULP.






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   *  The Data Source MAY pass a zero-length Send Message Type.  A
      zero-length Send Message Type MUST consume an Untagged Buffer at
      the Data Sink.  A Send with Invalidate or Send with Solicited
      Event and Invalidate Message MUST reference an STag.  That is, the
      Local Peer's RDMAP layer MUST pass the RDMA control field and the
      STag that will be Invalidated to the DDP layer.

   *  When the Send with Invalidate and Send with Solicited Event and
      Invalidate Message are Delivered to the Remote Peer's RDMAP layer,
      the RDMAP layer MUST:

      *  Verify the STag that is associated with the RDMAP Stream; and

      *  Invalidate the STag if it is associated with the RDMAP Stream;
         or issue a Terminate Message with the STag Cannot be
         Invalidated Terminate Error Code, if the STag is not associated
         with the RDMAP Stream.

5.4.  Terminate Message

   The Terminate Message uses the DDP Untagged Buffer Model to
   transfer-error-related information from the Data Source into an
   Untagged Buffer at the Data Sink and then ceases all further
   communications on the underlying DDP Stream.  The Terminate Message
   has the following semantics:

   *  A Terminate Message MUST reference an Untagged Buffer.  That is,
      the Local Peer's RDMAP layer MUST request that the DDP layer mark
      the Message as Untagged.

   *  A Terminate Message references the Terminate Queue.  That is, the
      Local Peer's RDMAP layer MUST request that the DDP layer set the
      Queue Number field to two.

   *  One Terminate Message MUST consume one Untagged Buffer.

   *  On a single RDMAP Stream, the RDMAP layer MUST guarantee placement
      of a single Terminate Message.

   *  A Terminate Message MUST be Delivered to the Remote Peer's RDMAP
      layer.  The RDMAP layer MUST Deliver the Terminate Message to the
      ULP.

   *  At the Remote Peer, when an invalid Terminate Message is delivered
      to the Remote Peer's RDMAP layer, an error is surfaced (see
      Section 7.1 "RDMAP Error Surfacing").





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   *  The RDMAP layer Completes in error all ULP operations that have
      not been provided to the DDP layer.

   *  After sending a Terminate Message on an RDMAP Stream, the Local
      Peer MUST NOT send any more Messages on that specific RDMAP
      Stream.

   *  After receiving a Terminate Message on an RDMAP Stream, the Remote
      Peer MAY stop sending Messages on that specific RDMAP Stream.

5.5.  Ordering and Completions

   It is important to understand the difference between Placement and
   Delivery ordering since RDMAP provides quite different semantics for
   the two.

   Note that many current protocols, both as used in the Internet and
   elsewhere, assume that data is both Placed and Delivered in order.
   Taking advantage of this fact allowed applications to take a variety
   of shortcuts.  For RDMAP, many of these shortcuts are no longer safe
   to use, and could cause application failure.

   The following rules apply to implementations of the RDMAP protocol.
   Note that in these rules, Send includes Send, Send with Invalidate,
   Send with Solicited Event, and Send with Solicited Event and
   Invalidate:

   1.  RDMAP does not provide ordering among Messages on different RDMAP
       Streams.

   2.  RDMAP does not provide ordering between operations that are
       generated from the two ends of an RDMAP Stream.

   3.  RDMA Messages that use Tagged and Untagged Buffers MAY be Placed
       in any order.  If an application uses overlapping buffers (points
       different Messages or portions of a single Message at the same
       buffer), then it is possible that the last incoming write to the
       Data Sink buffer will not be the last outgoing data sent from the
       Data Source.

   4.  For a Send operation, the contents of an Untagged Buffer at the
       Data Sink MAY be indeterminate until the Send is Delivered to the
       ULP at the Data Sink.

   5.  For an RDMA Write operation, the contents of the Tagged Buffer at
       the Data Sink MAY be indeterminate until a subsequent Send is
       Delivered to the ULP at the Data Sink.




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   6.  For an RDMA Read operation, the contents of the Tagged Buffer at
       the Data Sink MAY be indeterminate until the RDMA Read Response
       Message has been Delivered at the Local Peer.

   Statements 4, 5, and 6 imply "no peeking" at the data to see if it is
   done.  It is possible for some data to arrive before logically
   earlier data does, and peeking may cause unpredictable application
   failure.

   7.  If the ULP or Application modifies the contents of Tagged or
       Untagged Buffers, which are being modified by an RDMA Operation
       while the RDMAP is processing the RDMA Operation, the state of
       the Buffers is indeterminate.

   8.  If the ULP or Application modifies the contents of Tagged or
       Untagged Buffers, which are read by an RDMA Operation while the
       RDMAP is processing the RDMA Operation, the results of the read
       are indeterminate.

   9.  The Completion of an RDMA Write or Send Operation at the Local
       Peer does not guarantee that the ULP Message has yet reached the
       Remote Peer ULP Buffer or been examined by the Remote ULP.

   10. Send Messages MUST be Delivered to the ULP at the Remote Peer
       after they are Delivered to RDMAP by DDP and in the order that
       they were Delivered to RDMAP.

       Note that DDP ordering rules ensure that this will be the same
       order that they were submitted at the Local Peer and that any
       prior RDMA Writes have been submitted for ordered Placement at
       the Remote Peer.  This means that when the ULP sees the Delivery
       of the Send, the memory buffers targeted by any preceding RDMA
       Writes and Sends are available to be accessed locally or remotely
       as authorized.  If the ULP overlaps its buffers for different
       operations, the data from the RDMA Write or Send may be
       overwritten by subsequent RDMA Operations before the ULP receives
       and processes the Delivery.

   11. RDMA Read Response Messages MUST be Delivered to the ULP at the
       Remote Peer after they are Delivered to RDMAP by DDP and in the
       order that the they were Delivered to RDMAP.

