[Docs] [txt|pdf] [draft-ietf-ippm-s...] [Diff1] [Diff2]

PROPOSED STANDARD

Network Working Group                                       S. Niccolini
Request for Comments: 5388                                 S. Tartarelli
Category: Standards Track                                     J. Quittek
                                                                T. Dietz
                                                                     NEC
                                                                M. Swany
                                                                    UDel
                                                           December 2008


    Information Model and XML Data Model for Traceroute Measurements

Status of This Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2008 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (http://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.

Abstract

   This document describes a standard way to store the configuration and
   the results of traceroute measurements.  This document first
   describes the terminology used in this document and the traceroute
   tool itself; afterwards, the common information model is defined,
   dividing the information elements into two semantically separated
   groups (configuration elements and results elements).  Moreover, an
   additional element is defined to relate configuration elements and
   results elements by means of a common unique identifier.  On the
   basis of the information model, a data model based on XML is defined
   to store the results of traceroute measurements.








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Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................3
   2. Terminology Used in This Document ...............................3
   3. The Traceroute Tool and Its Operations ..........................4
   4. Results of Traceroute Measurements ..............................5
   5. Information Model for Traceroute Measurements ...................5
      5.1. Data Types .................................................6
      5.2. Information Elements .......................................7
           5.2.1. Relationships between the Information Elements ......7
           5.2.2. Configuration Information Elements .................12
           5.2.3. Results Information Elements .......................17
           5.2.4. Information Element Correlating
                  Configuration and Results ..........................21
           5.2.5. Information Elements to Compare Traceroute
                  Measurement Results ................................22
   6. Data Model for Storing Traceroute Measurements .................23
   7. XML Schema for Traceroute Measurements .........................24
   8. Security Considerations ........................................38
      8.1. Conducting Traceroute Measurements ........................39
      8.2. Securing Traceroute Measurement Information ...............39
   9. IANA Considerations ............................................40
   10. References ....................................................40
      10.1. Normative References .....................................40
      10.2. Informative References ...................................41
   Appendix A. Traceroute Default Configuration Parameters ...........43
      A.1. Alternative Traceroute Implementations ....................46
   Appendix B. Known Problems with Traceroute ........................47
      B.1. Compatibility between Traceroute Measurement Results
           and IPPM Metrics ..........................................47
   Appendix C. Differences to DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB ..................47
      C.1. Scope .....................................................48
      C.2. Naming ....................................................49
      C.3. Semantics .................................................49
      C.4. Additional Information Elements ...........................50
   Appendix D. Traceroute Examples with XML Representation ...........50















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1.  Introduction

   Traceroutes are used by lots of measurement efforts, either as
   independent measurements or as a means of getting path information to
   support other measurement efforts.  That is why there is the need to
   standardize the way the configuration and the results of traceroute
   measurements are stored.  The standard metrics defined by the IPPM
   group in matters of delay, connectivity, and losses do not apply to
   the metrics returned by the traceroute tool.  Therefore, in order to
   compare results of traceroute measurements, the only possibility is
   to add to the stored results a specification of the operating system
   as well as the name and version for the traceroute tool used.  This
   document, in order to store results of traceroute measurements and
   allow comparison of them, defines a standard way to store them using
   an XML schema.

   The document is organized as follows: Section 2 defines the
   terminology used in this document; Section 3 describes the traceroute
   tool; Section 4 describes the results of a traceroute measurement as
   displayed to the screen from which the traceroute tool was launched;
   Section 5 and Section 6, respectively, describe the information model
   and data model for storing configuration and results of the
   traceroute measurements; Section 7 contains the XML schema to be used
   as a template for storing and/or exchanging traceroute measurement
   information; the document ends with security considerations and IANA
   considerations in Section 8 and Section 9 respectively.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

2.  Terminology Used in This Document

   The terminology used in this document is defined as follows:

   o  traceroute tool: a software tool for network diagnostic that
      behaves as described in Section 3;

   o  traceroute measurement: an instance of the traceroute tool
      launched, with specific configuration parameters (traceroute
      measurement configuration parameters), from a specific host
      (initiator of the traceroute measurement) giving as output
      specific traceroute measurement results;

   o  traceroute probe: one of many IP packets sent out by the
      traceroute tool during a traceroute measurement;





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   o  traceroute measurement configuration parameters: the configuration
      parameters of a traceroute measurement;

   o  traceroute measurement results: the results of a traceroute
      measurement;

   o  traceroute measurement information: both the results and the
      configuration parameters of a traceroute measurement;

   o  traceroute measurement path: a sequence of hosts transited in
      order by traceroute probes during a traceroute measurement.

3.  The Traceroute Tool and Its Operations

   Traceroute is a network diagnostic tool used to determine the hop-by-
   hop path from a source to a destination and the Round Trip Time (RTT)
   from the source to each hop.  Traceroute can be therefore used to
   discover some information (hop counts, delays, etc.) about the path
   between the initiator of the traceroute measurement and other hosts.

   Typically, the traceroute tool attempts to discover the path to a
   destination by sending UDP probes with specific time-to-live (TTL)
   values in the IP packet header and trying to elicit an ICMP
   TIME_EXCEEDED response from each gateway along the path to some host.

   In more detail, a first set of probes with TTL equal to 1 is sent by
   the traceroute tool from the host initiating the traceroute
   measurement (some tool implementations allow setting the initial TTL
   to a value equal to "n" different from 1, so that the first "n-1"
   hops are skipped and the first hop that will be traced is the "n-th"
   in the path).  Upon receiving a probe, the first hop host decreases
   the TTL value (by one or more).  By observing a TTL value equal to
   zero, the host rejects the probe and typically returns an ICMP
   message with a TIME_EXCEEDED value.  The traceroute tool can
   therefore derive the IP address of the first hop from the header of
   the ICMP message and evaluate the RTT between the host initiating the
   traceroute measurement and the first hop.  The next hops are
   discovered following the same procedure, taking care to increase at
   each step the TTL value of the probes by one.  The TTL value is
   increased until either an ICMP PORT_UNREACHABLE message is received,
   meaning that the destination host has been reached, or the maximum
   configured number of hops has been hit.

   Some implementations use ICMP Echoes, instead of UDP datagrams.
   However, many routers do not return ICMP messages about ICMP
   messages, i.e., no ICMP TIME_EXCEEDED is returned for an ICMP Echo.





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   Therefore, this document recommends to base implementations on UDP
   datagrams.  Considerations on TCP-based implementations of the
   traceroute tool are reported in Appendix A.1.

4.  Results of Traceroute Measurements

   The following list reports the information fields provided as results
   by all traceroute tool implementations considered.  The order in
   which they are reported here is not relevant and changes in different
   implementations.  For each hop, the following information is
   reported:

   o  the hop index;

   o  the host symbolic address, provided that at least one of the
      probes received a response, the symbolic address could be resolved
      at the corresponding host, and the option to display only
      numerical addresses was not set;

   o  the host IP address, provided that at least one of the probes
      received a response;

   o  the RTT for each response to a probe.

   Depending on the traceroute tool implementation, additional
   information might be displayed in the output (for instance, MPLS-
   related information).

   It might happen that some probes do not receive a response within the
   configured timeout (for instance, if the probe is filtered out by a
   firewall).  In this case, an "*" is displayed in place of the RTT.
   The information model reflects this using a string with the value of
   "RoundTripTimeNotAvailable", meaning either the probe was lost
   because of a timeout or it was not possible to transmit a probe.  It
   may also happen that some implementations print the same line
   multiple times when a router decreases the TTL by more than one, thus
   looking like multiple hops.  The information model is not impacted by
   this since each line is handled separately; it is left to the
   applications handling the XML file how to deal with it.  Moreover,
   for delays below 1 ms, some implementations report 0 ms (e.g., UNIX
   and LINUX), while WINDOWS reports "< 1 ms".

5.  Information Model for Traceroute Measurements

   The information model is composed of information elements; for
   defining these information elements, a template is used.  Such
   template is specified in the list below:




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   o  name - A unique and meaningful name for the information element.
      The preferred spelling for the name is to use mixed case if the
      name is compound, with an initial lower-case letter, e.g.,
      "sourceIpAddress".

   o  description - The semantics of this information element.

   o  dataType - One of the types listed in Section 5.1 of this document
      or in an extension of the information model.  The type space for
      attributes is constrained to facilitate implementation.

   o  units - If the element is a measure of some kind, the units
      identify what the measure is.

5.1.  Data Types

   This section describes the set of basic valid data types of the
   information model.

   o  string - The type "string" represents a finite-length string of
      valid characters from the Unicode character encoding set.  Unicode
      allows for ASCII and many other international character sets to be
      used.  It is expected that strings will be encoded in UTF-8
      format, which is identical in encoding for US-ASCII characters but
      which also accommodates other Unicode multi-byte characters.

   o  string255 - Same type as "string" but with the restriction of 255
      characters.

   o  inetAddressType - The type "inetAddressType" represents a type of
      Internet address.  The allowed values are imported from [RFC4001]
      (where the intent was to import only some of the values);
      additional allowed values are "asnumber" and "noSpecification".

   o  inetAddress - The type "inetAddress" denotes a generic Internet
      address.  The allowed values are imported from [RFC4001] (the
      values imported are unknown, ipv4, ipv6, and dns), while non-
      global IPv4/IPv6 addresses (e.g., ipv4z and ipv6z) are excluded;
      an additional allowed value is the AS number, indicated as the
      actual number plus the indication of how the mapping from IP
      address to AS number was performed.  "Unknown" is used to indicate
      an IP address that is not in one of the formats defined.

   o  ipASNumberMappingType - The type "ipASNumberMappingType"
      represents a type of mapping from IP to AS number, it indicates
      the method that was used to do get the mapping (allowed values are
      "bgptables", "routingregistries", "nslookup", "others" or
      "unknown").



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   o  boolean - The type "boolean" represents a boolean value according
      to XML standards [W3C.REC-xmlschema-2-20041028].

   o  unsignedInt - The type "unsignedInt" represents a value in the
      range (0..4294967295).

   o  unsignedShort - The type "unsignedShort" represents a value in the
      range (0..65535).

   o  unsignedByte - The type "unsignedByte" represents a value in the
      range (0..255).

   o  u8nonzero - The type "u8nonzero" represents a value in the range
      (1..255).

   o  probesType - The type "probesType" represents a way of indicating
      the protocol used for the traceroute probes.  Values defined in
      this document are UDP, TCP, and ICMP.

   o  operationResponseStatus - The type "operationResponseStatus" is
      used to report the result of an operation.  The allowed values are
      imported from [RFC4560].

   o  dateTime - The type "dateTime" represents a date-time
      specification according to XML standards
      [W3C.REC-xmlschema-2-20041028] but is restricted to the values
      defined in [RFC3339].

