[Docs] [txt|pdf] [draft-goodwin-iso...] [Diff1] [Diff2]

INFORMATIONAL

Network Working Group                                         J. Goodwin
Request for Comments: 5141                                       H. Apel
Category: Informational                                              ISO
                                                              March 2008


              A Uniform Resource Name (URN) Namespace for
        the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

Status of This Memo

   This memo provides information for the Internet community.  It does
   not specify an Internet standard of any kind.  Distribution of this
   memo is unlimited.

Abstract

   This document describes a Uniform Resource Name Namespace
   Identification (URN NID) for the International Organization for
   Standardization (ISO).  This URN NID is intended for use for the
   identification of persistent resources published by the ISO standards
   body (including documents, document metadata, extracted resources
   such as standard schemata and standard value sets, and other
   resources).



























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Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................2
   2. Specification Template ..........................................4
      2.1. Namespace ID ...............................................4
      2.2. Registration Information ...................................4
      2.3. Declared Registrant of the Namespace .......................4
      2.4. Declaration of Structure ...................................4
           2.4.1. Definition ..........................................4
           2.4.2. Examples ...........................................12
      2.5. Relevant Ancillary Documentation ..........................15
      2.6. Identifier Uniqueness Considerations ......................15
      2.7. Identifier Persistence Considerations .....................15
      2.8. Process for Identifier Resolution .........................16
      2.9. Rules for Lexical Equivalence .............................16
      2.10. Conformance with URN Syntax ..............................17
      2.11. Validation Mechanism .....................................17
      2.12. Scope ....................................................17
   3. Namespace Considerations .......................................17
   4. Community Considerations .......................................18
   5. IANA Considerations ............................................20
   6. Security Considerations ........................................20
   7. References .....................................................21
      7.1. Normative References ......................................21
      7.2. Informative References ....................................21
   Appendix A. Alternative Naming Schemes ............................23
   Appendix B. ABNF Definition of Namespace ID = "iso"
               (Informative) .........................................24

1.  Introduction

   The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) was created
   by international agreement in 1947.  ISO is a network of the national
   standards institutes of many countries, on the basis of one member
   per country, with a Central Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, that
   coordinates the system.  ISO acts as a bridging organization in which
   a consensus can be reached on solutions that meet both the
   requirements of business and the broader needs of society, such as
   the needs of stakeholder groups like consumers and users.

   Further information is provided at http://www.iso.org/iso/about.htm.

   The core mission of ISO is to develop technical standards
   constituting technical agreements that provide the framework for
   compatible technology worldwide.  ISO standards contribute to making
   the development, manufacturing, and supply of products and services
   more efficient, safer, and cleaner.  They make trade between
   countries easier and fairer.



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   Every participating ISO member institute (full members) has the right
   to take part in the development of any standard that it judges to be
   important to its country's economy.  No matter what the size or
   strength of that economy, each participating member in ISO has one
   vote.  ISO's activities are thus carried out in a democratic
   framework where each country is on an equal footing to influence the
   direction of ISO's work at the strategic level, as well as the
   technical content of its individual standards.  Although the ISO
   standards are voluntary, the fact that they are developed in response
   to market demand, and are based on consensus among the interested
   parties, ensures widespread applicability of the standards.
   Consensus, like technology, evolves and ISO takes account of both
   evolving technology and evolving interests by requiring a review of
   its standards at least every five years to decide whether they should
   be maintained, updated, or withdrawn.

   ISO publishes International Standards and other technical
   specifications that are cited in the definitions of required or
   expected practices in many industries in many nations.  These
   specifications contain dictionaries of standard terms, catalogues of
   reference values, definitions of formal languages, formal schemata
   for information capture and exchange, specifications for standard
   practices, and other information resources of general use to
   international trade and industry.  ISO wishes to create and manage
   globally unique, persistent, location-independent identifiers for
   these resources.

   This specification defines the syntax for URNs that identify
   documents developed by the International Organization for
   Standardization (ISO) in accordance with the standards development
   procedures defined in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 [ISODIR-1] and
   the ISO supplement [ISODIR-S] and processed by the ISO Central
   Secretariat.  The syntax extends to identify document metadata and
   resources related to these documents or otherwise associated with
   them.  It does not extend to products derived from these documents
   and published by ISO (e.g., handbooks, compendia) or documents at or
   below the Technical Committee level.  Revisions of this specification
   may define syntax for URNs in this namespace that identify other ISO
   objects, when the ISO community defines a requirement for such
   identifiers.











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2.  Specification Template

2.1.  Namespace ID

   "iso"

2.2.  Registration Information

   Version 2.1
   Date: 2007-12-13

2.3.  Declared Registrant of the Namespace

   J. Goodwin
   ISO Central Secretariat
   International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
   Case Postale 56
   CH-1211 Geneva 20
   Switzerland

   E-mail: goodwin@iso.org

2.4.  Declaration of Structure

2.4.1.  Definition

   The Namespace Specific Strings (NSSs) of all URNs assigned by ISO
   will conform to the syntax defined in Section 2.2 of [RFC2141].