       DDP ordering rules ensure that this will be the same order that
       they were submitted at the Local Peer.  This means that when the
       ULP sees the Delivery of the RDMA Read Response, the memory
       buffers targeted by the RDMA Read Response are available to be
       accessed locally or remotely as authorized.  If the ULP overlaps




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       its buffers for different operations, the data from the RDMA Read
       Response may be overwritten by subsequent RDMA Operations before
       the ULP receives and processes the Delivery.

   12. RDMA Read Request Messages, including zero-length RDMA Read
       Requests, MUST NOT start processing at the Remote Peer until they
       have been Delivered to RDMAP by DDP.

       Note: the ULP is assured that data written can be read back.  For
       example, if

          a) an RDMA Read Request is issued by the local peer,
          b) the Request targets the same ULP Buffer as a preceding Send
             or RDMA Write (in the same direction as the RDMA Read
             Request), and
          c) there are no other sources of update for the ULP Buffer,

       then the Remote Peer will send back the data written by the Send
       or RDMA Write.  That is, for this example, the ULP Buffer is
       Advertised for use on a series of RDMA Messages, is only valid on
       the RDMAP Stream for which it is Advertised, and is not locally
       updated while the series of RDMAP Messages are performed.  For
       this example, order rule (12) assures that subsequent local or
       remote accesses to the ULP Buffer contain the data written by the
       Send or RDMA Write.

       RDMA Read Response Messages MAY be generated at the Remote Peer
       after subsequent RDMA Write Messages or Send Messages have been
       Placed or Delivered.  Therefore, when an application does an RDMA
       Read Request followed by an RDMA Write (or Send) to the same
       buffer, it may get the data from the later RDMA Write (or Send)
       in the RDMA Read Response Message, even though the operations
       completed in order at the Local Peer.  If this behavior is not
       desired, the Local Peer ULP must Fence the later RDMA write (or
       Send) by withholding the RDMA Write Message until all outstanding
       RDMA Read Responses have been Delivered.

   13. The RDMAP layer MUST submit RDMA Messages to the DDP layer in the
       order the RDMA Operations are submitted to the RDMAP layer by the
       ULP.

   14. A Send or RDMA Write Message MUST NOT be considered Complete at
       the Local Peer (Data Source) until it has been successfully
       completed at the DDP layer.

   15. RDMA Operations MUST be Completed at the Local Peer in the order
       that they were submitted by the ULP.




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   16. At the Data Sink, an incoming Send Message MUST be Delivered to
       the ULP only after the DDP Message has been Delivered to the
       RDMAP layer by the DDP layer.

   17. RDMA Read Response Message processing at the Remote Peer (reading
       the specified Tagged Buffer) MUST be started only after the RDMA
       Read Request Message has been Delivered by the DDP layer (thus,
       all previous RDMA Messages have been properly submitted for
       ordered Placement).

   18. Send Messages MAY be Completed at the Remote Peer (Data Sink)
       before prior incoming RDMA Read Request Messages have completed
       their response processing.

   19. An RDMA Read operation MUST NOT be Completed at the Local Peer
       until the DDP layer Delivers the associated incoming RDMA Read
       Response Message.

   20. If more than one outstanding RDMA Read Request Messages are
       supported by both peers, the RDMA Read Response Messages MUST be
       submitted to the DDP layer on the Remote Peer in the order the
       RDMA Read Request Messages were Delivered by DDP, but the actual
       read of the buffer contents MAY take place in any order at the
       Remote Peer.

       This simplifies Local Peer Completion processing for RDMA Reads
       in that a Delivered RDMA Read Response MUST be sufficient to
       Complete the RDMA Read operation.

6.  RDMAP Stream Management

   RDMAP Stream management consists of RDMAP Stream Initialization and
   RDMAP Stream Termination.

6.1.  Stream Initialization

   RDMAP Stream initialization occurs after the LLP Stream has been
   created (e.g., for DDP/MPA over TCP, the first TCP Segment after the
   SYN, SYN/ACK exchange).  The ULP is responsible for transitioning the
   LLP Stream into RDMA-enabled mode.  The switch to RDMA mode typically
   occurs sometime after LLP Stream setup.  Once in RDMA enabled mode,
   an implementation MUST send only RDMA Messages across the transport
   Stream until the RDMAP Stream is torn down.

   For each direction of an RDMAP Stream:

   *  For a given RDMAP Stream, the number of outstanding RDMA Read
      Requests is limited per RDMAP Stream direction.



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   *  It is the ULP's responsibility to set the maximum number of
      outstanding, inbound RDMA Read Requests per RDMAP Stream
      direction.

   *  The RDMAP layer MUST provide the maximum number of outstanding,
      inbound RDMA Read Requests per RDMAP Stream direction that were
      negotiated between the ULP and the Local Peer's RDMAP layer.  The
      negotiation mechanism is outside the scope of this specification.

   *  It is the ULP's responsibility to set the maximum number of
      outstanding, outbound RDMA Read Requests per RDMAP Stream
      direction.

   *  The RDMAP layer MUST provide the maximum number of outstanding,
      outbound RDMA Read Requests for the RDMAP Stream direction that
      were negotiated between the ULP and the Local Peer's RDMAP layer.
      The negotiation mechanism is outside the scope of this
      specification.

   *  The Local Peer's ULP is responsible for negotiating with the
      Remote Peer's ULP the maximum number of outstanding RDMA Read
      Requests for the RDMAP Stream direction.  It is recommended that
      the ULP set the maximum number of outstanding, inbound RDMA Read
      Requests equal to the maximum number of outstanding, outbound RDMA
      Read Requests for a given RDMAP Stream direction.