5.2.  Information Elements

   This section describes the elements related to the storing of a
   traceroute measurement.  The elements are grouped in two groups
   (configuration and results) according to their semantics.  In order
   to relate configuration and results elements by means of a common
   unique identifier, an additional element is defined belonging to both
   groups.

5.2.1.  Relationships between the Information Elements

   Every traceroute measurement is represented by an instance of the
   "traceRoute" element.  This class provides a standardized
   representation for traceroute measurement data.  The "traceroute"
   element is an element that can be composed of (depending on the
   nature of the traceroute measurement):

   o  1 optional "RequestMetadata" element;

   o  0..2147483647 "Measurement" elements.



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   Each "Measurement" element contains:

   o  1 optional "MeasurementMetadata" element;

   o  0..2147483647 "MeasurementResult" elements.

   The "RequestMetadata" element can be used for specifying parameters
   of a traceroute measurement to be performed at one or more nodes by
   one or more traceroute implementations.  Depending on the
   capabilities of a traceroute implementation, not all requested
   parameters can be applied.  Which parameters have actually been
   applied for a specific traceroute measurement is specified in a
   "MeasurementMetadata" element.

   The "RequestMetadata" element is a sequence that contains:

   o  1 "TestName" element;

   o  1 optional "ToolVersion" element;

   o  1 optional "ToolName" element;

   o  1 "CtlTargetAddress" element;

   o  1 optional "CtlBypassRouteTable" element;

   o  1 optional "CtlProbeDataSize" element;

   o  1 optional "CtlTimeOut" element;

   o  1 optional "CtlProbesPerHop" element;

   o  1 optional "CtlPort" element;

   o  1 optional "CtlMaxTtl" element;

   o  1 optional "CtlDSField" element;

   o  1 optional "CtlSourceAddress" element;

   o  1 optional "CtlIfIndex" element;

   o  1 optional "CtlMiscOptions" element;

   o  1 optional "CtlMaxFailures" element;

   o  1 optional "CtlDontFragment" element;




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   o  1 optional "CtlInitialTtl" element;

   o  1 optional "CtlDescr" element;

   o  1 "CtlType" element.

   If the "RequestMetadata" element is omitted from an XML file, it
   means that the traceroute measurement configuration parameters
   requested were all used and the "MeasurementMetadata" element lists
   them in detail.

   The "MeasurementMetadata" element is a sequence that contains:

   o  1 "TestName" element;

   o  1 "OSName" element;

   o  1 "OSVersion" element;

   o  1 "ToolVersion" element;

   o  1 "ToolName" element;

   o  1 "CtlTargetAddressType" element;

   o  1 "CtlTargetAddress" element;

   o  1 "CtlBypassRouteTable" element;

   o  1 "CtlProbeDataSize" element;

   o  1 "CtlTimeOut" element;

   o  1 "CtlProbesPerHop" element;

   o  1 "CtlPort" element;

   o  1 "CtlMaxTtl" element;

   o  1 "CtlDSField" element;

   o  1 "CtlSourceAddressType" element;

   o  1 "CtlSourceAddress" element;

   o  1 "CtlIfIndex" element;

   o  1 optional "CtlMiscOptions" element;



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   o  1 "CtlMaxFailures" element;

   o  1 "CtlDontFragment" element;

   o  1 "CtlInitialTtl" element;

   o  1 optional "CtlDescr" element;

   o  1 "CtlType" element.

   Configuration information elements can describe not just traceroute
   measurements that have already happened ("MeasurementMetadata"
   elements), but also the configuration to be used when requesting a
   measurement to be made ("RequestMetadata" element).  This is quite
   different semantically, even if the individual information elements
   are similar.  Due to this similarity, both "RequestMetadata" and
   "MeasurementMetadata" are represented by the same type in the XML
   schema.  All elements that are missing from the "RequestMetadata" or
   marked as optional in the "RequestMetadata" but mandatory in the
   "MeasurementMetadata" must be specified as empty elements.
   Specifying them as empty elements means use the default value.  The
   "CtlType" element could have been optional in the "RequestMetadata",
   but since default values cannot be specified for complex types in an
   XML schema, the element is mandatory in the "RequestMetadata".

   The "MeasurementResult" element is a sequence that contains:

   o  1 "TestName" element;

   o  1 "ResultsStartDateAndTime" element;

   o  1 "ResultsIpTgtAddrType" element;

   o  1 "ResultsIpTgtAddr" element;

   o  1 "ProbeResults" elements;

   o  1 "ResultsEndDateAndTime" element.

   Additionally, it is important to say that each "ProbeResults" element
   is a sequence that contains:

   o  1..255 "hop" elements.

   Each "hop" element is a sequence that contains:

   o  1..10 "probe" elements;




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   o  1 optional "HopRawOutputData" element.

   Each "probe" element contains:

   o  1 "HopAddrType" element;

   o  1 "HopAddr" element;

   o  1 optional "HopName" element;

   o  0..255 optional "MPLSLabelStackEntry" elements;

   o  1 "ProbedRoundTripTime" element;

   o  1 "ResponseStatus" element;

   o  1 "Time" element.

   Different numbers of appearances of the three basic elements in the
   XML file are meant for different scopes:

   o  a file with only 1 "RequestMetadata" element represents a file
      containing the traceroute measurement configuration parameters of
      a traceroute measurement; it can be used to distribute the
      traceroute measurement configuration parameters over multiple
      nodes asked to run the same traceroute measurement;

   o  a file with 1 "Measurement" element containing 1
      "MeasurementMetadata" and 1 "MeasurementResult" element represents
      a file containing the traceroute measurement information of a
      traceroute measurement;

   o  a file with 1 "Measurement" element containing 1
      "MeasurementMetadata" and n "MeasurementResult" elements
      represents a file containing the traceroute measurement
      information of a set of traceroute measurements run over different
      times with always the same traceroute measurement configuration
      parameters;

   o  a file with 1 "RequestMetadata" and 1 "Measurement" element
      containing 1 "MeasurementMetadata" and 1 "Measurement" element
      represents a file containing the traceroute measurement
      information of a traceroute measurement (containing both the
      requested traceroute measurement configuration parameters and the
      ones actually used);

   o  other combinations are possible to store multiple traceroute
      measurements all in one XML file.



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5.2.2.  Configuration Information Elements

   This section describes the elements specific to the configuration of
   the traceroute measurement (belonging to both the "RequestMetadata"
   and "MeasurementMetadata" elements).

5.2.2.1.  CtlTargetAddressType

   o  name - CtlTargetAddressType

   o  description - Specifies the type of address in the corresponding
      "CtlTargetAddress" element.  This element is not directly
      reflected in the XML schema of Section 7.  The host address type
      can be determined by examining the inetAddress type name and the
      corresponding element value.

   o  dataType - inetAddressType

   o  units - N/A

5.2.2.2.  CtlTargetAddress

   o  name - CtlTargetAddress

   o  description - In the "RequestMetadata" element, it specifies the
      host address requested to be used in the traceroute measurement.
      In the "MeasurementMetadata" element, it specifies the host
      address used in the traceroute measurement.

   o  dataType - inetAddress

   o  units - N/A

5.2.2.3.  CtlBypassRouteTable

   o  name - CtlBypassRouteTable

   o  description - In the "RequestMetadata" element, specifies if the
      optional bypassing of the route table was enabled or not.  In the
      "MeasurementMetadata" element, specifies if the optional bypassing
      of the route table was enabled or not.  If enabled, the normal
      routing tables will be bypassed and the probes will be sent
      directly to a host on an attached network.  If the host is not on
      a directly attached network, an error is returned.  This option
      can be used to perform the traceroute measurement to a local host
      through an interface that has no route defined.  This object can
      be used when the setsockopt SOL_SOCKET SO_DONTROUTE option is
      supported and set (see [IEEE.1003-1G.1997]).



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   o  dataType - boolean

   o  units - N/A

5.2.2.4.  CtlProbeDataSize

   o  name - CtlProbeDataSize

   o  description - Specifies the size of the probes of a traceroute
      measurement in octets (requested if in the "RequestMetadata"
      element, actually used if in the "MeasurementMetadata" element).
      If UDP datagrams are used as probes, then the value contained in
      this object is exact.  If another protocol is used to transmit
      probes (i.e., TCP or ICMP), for which the specified size is not
      appropriate, then the implementation can use whatever size
      (appropriate to the method) is closest to the specified size.  The
      maximum value for this object is computed by subtracting the
      smallest possible IP header size of 20 octets (IPv4 header with no
      options) and the UDP header size of 8 octets from the maximum IP
      packet size.  An IP packet has a maximum size of 65535 octets
      (excluding IPv6 jumbograms).

   o  dataType - unsignedShort

   o  units - octets

5.2.2.5.  CtlTimeOut

   o  name - CtlTimeOut

   o  description - Specifies the timeout value, in seconds, for each
      probe of a traceroute measurement (requested if in the
      "RequestMetadata" element, actually used if in the
      "MeasurementMetadata" element).

   o  dataType - unsignedByte

   o  units - seconds

5.2.2.6.  CtlProbesPerHop

   o  name - CtlProbesPerHop

   o  description - Specifies the number of probes with the same time-
      to-live (TTL) value that are sent for each host (requested if in
      the "RequestMetadata" element, actually used if in the
      "MeasurementMetadata" element).




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   o  dataType - unsignedByte

   o  units - probes

5.2.2.7.  CtlPort

   o  name - CtlPort

   o  description - Specifies the base port used by the traceroute
      measurement (requested if in the "RequestMetadata" element,
      actually used if in the "MeasurementMetadata" element).

   o  dataType - unsignedShort

   o  units - port number

5.2.2.8.  CtlMaxTtl

   o  name - CtlMaxTtl

   o  description - Specifies the maximum TTL value for the traceroute
      measurement (requested if in the "RequestMetadata" element,
      actually used if in the "MeasurementMetadata" element).

   o  dataType - u8nonzero

   o  units - time-to-live value

5.2.2.9.  CtlDSField

   o  name - CtlDSField

   o  description - Specifies the value that was requested to be stored
      in the Differentiated Services (DS) field in the traceroute probe
      (if in the "RequestMetadata" element).  Specifies the value that
      was stored in the Differentiated Services (DS) field in the
      traceroute probe (if in the "MeasurementMetadata" element).  The
      DS field is defined as the Type of Service (TOS) octet in an IPv4
      header or as the Traffic Class octet in an IPv6 header (see
      Section 7 of [RFC2460]).  The value of this object must be a
      decimal integer in the range from 0 to 255.  This option can be
      used to determine what effect an explicit DS field setting has on
      a traceroute measurement and its probes.  Not all values are legal
      or meaningful.  Useful TOS octet values are probably 16 (low
      delay) and 8 (high throughput).  Further references can be found
      in [RFC2474] for the definition of the Differentiated Services
      (DS) field and in [RFC1812] Section 5.3.2 for Type of Service
      (TOS).