   The NSS has the following ABNF [RFC5234] specification:

   NSS           = std-nss

      All URNs conforming to this specification begin the NSS with the
      prefix "std:" to denote the restriction to documents developed by
      the ISO standards development procedures as defined in the ISO/IEC
      Directives, Part 1 [ISODIR-1] and the ISO Supplement [ISODIR-S].
      Prefixes that identify ISO objects of other kinds may be defined
      in future revisions of this specification.

      std-nss       = "std:" docidentifier *supplement *docelement
                      [addition]

      The prefix "std:" distinguishes an <std-nss>.  An <std-nss>
      identifies the ISO document that is designated by the
      <docidentifier>, as extended or modified by any identified
      <supplement>.  (An <std-nss> that identifies all parts of a
      multipart ISO document is a special case as described under the



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      element <partnumber>.)  If the <std-nss> contains an <addition>
      element, the NSS identifies a resource extracted from the ISO
      document or otherwise associated with it (see below).

   docidentifier = originator [":" type] ":" docnumber [":" partnumber]
                   [[":" status] ":" edition]
                   [":" docversion] [":" language]

      <docidentifier> provides the complete identification of an ISO
      document.  Each of its component elements is described below.

   originator    = "iso" / "iso-iec" / "iso-cie" / "iso-astm" /
                   "iso-ieee" / "iec"

      <originator> is the organization (usually an international body)
      from which a document emanates.

      Current values:

      iso      = International Organization for Standardization

      iec      = International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), or
                 Commission Electrotechnique Internationale

      iso-iec  = jointly developed by ISO and IEC

      iso-cie  = jointly developed by ISO and the Commission
                 Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE)

      iso-astm = jointly developed by ISO and the American Society for
                 Testing and Materials (ASTM) International

      iso-ieee = jointly developed by ISO and the Institute for
                 Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

      Revisions of this specification may define additional values.

   type          = "data" / "guide" / "isp" / "iwa" /
                   "pas" / "r" / "tr" / "ts" / "tta"

      <type> designates the ISO deliverable type.  If the <type> element
      is not present, the classification is "international standard".
      Other current values:

      data  = Data (document type no longer published)

      guide = Guide




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      isp   = International Standardized Profile

      iwa   = International Workshop Agreement

      pas   = Publicly Available Specification

      r     = Recommendation (document type no longer published)

      tr    = Technical Report

      ts    = Technical Specification

      tta   = Technology Trends Assessment

   docnumber     = DIGITS

      <docnumber> is the reference number assigned to the document by
      ISO and/or IEC.  An ISO document may comprise a single document,
      or two or more separate parts each of which is identified by
      <partnumber>.

   partnumber    = "-" 1*( DIGIT / ALPHA / "-" )

      <partnumber> is the reference number that identifies a part of a
      multipart standard.

      Where it is required to refer to a multipart ISO document in its
      entirety, this can be designated by omitting the <partnumber>
      element.  However, this precludes the possibility of using any
      further elements except <addition>.

      NOTE: The option to refer to a multipart ISO document by omitting
      the <partnumber> element has been included to align with the
      provision in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, 2004 [ISODIR-2]
      subclause 6.2.2 of making an undated reference to all parts of an
      ISO document.  It is only permissible to use this option where the
      URN is referring to a multipart ISO document in its entirety.
      Since the use of this option precludes the designation of the
      elements <status> and <edition>, it is implicit that the URN needs
      to remain valid irrespective of any future changes to the
      multipart document (see the rules for undated references given in
      the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, 2004 [ISODIR-2] subclause
      6.6.7.5.2).  This shall be taken into consideration in the use
      (and maintenance) of any URN specification employing this option.







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      NOTE: In the case where the multipart document comprises different
      types of ISO deliverable, the <type> of the core part (usually
      part 1) applies.  See the example "Reference to a resource related
      to all parts of a multipart document".

      Except for the case where it is required to refer to a multipart
      document in its entirety, the element <partnumber> is required if
      the identified resource is a part of an ISO document.  Otherwise,
      this element is not used.

   status        = ( "draft" / "cancelled" ) / stage

      <status> indicates the publication status of the document.  When
      the <status> element is not present, the NSS refers to a published
      document.  Other values:

      draft     = document that has not yet been accepted for
                  publication by international ballot

      cancelled = document that has been deleted or withdrawn

   stage         = "stage-" stagecode ["." iteration]

      <stage> indicates the stage code and iteration of the document.

   stagecode     = DIGIT DIGIT "."  DIGIT DIGIT

      <stagecode> is the harmonized stage code in accordance with ISO
      Guide 69:1999, "Harmonized Stage Code system (Edition 2) --
      Principles and guidelines for use" [ISOGUIDE69].

   iteration     = "v" DIGITS

      <iteration> is a sequential number that refers to a specific
      iteration of the project's lifecycle through the designated stage.

      If no <iteration> is specified, the reference is to the highest
      iteration available for the specified stagecode.

      NOTE: In the ISO Central Secretariat project management database,
      the <iteration> is referred to as the "project version".

   edition       = "ed-" DIGITS

      <edition> designates a specific edition of the document.  (DIGITS
      is the (sequential) edition number.)  If no <edition> is
      specified, the NSS refers to the latest edition.




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   docversion    = "v" (simpleversion / isoversion)

   simpleversion = DIGITS

      <docversion> designates the version number of a document's
      <edition>.  It is altered by correction (corrected version;
      Technical Corrigendum) or amendment (Amendment; Addendum) and is
      distinct from a revision, which changes the edition number.

      In the <simpleversion>, the first version published is 1, and each
      subsequent correction or amendment increases the version number by
      1.

      If no <docversion> is specified, the reference is to the highest
      version number available for the denoted <edition>.