   *  For outbound RDMA Read Requests, the RDMAP layer MUST NOT exceed
      the maximum number of outstanding, outbound RDMA Read Requests
      that were negotiated between the ULP and the Local Peer's RDMAP
      layer.

   *  For inbound RDMA Read Requests, the RDMAP layer MUST NOT exceed
      the maximum number of outstanding, inbound RDMA Read Requests that
      were negotiated between the ULP and the Local Peer's RDMAP layer.

6.2.  Stream Teardown

   There are three methods for terminating an RDMAP Stream: ULP Graceful
   Termination, RDMAP Abortive Termination, and LLP Abortive
   Termination.

   The ULP is responsible for performing ULP Graceful Termination.
   After a ULP Graceful Termination, either side of the Stream can
   initiate LLP Graceful Termination, using the graceful termination
   mechanism provided by the LLP.






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   RDMAP Abortive Termination allows the RDMAP to issue a Terminate
   Message describing the reason the RDMAP Stream was terminated.  The
   next section (6.2.1, "RDMAP Abortive Termination") describes the
   RDMAP Abortive Termination in detail.

   LLP Abortive Termination results due to an LLP error and causes the
   RDMAP Stream to be torn down midstream, without an RDMAP Terminate
   Message.  While this last method is highly undesirable, it is
   possible, and the ULP should take this into consideration.

6.2.1.  RDMAP Abortive Termination

   RDMAP defines a Terminate operation that SHOULD be invoked when
   either an RDMAP error is encountered or an LLP error is surfaced to
   the RDMAP layer by the LLP.

   It is not always possible to send the Terminate Message.  For
   example, certain LLP errors may occur that cause the LLP Stream to be
   torn down a) before RDMAP is aware of the error, b) before RDMAP is
   able to send the Terminate Message, or c) after RDMAP has posted the
   Terminate Message to the LLP, but it has not yet been transmitted by
   the LLP.

   Note that an RDMAP Abortive Termination may entail loss of data.  In
   general, when a Terminate Message is received, it is impossible to
   tell for sure what unacknowledged RDMA Messages were Completed
   successfully at the Remote Peer.  Thus, the state of all outstanding
   RDMA Messages is indeterminate, and the Messages SHOULD be considered
   Completed in error.

   When a peer sends or receives a Terminate Message, it MAY immediately
   tear down the LLP Stream.  The peer SHOULD perform a graceful LLP
   teardown to ensure the Terminate Message is successfully Delivered.

   See Section 4.8, "Terminate Header", for a description of the
   Terminate Message and its contents.  See Section 5.4, "Terminate
   Message", for a description of the Terminate Message semantics.

7.  RDMAP Error Management

   The RDMAP protocol does not have RDMAP- or DDP-layer error recovery
   operations built in.  If everything is working, the LLP guarantees
   will ensure that the Messages are arriving at the destination.

   If errors are detected at the RDMAP or DDP layer, then the RDMAP,
   DDP, and LLP Streams are Abortively Terminated (see Section 4.8,
   "Terminate Header").




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   In general, poor implementations or improper ULP programming cause
   the errors detected at the RDMAP and DDP layers.  In these cases,
   returning a diagnostic termination error Message and closing the
   RDMAP Stream is far simpler than attempting to maintain the RDMAP
   Stream, particularly when the cause of the error is not known.

   If an LLP does not support teardown of a Stream independent of other
   Streams, and an RDMAP error results in the Termination of a specific
   Stream, then the LLP MUST label the Stream as an erroneous Stream and
   MUST NOT allow any further data transfer on that Stream after RDMAP
   requests the Stream to be torn down.

   For a specific LLP connection, when all Streams are either gracefully
   torn down or are labeled as erroneous Streams, the LLP connection
   MUST be torn down.

   Since errors are detected at the Remote Peer (possibly long) after
   RDMA Messages are passed to the DDP and the LLP at the Local Peer and
   after the RDMA Operations conveyed by the Messages are Completed, the
   sender cannot easily determine which of its Messages have been
   received.  (RDMA Reads are an exception to this rule.)

   For a list of errors returned to the Remote Peer as a result of an
   Abortive Termination, see Section 4.8, "Terminate Header".

7.1.  RDMAP Error Surfacing

   If an error occurs at the Local Peer, the RDMAP layer MUST attempt to
   inform the local ULP that the error has occurred.

   The Local Peer MUST send a Terminate Message for each of the
   following cases:

   1.  For errors detected while creating RDMA Write, Send, Send with
       Invalidate, Send with Solicited Event, Send with Solicited Event
       and Invalidate, or RDMA Read Requests, or other reasons not
       directly associated with an incoming Message, the Terminate
       Message and Error code are sent instead of the request.  In this
       case, the Error Type and Error Code fields are included in the
       Terminate Message, but the Terminated DDP Header and Terminated
       RDMA Header fields are set to zero.

   2.  For errors detected on an incoming RDMA Write, Send, Send with
       Invalidate, Send with Solicited Event, Send with Solicited Event
       and Invalidate, or Read Response Message (after the Message has
       been Delivered by DDP), the Terminate Message is sent at the
       earliest possible opportunity, preferably in the next outgoing
       RDMA Message.  In this case, the Error Type, Error Code, ULP PDU



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       Length, and Terminated DDP Header fields are included in the
       Terminate Message, but the Terminated RDMA Header field is set to
       zero.

   3.  For errors detected on an incoming RDMA Read Request Message
       (after the Message has been Delivered by DDP), the Terminate
       Message is sent at the earliest possible opportunity, preferably
       in the next outgoing RDMA Message.  In this case, the Error Type,
       Error Code, ULP PDU Length, Terminated DDP Header, and Terminated
       RDMA Header fields are included in the Terminate Message.