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   o  dataType - unsignedByte

   o  units - N/A

5.2.2.10.  CtlSourceAddressType

   o  name - CtlSourceAddressType

   o  description - Specifies the type of address in the corresponding
      "CtlSourceAddress" element.  This element is not directly
      reflected in the XML schema of Section 7.  The host address type
      can be determined by examining the "inetAddress" type name and the
      corresponding element value.  DNS names are not allowed for the
      "CtlSourceAddress".

   o  dataType - inetAddressType

   o  units - N/A

5.2.2.11.  CtlSourceAddress

   o  name - CtlSourceAddress

   o  description - Specifies the IP address (which has to be given as
      an IP number, not a hostname) as the source address in traceroute
      probes (requested if in the "RequestMetadata" element, actually
      used if in the "MeasurementMetadata" element).  On hosts with more
      than one IP address, this option can be used in the
      "RequestMetadata" element to force the source address to be
      something other than the primary IP address of the interface the
      probe is sent on; the value "unknown" means the default address
      will be used.

   o  dataType - inetAddress

   o  units - N/A

5.2.2.12.  CtlIfIndex

   o  name - CtlIfIndex

   o  description - Specifies the interface index as defined in
      [RFC2863] that is requested to be used in the traceroute
      measurement for sending the traceroute probes (if in the
      "RequestMetadata" element).  A value of 0 indicates that no
      specific interface is requested.  Specifies the interface index
      actually used (if in the "MeasurementMetadata" element).




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   o  dataType - unsignedInt

   o  units - N/A

5.2.2.13.  CtlMiscOptions

   o  name - CtlMiscOptions

   o  description - Specifies implementation-dependent options
      (requested if in the "RequestMetadata" element, actually used if
      in the "MeasurementMetadata" element).

   o  dataType - string255

   o  units - N/A

5.2.2.14.  CtlMaxFailures

   o  name - CtlMaxFailures

   o  description - Specifies the maximum number of consecutive timeouts
      allowed before terminating a traceroute measurement (requested if
      in the "RequestMetadata" element, actually used if in the
      "MeasurementMetadata" element).  A value of either 255 (maximum
      hop count/possible TTL value) or 0 indicates that the function of
      terminating a remote traceroute measurement when a specific number
      of consecutive timeouts are detected was disabled.  This element
      is included to give full compatibility with [RFC4560].  No known
      implementation of traceroute currently supports it.

   o  dataType - Unsigned8

   o  units - timeouts

5.2.2.15.  CtlDontFragment

   o  name - CtlDontFragment

   o  description - Specifies if the don't fragment (DF) flag in the IP
      header for a probe was enabled or not (if in the
      "MeasurementMetadata" element).  If in the "RequestMetadata", it
      specifies if the flag was requested to be enabled or not.  Setting
      the DF flag can be used for performing a manual PATH MTU test.

   o  dataType - boolean

   o  units - N/A




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5.2.2.16.  CtlInitialTtl

   o  name - CtlInitialTtl

   o  description - Specifies the initial TTL value for a traceroute
      measurement (requested if in the "RequestMetadata" element,
      actually used if in the "MeasurementMetadata" element).  Such TTL
      setting is intended to bypass the initial (often well-known)
      portion of a path.

   o  dataType - u8nonzero

   o  units - N/A

5.2.2.17.  CtlDescr

   o  name - CtlDescr

   o  description - Provides a description of the traceroute
      measurement.

   o  dataType - string255

   o  units - N/A

5.2.2.18.  CtlType

   o  name - CtlType

   o  description - Specifies the implementation method used for the
      traceroute measurement (requested if in the "RequestMetadata"
      element, actually used if in the "MeasurementMetadata" element).
      It specifies if the traceroute is using TCP, UDP, ICMP, or other
      types of probes.  It is possible to specify other types of probes
      by using an element specified in another schema with a different
      namespace.

   o  dataType - probesType

   o  units - N/A

5.2.3.  Results Information Elements

   This section describes the elements specific to the results of the
   traceroute measurement.






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5.2.3.1.  ResultsStartDateAndTime

   o  name - ResultsStartDateAndTime

   o  description - Specifies the date and start time of the traceroute
      measurement.  This is the time when the first probe was seen at
      the sending interface.

   o  dataType - DateTime

   o  units - N/A

5.2.3.2.  ResultsIpTgtAddrType

   o  name - ResultsIpTgtAddrType

   o  description - Specifies the type of address in the corresponding
      "ResultsIpTgtAddr" element.  This element is not directly
      reflected in the XML schema of Section 7.  The host address type
      can be determined by examining the "inetAddress" type name and the
      corresponding element value.

   o  dataType - inetAddressType

   o  units - N/A

5.2.3.3.  ResultsIpTgtAddr

   o  name - ResultsIpTgtAddr

   o  description - Specifies the IP address associated with a
      "CtlTargetAddress" value when the destination address is specified
      as a DNS name.  The value of this object should be "unknown" if a
      DNS name is not specified or if a specified DNS name fails to
      resolve.

   o  dataType - inetAddress

   o  units - N/A

5.2.3.4.  HopAddrType

   o  name - HopAddrType

   o  description - Specifies the type of address in the corresponding
      "HopAddr" element.  This element is not directly reflected in the
      XML schema of Section 7.  The host address type can be determined




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      by examining the "inetAddress" type name and the corresponding
      element value.  DNS names are not allowed for "HopAddr".

   o  dataType - inetAddressType

   o  units - N/A

5.2.3.5.  HopAddr

   o  name - HopAddr

   o  description - Specifies the address of a hop in the traceroute
      measurement path.  This object is not allowed to be a DNS name.

   o  dataType - inetAddress

   o  units - N/A

5.2.3.6.  HopName

   o  name - HopName

   o  description - Specifies the DNS name of the "HopAddr" if it is
      available.  If it is not available, the element is omitted.

   o  dataType - inetAddress

   o  units - N/A

5.2.3.7.  MPLSLabelStackEntry

   o  name - MPLSLabelStackEntry

   o  description - Specifies entries of the MPLS label stack of a probe
      observed when the probe arrived at the hop that replied to the
      probe.  This object contains one MPLS label stack entry as a
      32-bit value as it is observed on the MPLS label stack.  Contained
      in this single number are the MPLS label, the Exp field, the S
      flag, and the MPLS TTL value as specified in [RFC3032].  If more
      than one MPLS label stack entry is reported, then multiple
      instances of elements of this type are used.  They must be ordered
      in the same order as on the label stack with the top label stack
      entry being reported first.

   o  dataType - unsignedInt

   o  units - N/A




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5.2.3.8.  ProbeRoundTripTime

   o  name - ProbeRoundTripTime

   o  description - If this element contains the element
      "roundTripTime", this specifies the amount of time measured in
      milliseconds from when a probe was sent to when its response was
      received or when it timed out.  The value of this element is
      reported as the truncation of the number reported by the
      traceroute tool (the output "< 1 ms" is therefore encoded as 0
      ms).  If it contains the element "roundTripTimeNotAvailable", it
      means either the probe was lost because of a timeout or it was not
      possible to transmit a probe.

   o  dataType - unsignedShort or string

   o  units - milliseconds or N/A

5.2.3.9.  ResponseStatus

   o  name - ResponseStatus

   o  description - Specifies the result of a traceroute measurement
      made by the host for a particular probe.

   o  dataType - operationResponseStatus

   o  units - N/A

5.2.3.10.  Time

   o  name - Time

   o  description - Specifies the timestamp for the time the response to
      the probe was received at the interface.

   o  dataType - DateTime

   o  units - N/A

5.2.3.11.  ResultsEndDateAndTime

   o  name - ResultsEndDateAndTime

   o  description - Specifies the date and end time of the traceroute
      measurement.  It is either the time when the response to the last
      probe of the traceroute measurement was received or the time when




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      the last probe of the traceroute measurement was sent plus the
      relative timeout (in case of a missing response).

   o  dataType - DateTime

   o  units - N/A

5.2.3.12.  HopRawOutputData

   o  name - HopRawOutputData

   o  description - Specifies the raw output data returned by the
      traceroute measurement for a certain hop in a traceroute
      measurement path.  It is an implementation-dependent, printable
      string, expected to be useful for a human interpreting the
      traceroute results.

   o  dataType - string

   o  units - N/A

5.2.4.  Information Element Correlating Configuration and Results
        Elements

   This section defines an additional element belonging to both previous
   groups (configuration elements and results elements) named
   "TestName".  This element is defined in order to relate configuration
   and results elements by means of a common unique identifier (to be
   chosen in accordance to the specification of [RFC4560]).

5.2.4.1.  TestName

   o  name - TestName

   o  description - Specifies the name of a traceroute measurement.
      This is not necessarily unique within any well-defined scope
      (e.g., a specific host, initiator of the traceroute measurement).

   o  dataType - string255

   o  units - N/A










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5.2.5.  Information Elements to Compare Traceroute Measurement Results
        with Each Other

   This section defines additional elements belonging to both previous
   groups (configuration elements and results elements); these elements
   were defined in order to allow traceroute measurement results
   comparison among different traceroute measurements.

5.2.5.1.  OSName

   o  name - OSName

   o  description - Specifies the name of the operating system on which
      the traceroute measurement was launched.  This element is ignored
      if used in the "RequestMetadata".

   o  dataType - string255

   o  units - N/A

5.2.5.2.  OSVersion

   o  name - OSVersion

   o  description - Specifies the OS version on which the traceroute
      measurement was launched.  This element is ignored if used in the
      "RequestMetadata".

   o  dataType - string255

   o  units - N/A

5.2.5.3.  ToolVersion

   o  name - ToolVersion

   o  description - Specifies the version of the traceroute tool
      (requested to be used if in the "RequestMetadata" element,
      actually used if in the "MeasurementMetadata" element).

   o  dataType - string255

   o  units - N/A








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5.2.5.4.  ToolName

   o  name - ToolName

   o  description - Specifies the name of the traceroute tool (requested
      to be used if in the "RequestMetadata" element, actually used if
      in the "MeasurementMetadata" element).

   o  dataType - string255

   o  units - N/A

6.  Data Model for Storing Traceroute Measurements

   For storing and transmitting information according to the information
   model defined in the previous section, a data model is required that
   specifies how to encode the elements of the information model.