      Current values of <simpleversion>:

         1 - first version published

         2 - corrected version published

   isoversion    = baseversion *includedsuppl

   baseversion   = DIGITS

   includedsuppl = "-" suppltype supplnumber [ "." supplversion ]

      An <isoversion> can be linked to a simpleversion by defining an
      existing simpleversion as baseversion and listing all the
      <supplement> elements (corrections and amendments) incorporated
      into that version.

      Examples for the <isoversion> (internal ISO version) scheme:

         1 = first version of standard

         1-amd1.v1 =  first version of standard incorporating first
         version of Amendment 1

         1-amd1.v1-amd2.v1 = first version of standard incorporating
         first version of Amendment 1 and first version of Amendment 2

         1-amd1.v2-amd2.v1-amd3 = first version of standard
         incorporating corrected version of Amendment 1, first version
         of Amendment 2, and highest version of Amendment 3





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         1-cor3 = first version of standard incorporating highest
         version of Technical Corrigendum 3

         1-amd1-cor3 = first version of standard incorporating highest
         version of Amendment 1 and highest version of Technical
         Corrigendum 3

   language      = monolingual / bilingual / trilingual

   monolingual   = "en" / "fr" / "ru" / "es" / "ar"

   bilingual     = "en,fr" / "en,ru" / "fr,ru"

   trilingual    = "en,fr,ru"

      <language> designates the official ISO language(s), or the
      language of an official translation, in which the document
      (object) is processed and published by ISO (excluding languages
      that constitute only specific elements of the content).  The value
      is one or more alpha-2 codes, each of which designates a language,
      as specified in ISO 639-1 [ISO639-1].  If no language element is
      specified, <en> is assumed.

      NOTE: Although [ISO639-1] recommends that language codes be
      written in lowercase, this ABNF definition allows the use of
      uppercase language codes because in ABNF [RFC5234], terminal
      symbols defined as literal strings are explicitly
      case-insensitive.  This case distinction does not carry any
      meaning (see Section 2.9) and it is recommended to use language
      codes in lowercase.  For additional information about the usage of
      language tags in information objects, see [RFC4646].

      supplement    = ":" suppltype ":" supplnumber
                      [":" supplversion ] [":" language ]

      suppltype     = "amd" / "cor" / "add"

      supplnumber   = DIGITS

      supplversion  = "v" DIGITS

      <supplement> designates a technical alteration of or addition to
      an ISO standard that does not result in a new <edition> or
      <version>.  Each <supplement> may be one of the three types,
      designated by <suppltype>:






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      amd = Amendment -- a document that alters and/or adds to
            previously agreed upon technical provisions in an existing
            ISO document; an amendment is subject to acceptance by
            ballot in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1,
            2004 [ISODIR-1] subclause 2.10.3

      cor = Technical Corrigendum -- a document that corrects a
            technical error or ambiguity, or updates the ISO document in
            such a way that the modification has no effect on the
            technical normative elements; a Technical Corrigendum is not
            balloted -- see the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1, 2004
            [ISODIR-1] subclause 2.10.2

      add = Addendum -- (document type no longer published) Addenda were
            documents that changed (by correction, addition, or
            deletion) the technical requirements of an ISO document; an
            addendum was subject to acceptance by ballot in accordance
            with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1.  (Addenda are included
            in this RFC because some of them are still valid.)

      Supplements are numbered consecutively per ISO document, and
      within each supplement type.

      <supplnumber> identifies the number of the supplement.

      <supplversion> designates the version of a published supplement.
      At present, only two versions are used in practice: when a
      supplement is published, it is version 1.  If that supplement is
      subsequently corrected by issuing a corrected version, as
      designated by the term "Corrected" on the cover page together with
      a date, the corrected version is version 2.

      The language of a supplement can be different from that of the
      document.  For example, a supplement may apply to only one of the
      languages of a bilingual document.  For such cases, the language
      of a supplement can be identified using the <language> element
      defined above.  The interpretation is the same, except that it
      applies only to the supplement.

      docelement    = ":" ( "clause" / "figure" / "table" / "term" ) ":"
                      elementnumber / elementrange
                      *( "," elementnumber / elementrange )

      elementnumber = ( ALPHA / DIGITS ) *( "."  DIGITS )

      elementrange  = elementnumber "-" elementnumber





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      <docelement> identifies one or more numbered subdivisions of a
      document.  Types of numbered subdivision are specified in the ISO/
      IEC Directives, Part 2 [ISODIR-2].  This RFC currently specifies
      forms for reference to clauses, figures, tables, and terms only.
      It does not provide for reference to subfigures.  Revisions of
      this specification may define additional values.

      <clause> represents the selection of one or more clauses or
      subclauses of the document. <figure> represents the selection of
      one or more figures of the document. <table> represents the
      selection of one or more tables of the document. <term> represents
      the selection of one or more terms of the document.

      <elementnumber> designates a numbered subdivision in a document,
      where the type of subdivision is identified by the literal
      "clause", "figure", "table", or "term".  When the first character
      of <elementnumber> is a digit, the reference is to the subdivision
      designated by that digit string and by any additional digit
      strings separated by periods.  When the first character of
      <elementnumber> is alphabetical, the reference is to the
      corresponding Annex, and to the subdivisions designated by
      additional digit strings.