   4.  If more than one error is detected on incoming RDMA Messages,
       before the Terminate Message can be sent, then the first RDMA
       Message (and its associated DDP Segment) that experienced an
       error MUST be captured by the Terminate Message, in accordance
       with rules 2 and 3 above.

7.2.  Errors Detected at the Remote Peer on Incoming RDMA Messages

   On incoming RDMA Writes, RDMA Read Response, Sends, Send with
   Invalidate, Send with Solicited Event, Send with Solicited Event and
   Invalidate, and Terminate Messages, the following must be validated:

   1.  The DDP layer MUST validate all DDP Segment fields.

   2.  The RDMA OpCode MUST be valid.

   3.  The RDMA Version MUST be valid.

       Additionally, on incoming Send with Invalidate and Send with
       Solicited Event and Invalidate Messages, the following must also
       be validated:

   4.  The Invalidate STag MUST be valid.

   5.  The STag MUST be associated to this RDMAP Stream.

   On incoming RDMA Request Messages, the following must be validated:

   1.  The DDP layer MUST validate all Untagged DDP Segment fields.

   2.  The RDMA OpCode MUST be valid.

   3.  The RDMA Version MUST be valid.

   4.  For non-zero length RDMA Read Request Messages:

       a.  The Data Source STag MUST be valid.



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       b.  The Data Source STag MUST be associated to this RDMAP Stream.

       c.  The Data Source Tagged Offset MUST fall in the range of legal
           offsets associated with the Data Source STag.

       d.  The sum of the Data Source Tagged Offset and the RDMA Read
           Message Size MUST fall in the range of legal offsets
           associated with the Data Source STag.

       e.  The sum of the Data Source Tagged Offset and the RDMA Read
           Message Size MUST NOT cause the Data Source Tagged Offset to
           wrap.

8.  Security Considerations

   This section references the resources that discuss protocol- specific
   security considerations and implications of using RDMAP with existing
   security services.  A detailed analysis of the security issues around
   implementation and use of the RDMAP can be found in [RDMASEC].

   [RDMASEC] introduces the RDMA reference model and discusses how the
   resources of this model are vulnerable to attacks and the types of
   attack these vulnerabilities are subject to.  It also details the
   levels of Trust available in this peer-to-peer model and how this
   defines the nature of resource sharing.

   The IPsec requirements for RDDP are based on the version of IPsec
   specified in RFC 2401 [RFC2401] and related RFCs, as profiled by RFC
   3723 [RFC3723], despite the existence of a newer version of IPsec
   specified in RFC 4301 [RFC4301] and related RFCs [RFC4303],
   [RFC4306], [RFC4835].  One of the important early applications of the
   RDDP protocols is their use with iSCSI [iSER]; RDDP's IPsec
   requirements follow those of IPsec in order to facilitate that usage
   by allowing a common profile of IPsec to be used with iSCSI and the
   RDDP protocols.  In the future, RFC 3723 may be updated to the newer
   version of IPsec, and the IPsec security requirements of any such
   update should apply uniformly to iSCSI and the RDDP protocols.

8.1.  Summary of RDMAP-Specific Security Requirements

   [RDMASEC] defines the security requirements for the implementation of
   the components of the RDMA reference model, namely the RDMA enabled
   NIC (RNIC) and the Privileged Resource Manager.  An RDMAP
   implementation conforming to this specification MUST conform to these
   requirements.






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8.1.1.  RDMAP (RNIC) Requirements

   RDMAP provides several countermeasures for all types of attacks as
   introduced in [RDMASEC].  In the following, this specification lists
   all security requirements that MUST be implemented by the RNIC.  A
   more detailed discussion of RNIC security requirements can be found
   in Section 5 of [RDMASEC].

   1.  An RNIC MUST ensure that a specific Stream in a specific
       Protection Domain cannot access an STag in a different Protection
       Domain.

   2.  An RNIC MUST ensure that if an STag is limited in scope to a
       single Stream, no other Stream can use the STag.

   3.  An RNIC MUST ensure that a Remote Peer is not able to access
       memory outside of the buffer specified when the STag was enabled
       for remote access.

   4.  An RNIC MUST provide a mechanism for the ULP to establish and
       revoke the association of a ULP Buffer to an STag and TO range.

   5.  An RNIC MUST provide a mechanism for the ULP to establish and
       revoke read, write, or read and write access to the ULP Buffer
       referenced by an STag.

   6.  An RNIC MUST ensure that the network interface can no longer
       modify an Advertised Buffer after the ULP revokes remote access
       rights for an STag.

   7.  An RNIC MUST ensure that a Remote Peer is not able to invalidate
       an STag enabled for remote access, if the STag is shared on
       multiple streams.

   8.  An RNIC MUST choose the value of STags in a way difficult to
       predict.  It is RECOMMENDED to sparsely populate them over the
       full available range.

   9.  An RNIC MUST NOT enable sharing a Completion Queue (CQ) across
       ULPs that do not share partial mutual trust.

   10. An RNIC MUST ensure that if a CQ overflows, any Streams that do
       not use the CQ MUST remain unaffected.

   11. An RNIC implementation SHOULD provide a mechanism to cap the
       number of outstanding RDMA Read Requests.





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   12. An RNIC MUST NOT enable firmware to be loaded on the RNIC
       directly from an untrusted Local Peer or Remote Peer, unless the
       Peer is properly authenticated*, and the update is done via a
       secure protocol, such as IPsec.

       * by a mechanism outside the scope of this specification.  The
         mechanism presumably entails authenticating that the remote ULP
         has the right to perform the update.

8.1.2.  Privileged Resource Manager Requirements

   With RDMAP, all reservations of local resources are initiated from
   local ULPs.  To protect from local attacks including unfair resource
   distribution and gaining unauthorized access to RNIC resources, a
   Privileged Resource Manager (PRM) must be implemented, which manages
   all local resource allocation.  Note that the PRM must not be
   provided as an independent component, and its functionality can also
   be implemented as part of the privileged ULP or as part of the RNIC
   itself.