   There are several design choices for a data model.  It can use a
   binary or textual representation and it can be defined from scratch
   or use already existing frameworks and data models.  In general, the
   use of already existing frameworks and models should be preferred.

   Binary and textual representations both have advantages and
   disadvantages.  Textual representations are (with some limitations)
   human-readable, while a binary representation consumes less resources
   for storing, transmitting, and parsing data.

   An already existing and closely related data model is the DISMAN-
   TRACEROUTE-MIB module [RFC4560], which specifies a Structure of
   Management Information version 2 (SMIv2) encoding [RFC2578],
   [RFC2579], and [RFC2580] for transmitting traceroute measurement
   information (configuration and results).  This data model is well
   suited and supported within network management systems, but as a
   general format for storing and transmitting traceroute results, it is
   not easily applicable.

   Another binary representation would be an extension of traffic-flow
   information encodings as specified for the IP Flow Information Export
   (IPFIX) protocol [RFC5101], [RFC5102].  The IPFIX protocol is
   extensible.  However, the architecture behind this protocol [IPFIX]
   is targeted at exporting passively measured flow information.
   Therefore, some obstacles are expected when trying to use it for
   transmitting traceroute measurement information.

   For textual representations, using the eXtensible Markup Language
   (XML) [W3C.REC-xml-20060816] is an obvious choice.  XML supports
   clean structuring of data and syntax checking of records.  With some



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   limitations, it is human-readable.  It is supported well by a huge
   pool of tools and standards for generating, transmitting, parsing,
   and converting it to other data formats.  Its disadvantages are the
   resource consumption for processing, storing, and transmitting
   information.  Since the expected data volumes related to traceroute
   measurement in network operation and maintenance are not expected to
   be extremely high, the inefficient usage of resources is not a
   significant disadvantage.  Therefore, XML was chosen as a basis for
   the traceroute measurement information model that is specified in
   this memo.

   Section 7 contains the XML schema to be used as a template for
   storing and/or exchanging traceroute measurement information.  The
   schema was designed in order to use an extensible approach based on
   templates (pretty similar to how the IPFIX protocol is designed)
   where the traceroute configuration elements (both the requested
   parameters, "RequestMetadata", and the actual parameters used,
   "MeasurementMetadata") are metadata to be referenced by results
   information elements (data) by means of the "TestName" element (used
   as a unique identifier, chosen in accordance to the specification of
   [RFC4560]).  Currently Open Grid Forum (OGF) is also using this
   approach and cross-requirements have been analyzed.  As a result of
   this analysis, the XML schema contained in Section 7 is compatible
   with the OGF schema since both were designed in a way that limits the
   unnecessary redundancy and a simple one-to-one transformation between
   the two exists.

7.  XML Schema for Traceroute Measurements

   This section presents the XML schema to be used as a template for
   storing and/or exchanging traceroute measurement information.  The
   schema uses UTF-8 encoding as defined in [RFC3629].  In documents
   conforming to the format presented here, an XML declaration SHOULD be
   present specifying the version and the character encoding of the XML
   document.  The document should be encoded using UTF-8.  Since some of
   the strings can span multiple lines, [RFC5198] applies.  XML
   processing instructions and comments MUST be ignored.  Mind that
   whitespace is significant in XML when writing documents conforming to
   this schema.  Documents using the presented format must be valid
   according to the XML schema shown in this section.  Since elements of
   type "_CtlType" may contain elements from unknown namespaces, those
   elements MUST be ignored if their namespace is unknown to the
   processor.  Values for elements using the XML schema type "dateTime"
   MUST be restricted to values defined in [RFC3339].  Future versions
   of this format MAY extend this schema by creating a new schema that
   redefines all or some of the data types and elements defined in this
   version or by establishing a complete new schema.




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   Due to the limited line length some lines appear wrapped.

 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
 <xs:schema elementFormDefault="qualified"
            targetNamespace="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:traceroute-1.0"
            xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
            xmlns:tr="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:traceroute-1.0">
   <xs:simpleType name="string255">
     <xs:annotation>
       <xs:documentation>String restricted to 255
       characters.</xs:documentation>
     </xs:annotation>

     <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
       <xs:maxLength value="255"/>
     </xs:restriction>
   </xs:simpleType>

   <xs:simpleType name="u8nonzero">
     <xs:annotation>
       <xs:documentation>unsignedByte with non zero
       value.</xs:documentation>
     </xs:annotation>

     <xs:restriction base="xs:unsignedByte">
       <xs:minInclusive value="1"/>
     </xs:restriction>
   </xs:simpleType>

   <xs:complexType name="_roundTripTime">
     <xs:choice>
       <xs:element name="roundTripTime">
         <xs:simpleType>
           <xs:restriction base="xs:unsignedInt"/>
         </xs:simpleType>
       </xs:element>

       <xs:element name="roundTripTimeNotAvailable">
         <xs:complexType/>
       </xs:element>
     </xs:choice>
   </xs:complexType>

   <xs:complexType name="_inetAddressUnknown"/>

   <xs:simpleType name="_inetAddressIpv4">
     <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
       <xs:pattern value="(([1-9]?[0-9]|1[0-9][0-9]|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5



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 ]).){3}([1-9]?[0-9]|1[0-9][0-9]|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5])"/>
     </xs:restriction>
   </xs:simpleType>

   <xs:simpleType name="_inetAddressIpv6">
     <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
       <xs:pattern value="(([\dA-Fa-f]{1,4}:){7}[\dA-Fa-f]{1,4})(:([\d
 ]{1,3}.){3}[\d]{1,3})?"/>
     </xs:restriction>
   </xs:simpleType>

   <xs:simpleType name="_inetAddressDns">
     <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
       <xs:maxLength value="256"/>
     </xs:restriction>
   </xs:simpleType>

   <xs:complexType name="_inetAddressASNumber">
     <xs:annotation>
       <xs:documentation>Specifies the AS number of a hop in the
       traceroute path as a 32-bit number and indicates how the
       mapping from IP address to AS number was
       performed.</xs:documentation>
     </xs:annotation>

     <xs:sequence>
       <xs:element name="asNumber" type="xs:unsignedInt"/>

       <xs:element name="ipASNumberMappingType">
         <xs:simpleType>
           <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
             <xs:enumeration value="bgptables"/>

             <xs:enumeration value="routingregistries"/>

             <xs:enumeration value="nslookup"/>

             <xs:enumeration value="others"/>

             <xs:enumeration value="unknown"/>
           </xs:restriction>
         </xs:simpleType>
       </xs:element>
     </xs:sequence>
   </xs:complexType>

   <xs:complexType name="inetAddress">
     <xs:choice>



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       <xs:element name="inetAddressUnknown"
                   type="tr:_inetAddressUnknown"/>

       <xs:element name="inetAddressIpv4" type="tr:_inetAddressIpv4"/>

       <xs:element name="inetAddressIpv6" type="tr:_inetAddressIpv6"/>

       <xs:element name="inetAddressASNumber"
                   type="tr:_inetAddressASNumber"/>

       <xs:element minOccurs="0" name="inetAddressDns"
                   type="tr:_inetAddressDns"/>
     </xs:choice>
   </xs:complexType>

   <xs:complexType name="inetAddressWithoutDns">
     <xs:sequence>
       <xs:choice>
         <xs:element name="inetAddressUnknown"
                     type="tr:_inetAddressUnknown"/>

         <xs:element name="inetAddressIpv4"
                     type="tr:_inetAddressIpv4"/>

         <xs:element name="inetAddressIpv6"
                     type="tr:_inetAddressIpv6"/>

         <xs:element name="inetAddressASNumber"
                     type="tr:_inetAddressASNumber"/>
       </xs:choice>
     </xs:sequence>
   </xs:complexType>

   <xs:simpleType name="operationResponseStatus">
     <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
       <xs:enumeration value="responseReceived"/>

       <xs:enumeration value="unknown"/>

       <xs:enumeration value="internalError"/>

       <xs:enumeration value="requestTimedOut"/>

       <xs:enumeration value="unknownDestinationAddress"/>

       <xs:enumeration value="noRouteToTarget"/>

       <xs:enumeration value="interfaceInactiveToTarget"/>



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       <xs:enumeration value="arpFailure"/>

       <xs:enumeration value="maxConcurrentLimitReached"/>

       <xs:enumeration value="unableToResolveDnsName"/>

       <xs:enumeration value="invalidHostAddress"/>
     </xs:restriction>
   </xs:simpleType>

   <xs:complexType name="_CtlType">
     <xs:choice>
       <xs:element name="TCP">
         <xs:complexType/>
       </xs:element>

       <xs:element name="UDP">
         <xs:complexType/>
       </xs:element>

       <xs:element name="ICMP">
         <xs:complexType/>
       </xs:element>

       <xs:any namespace="##other"/>
     </xs:choice>
   </xs:complexType>

   <xs:complexType name="_ProbeResults">
     <xs:sequence>
       <xs:element maxOccurs="255" name="hop">
         <xs:complexType>
           <xs:sequence>
             <xs:element maxOccurs="10" name="probe">
               <xs:complexType>
                 <xs:sequence>
                   <xs:element name="HopAddr"
                               type="tr:inetAddressWithoutDns">
                     <xs:annotation>
                       <xs:documentation>Specifies the address of a
                       hop in the traceroute measurement path.  This
                       object is not allowed to be a DNS name.  The
                       address type can be determined by examining the
                       "inetAddress" type name and the corresponding
                       element value.</xs:documentation>
                     </xs:annotation>
                   </xs:element>




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                   <xs:element minOccurs="0" name="HopName"
                               type="tr:_inetAddressDns">
                     <xs:annotation>
                       <xs:documentation>Specifies the DNS name of
                       the "HopAddr" if it is available.  If it is
                       not available, the element is
                       omitted.</xs:documentation>
                     </xs:annotation>
                   </xs:element>

                   <xs:element maxOccurs="255" minOccurs="0"
                               name="MPLSLabelStackEntry">
                     <xs:annotation>
                       <xs:documentation>Specifies entries of the
                       MPLS label stack of a probe observed when the
                       probe arrived at the hop that replied to the
                       probe.  This object contains one MPLS label stack
                       entry as a 32-bit value as it is observed on the
                       MPLS label stack.  Contained in this single
                       number are the MPLS label, the Exp field, the S
                       flag, and the MPLS TTL value as specified in
                       [RFC3032].  If more than one MPLS label stack
                       entry is reported, then multiple instances of
                       elements of this type are used.  They must be
                       ordered in the same order as on the label stack
                       with the top label stack entry being reported
                       first.</xs:documentation>
                     </xs:annotation>