      The form <elementnumber> HYPHEN <elementnumber> designates a range
      of subdivisions, and the form <elementnumber> COMMA
      <elementnumber> designates a list.  A list can contain ranges.

   addition      = techdefined / isodefined

   techdefined   = ":tech" *techelement

   techelement   = <unspecified>

   isodefined    = <unspecified>

      <addition> is an additional element of the NSS intended to
      identify a representation of an ISO document, an extract from an
      ISO document, or some related information set, as a resource in
      its own right.

      <techdefined> represents an associated or embedded resource
      defined by the committee that develops or maintains the identified
      document.  All such <addition> elements begin with the prefix
      ":tech".







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      <isodefined> represents associated or embedded resources defined
      by the ISO Central Secretariat.  The definition of an <addition>
      element beginning with any symbol other than <tech> is reserved to
      the ISO Central Secretariat.

      The syntax of the <addition> element is not specified in this RFC.
      Specific syntax for this element will be specified as needed by
      the ISO Central Secretariat, or by the individual committee that
      has the responsibility for developing or maintaining the
      identified document.  It is necessary that these definitions
      comply with the rules for lexical equivalence specified in Section
      2.9 and take into account the process for identifier resolution as
      discussed in Section 2.8.

   DIGITS        = DIGIT *DIGIT

   DIGIT         = %x30-39 ; 0-9

   ALPHA         = %x41-5A / %x61-7A ; A-Z / a-z

   Basics of the ABNF notation used :

   " " literals (terminal character strings); terms not in quotes are
       non-terminals

   /   alternatives

   []  indicates an optional rule

   ()  indicates a sequence group, used as a single alternative or as a
       single repeating group

   <a>*<b>  indicates that the following term or group can repeat at
       least <a> and at most <b> times; default values are 0 and
       infinity, respectively

   ;   comment

2.4.2.  Examples

   o  Language handling:

      urn:iso:std:iso:9999:-1:ed-1:en
      refers to the 1st edition of ISO 9999-1, in English

      urn:iso:std:iso:9999:-1:ed-1:en,fr
      refers to the 1st edition of ISO 9999-1, in English/French
      (bilingual document)



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   o  Originators/document type:

      urn:iso:std:iso-iec:tr:9999:-1:ed-1:en
      refers to the 1st edition of ISO/IEC TR 9999-1, in English

   o  Status:

      urn:iso:std:iso-iec:9075:-3:cancelled:ed-2:en
      urn:iso:std:iso-iec:9075:-3:stage-95.99:ed-2:en
      both refer to the cancelled 2nd edition of ISO/IEC 9075-3, in
      English

      urn:iso:std:iso-iec:9075:-3:draft:ed-4:en
      urn:iso:std:iso-iec:9075:-3:stage-30.60:ed-4:en
      both refer to the draft 4th edition of ISO/IEC 9075-3, in English

      urn:iso:std:iso:128:-20:en
      urn:iso:std:iso:128:-20:stage-90.20:ed-1:en
      both refer to the published (90.20 = under 2nd periodic review)
      1st edition of ISO 128-20, in English

      urn:iso:std:iso:128:-71:cancelled:ed-1:en
      urn:iso:std:iso:128:-71:stage-30.98.v2:ed-1:en
      both refer to the cancelled (30.98 = project deleted) 1st edition
      of ISO 128-71, in English; the second example refers specifically
      to the 2nd iteration (projectversion) at stage 30

   o  Non-numeric part number:

      urn:iso:std:iso:9999:-A02:ed-1:en
      refers to the 1st edition of ISO 9999-A02, in English

   o  Reference to a resource related to all parts of a multipart
      document:

      urn:iso:std:iso:20022:tech:xsd:camt.001.001.01
      refers to a "techdefined" resource (i.e., a resource defined by
      the committee that develops or maintains the identified document)
      associated with ISO 20022 in its entirety; in this example, the
      techdefined part comprises ":xsd:camt.001.001.01"

      NOTE: At the time of drafting of this schema, ISO 20022 comprises
      5 parts: parts 1 and 2 are International Standards; parts 3 to 5
      are Technical Specifications.  Therefore, the <doctype>
      "international standard" is used in the URN.






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   o  Docversion handling:

      urn:iso:std:iso:9999:-1:ed-1:v2:en
      refers to the corrected English version of the 1st edition of ISO
      9999-1

      urn:iso:std:iso:9999:-1:ed-1:v1-amd1:en
      refers to the version comprising the 1st edition of ISO 9999-1,
      incorporating the latest version of Amendment 1, in English

      urn:iso:std:iso:9999:-1:ed-1:v1:en,fr:amd:1:v2:en
      refers to the 2nd version of Amendment 1, in English, which amends
      the 1st version of edition 1 of ISO 9999-1, in English/French
      (bilingual document)

      urn:iso:std:iso:9999:-1:ed-1:v1-amd1.v1:en,fr:amd:2:v2:en
      (isoversion scheme)
      refers to the corrected version of Amendment 2, in English, which
      amends the document comprising the 1st version of edition 1 of ISO
      9999-1 incorporating the 1st version of Amendment 1, in English/
      French (bilingual document)

      urn:iso:std:iso:5817:ed-2:v2:en:cor:1:en
      refers to the 1st version of Technical Corrigendum 1, in English,
      which amends the corrected version of edition 2 of ISO 5817, in
      English

   o  Supplement handling:

      urn:iso:std:iso:9999:-1:ed-2:en:amd:1
      refers to Amendment 1 to the 2nd edition of ISO 9999-1, in English

      urn:iso:std:iso:9999:-1:ed-2:en:amd:1:v2
      refers to the corrected version of Amendment 1 to the 2nd edition
      of ISO 9999-1, in English

      urn:iso:std:iso:9999:1:ed-2:en,fr:amd:2:en
      refers to Amendment 2 in English to the 2nd edition of ISO 9999-1,
      in English/French (bilingual document)

      urn:iso:std:iso:9999:-1:ed-2:en:amd:1:cor:1
      refers to Corrigendum 1 to Amendment 1 to the 2nd edition of ISO
      9999-1, in English