   A PRM implementation must meet the following security requirements (a
   more detailed discussion of PRM security requirements can be found in
   Section 5 of [RDMASEC]):

   1.  All Non-Privileged ULP interactions with the RNIC Engine that
       could affect other ULPs MUST be done using the Resource Manager
       as a proxy.

   2.  All ULP resource allocation requests for scarce resources MUST
       also be done using a Privileged Resource Manager.

   3.  The Privileged Resource Manager MUST NOT assume that different
       ULPs share Partial Mutual Trust unless there is a mechanism to
       ensure that the ULPs do indeed share partial mutual trust.

   4.  If Non-Privileged ULPs are supported, the Privileged Resource
       Manager MUST verify that the Non-Privileged ULP has the right to
       access a specific Data Buffer before allowing an STag for which
       the ULP has access rights to be associated with a specific Data
       Buffer.

   5.  The Privileged Resource Manager MUST control the allocation of CQ
       entries.

   6.  The Privileged Resource Manager SHOULD prevent a Local Peer from
       allocating more than its fair share of resources.





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   7.  RDMA Read Request Queue resource consumption MUST be controlled
       by the Privileged Resource Manager such that RDMAP/DDP Streams
       that do not share Partial Mutual Trust do not share RDMA Read
       Request Queue resources.

   8.  If an RNIC provides the ability to share receive buffers across
       multiple Streams, the combination of the RNIC and the Privileged
       Resource Manager MUST be able to detect if the Remote Peer is
       attempting to consume more than its fair share of resources so
       that the Local Peer can apply countermeasures to detect and
       prevent the attack.

8.2.  Security Services for RDMAP

   RDMAP is using IP-based network services to control, read, and write
   data buffers over the network.  Therefore, all exchanged control and
   data packets are vulnerable to spoofing, tampering, and information
   disclosure attacks.

   RDMAP Streams that are subject to impersonation attacks or Stream
   hijacking attacks can be authenticated, have their integrity
   protected, and be protected from replay attacks.  Furthermore,
   confidentiality protection can be used to protect from eavesdropping.

8.2.1.  Available Security Services

   The IPsec protocol suite [RFC2401] defines strong countermeasures to
   protect an IP stream from those attacks.  Several levels of
   protection can guarantee session confidentiality, per-packet source
   authentication, per-packet integrity, and correct packet sequencing.

   RDMAP security may also profit from SSL or TLS security services
   provided for TCP-based ULPs [RFC4346].  Used underneath RDMAP, these
   security services also provide for stream authentication, data
   integrity, and confidentiality.  As discussed in [RDMASEC],
   limitations on the maximum packet length to be carried over the
   network and potentially inefficient out-of-order packet processing at
   the data sink make SSL and TLS less appropriate for RDMAP than IPsec.

   If SSL is layered on top of RDMAP, SSL does not protect the RDMAP
   headers.  Thus, a man-in-the-middle attack can still occur by
   modifying the RDMAP header to incorrectly place the data into the
   wrong buffer, thus effectively corrupting the data stream.

   By remaining independent of ULP and LLP security protocols, RDMAP
   will benefit from continuing improvements at those layers.  Users are
   provided flexibility to adapt to their specific security requirements
   and the ability to adapt to future security challenges.  Given this,



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   the vulnerabilities of RDMAP to active third-party interference are
   no greater than any other protocol running over an LLP such as TCP or
   SCTP.

8.2.2.  Requirements for IPsec Services for RDMAP

   Because IPsec is designed to secure arbitrary IP packet streams,
   including streams where packets are lost, RDMAP can run on top of
   IPsec without any change.  IPsec packets are processed (e.g.,
   integrity checked and possibly decrypted) in the order they are
   received, and an RDMAP Data Sink will process the decrypted RDMA
   Messages contained in these packets in the same manner as RDMA
   Messages contained in unsecured IP packets.

   The IP Storage working group has defined the normative IPsec
   requirements for IP Storage [RFC3723].  Portions of this
   specification are applicable to the RDMAP.  In particular, a
   compliant implementation of IPsec services for RDMAP MUST meet the
   requirements as outlined in Section 2.3 of [RFC3723].  Without
   replicating the detailed discussion in [RFC3723], this includes the
   following requirements:

   1.  The implementation MUST support IPsec ESP [RFC2406], as well as
       the replay protection mechanisms of IPsec.  When ESP is utilized,
       per-packet data origin authentication, integrity, and replay
       protection MUST be used.

   2.  It MUST support ESP in tunnel mode and MAY implement ESP in
       transport mode.

   3.  It MUST support IKE [RFC2409] for peer authentication,
       negotiation of security associations, and key management, using
       the IPsec DOI [RFC2407].

   4.  It MUST NOT interpret the receipt of a IKE Phase 2 delete message
       as a reason for tearing down the RDMAP stream.  Since IPsec
       acceleration hardware may only be able to handle a limited number
       of active IKE Phase 2 SAs, idle SAs may be dynamically brought
       down, and a new SA be brought up again, if activity resumes.

   5.  It MUST support peer authentication using a pre-shared key, and
       MAY support certificate-based peer authentication using digital
       signatures.  Peer authentication using the public key encryption
       methods [RFC2409] SHOULD NOT be used.







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   6.  It MUST support IKE Main Mode and SHOULD support Aggressive Mode.
       IKE Main Mode with pre-shared key authentication SHOULD NOT be
       used when either of the peers uses a dynamically assigned IP
       address.