                     <xs:simpleType>
                       <xs:restriction base="xs:unsignedInt">
                         <xs:maxInclusive value="4294967295"/>
                       </xs:restriction>
                     </xs:simpleType>
                   </xs:element>

                   <xs:element name="ProbeRoundTripTime"
                               type="tr:_roundTripTime">
                     <xs:annotation>
                       <xs:documentation>If this element contains the
                       element "roundTripTime", this specifies the
                       amount of time measured in milliseconds from
                       when a probe was sent to when its response was
                       received or when it timed out.  The value of
                       this element is reported as the truncation of
                       the number reported by the traceroute tool (the
                       output "&lt; 1 ms" is therefore encoded as 0 ms).
                       If it contains the element



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                       "roundTripTimeNotAvailable", it means either
                       the probe was lost because of a timeout or it
                       was not possible to transmit a probe.
                       </xs:documentation>
                     </xs:annotation>
                   </xs:element>

                   <xs:element name="ResponseStatus"
                               type="tr:operationResponseStatus">
                     <xs:annotation>
                       <xs:documentation>Specifies the result of a
                       traceroute measurement made by the host for a
                       particular probe.</xs:documentation>
                     </xs:annotation>
                   </xs:element>

                   <xs:element name="Time" type="xs:dateTime">
                     <xs:annotation>
                       <xs:documentation>Specifies the timestamp for
                       the time the response to the probe was
                       received at the interface.</xs:documentation>
                     </xs:annotation>
                   </xs:element>
                 </xs:sequence>
               </xs:complexType>
             </xs:element>

             <xs:element minOccurs="0" name="HopRawOutputData"
                         type="tr:string255">
               <xs:annotation>
                 <xs:documentation>Specifies the raw output data
                 returned by the traceroute measurement for a
                 certain hop in a traceroute measurement path.  It is
                 an implementation-dependent, printable string,
                 expected to be useful for a human interpreting the
                 traceroute results.</xs:documentation>
               </xs:annotation>
             </xs:element>
           </xs:sequence>
         </xs:complexType>
       </xs:element>
     </xs:sequence>
   </xs:complexType>

   <xs:complexType name="_Metadata">
     <xs:annotation>
       <xs:documentation>Specifies the metadata for a traceroute
       operation -- the parameters requested if used in



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       "RequestMetadata" or the actual parameters used if used in
       "MeasurementMetadata".</xs:documentation>
     </xs:annotation>

     <xs:sequence>
       <xs:element name="TestName" type="tr:string255">
         <xs:annotation>
           <xs:documentation>Specifies the name of a traceroute
           measurement.  This is not necessarily unique within any
           well-defined scope (e.g., a specific host, initiator of
           the traceroute measurement).</xs:documentation>
         </xs:annotation>
       </xs:element>

       <xs:element default="" name="OSName" type="tr:string255">
         <xs:annotation>
           <xs:documentation>Specifies the name of the operating
           system on which the traceroute measurement was launched.
           This element is ignored if used in the
           "RequestMetadata".</xs:documentation>
         </xs:annotation>
       </xs:element>

       <xs:element default="" name="OSVersion" type="tr:string255">
         <xs:annotation>
           <xs:documentation>Specifies the OS version on which the
           traceroute measurement was launched.  This element is
           ignored if used in the
           "RequestMetadata".</xs:documentation>
         </xs:annotation>
       </xs:element>

       <xs:element default="" name="ToolVersion" type="tr:string255">
         <xs:annotation>
           <xs:documentation>Specifies the version of the traceroute
           tool (requested to be used if in the "RequestMetadata"
           element, actually used if in the "MeasurementMetadata"
           element).</xs:documentation>
         </xs:annotation>
       </xs:element>

       <xs:element default="" name="ToolName" type="tr:string255">
         <xs:annotation>
           <xs:documentation>Specifies the name of the traceroute
           tool (requested to be used if in the "RequestMetadata"
           element, actually used if in the "MeasurementMetadata"
           element).</xs:documentation>
         </xs:annotation>



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       </xs:element>

       <xs:element name="CtlTargetAddress" type="tr:inetAddress">
         <xs:annotation>
           <xs:documentation>In the "RequestMetadata" element, it
           specifies the host address requested to be used in the
           traceroute measurement.  In the "MeasurementMetadata"
           element, it specifies the host address used in the
           traceroute measurement.  The host address type can be
           determined by examining the "inetAddress" type name and
           the corresponding element value.</xs:documentation>
         </xs:annotation>
       </xs:element>

       <xs:element default="false" name="CtlBypassRouteTable"
                   type="xs:boolean">
         <xs:annotation>
           <xs:documentation>In the "RequestMetadata" element
           specifies if the optional bypassing of the route
           table was enabled or not.  In the "MeasurementMetadata"
           element, specifies if the optional bypassing of the route
           table was enabled or not.  If enabled, the normal routing
           tables will be bypassed and the probes will be sent
           directly to a host on an attached network.  If the host is
           not on a directly attached network, an error is returned.
           This option can be used to perform the traceroute
           measurement to a local host through an interface that has
           no route defined.  This object can be used when the
           setsockopt SOL_SOCKET SO_DONTROUTE option is supported and
           set (see the POSIX standard IEEE.1003-1G.1997).
           </xs:documentation>
         </xs:annotation>
       </xs:element>

       <xs:element default="0" name="CtlProbeDataSize">
         <xs:annotation>
           <xs:documentation>Specifies the size of the probes of a
           traceroute measurement in octets (requested if in the
           "RequestMetadata" element, actually used if in the
           "MeasurementMetadata" element).  If UDP datagrams are used
           as probes, then the value contained in this object is
           exact.  If another protocol is used to transmit probes
           (i.e., TCP or ICMP) for which the specified size is not
           appropriate, then the implementation can use whatever
           size (appropriate to the method) is closest to the
           specified size.  The maximum value for this object is
           computed by subtracting the smallest possible IP header
           size of 20 octets (IPv4 header with no options) and the



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           UDP header size of 8 octets from the maximum IP packet
           size.  An IP packet has a maximum size of 65535 octets
           (excluding IPv6 jumbograms).</xs:documentation>
         </xs:annotation>

         <xs:simpleType>
           <xs:restriction base="xs:unsignedShort">
             <xs:maxInclusive value="65507"/>
           </xs:restriction>
         </xs:simpleType>
       </xs:element>

       <xs:element default="3" name="CtlTimeOut">
         <xs:annotation>
           <xs:documentation>Specifies the timeout value, in
           seconds, for each probe of a traceroute measurement
           (requested if in the "RequestMetadata" element, actually
           used if in the "MeasurementMetadata"
           element).</xs:documentation>
         </xs:annotation>

         <xs:simpleType>
           <xs:restriction base="xs:unsignedByte">
             <xs:minInclusive value="1"/>

             <xs:maxInclusive value="60"/>
           </xs:restriction>
         </xs:simpleType>
       </xs:element>

       <xs:element default="3" name="CtlProbesPerHop">
         <xs:annotation>
           <xs:documentation>Specifies the number of probes with the
           same time-to-live (TTL) value that are sent for each host
           (requested if in the "RequestMetadata" element, actually
           used if in the "MeasurementMetadata"
           element).</xs:documentation>
         </xs:annotation>

         <xs:simpleType>
           <xs:restriction base="xs:unsignedByte">
             <xs:minInclusive value="1"/>

             <xs:maxInclusive value="10"/>
           </xs:restriction>
         </xs:simpleType>
       </xs:element>




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       <xs:element default="33434" name="CtlPort">
         <xs:annotation>
           <xs:documentation>Specifies the base port used by the
           traceroute measurement (requested if in the
           "RequestMetadata" element, actually used if in the
           "MeasurementMetadata" element).</xs:documentation>
         </xs:annotation>

         <xs:simpleType>
           <xs:restriction base="xs:unsignedShort">
             <xs:minInclusive value="1"/>
           </xs:restriction>
         </xs:simpleType>
       </xs:element>

       <xs:element default="30" name="CtlMaxTtl" type="tr:u8nonzero">
         <xs:annotation>
           <xs:documentation>Specifies the maximum TTL value for the
           traceroute measurement (requested if in the
           "RequestMetadata" element, actually used if in the
           "MeasurementMetadata" element).</xs:documentation>
         </xs:annotation>
       </xs:element>

       <xs:element default="0" name="CtlDSField"
                   type="xs:unsignedByte">
         <xs:annotation>
           <xs:documentation>Specifies the value that was requested
           to be stored in the Differentiated Services (DS) field in
           the traceroute probe (if in the "RequestMetadata"
           element).  Specifies the value that was stored in the
           Differentiated Services (DS) field in the traceroute
           probe (if in the "MeasurementMetadata" element).  The DS
           field is defined as the Type of Service (TOS) octet in an
           IPv4 header or as the Traffic Class octet in an IPv6
           header (see Section 7 of [RFC2460]).  The value of this
           object must be a decimal integer in the range from 0 to
           255.  This option can be used to determine what effect an
           explicit DS field setting has on a traceroute measurement
           and its probes.  Not all values are legal or meaningful.
           Useful TOS octet values are probably 16 (low delay) and
           8 (high throughput).  Further references can be found in
           [RFC2474] for the definition of the Differentiated
           Services (DS) field and in [RFC1812] Section 5.3.2 for
           Type of Service (TOS).</xs:documentation>
         </xs:annotation>
       </xs:element>




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       <xs:element name="CtlSourceAddress"
                   type="tr:inetAddressWithoutDns">
         <xs:annotation>
           <xs:documentation>Specifies the IP address (which has to
           be given as an IP number, not a hostname) as the source
           address in traceroute probes (requested if in the
           "RequestMetadata" element, actually used if in the
           "MeasurementMetadata" element).  On hosts with more than
           one IP address, this option can be used in the
           "RequestMetadata" element to force the source address to
           be something other than the primary IP address of the
           interface the probe is sent on; the value "unknown" means
           the default address will be used.  The address type can be
           determined by examining the "inetAddress" type name and the
           corresponding element value.</xs:documentation>
         </xs:annotation>
       </xs:element>

