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INFORMATIONAL

Network Working Group                                           O. Levin
Request for Comments: 5168                         Microsoft Corporation
Category: Informational                                          R. Even
                                                                 Polycom
                                                            P. Hagendorf
                                                               RADVISION
                                                              March 2008


                      XML Schema for Media Control

Status of This Memo

   This memo provides information for the Internet community.  It does
   not specify an Internet standard of any kind.  Distribution of this
   memo is unlimited.

Abstract

   This document defines an Extensible Markup Language (XML) Schema for
   video fast update in a tightly controlled environment, developed by
   Microsoft, Polycom, Radvision and used by multiple vendors.  This
   document describes a method that has been deployed in Session
   Initiation Protocol (SIP) based systems over the last three years and
   is being used across real-time interactive applications from
   different vendors in an interoperable manner.  New implementations
   are discouraged from using the method described except for backward
   compatibility purposes.  New implementations are required to use the
   new Full Intra Request command in the RTP Control Protocol (RTCP)
   channel.





















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Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................2
   2. Conventions .....................................................2
   3. Background ......................................................3
   4. The Video Control Commands ......................................3
   5. The Schema Definition ...........................................4
   6. Error Handling ..................................................5
   7. Examples ........................................................5
      7.1. The Fast Update Command for the Full Picture ...............5
      7.2. Reporting an Error .........................................5
   8. Transport .......................................................6
   9. IANA Considerations .............................................6
      9.1. Application/media_control+xml Media Type Registration ......6
   10. Security Considerations ........................................7
   11. References .....................................................8
      11.1. Normative References ......................................8
      11.2. Informative References ....................................8

1.  Introduction

   This document defines an Extensible Markup Language (XML) Schema for
   video fast update request in a tightly controlled environment,
   developed by Microsoft, Polycom, Radvision and used by multiple
   vendors.  Implementation of this schema for interactive video
   applications in Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) [5] environments
   was designed in order to improve user experience.  This mechanism is
   being used by both end user video conferencing terminals and
   conferencing servers in shipping products.  This document describes
   the current method, but new implementations are discouraged from
   using this method, except for backward compatibility with legacy
   systems.  Shipping products and new products SHOULD use the Full
   Intra Request, described in [7].

   Sending video fast update using the SIP signaling path, as described
   in this document, is inferior to using the RTP Control Protocol
   (RTCP) feedback method [7], since the command flows through all the
   proxies in the signaling path adding delay to the messages and
   causing unnecessary overload to the proxies.  RTCP messages flow
   end-to-end and not through the signaling proxies.  The RTCP feedback
   document [7] also adds other required control functions, such as the
   flow control command, which is missing from this document.

2.  Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [2].



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3.  Background

   SIP typically uses the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) [6] for the
   transferring of real-time media.

   RTP is augmented by a control protocol (RTCP) to allow monitoring of
   the data delivery in a manner scalable to large multicast networks.
   The RTCP feedback mechanism [8] has been introduced in order to
   improve basic RTCP feedback time in case of loss conditions across
   different coding schemes.  This technique addresses signaling of loss
   conditions and the recommended recovery steps.

   Just recently, an extension to the feedback mechanism has been
   proposed [7] to express control operations on media streams as a
   result of application logic rather than a result of loss conditions.
   Note that in the decomposed systems, the implementation of the new
   mechanism will require proprietary communications between the
   applications/call control components and the media components.

   This document describes a technology that has been deployed in
   SIP-based systems over the last three years and is being used across
   real-time interactive applications from different vendors in an
   interoperable manner.  This memo documents this technology for the
   purpose of describing current practice and new implementation MUST
   use the RTCP Full Intra Request command specified in the RTCP-based
   codec control messages document[7].

4.  The Video Control Commands

   Output of a video codec is a frame.  The frame can carry complete
   information about a picture or about a picture segment.  These frames
   are known as "Intra" frames.  In order to save bandwidth, other
   frames can carry only changes relative to previously sent frames.
   Frames carrying relative information are known as "Inter" frames.

   Based on application logic (such as need to present a new video
   source), the application needs to have an ability to explicitly
   request from a remote encoder the complete information about a "full"
   picture.

   An "Intra" frame may be of large size.  In order to prevent causing
   network congestion, the current media capacity and network conditions
   MUST be validated before sending an "Intra" frame when receiving a
   fast update command, defined in this document.

   In order to meet the presented requirements, a video primitive is
   defined by this document.




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   The following command is sent to the remote encoder:

   o  Video Picture Fast Update

5.  The Schema Definition

   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>

   <xs:schema id="TightMediaControl"
    elementFormDefault="qualified"
     xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">

           <xs:element name="media_control">
               <xs:complexType>
                  <xs:sequence>
                     <xs:element name="vc_primitive"
                                           type="vc_primitive"
                                           minOccurs="0"
                                           maxOccurs="unbounded" />
                     <xs:element name="general_error"
                                           type="xs:string"
                                           minOccurs="0"
                                           maxOccurs="unbounded" />
                  </xs:sequence>
               </xs:complexType>
           </xs:element>

           <!-- Video control primitive.  -->

           <xs:complexType name="vc_primitive">
                   <xs:sequence>
                     <xs:element name="to_encoder" type="to_encoder" />
                      <xs:element name="stream_id"
                                       type="xs:string"
                                       minOccurs="0"
                                       maxOccurs="unbounded" />
                           </xs:sequence>
           </xs:complexType>

           <!-- Encoder Command:
                Picture Fast Update
           -->

           <xs:complexType name="to_encoder">
                   <xs:choice>
                           <xs:element name="picture_fast_update"/>
                   </xs:choice>
           </xs:complexType>



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   </xs:schema>

6.  Error Handling

   Currently, only a single general error primitive is defined.  It MAY
   be used for indicating errors in free-text format.  The general error
   primitive MAY report problems regarding XML document parsing,
   inadequate level of media control support, inability to perform the
   requested action, etc.