   7.  When digital signatures are used to achieve authentication,
       either IKE Main Mode or IKE Aggressive Mode MAY be used.  In
       these cases, an IKE negotiator SHOULD use IKE Certificate Request
       Payload(s) to specify the certificate authority (or authorities)
       that are trusted in accordance with its local policy.  IKE
       negotiators SHOULD check the pertinent Certificate Revocation
       List (CRL) before accepting a PKI certificate for use in IKE's
       authentication procedures.

   8.  Access to locally stored secret information (pre-shared or
       private key for digital signing) must be suitably restricted,
       since compromise of the secret information nullifies the security
       properties of the IKE/IPsec protocols.

   9.  It MUST follow the guidelines of Section 2.3.4 of [RFC3723] on
       the setting of IKE parameters to achieve a high level of
       interoperability without requiring extensive configuration.

   Furthermore, implementation and deployment of the IPsec services for
   RDDP should follow the Security Considerations outlined in Section 5
   of [RFC3723].

9.  IANA Considerations

   This document requests no direct action from IANA.  The following
   consideration is listed here as commentary.

   If RDMAP was enabled a priori for a ULP by connecting to a well-known
   port, this well-known port would be registered for the RDMAP with
   IANA.  The registration of the well-known port will be the
   responsibility of the ULP specification.















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10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [DDP]     Shah, H., Pinkerton, J., Recio, R., and P. Culley, "Direct
             Data Placement over Reliable Transports", RFC 5041, October
             2007.

   [iSER]    Ko, M., Chadalapaka, M., Hufferd, J., Elzur, U., Shah, H.,
             and P. Thaler, "Internet Small Computer System Interface
             (iSCSI) Extensions for Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA)"
             RFC 5046, October 2007.

   [MPA]     Culley, P., Elzur, U., Recio, R., Bailey, S., and J.
             Carrier, "Marker PDU Aligned Framing for TCP
             Specification", RFC 5044, October 2007.

   [RDMASEC] Pinkerton, J. and E. Deleganes, "Direct Data Placement
             Protocol (DDP) / Remote Direct Memory Access Protocol
             (RDMAP) Security", RFC 5042, October 2007.

   [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
             Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2406] Kent, S. and R. Atkinson, "IP Encapsulating Security
             Payload (ESP)", RFC 2406, November 1998.

   [RFC2407] Piper, D., "The Internet IP Security Domain of
             Interpretation of ISAKMP", RFC 2407, November 1998.

   [RFC2409] Harkins, D. and D. Carrel, "The Internet Key Exchange
             (IKE)", RFC 2409, November 1998.

   [RFC3723] Aboba, B., Tseng, J., Walker, J., Rangan, V., and F.
             Travostino, "Securing Block Storage Protocols over IP", RFC
             3723, April 2004.

   [RFC2401] Kent, S. and R. Atkinson, "Security Architecture for the
             Internet Protocol", RFC 2401, November 1998.

   [SCTP]    Stewart, R., Ed., "Stream Control Transmission Protocol",
             RFC 4960, September 2007.

   [TCP]     Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol", STD 7, RFC
             793, September 1981.






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10.2.  Informative References

   [RFC4301] Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the
             Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, December 2005.

   [RFC4303] Kent, S., "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)", RFC
             4303, December 2005.

   [RFC4306] Kaufman, C., "Internet Key Exchange (IKEv2) Protocol", RFC
             4306, December 2005.

   [RFC4346] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The TLS Protocol Version 1.1",
             RFC 4346, April 2006.

   [RFC4835] Manral, V., "Cryptographic Algorithm Implementation
             Requirements for Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) and
             Authentication Header (AH)", RFC 4835, April 2007.


































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Appendix A.  DDP Segment Formats for RDMA Messages

   This appendix is for information only and is NOT part of the
   standard. It simply depicts the DDP Segment format for the various
   RDMA Messages.

A.1.  DDP Segment for RDMA Write

   The following figure depicts an RDMA Write, DDP Segment:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
                                   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                   |   DDP Control | RDMA Control  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                       Data Sink STag                          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                   Data Sink Tagged Offset                     |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                   RDMA Write ULP Payload                      |
   //                                                             //
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

            Figure 11:  RDMA Write, DDP Segment Format
























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A.2.  DDP Segment for RDMA Read Request

   The following figure depicts an RDMA Read Request, DDP Segment:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
                                   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                   |  DDP Control  | RDMA Control  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      Reserved (Not Used)                      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              DDP (RDMA Read Request) Queue Number             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        DDP (RDMA Read Request) Message Sequence Number        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |             DDP (RDMA Read Request) Message Offset            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                     Data Sink STag (SinkSTag)                 |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   +                  Data Sink Tagged Offset (SinkTO)             +
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                  RDMA Read Message Size (RDMARDSZ)            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                     Data Source STag (SrcSTag)                |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   +                 Data Source Tagged Offset (SrcTO)             +
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

            Figure 12: RDMA Read Request, DDP Segment format


















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A.3.  DDP Segment for RDMA Read Response

   The following figure depicts an RDMA Read Response, DDP Segment:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
                                   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                   |  DDP Control  | RDMA Control  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                       Data Sink STag                          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                   Data Sink Tagged Offset                     |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                RDMA Read Response ULP Payload                 |
   //                                                             //
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

           Figure 13: RDMA Read Response, DDP Segment Format

A.4.  DDP Segment for Send and Send with Solicited Event

   The following figure depicts a Send and Send with Solicited
   Request, DDP Segment:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
                                   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                   |  DDP Control  | RDMA Control  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      Reserved (Not Used)                      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                       (Send) Queue Number                     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                 (Send) Message Sequence Number                |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      (Send) Message Offset                    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                       Send ULP Payload                        |
   //                                                             //
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 14: Send and Send with Solicited Event, DDP Segment Format





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A.5.  DDP Segment for Send with Invalidate and Send with SE and
      Invalidate