       <xs:element default="0" name="CtlIfIndex"
                   type="xs:unsignedInt">
         <xs:annotation>
           <xs:documentation>Specifies the interface index as
           defined in [RFC2863] that is requested to be used in the
           traceroute measurement for sending the traceroute probes
           (if in the "RequestMetadata" element).  A value of 0
           indicates that no specific interface is requested.
           Specifies the interface index actually used (if in the
           "MeasurementMetadata" element).</xs:documentation>
         </xs:annotation>
       </xs:element>

       <xs:element minOccurs="0" name="CtlMiscOptions"
                   type="tr:string255">
         <xs:annotation>
           <xs:documentation>Specifies implementation-dependent
           options (requested if in the "RequestMetadata" element,
           actually used if in the "MeasurementMetadata"
           element).</xs:documentation>
         </xs:annotation>
       </xs:element>

       <xs:element default="5" name="CtlMaxFailures"
                   type="xs:unsignedByte">
         <xs:annotation>
           <xs:documentation>Specifies the maximum number of
           consecutive timeouts allowed before terminating a
           traceroute measurement (requested if in the
           "RequestMetadata" element, actually used if in the



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           "MeasurementMetadata" element).  A value of either 255
           (maximum hop count/possible TTL value) or 0 indicates
           that the function of terminating a remote traceroute
           measurement when a specific number of consecutive
           timeouts are detected was disabled.  This element is
           included to give full compatibility with [RFC4560].  No
           known implementation of traceroute currently supports
           it.</xs:documentation>
         </xs:annotation>
       </xs:element>

       <xs:element default="false" name="CtlDontFragment"
                   type="xs:boolean">
         <xs:annotation>
           <xs:documentation>Specifies if the don't fragment (DF)
           flag in the IP header for a probe was enabled or not (if
           in the "MeasurementMetadata" element).  If in the
           "RequestMetadata", it specifies if the flag was requested
           to be enabled or not.  Setting the DF flag can be used for
           performing a manual PATH MTU test.</xs:documentation>
         </xs:annotation>
       </xs:element>

       <xs:element default="1" name="CtlInitialTtl"
                   type="tr:u8nonzero">
         <xs:annotation>
           <xs:documentation>Specifies the initial TTL value for a
           traceroute measurement (requested if in the
           "RequestMetadata" element, actually used if in the
           "MeasurementMetadata" element).  Such TTL setting is
           intended to bypass the initial (often well-known) portion
           of a path.</xs:documentation>
         </xs:annotation>
       </xs:element>

       <xs:element maxOccurs="1" minOccurs="0" name="CtlDescr"
                   type="tr:string255">
         <xs:annotation>
           <xs:documentation>Provides a description of the traceroute
           measurement.</xs:documentation>
         </xs:annotation>
       </xs:element>

       <xs:element name="CtlType" type="tr:_CtlType">
         <xs:annotation>
           <xs:documentation>Specifies the implementation method
           used for the traceroute measurement (requested if in the
           "RequestMetadata" element, actually used if in the



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           "MeasurementMetadata" element).  It specifies if the
           traceroute is using TCP, UDP, ICMP, or other types of
           probes.  It is possible to specify other types of probes
           by using an element specified in another schema with a
           different namespace.</xs:documentation>
         </xs:annotation>
       </xs:element>
     </xs:sequence>
   </xs:complexType>

   <xs:complexType name="_Measurement">
     <xs:annotation>
       <xs:documentation>Contains the actual traceroute measurement
       results.</xs:documentation>
     </xs:annotation>

     <xs:sequence>
       <xs:element name="TestName" type="tr:string255">
         <xs:annotation>
           <xs:documentation>Specifies the name of a traceroute
           measurement.  This is not necessarily unique within any
           well-defined scope (e.g., a specific host, initiator of
           the traceroute measurement).</xs:documentation>
         </xs:annotation>
       </xs:element>

       <xs:element name="ResultsStartDateAndTime" type="xs:dateTime">
         <xs:annotation>
           <xs:documentation>Specifies the date and start time of
           the traceroute measurement.  This is the time when the
           first probe was seen at the sending
           interface.</xs:documentation>
         </xs:annotation>
       </xs:element>

       <xs:element name="ResultsIpTgtAddr"
                   type="tr:inetAddressWithoutDns">
         <xs:annotation>
           <xs:documentation>Specifies the IP address associated
           with a "CtlTargetAddress" value when the destination
           address is specified as a DNS name.  The value of this
           object should be "unknown" if a DNS name is not specified
           or if a specified DNS name fails to resolve.  The
           address type can be determined by examining the "inetAddress"
           type name and the corresponding element
           value.</xs:documentation>
         </xs:annotation>
       </xs:element>



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       <xs:element name="ProbeResults" type="tr:_ProbeResults"/>

       <xs:element name="ResultsEndDateAndTime" type="xs:dateTime">
         <xs:annotation>
           <xs:documentation>Specifies the date and end time of the
           traceroute measurement.  It is either the time when the
           response to the last probe of the traceroute measurement
           was received or the time when the last probe of the
           traceroute measurement was sent plus the relative timeout
           (in case of a missing response).</xs:documentation>
         </xs:annotation>
       </xs:element>
     </xs:sequence>
   </xs:complexType>

   <xs:element name="traceRoute">
     <xs:complexType>
       <xs:sequence>
         <xs:element minOccurs="0" name="RequestMetadata"
                     type="tr:_Metadata"/>

         <xs:element maxOccurs="2147483647" minOccurs="0"
                     name="Measurement">
           <xs:complexType>
             <xs:sequence>
               <xs:element minOccurs="0" name="MeasurementMetadata"
                           type="tr:_Metadata"/>

               <xs:element maxOccurs="2147483647" minOccurs="0"
                           name="MeasurementResult"
                           type="tr:_Measurement"/>
             </xs:sequence>
           </xs:complexType>
         </xs:element>
       </xs:sequence>
     </xs:complexType>
   </xs:element>
 </xs:schema>

8.  Security Considerations

   Security considerations discussed in this section are grouped into
   considerations related to conducting traceroute measurements and
   considerations related to storing and transmitting traceroute
   measurement information.






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   This memo does not specify an implementation of a traceroute tool.
   Neither does it specify a certain procedure for storing traceroute
   measurement information.  Still, it is considered desirable to
   discuss related security issues below.

8.1.  Conducting Traceroute Measurements

   Conducting Internet measurements can raise both security and privacy
   concerns.  Traceroute measurements, in which traffic is injected into
   the network, can be abused for denial-of-service attacks disguised as
   legitimate measurement activity.

   Measurement parameters MUST be carefully selected so that the
   measurements inject trivial amounts of additional traffic into the
   networks they measure.  If they inject "too much" traffic, they can
   skew the results of the measurement, and in extreme cases cause
   congestion and denial of service.

   The measurements themselves could be harmed by routers giving
   measurement traffic a different priority than "normal" traffic, or by
   an attacker injecting artificial measurement traffic.  If routers can
   recognize measurement traffic and treat it separately, the
   measurements will not reflect actual user traffic.  If an attacker
   injects artificial traffic that is accepted as legitimate, the loss
   rate will be artificially lowered.  Therefore, the measurement
   methodologies SHOULD include appropriate techniques to reduce the
   probability that measurement traffic can be distinguished from
   "normal" traffic.

   Authentication techniques, such as digital signatures, may be used
   where appropriate to guard against injected traffic attacks.

8.2.  Securing Traceroute Measurement Information

   Traceroute measurement information is not considered highly
   sensitive.  Still, it may contain sensitive information on network
   paths, routing states, used IP addresses, and roundtrip times that
   operators of networks may want to protect for business or security
   reasons.

   It is thus important to control access to information acquired by
   conducting traceroute measurements, particularly when transmitting it
   over a networks but also when storing it.  It is RECOMMENDED that a
   transmission of traceroute measurement information over a network
   uses appropriate protection mechanisms for preserving privacy,
   integrity, and authenticity.  It is further RECOMMENDED that secure
   authentication and authorization are used for protecting stored
   traceroute measurement information.



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9.  IANA Considerations

   This document uses URNs to describe an XML namespace and an XML
   schema for traceroute measurement information storing and
   transmission, conforming to a registry mechanism described in
   [RFC3688].  Two URI assignments have been made.

   1.  Registration for the IPPM traceroute measurements namespace

       *  URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:traceroute-1.0

       *  Registrant Contact: IESG

       *  XML: None.  Namespace URIs do not represent an XML.

   2.  Registration for the IPPM traceroute measurements schema

       *  URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:schema:traceroute-1.0

       *  Registrant Contact: IESG

       *  XML: See Section 7 of this document.

10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2460]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.

   [RFC2863]  McCloghrie, K. and F. Kastenholz, "The Interfaces Group
              MIB", RFC 2863, June 2000.

   [RFC3032]  Rosen, E., Tappan, D., Fedorkow, G., Rekhter, Y.,
              Farinacci, D., Li, T., and A. Conta, "MPLS Label Stack
              Encoding", RFC 3032, January 2001.

   [RFC3339]  Klyne, G., Ed. and C. Newman, "Date and Time on the
              Internet: Timestamps", RFC 3339, July 2002.

   [RFC3629]  Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
              10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003.






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   [RFC4001]  Daniele, M., Haberman, B., Routhier, S., and J.
              Schoenwaelder, "Textual Conventions for Internet Network
              Addresses", RFC 4001, February 2005.

   [RFC4560]  Quittek, J. and K. White, "Definitions of Managed Objects
              for Remote Ping, Traceroute, and Lookup Operations",
              RFC 4560, June 2006.

   [RFC5198]  Klensin, J. and M. Padlipsky, "Unicode Format for Network
              Interchange", RFC 5198, March 2008.

10.2.  Informative References

   [IEEE.1003-1G.1997]
              Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,
              "Protocol Independent Interfaces", IEEE Standard 1003.1G,
              March 1997.

   [IPFIX]    Sadasivan, G., "Architecture for IP Flow Information
              Export", Work in Progress, September 2006.

   [RFC1812]  Baker, F., "Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers",
              RFC 1812, June 1995.

   [RFC2474]  Nichols, K., Blake, S., Baker, F., and D. Black,
              "Definition of the Differentiated Services Field (DS
              Field) in the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers", RFC 2474,
              December 1998.

   [RFC2578]  McCloghrie, K., Ed., Perkins, D., Ed., and J.
              Schoenwaelder, Ed., "Structure of Management Information
              Version 2 (SMIv2)", STD 58, RFC 2578, April 1999.

   [RFC2579]  McCloghrie, K., Ed., Perkins, D., Ed., and J.
              Schoenwaelder, Ed., "Textual Conventions for SMIv2",
              STD 58, RFC 2579, April 1999.