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   o  Docelement handling:

      urn:iso:std:iso:105:-c12:ed-1:en:clause:a.1,a.2
      urn:iso:std:iso:105:-c12:ed-1:en:clause:a.1-a.2
      both refer to clauses A.1 and A.2 in the 1st edition of ISO
      105-C12, in English

      urn:iso:std:iso:9999:-1:ed-1:v1-
      amd1.v1:en,fr:amd:2:v2:en:clause:3.1,a.2-b.9 (isoversion scheme)
      refers to (sub)clauses 3.1 and A.2 to B.9 in the corrected version
      of Amendment 2, in English, which amends the document comprising
      the 1st version of edition 1 of ISO 9999-1 incorporating the 1st
      version of Amendment 1, in English/French (bilingual document)

      urn:iso:std:iso:9999:-1:ed-2:en:amd:1:term:3.2,3.3,3.4.1-
      3.4.4,3.12
      refers to the terms 3.2, 3.3, 3.4.1 to 3.4.4, and 3.12 in
      Amendment 1 to the 2nd edition of ISO 9999-1, in English

2.5.  Relevant Ancillary Documentation

   ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 [ISODIR-1] and Part 2 [ISODIR-2], and ISO
   supplement [ISODIR-S].

2.6.  Identifier Uniqueness Considerations

   Assignment of URNs for documents in the requested namespace will be
   managed by the ISO Central Secretariat, which will ensure that the
   assigned URNs are consistent with the ISO Directives for unique
   identification of ISO documents.

   Assignment of URNs for Technical Committee resources related to ISO
   documents will be managed by the Technical Committees developing or
   maintaining those documents.  As indicated above, each such URN will
   extend the URN for the containing document via the element
   <addition>.  The responsibility of the Technical Committee will
   therefore be to ensure the uniqueness of the techdefined <addition>
   element that constitutes the identifier for the resource within the
   document namespace, and thus the uniqueness of the overall resource
   identifier within the requested namespace.

2.7.  Identifier Persistence Considerations

   Assigned URNs will not be reused and will remain valid beyond the
   lifecycle of the referenced resources.  However, it should be noted
   that although the URNs remain valid, the status of the referenced
   resource may change.




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2.8.  Process for Identifier Resolution

   Resolving document identifiers:

      This schema has been developed with the intent that a URN
      identifying an ISO document can be transformed to a valid http URI
      by replacing the requested URN namespace prefix ("iso") and the
      "std:" prefix with the domain name "standards.iso.org", replacing
      all occurrences of ":" within the identifier with "/", and
      converting characters to lowercase.  (ISO is planning to develop a
      website implementation to support these URIs.)

      Examples:

      urn:iso:std:iso:9999:-1:ed-1:en: corresponds to
      http://standards.iso.org/iso/9999/-1/ed-1/en/

      urn:iso:std:iso-iec:tr:9999:-1:ed-1:en: corresponds to
      http://standards.iso.org/iso-iec/tr/9999/-1/ed-1/en/

      urn:iso:std:iso:9999:-1:ed-2:en,fr:amd:2: corresponds to
      http://standards.iso.org/iso/9999/-1/ed-2/en,fr/amd/2/

   Resolving identifiers for <addition> resources:

      For URNs in the requested namespace that refer to additional
      resources related to ISO documents, the ISO Central Secretariat
      will specify the resolution procedure at the time it defines the
      syntax for the corresponding <addition> to the <std-nss>.  In most
      cases, those resources will be maintained on an ISO website, as
      extensions to the http URIs described above.

2.9.  Rules for Lexical Equivalence

   URNs are lexically equivalent if they are octet-by-octet equal after
   the following preprocessing:

      1. normalize the case of the leading "urn:" token

      2. normalize the case of the NID

      3. normalize the case of any %-escaping

      4. normalize the case of all elements

   Further information is specified in [RFC2141], Section 5.





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2.10.  Conformance with URN Syntax

   No special considerations.

2.11.  Validation Mechanism

   None specified.

2.12.  Scope

   Global.

3.  Namespace Considerations

   The ISO-specific requirements are as follows:

   o  globally unique, persistent identifiers

   o  location-independent identifiers

   o  human-interpretable identifiers

   o  a scheme applicable to paper documents as well as machine-readable
      documents

   o  a scheme applicable to conceptual documents and explicit forms of
      documents

   o  a scheme applicable to resources extracted from documents

   o  a scheme applicable to "metadata" associated with documents

   o  a scheme in which the identifier assignment is managed by the ISO
      Central Secretariat

   Location-independence: Because the publication of ISO standards is a
   complex arrangement involving multiple development organizations and
   national standards institutes, a given ISO document may be available
   in a number of forms from a number of sources.  This makes it
   important to have a document identifier that is global in scope,
   widely and uniformly used, and independent of the text source used by
   any given reference.