   The following figure depicts a Send with Invalidate and Send with
   Solicited and Invalidate Request, DDP Segment:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
                                   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                   |   DDP Control | RDMA Control  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         Invalidate STag                       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                       (Send) Queue Number                     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                 (Send) Message Sequence Number                |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      (Send) Message Offset                    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                       Send ULP Payload                        |
   //                                                             //
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Figure 15: Send with Invalidate and Send with SE and Invalidate,
                            DDP Segment Format

























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A.6.  DDP Segment for Terminate

   The following figure depicts a Terminate, DDP Segment:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
                                   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                   |   DDP Control | RDMA Control  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      Reserved (Not Used)                      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                   DDP (Terminate) Queue Number                |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |             DDP (Terminate) Message Sequence Number           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                  DDP (Terminate) Message Offset               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |       Terminate Control             |      Reserved           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  DDP Segment Length (if any)  |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                 Terminated DDP Header (if any)                |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   //                                                             //
   |                 Terminated RDMA Header (if any)               |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

               Figure 16: Terminate, DDP Segment Format
















Recio, et al.               Standards Track                    [Page 58]

RFC 5040              RDMA Protocol Specification           October 2007


Appendix B.  Ordering and Completion Table

   The following table summarizes the ordering relationships that are
   defined in Section 5.5, "Ordering and Completions", from the
   standpoint of the local peer issuing the two Operations.  Note that
   in the table that follows, Send includes Send, Send with Invalidate,
   Send with Solicited Event, and Send with Solicited Event and
   Invalidate.

   ------+-------+----------------+----------------+----------------
   First | Later | Placement      | Placement      | Ordering
    Op   | Op    | guarantee at   | guarantee at   | guarantee at
         |       | Remote Peer    | Local Peer     | Remote Peer
         |       |                |                |
   ------+-------+----------------+----------------+----------------
   Send  | Send  | No placement   | Not applicable | Completed in
         |       | guarantee. If  |                | order.
         |       | guarantee is   |                |
         |       | necessary, see |                |
         |       | footnote 1.    |                |
   ------+-------+----------------+----------------+----------------
   Send  | RDMA  | No placement   | Not applicable | Not applicable
         | Write | guarantee. If  |                |
         |       | guarantee is   |                |
         |       | necessary, see |                |
         |       | footnote 1.    |                |
   ------+-------+----------------+----------------+----------------
   Send  | RDMA  | No placement   | RDMA Read      | RDMA Read
         | Read  | guarantee      | Response       | Response
         |       | between Send   | Payload will   | Message will
         |       | Payload and    | not be placed  | not be
         |       | RDMA Read      | at the local   | generated until
         |       | Request Header | peer until the | Send has been
         |       |                | Send Payload is| Completed
         |       |                | placed at the  |
         |       |                | Remote Peer    |
   ------+-------+----------------+----------------+----------------
   RDMA  | Send  | No placement   | Not applicable | Not applicable
   Write |       | guarantee. If  |                |
         |       | guarantee is   |                |
         |       | necessary, see |                |
         |       | footnote 1.    |                |









Recio, et al.               Standards Track                    [Page 59]

RFC 5040              RDMA Protocol Specification           October 2007


   ------+-------+----------------+----------------+----------------
   RDMA  | RDMA  | No placement   | Not applicable | Not applicable
   Write | Write | guarantee. If  |                |
         |       | guarantee is   |                |
         |       | necessary, see |                |
         |       | footnote 1.    |                |
   ------+-------+----------------+----------------+----------------
   RDMA  | RDMA  | No placement   | RDMA Read      | Not applicable
   Write | Read  | guarantee      | Response       |
         |       | between RDMA   | Payload will   |
         |       | Write Payload  | not be placed  |
         |       | and RDMA Read  | at the local   |
         |       | Request Header | peer until the |
         |       |                | RDMA Write     |
         |       |                | Payload is     |
         |       |                | placed at the  |
         |       |                | Remote Peer    |
   ------+-------+----------------+----------------+----------------
   RDMA  | Send  | No placement   | Send Payload   | Not applicable
   Read  |       | guarantee      | may be placed  |
         |       | between RDMA   | at the remote  |
         |       | Read Request   | peer before the|
         |       | Header and Send| RDMA Read      |
         |       | payload        | Response is    |
         |       |                | generated.     |
         |       |                | If guarantee is|
         |       |                | necessary, see |
         |       |                | footnote 2.    |
   ------+-------+----------------+----------------+----------------
   RDMA  | RDMA  | No placement   | RDMA Write     | Not applicable
   Read  | Write | guarantee      | Payload may be |
         |       | between RDMA   | placed at the  |
         |       | Read Request   | Remote Peer    |
         |       | Header and RDMA| before the RDMA|
         |       | Write payload  | Read Response  |
         |       |                | is generated.  |
         |       |                | If guarantee is|
         |       |                | necessary, see |
         |       |                | footnote 2.    |












Recio, et al.               Standards Track                    [Page 60]

RFC 5040              RDMA Protocol Specification           October 2007


   ------+-------+----------------+----------------+----------------
   RDMA  | RDMA  | No placement   | No placement   | Second RDMA
   Read  | Read  | guarantee of   | guarantee of   | Read Response
         |       | the two RDMA   | the two RDMA   | will not be
         |       | Read Request   | Read Response  | generated until
         |       | Headers        | Payloads.      | first RDMA Read
         |       | Additionally,  |                | Response is
         |       | there is no    |                | generated.
         |       | guarantee that |                |
         |       | the Tagged     |                |
         |       | Buffers        |                |
         |       | referenced in  |                |
         |       | the RDMA Read  |                |
         |       | will be read in|                |
         |       | order          |                |

                    Figure 17: Operation Ordering

   Footnote 1:  If the guarantee is necessary, a ULP may insert an RDMA
   Read operation and wait for it to complete to act as a Fence.