   [RFC2580]  McCloghrie, K., Perkins, D., and J. Schoenwaelder,
              "Conformance Statements for SMIv2", STD 58, RFC 2580,
              April 1999.

   [RFC3688]  Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688,
              January 2004.

   [RFC5101]  Claise, B., "Specification of the IP Flow Information
              Export (IPFIX) Protocol for the Exchange of IP Traffic
              Flow Information", RFC 5101, January 2008.




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   [RFC5102]  Quittek, J., Bryant, S., Claise, B., Aitken, P., and J.
              Meyer, "Information Model for IP Flow Information Export",
              RFC 5102, January 2008.

   [W3C.REC-xml-20060816]
              Bray, T., Paoli, J., Maler, E., Sperberg-McQueen, C., and
              F. Yergeau, "Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fourth
              Edition)", World Wide Web Consortium FirstEdition REC-xml-
              20060816, August 2006,
              <http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/REC-xml-20060816>.

   [W3C.REC-xmlschema-2-20041028]
              Biron, P. and A. Malhotra, "XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes
              Second Edition", World Wide Web Consortium
              Recommendation REC-xmlschema-2-20041028, October 2004,
              <http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-xmlschema-2-20041028>.



































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Appendix A.  Traceroute Default Configuration Parameters

   This section lists traceroute measurement configuration parameters as
   well as their defaults on various platforms and illustrates how
   widely they may vary.  This document considers four major traceroute
   tool implementations and compares them based on configurable
   parameters and default values.  The LINUX (SUSE 9.1), BSD (FreeBSD
   7.0), and UNIX (SunOS 5.9) implementations are based on UDP
   datagrams, while the WINDOWS (XP SP2) one uses ICMP Echoes.  The
   comparison is summarized in the following table, where an N/A in the
   option column means that such parameter is not configurable for the
   specific implementation.  A comprehensive comparison of available
   implementations is outside the scope of this document; however, by
   sampling a few different implementations, it can be observed that
   they can differ quite significantly in terms of configurable
   parameters and also default values.  Note that in the following table
   only those options that are available in at least two of the
   considered implementations are reported.

             +---------------------------------------------------------+
             |  OS    |Option|           Description         | Default |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | -m   |Specify the maximum TTL used   |   30    |
             |--------+------|in traceroute probes.          |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -m   |                               |  OS var |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | UNIX   | -m   |                               |   30    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| -h   |                               |   30    |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | -n   |Display hop addresses          |    -    |
             |--------+------|numerically rather than        |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -n   |symbolically.                  |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | UNIX   | -n   |                               |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| -d   |                               |    -    |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | -w   |Set the time to wait for a     |  3 sec  |
             |--------+------|response to a probe.           |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -w   |                               |  5 sec  |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | UNIX   | -w   |                               |  5 sec  |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| -w   |                               |  4 sec  |






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             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | N/A  |Specify a loose source route   |    -    |
             |--------+------|gateway (to direct the         |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -g   |traceroute probes through      |    -    |
             |--------+------|routers not necessarily in     |---------|
             | UNIX   | -g   | the path).                    |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| -g   |                               |    -    |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | -p   |Set the base UDP port number   |  33434  |
             |------- +------|used in traceroute probes      |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -p   |(UDP port = base + nhops - 1). |  33434  |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | UNIX   | -p   |                               |  33434  |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| N/A  |                               |    -    |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | -q   |Set the number of probes per   |    3    |
             |--------+------|TTL.                           |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -q   |                               |    3    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | UNIX   | -q   |                               |    3    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| N/A  |                               |    3    |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | -S   |Set the IP source address in   |IP       |
             |--------+------|outgoing probes to the         |address  |
             | FreeBSD| -s   |specified value.               |of the   |
             |--------+------|                               |out      |
             | UNIX   | -s   |                               |interface|
             |--------+------|                               |         |
             | WINDOWS| N/A  |                               |         |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | -t   |Set the Type of Service (TOS)  |    0    |
             |--------+------|in the probes to the specified |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -t   |value.                         |    0    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | UNIX   | -t   |                               |    0    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| N/A  |                               |    0    |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | -v   |Verbose output: received ICMP  |    -    |
             |--------+------|packets other than             |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -v   |TIME_EXCEEDED and              |    -    |
             |--------+------|UNREACHABLE are listed.        |---------|
             | UNIX   | -v   |                               |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| N/A  |                               |    -    |



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             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | N/A  |Set  the time (in msec) to     |    -    |
             |--------+------|pause between probes.          |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -z   |                               |    0    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | UNIX   | -P   |                               |    0    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| N/A  |                               |    -    |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | -r   |Bypass the normal routing      |    -    |
             |--------+------|tables and send directly to a  |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -r   |host on attached network.      |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | UNIX   | -r   |                               |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| N/A  |                               |    -    |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | -f   |Set the initial TTL for the    |    1    |
             |--------+------|first probe.                   |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -f   |                               |    1    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | UNIX   | -f   |                               |    1    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| N/A  |                               |    1    |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | -F   |Set the "don't fragment" bit.  |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -F   |                               |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | UNIX   | -F   |                               |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| N/A  |                               |    -    |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | N/A  |Enable socket level debugging. |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -d   |                               |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | UNIX   | -d   |                               |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| N/A  |                               |    -    |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | N/A  |Use ICMP Echoes instead of UDP |    -    |
             |--------+------|datagrams.                     |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -I   |                               |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | UNIX   | -I   |                               |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| N/A  |                               |    -    |



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             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | -I   |Specify a network interface to |    -    |
             |--------+------|obtain the IP address for      |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -i   |outgoing IP packets            |    -    |
             |--------+------|(alternative to option -s).    |---------|
             | UNIX   | -i   |                               |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| N/A  |                               |    -    |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  | N/A  |Toggle checksum.               |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | FreeBSD| -x   |                               |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | UNIX   | -x   |                               |    -    |
             |--------+------|                               |---------|
             | WINDOWS| N/A  |                               |    -    |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+
             | LINUX  |  -   |As optional last parameter,    |Depends  |
             |--------+------|LINUX, FreeBSD, and UNIX       |on       |
             | FreeBSD|  -   |implementations allow          |implement|
             |--------+------|specifying the probe datagram  |ation.   |
             | UNIX   |  -   |length for outgoing probes.    |         |
             |--------+------|                               |         |
             | WINDOWS| N/A  |                               |         |
             +--------+------+-------------------------------+---------+

A.1.  Alternative Traceroute Implementations

   As stated above, the widespread use of firewalls might prevent UDP-
   or ICMP-based traceroutes to completely trace the path to a
   destination since traceroute probes might end up being filtered.  In
   some cases, such limitation might be overcome by sending instead TCP
   packets to specific ports that hosts located behind the firewall are
   listening for connections on.  TCP-based implementations use TCP,
   SYN, or FIN probes and listen for TIME_EXCEEDED messages, TCP RESET,
   and other messages from firewalls and gateways on the path.  On the
   other hand, some firewalls filter out TCP SYN packets to prevent
   denial-of-service attacks; therefore, the actual advantage of using
   TCP instead of UDP traceroute depends mainly on firewall
   configurations, which are not known in advance.  A detailed analysis
   of TCP-based traceroute tools and measurements is outside the scope
   of this document; regardless, for completeness reasons, the
   information model also supports the storing of TCP-based traceroute
   measurements.







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Appendix B.  Known Problems with Traceroute

B.1.  Compatibility between Traceroute Measurement Results and IPPM
      Metrics

   Because of implementation choices, a known inconsistency exists
   between the round-trip delay metric defined by the IPPM working group
   in RFC 2681 and the results returned by the current traceroute tool
   implementations.  Unfortunately, it is unlikely that the traceroute
   tool implementations will implement the standard definition in the
   near future.  The only possibility is therefore to compare results of
   different traceroute measurements with each other; in order to do
   this, specifications both of the operating system (name and version)
   and of the traceroute tool version used were added to the metadata
   elements in order to help in comparing metrics between two different
   traceroute measurement results (if run using the same operating
   system and the same version of the tool).  Moreover, the traceroute
   tool has built-in configurable mechanisms like timeouts and can
   experience problems related to the crossing of firewalls; therefore,
   some of the packets that traceroute sends out end up being timeout or
   filtered.  As a consequence, it might not be possible to trace the
   path to a node or there might not be a complete enough set of probes
   describing the RTT to reach it.

Appendix C.  Differences to DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB

   For performing remote traceroute operations at managed node, the IETF
   has standardized the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB module in [RFC4560].  This
   module allows:

   o  retrieving capability information of the traceroute tool
      implementation at the managed node;

   o  configuring traceroute measurements to be performed;

   o  retrieving information about ongoing and completed traceroute
      measurements;

   o  retrieving traceroute measurement statistics.

   The traceroute storage format described in this document has
   significant overlaps with this MIB module.  Particularly, the models
   for the traceroute measurement configuration and for the results from
   completed measurements are almost identical.  But for other parts of
   the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE MIB module there is no need to model them in a
   traceroute measurement storage format.  Particularly, the capability
   information, information about ongoing measurements, and measurement
   statistics are not covered by the DISMAN traceroute storage model.



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   Concerning traceroute measurements and their results, there are
   structural differences between the two models caused by the different
   choices for the encoding of the specification.  For DISMAN-
   TRACEROUTE-MIB, the Structure of Management Information (SMIv2, STD
   58, RFC 2578 [RFC2578]) was used, while the IPPM traceroute
   measurement data model is encoded using XML.

   This difference in structure implies that the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB
   module contains SMI-specific information elements (managed objects)
   that concern tables of managed objects (specification, entry creation
   and deletion, status retrieval) that are not required for the XML-
   encoded traceroute measurement data model.

   But for most of the remaining information elements that concern
   configuration of traceroute measurements and results of completed
   measurements, the semantics are identical between the DISMAN-
   TRACEROUTE-MIB module and the traceroute measurement data model.
   There are very few exceptions to this; these are listed below.  Also,
   naming of information elements is identical between both models with
   a few exceptions.  For the traceroute measurement data model, a few
   information elements have been added, some because of the different
   structure and some to provide additional information on completed
   measurements.

C.1.  Scope

   There are some basic differences in nature and application between
   MIB modules and XML documents.  This results in two major differences
   of scope between the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB module and the traceroute
   measurement data model.

   The first difference is the "traceRouteResultsTable" contained in the
   DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB module.  This table allows online observation
   of status and progress of an ongoing traceroute measurement.  This
   highly dynamic information is not included in the traceroute
   measurement data model because it has not been envisioned to use the
   model for dynamically reporting progress of individual traceroute
   measurements.  The traceroute measurement data model is rather
   intended to be used for reporting completed traceroute measurements.