   The general error primitive MUST NOT be used for the indication of
   errors other than those related to media control parsing or to
   resultant execution.  The general error primitive MUST NOT be sent
   back as a result of getting an error primitive.

   When receiving the general error response, the user agent client
   (UAC) that sent the request SHOULD NOT send further fast update
   requests in the current dialog.

   According to RFC 2976 [3], the only allowable final response to a SIP
   INFO containing a message body is a 200 OK.  If SIP INFO is used to
   carry the request, the error message should be carried in a separate
   INFO request.

7.  Examples

7.1.  The Fast Update Command for the Full Picture

   In the following example, the full picture "Fast Update" command is
   issued towards the remote video decoder(s).

   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>

   <media_control>

      <vc_primitive>
       <to_encoder>
         <picture_fast_update/>
       </to_encoder>
     </vc_primitive>

   </media_control>

7.2.  Reporting an Error

   If an error occurs during the parsing of the XML document, the
   following XML document would be sent back to the originator of the
   original Media Control document.



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   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>

   <media_control>

     <general_error>
      Parsing error: The original XML segment is:...
     </general_error>

   </media_control>

8.  Transport

   The defined XML document is conveyed using the SIP INFO method [3]
   with the "Content-Type" set to "application/media_control+xml".  This
   approach benefits from the SIP built-in reliability.

9.  IANA Considerations

   This document registers a new media type.

9.1.  Application/media_control+xml Media Type Registration

   Type name:   application
   Subtype name:   media_control+xml
   Required parameters:   None
   Optional parameters:   charset

   Indicates the character encoding of enclosed XML.

   Encoding considerations:   8bit
      Uses XML, which can employ 8-bit characters, depending on the
      character encoding used.  See RFC 3023 [4], Section 3.2.

   Security considerations:   Security considerations specific to uses
      of this type are discussed in RFC 5168.  RFC 1874 [1] and RFC 3023
      [4] discuss security issues common to all uses of XML.

   Interoperability considerations:   None.

   Published specification:   RFC 5168











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   Applications that use this media type:   This media type is used to
      convey information regarding media control commands and responses
      between SIP endpoints particularly for allowing a Video Fast
      Update intra-frame request.

   Additional information:

   Magic Number(s):   None.
   File Extension(s):   None.
   Macintosh File Type Code(s):   None.

   Person and email address to contact for further information:

   Name:  Roni Even
   E-Mail:  even.roni@gmail.com

   Intended usage: LIMITED USE

   Restrictions on usage: None.

   Author: Roni Even. <even.roni@gmail.com>

   Change Controller: Roni Even. <even.roni@gmail.com>

10.  Security Considerations

   The video control command transported using the method described in
   the document may cause the sender of the video data to send more data
   within the allowed bandwidth, as described in Section 4.

   This document defines one control message; changing the content of
   the message will cause the video sender to ignore the request and
   send an error response.  This may prevent the display of a video
   stream.  The control message itself does not carry any sensitive
   information.

   An eavesdropper may inject messages or change them, which may lead to
   either more data on the network or loss of video image.  Using data
   integrity validation will prevent adding or changing of messages.

   If the video media is sent over a secure transport, it is recommended
   to secure the signaling using TLS as explained in [5].  In most
   cases, securing the media will require a secure signaling path.

   The security considerations of [3] and [5] apply here.






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11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [1]  Levinson, E., "SGML Media Types", RFC 1874, December 1995.

   [2]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
        Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [3]  Donovan, S., "The SIP INFO Method", RFC 2976, October 2000.

   [4]  Murata, M., St. Laurent, S., and D. Kohn, "XML Media Types", RFC
        3023, January 2001.

   [5]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston, A.,
        Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E. Schooler, "SIP:
        Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261, June 2002.

   [6]  Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., and V. Jacobson,
        "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications", STD 64,
        RFC 3550, July 2003.

   [7]  Wenger, S., Chandra, U., Westerlund, M., and B. Burman, "Codec
        Control Messages in the RTP Audio-Visual Profile with Feedback
        (AVPF)", RFC 5104, February 2008.

11.2.  Informative References

   [8]  Ott, J., Wenger, S., Sato, N., Burmeister, C., and J. Rey,
        "Extended RTP Profile for Real-time Transport Control Protocol
        (RTCP)-Based Feedback (RTP/AVPF)", RFC 4585, July 2006.




















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Authors' Addresses

   Orit Levin
   Microsoft Corporation
   One Microsoft Way
   Redmond, WA  98052
   USA

   EMail: oritl@microsoft.com


   Roni Even
   Polycom
   94 Derech Em Hamoshavot
   Petach Tikva,   49130
   Israel

   EMail: roni.even@polycom.co.il


   Pierre Hagendorf
   RADVISION
   24, Raul Wallenberg St.
   Tel-Aviv,   69719
   Israel

   EMail: pierre@radvision.com
























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