   Footnote 2:  If the guarantee is necessary, a ULP may wait for the
   RDMA Read operation to complete before performing the Send.

Appendix C.  Contributors

   Dwight Barron
   Hewlett-Packard Company
   20555 SH 249
   Houston, TX  77070-2698 USA
   Phone:  281-514-2769
   EMail:  dwight.barron@hp.com


   Caitlin Bestler
   Broadcom Corporation
   16215 Alton Parkway
   Irvine, CA  92619-7013 USA
   Phone:  949-926-6383
   EMail:  caitlinb@broadcom.com


   John Carrier
   Cray, Inc.
   411 First Avenue S, Suite 600
   Seattle, WA  98104-2860 USA
   Phone: 206-701-2090
   EMail: carrier@cray.com



Recio, et al.               Standards Track                    [Page 61]

RFC 5040              RDMA Protocol Specification           October 2007


   Ted Compton
   EMC Corporation
   Research Triangle Park, NC  27709 USA
   Phone: 919-248-6075
   EMail: compton_ted@emc.com


   Uri Elzur
   Broadcom Corporation
   16215 Alton Parkway
   Irvine, California  92619-7013 USA
   Phone: +1 (949) 585-6432
   EMail: Uri@Broadcom.com


   Hari Ghadia
   Gen10 Technology, Inc.
   1501 W Shady Grove Road
   Grand Prairie, TX 75050
   Phone: (972) 301 3630
   EMail: hghadia@gen10technology.com


   Howard C. Herbert
   Intel Corporation
   MS CH7-404
   5000 West Chandler Blvd.
   Chandler, Arizona  85226
   Phone: 480-554-3116
   EMail: howard.c.herbert@intel.com


   Mike Ko
   IBM
   650 Harry Rd.
   San Jose, CA  95120
   Phone: (408) 927-2085
   EMail: mako@us.ibm.com


   Mike Krause
   Hewlett-Packard Company
   43LN
   19410 Homestead Road
   Cupertino, CA  95014 USA
   Phone: 408-447-3191
   EMail: krause@cup.hp.com




Recio, et al.               Standards Track                    [Page 62]

RFC 5040              RDMA Protocol Specification           October 2007


   Dave Minturn
   Intel Corporation
   MS JF1-210
   5200 North East Elam Young Parkway
   Hillsboro, Oregon  97124
   Phone: 503-712-4106
   EMail: dave.b.minturn@intel.com


   Mike Penna
   Broadcom Corporation
   16215 Alton Parkway
   Irvine, California  92619-7013 USA
   Phone: +1 (949) 926-7149
   EMail: MPenna@Broadcom.com


   Jim Pinkerton
   Microsoft, Inc.
   One Microsoft Way
   Redmond, WA  98052 USA
   EMail:  jpink@microsoft.com


   Hemal Shah
   Broadcom Corporation
   5300 California Avenue
   Irvine, CA 92617 USA
   Phone: +1 (949) 926-6941
   EMail: hemal@broadcom.com


   Allyn Romanow
   Cisco Systems
   170 W Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA  95134 USA
   Phone: +1 408 525 8836
   EMail: allyn@cisco.com


   Tom Talpey
   Network Appliance
   1601 Trapelo Road #16
   Waltham, MA  02451 USA
   Phone: +1 (781) 768-5329
   EMail: thomas.talpey@netapp.com





Recio, et al.               Standards Track                    [Page 63]

RFC 5040              RDMA Protocol Specification           October 2007


   Patricia Thaler
   Broadcom Corporation
   16215 Alton Parkway
   Irvine, CA  92619-7013 USA
   Phone: +1-916-570-2707
   EMail: pthaler@broadcom.com


   Jim Wendt
   Hewlett-Packard Company
   8000 Foothills Boulevard MS 5668
   Roseville, CA  95747-5668 USA
   Phone: +1 916 785 5198
   EMail: jim_wendt@hp.com


   Madeline Vega
   IBM
   11400 Burnet Rd. Bld.45-2L-007
   Austin, TX  78758 USA
   Phone: 512-838-7739
   EMail: mvega1@us.ibm.com


   Claudia Salzberg
   IBM
   11501 Burnet Rd. Bld.902-5B-014
   Austin, TX  78758 USA
   Phone: 512-838-5156
   EMail: salzberg@us.ibm.com





















Recio, et al.               Standards Track                    [Page 64]

RFC 5040              RDMA Protocol Specification           October 2007


Authors' Addresses

   Renato J. Recio
   IBM Corp.
   11501 Burnett Road
   Austin, TX  78758 USA
   Phone: 512-838-3685
   EMail: recio@us.ibm.com


   Bernard Metzler
   IBM Research GmbH
   Zurich Research Laboratory
   Saeumerstrasse 4
   CH-8803 Rueschlikon, Switzerland
   Phone: +41 44 724 8605
   EMail: bmt@zurich.ibm.com


   Paul R. Culley
   Hewlett-Packard Company
   20555 SH 249
   Houston, TX  77070-2698 USA
   Phone: 281-514-5543
   EMail: paul.culley@hp.com


   Jeff Hilland
   Hewlett-Packard Company
   20555 SH 249
   Houston, TX  77070-2698 USA
   Phone: 281-514-9489
   EMail: jeff.hilland@hp.com


   Dave Garcia
   24100 Hutchinson Rd.
   Los Gatos, CA 95033 USA
   Phone: +1 (831) 247-4464
   Email: Dave.Garcia@StanfordAlumni.org











Recio, et al.               Standards Track                    [Page 65]

RFC 5040              RDMA Protocol Specification           October 2007


Full Copyright Statement

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   contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
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Recio, et al.               Standards Track                    [Page 66]


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