   Human-interpretable: Many, perhaps most, references to documents
   appear in text generated by human authors.  It is important that an
   author familiar with the scheme be able to generate a correct URN for
   a document for which the author has the ISO reference (or document
   identifier).  Conversely, it is important that a reader unfamiliar



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   with the scheme be able to identify the URN as a reference to an ISO
   document, particularly an ISO standard, and also to recognize
   identifiers for forms, languages, or metadata sets.

   Paper documents: Older ISO standards that are commonly used as
   industrial references exist only in paper form or in earlier
   machine-readable forms that are not commonly used on the Internet.
   It is important to have a document identifier scheme that extends to
   these resources as well.  (In fact, many of these have been converted
   to Internet forms, and others are being converted, but it is
   important that the identifier be independent of the form in which the
   document can be obtained at any given time.)

   Conceptual documents vs. representation forms: Because ISO documents
   are regularly maintained and re-published in multiple forms, it is
   important to have document identifiers that denote the conceptual
   document, without regard to publication form.  At the same time, it
   is necessary for certain types of use to be able to refer to specific
   editions, or specific publication forms (for example, editions in
   different languages, or to PDF or HTML versions).  This URN
   specification allows for the identification of these different types
   of use in the <isodefined> part of the <addition> element.

   Document extracts: ISO standards may contain formal specifications in
   machine-processable languages, or formal specifications that also
   have representations in machine-processable languages.  It is useful
   to be able to extract these specifications in machine-processable
   form as separate resources, and therefore it is necessary to give
   these "extracted resources" global identifiers derived from the
   document identifier using a consistent identification scheme.

   Document metadata: Certain uses of documents and document text,
   primarily bibliographic, also extract information from the documents,
   and that information, commonly called "metadata", is organized in
   machine-readable forms conforming to other standards.  These metadata
   sets then become resources in their own right.  It is important to
   give them URN identifiers consistent with the document identification
   scheme.

4.  Community Considerations

   The ISO community is broad in two dimensions.  In one dimension, its
   documents are developed and used in a large variety of industries and
   professions: natural sciences, manufacturing, construction,
   transportation, information technology, social sciences, etc.  In the
   other dimension, it is a community of expert developers, standards





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   managers, publishers, professional users, and consumers.  And
   Internet information technologies are a part of common professional
   practice in all of these areas in both dimensions.

   ISO standards are cited in business agreements, in professional
   publications, in product descriptions, and in standards development
   and publication activities.  When these citations appear in
   electronic form, the references must be unambiguous.

   The information technology community is itself very active in the
   development and use of standards, and many ISO publications are
   developed by and for that community.  When an Internet information
   exchange uses a form specified in an ISO document, or a terminology
   defined in an ISO document, it is often necessary to identify that
   ISO specification in the envelope surrounding the exchange.  That
   identification should use a formal, unambiguous identifier in a form
   readily recognized by the receiving software, and possibly by the
   ultimate human recipient of the information.

   In order to facilitate the use of existing and emerging Internet
   technologies for all of these purposes, URNs conforming to [RFC2141]
   represent the most useful form of formal, globally unambiguous
   identifiers.  The use of a managed namespace for such identifiers,
   following a consistent scheme for identifying ISO documents and their
   derivatives, would be of significant benefit to the entire ISO
   community.

      It would give professional users in many industries a standard
      form for electronic reference to ISO standards in HTML, XML, PDF,
      etc., documents.

      It would give software developers a standard form for reference to
      ISO standard protocols, schemata, languages, data sets, etc.

      It would give standards developers a standard form for reference
      to other ISO publications in various stages of development.  And
      it would give them a standard form for creating identifiers for
      machine-readable information sets contained in, or derived from,
      the specifications.

      It would give standards managers and publishers a formal uniform
      scheme for reference to specific publications, editions, and
      versions of ISO documents.

   While the assignment of identifiers under this scheme is managed by
   the ISO Central Secretariat, the processes by which the identified
   objects arise and acquire such identifiers are the result of
   agreements made by the member bodies.  Every such project is



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   initiated by one member body and reviewed and voted on by the others.
   Every accepted project is open to participation by any member body,
   and in fact, participation by a certain minimum number (usually 5) of
   member bodies is required for acceptance of most projects.  In
   general, the member bodies are open professional and industrial
   organizations reflecting broad expertise and national interest.

   It should be noted that ISO documents in draft state are not usually
   made available outside the ISO standards development community.
   Making them available to professionals outside of the process might
   well mislead the recipients into premature adoption of practices that
   are not yet completely specified or have not yet achieved consensus,
   and therefore may well change.

   It should also be noted that ISO documents are not, in general,
   freely available over the Internet.  Rather, there are complex
   agreements between ISO and its member institutes as to the rights to
   the publications and the corresponding fees that may be charged for
   paper or electronic copies of various editions.  Some ISO documents
   are freely available, and some are freely available in certain forms.
   In general, derivatives of ISO documents (schemata, metadata sets,
   etc.) are freely available over the Internet in the appropriate
   machine-readable forms.  A URL associated with a URN in the requested
   namespace may therefore lead directly to a machine-readable copy of
   the text of the document or derivative, or it may lead to a site that
   can provide that text for a fee, or it may lead to a site that can
   only sell a paper copy of the document.  Bearing in mind that ISO is
   a network of otherwise independent institutes, this behavior is
   simply a property of the ISO community.

   Finally, it should be noted that, for many purposes, reference to the
   ISO standard is what is required, and only the product engineer or
   software tool builder actually needs access to the text.  This
   request is based on the need to standardize the form of reference,
   not the means of access.

5.  IANA Considerations

   IANA has assigned "iso" (29) as a formal NID.

   The ISO Central Secretariat will maintain a registry of the
   permissible values for the elements comprising the NSS.  Information
   may be obtained from the following address: urn@iso.org.

6.  Security Considerations

   The ISO URN Namespace ID shares the security considerations outlined
   in [RFC3406], but has no other known security considerations.



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7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [ISODIR-1]   International Organization for Standardization,
                "Procedures for the technical work", ISO/IEC Directives
                Part 1, Edition 5, 2004.

   [ISODIR-2]   International Organization for Standardization, "Rules
                for the structure and drafting of International
                Standards", ISO/IEC Directives Part 2, Edition 5, 2004.

   [ISODIR-S]   International Organization for Standardization,
                "Procedures specific to ISO", ISO/IEC Directives
                Supplement.

   [ISOGUIDE69] International Organization for Standardization,
                "Harmonized Stage Code system (Edition 2) - Principles
                and guidelines for use", ISO Guide 69:1999.

   [ISO639-1]   International Organization for Standardization, "Codes
                for the representation of names of languages - Part 1:
                Alpha-2 code", ISO 639-1:2002.

   [RFC2141]    Moats, R., "URN Syntax", RFC 2141, May 1997.

   [RFC3406]    Daigle, L., van Gulik, D., Iannella, R., and P.
                Faltstrom, "Uniform Resource Names (URN) Namespace
                Definition Mechanisms", BCP 66, RFC 3406, October 2002.

   [RFC5234]    Crocker, D., Ed., and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for
                Syntax Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234, January
                2008.

7.2.  Informative References

   [ISO8879:1986]
                International Organization for Standardization,
                "Information processing -- Text and office systems --
                Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)", ISO
                8879:1986.

   [ISO/IEC9070:1991]
                International Organization for Standardization,
                "Information technology -- SGML support facilities --
                Registration procedures for public text owner
                identifiers", ISO/IEC 9070:1991.




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   [ISO/IEC8824-1:2002]
                International Organization for Standardization,
                "Information technology -- Abstract Syntax Notation One
                (ASN.1): Specification of basic notation -- Part 1",
                ISO/IEC 8824-1:2002.

   [ISO/IEC8825:1987]
                International Organization for Standardization,
                "Information processing systems -- Open Systems
                Interconnection -- Specification of Basic Encoding Rules
                for Abstract Syntax Notation ONE (ASN.1)", ISO/IEC
                8825:1987.

   [CCITT]      "Specification of Basic Encoding Rules for Abstract
                Syntax Notation One (ASN.1)", CCITT Recommendation
                X.209, January 1988.

   [RFC3061]    Mealling, M., "A URN Namespace of Object Identifiers",
                RFC 3061, February 2001.

   [RFC3151]    Walsh, N., Cowan, J., and P. Grosso, "A URN Namespace
                for Public Identifiers", RFC 3151, August 2001.

   [RFC4646]    Phillips, A. and M. Davis, "Tags for Identifying
                Languages", BCP 47, RFC 4646, September 2006.


























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Appendix A.  Alternative Naming Schemes

   Before initiating this request, ISO attempted to find an existing or
   currently proposed URN NID scheme that might be used instead of a
   dedicated scheme.  Two existing schemes were carefully considered
   because they clearly meet part of the requirements:

   o  The OID scheme, documented in [RFC3061]

   o  The PublicId scheme, documented in [RFC3151]

   The OID scheme is derived from the joint ISO/ITU-T ASN.1
   object-identifier scheme specified in [ISO/IEC8824-1:2002] (original
   edition 1984; [RFC3061] cites the 1988 [CCITT] edition of the
   encoding rules in [ISO/IEC8825:1987].  This standard assigned the
   registry authority for all identifiers in the { iso(1) } namespace to
   ISO, and therefore, ISO controls the registry of all identifiers
   beginning "oid:1:".  And in fact, ISO has developed, and is using, an
   identification scheme under ASN.1 that meets most of the above
   requirements.  ISO could clearly define a use of the OID scheme that
   would be adequate to meet all of its technical objectives, although
   it would further complicate the current ASN.1 scheme.

   The original intent of ISO 8824 was to permit both a human-readable
   form for the identifier, to maximize intuitive recognition, and an
   encoding that minimized the number of bits needed to communicate an
   OID value over a network.  Regrettably, the encoding chosen in RFC
   3061 is much closer to the minimal bits encoding than to the
   human-readable one.  The NSS for the OID scheme consists entirely of
   digits and punctuation.  For example, the ASN.1 identifier { iso(1)
   standard(0) 7852 part(2) edition(3) } becomes: urn:oid:1:0:7852:2:3.

   This is difficult for a human reader or author to interpret.  It is
   also easy to mistype, and the scheme contains no "check-digits",
   which makes it difficult to validate, leading to the propagation of
   URNS that are invalid or valid but erroneous.  Finally, the
   all-numeric form conveys no hint of the name of the responsible
   organization, and therefore no hint of any URL that might aid a human
   reader in interpreting the reference.  The OID scheme makes all of
   the required identifiers technically possible and technically useable
   by software, but for all practical purposes, the OID URNs are useful
   only to software.

   The PublicId scheme is derived from Standard Generalized Markup
   Language (SGML) [ISO8879:1986] and [ISO/IEC9070:1991] bibliographic
   catalogue forms.  Narrowed to ISO publications, it is adequate for
   the unique global persistent identification of published documents,
   in both paper and machine-processable form.



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   Importantly, the PublicId scheme does not have a "conceptual
   document" notion -- it identifies specific publications and editions.
   "Weak identification" could be used to implement the conceptual
   document concept, but the PublicId scheme does not document that
   interpretation.  In any case, the PublicId scheme does not extend to
   draft documents, which are often referenced in pilot implementations,
   to separate forms of a document, or to resources extracted from
   documents.  It supports only those metadata elements that are defined
   in SGML.  The scheme could be extended to do most of these, but the
   ISO-specific extensions would not in general extend to the much
   broader base of documents identified by PublicIds.  (Version and
   edition management practices vary significantly across publishers,
   depending on their milieu.)  Further, the ISO Central Secretariat
   could not and should not control the registry of such URNs.

   ISO therefore concluded that the alternative schemes are not adequate
   to meet the requirements of the ISO community.

   Whilst requesting a new namespace for ISO documents and their
   derivatives, ISO does not wish to discourage the use of these other
   identifiers for ISO publications.  The PublicId form, in particular,
   is useful for referring to ISO publications in a larger bibliographic
   information space.

Appendix B.  ABNF Definition of Namespace ID = "iso" (Informative)

   NSS           = std-nss

   std-nss       = "std:" docidentifier *supplement *docelement
                   [addition]

   docidentifier = originator [":" type] ":" docnumber [":" partnumber]
                   [[":" status] ":" edition]
                   [":" docversion] [":" language]

   originator    = "iso" / "iso-iec" / "iso-cie" / "iso-astm" /
                   "iso-ieee" / "iec"

                   ; iso      = International Organization for
                   ;            Standardization

                   ; iec      = International Electrotechnical
                   ;            Commission (IEC), or Commission
                   ;            Electrotechnique Internationale

                   ; iso-iec  = jointly developed by ISO and IEC





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                   ; iso-cie  = jointly developed by ISO and the
                   ;            Commission Internationale d'Eclairage
                   ;            (CIE)

                   ; iso-astm = jointly developed by ISO and the
                   ;            American Society for Testing and
                   ;            Materials (ASTM) International

                   ; iso-ieee = jointly developed by ISO and the
                   ;            Institute for Electrical and
                   ;            Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

   type          = "data" / "guide" / "isp" / "iwa" /
                   "pas" / "r" / "tr" / "ts" / "tta"

                   ; data  = Data (document type no longer published)

                   ; guide = Guide

                   ; isp   = International Standardized Profile

                   ; iwa   = International Workshop Agreement

                   ; pas   = Publicly Available Specification

                   ; r     = Recommendation (document type no longer
                   ;         published)

                   ; tr    = Technical Report

                   ; ts    = Technical Specification

                   ; tta   = Technology Trends Assessment

   docnumber     = DIGITS

   partnumber    = "-" 1*( DIGIT / ALPHA / "-" )

   status        = ( "draft" / "cancelled" ) / stage

                   ; draft     =  document that has not yet been
                   ;              accepted for publication by
                   ;              international ballot

                   ; cancelled =  document that has been deleted or
                   ;              withdrawn

   stage         = "stage-" stagecode ["." iteration]



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   stagecode     = DIGIT DIGIT "."  DIGIT DIGIT

   iteration     = "v" DIGITS

   edition       = "ed-" DIGITS

   docversion    = "v" (simpleversion / isoversion)

   simpleversion = DIGITS

                   ; 1 = first version published

                   ; 2 = corrected version published

   isoversion    = baseversion *includedsuppl

   baseversion   = DIGITS

   includedsuppl = "-" suppltype supplnumber [ "." supplversion ]

   language      = monolingual / bilingual / trilingual

   monolingual   = "en" / "fr" / "ru" / "es" / "ar"

   bilingual     = "en,fr" / "en,ru" / "fr,ru"

   trilingual    = "en,fr,ru"

   supplement    = ":" suppltype ":" supplnumber
                   [":" supplversion ] [":" language ]

   suppltype     = "amd" / "cor" / "add"

                   ; amd = Amendment

                   ; cor = Technical Corrigendum

                   ; add = Addendum

   supplnumber   = DIGITS

   supplversion  = "v" DIGITS

   docelement    = ":" ( "clause" / "figure" / "table" / "term" ) ":"
                   elementnumber / elementrange
                   *( "," elementnumber / elementrange )

   elementnumber = ( ALPHA / DIGITS ) *( "."  DIGITS )



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   elementrange  = elementnumber "-" elementnumber

   addition      = techdefined / isodefined

   techdefined   = ":tech" *techelement

   techelement   = <unspecified>

   isodefined    = <unspecified>

   DIGITS        = DIGIT *DIGIT

   DIGIT         = %x30-39 ; 0-9

   ALPHA         = %x41-5A / %x61-7A ; A-Z / a-z

Authors' Addresses

   Joanna Goodwin
   International Organization for Standardization
   Case Postal 56
   Geneva 20  1211
   Switzerland

   EMail: goodwin@iso.org
   URI:   http://www.iso.org


   Holger Apel
   International Organization for Standardization
   Case Postal 56
   Geneva 20  1211
   Switzerland

   EMail: apel@iso.org
   URI:   http://www.iso.org















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Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008).

   This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
   contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
   retain all their rights.

   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
   OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY, THE IETF TRUST AND
   THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS
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   The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
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   Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any
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   The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
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   ietf-ipr@ietf.org.












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