   The second difference is due to the fact that information in a MIB is
   typically tied to a local node hosting the MIB instance.  The
   "RequestMetadata" element specified in the traceroute measurement
   data model can be used for specifying a measurement request that may
   be applied to several probes in a network.  This concept does not
   exist in the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB module.





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   For the remaining elements in the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB module and in
   the traceroute measurement data model, there is a very good match
   between the two worlds.  The "traceRouteCtlTable" corresponds to the
   "MeasurementMetadata" element, and the combination of the
   "traceRouteProbeHistoryTable" and the "traceRouteHopsTable"
   corresponds to a collection of "MeasurementResult" elements.

C.2.  Naming

   Basically, names in both models are chosen using the same naming
   conventions.

   For the traceroute measurement configuration information, all names,
   such as "CtlProbesPerHop", are identical in both models except for
   the traceRoute prefix that was removed to avoid unnecessary
   redundancy in the XML file and for "CtlDataSize", which was renamed
   to "CtlProbeDataSize" for clarification in the traceroute measurement
   data model.

   Results of measurements in the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB modules are
   distributed over two tables, the "traceRouteResultsTable" contains
   mainly information about ongoing measurements and the
   "traceRouteProbeHistoryTable" contains only information about
   completed measurements.  According to the SMIv2 naming conventions,
   names of information elements in these tables have different prefixes
   ("traceRouteResults" and "traceRouteProbeHistory").  Since the
   traceroute measurement data model only reports on completed
   measurements, this separation is not needed anymore and the prefix
   "Results" is used for all related information elements.

   Beyond that, there are only a few changes in element names.  The
   renaming actions include:

   o  "traceRouteProbeHistoryResponse" to "ProbeRoundTripTime";

   o  "traceRouteProbeHistoryHAddr" to "HopAddr";

   o  "traceRouteProbeHistoryTime" to "ResultsEndDateAndTime";

   o  "traceRouteProbeHistoryLastRC" to "ResultsHopRawOutputData".

C.3.  Semantics

   The semantics were changed for two information elements only.

   For "traceRouteProbeHistoryResponse" in the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB, a
   value of 0 indicates that it is not possible to transmit a probe.
   For the traceroute measurement data model, a value of 0 for element



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   "RoundTripTime" indicates that the measured time was less than one
   millisecond.  For the case that it was not possible to transmit a
   probe, a string is used that indicates the problem.

   For "traceRouteCtlIfIndex" in the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB, a value of 0
   indicates that the option to set the index is not available.  This
   was translated to the traceroute measurement data model, such that a
   value of 0 for this element indicates that the used interface is
   unknown.

   The element "traceRouteProbeHistoryLastRC" in the DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-
   MIB was replaced by element "ResultsHopRawOutputData".  While
   "traceRouteProbeHistoryLastRC" just reports a reply code,
   "ResultsHopRawOutputData" reports the full raw output data (per hop)
   produced by the traceroute measurement that was used.

C.4.  Additional Information Elements

   Only a few information elements have been added to the model of the
   DISMAN-TRACEROUTE-MIB module.

   o  For providing information on the MPLS label stack entries of a
      probe in the traceroute measurement path, "MPLSLabelStackEntry"
      was added.

   o  For providing additional timestamp beyond "ResultsEndDateAndTime",
      "ResultsStartDateAndTime" and "Time" were added.

   o  For providing DNS names at the time of the execution of the
      traceroute for each "HopAddr" (which may change over time),
      "HopName" was added.

Appendix D.  Traceroute Examples with XML Representation

   This section shows some examples of traceroute applications.  In
   addition, the encoding of requests and results is shown for some of
   those examples.  Also, note that in these XML examples some lines
   appear wrapped due to the limited length of line.

   A typical traceroute on a LINUX system looks like the following:
   # traceroute  -f 4 www.example 1500
   traceroute to ww.example (192.0.2.42), 30 hops max, 1500-byte packets
    5  out.host1.example (192.0.2.254)  6.066 ms   5.625 ms   6.095 ms
    6  rtr4.host6.example (192.0.2.142)  6.979 ms   6.221 ms   7.368 ms
    7  hop7.rtr9.example (192.0.2.11)  16.165 ms   15.347 ms   15.514 ms
    8  192.0.2.222 (192.0.2.222)  32.796 ms   28.723 ms   26.988 ms
    9  in.example (192.0.2.123)  15.861 ms   16.262 ms   17.610 ms
   10  in.example (192.0.2.123)(N!)  17.391 ms * *



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   This traceroute ignores the first 4 hops and uses 1500-byte packets
   including the header.  It does not reach its goal since the last
   listed hop says that the network is not reachable (N!).  The XML
   representation for this trace follows:
   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <traceRoute xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:traceroute-1.0">
     <RequestMetadata>
       <TestName>Example 1</TestName>
       <OSName/>
       <OSVersion/>
       <ToolVersion/>
       <ToolName/>
       <CtlTargetAddress>
         <inetAddressDns>www.example</inetAddressDns>
       </CtlTargetAddress>
       <CtlBypassRouteTable/>
       <CtlProbeDataSize>1472</CtlProbeDataSize>
       <CtlTimeOut/>
       <CtlProbesPerHop/>
       <CtlPort/>
       <CtlMaxTtl/>
       <CtlDSField/>
       <CtlSourceAddress>
         <inetAddressUnknown/>
       </CtlSourceAddress>
       <CtlIfIndex/>
       <CtlMiscOptions/>
       <CtlMaxFailures/>
       <CtlDontFragment/>
       <CtlInitialTtl>4</CtlInitialTtl>
       <CtlDescr>Show how it encodes in XML</CtlDescr>
       <CtlType><UDP/></CtlType>
     </RequestMetadata>
     <Measurement>
       <MeasurementMetadata>
         <TestName>Example 1</TestName>
         <OSName>Linux</OSName>
         <OSVersion>2.6.16.54-0.2.5-smp i386</OSVersion>
         <ToolVersion>1.0</ToolVersion>
         <ToolName>traceroute</ToolName>
         <CtlTargetAddress>
           <inetAddressDns>www.example</inetAddressDns>
         </CtlTargetAddress>
         <CtlBypassRouteTable/>
         <CtlProbeDataSize>1472</CtlProbeDataSize>
         <CtlTimeOut/>
         <CtlProbesPerHop/>
         <CtlPort/>



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         <CtlMaxTtl/>
         <CtlDSField/>
         <CtlSourceAddress>
           <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.1</inetAddressIpv4>
         </CtlSourceAddress>
         <CtlIfIndex>2</CtlIfIndex>
         <CtlMiscOptions/>
         <CtlMaxFailures/>
         <CtlDontFragment/>
         <CtlInitialTtl>4</CtlInitialTtl>
         <CtlDescr>Show how it encodes in XML</CtlDescr>
         <CtlType><UDP/></CtlType>
       </MeasurementMetadata>
       <MeasurementResult>
         <TestName>Example 1</TestName>
         <ResultsStartDateAndTime>2008-05-16T14:22:34+02:00</ResultsStar
   tDateAndTime>
         <ResultsIpTgtAddr>
           <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.42</inetAddressIpv4>
         </ResultsIpTgtAddr>
         <ProbeResults>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.254</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>out.host1.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>6</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:35+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.254</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>out.host1.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime><roundTripTime>5</roundTripTime></Pro
   beRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:35+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.254</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>out.host1.example</HopName>



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               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>6</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:35+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <HopRawOutputData> 5  out.host1.example (192.0.2.254)  6.06
   6 ms   5.625 ms   6.095 ms</HopRawOutputData>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.142</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>rtr4.host6.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>6</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:36+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.142</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>rtr4.host6.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>6</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:36+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.142</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>rtr4.host6.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>7</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:37+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <HopRawOutputData> 6  rtr4.host6.example (192.0.2.142)  6.9
   79 ms   6.221 ms   7.368 ms</HopRawOutputData>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>



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               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.11</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop7.rtr9.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>16</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:37+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.11</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop7.rtr9.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>15</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:38+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.11</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop7.rtr9.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>15</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:38+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <HopRawOutputData> 7  hop7.rtr9.example (192.0.2.11)  16.16
   5 ms   15.347 ms   15.514 ms</HopRawOutputData>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.222</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>32</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:39+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>



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                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.222</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>38</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:39+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.222</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>26</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:39+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <HopRawOutputData> 8  192.0.2.222 (192.0.2.222)  32.796 ms
     28.723 ms   26.988 ms</HopRawOutputData>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.123</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>in.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>15</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:40+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.123</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>in.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>16</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:40+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.123</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>



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               <HopName>in.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>17</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:40+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <HopRawOutputData> 9  in.example (192.0.2.123)  15.861 ms
    16.262 ms   17.610 ms</HopRawOutputData>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.123</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>in.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>17</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>noRouteToTarget</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:41+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.123</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>in.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTimeNotAvailable/>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>requestTimedOut</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:44+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.123</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>in.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTimeNotAvailable/>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>requestTimedOut</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-16T14:22:44+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <HopRawOutputData>10  in.example (192.0.2.123)(N!)  17.391
   ms * *</HopRawOutputData>
           </hop>
         </ProbeResults>



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         <ResultsEndDateAndTime>2008-05-16T14:22:44+02:00</ResultsEndDat
   eAndTime>
       </MeasurementResult>
     </Measurement>
   </traceRoute>

   The second example was generated on an OpenBSD system.  On that
   system, the traceroute looks like the following:
   # traceroute -P tcp w2.example 128

   traceroute to w2.example (192.0.2.254), 64 hops max, 160-byte packets
    1  router1.example.org (192.0.2.22)  0.486 ms  0.486 ms  0.482 ms
    2  router7.example.org (192.0.2.1)  3.27 ms  1.420 ms  1.873 ms
    3  hop0.c.example (192.0.2.105)  3.177 ms  3.258 ms  3.859 ms
    4  hop6.c.example (192.0.2.107)  5.994 ms  4.607 ms  5.678 ms
    5  hop3.c.example (192.0.2.111)  20.341 ms  20.732 ms  19.505 ms
    6  in.example.net (192.0.2.222)  20.333 ms  19.174 ms  19.856 ms
    7  egress.example.net (192.0.2.227)  20.268 ms  21.79 ms  19.992 ms
    8  routerin.example (192.0.2.253)  19.983 ms  19.931 ms  19.894 ms
    9  routerdmz.example (192.0.2.249)  20.943 ms !X *  19.829 ms !X

   It was executed with the TCP protocol and 128-byte packets (plus
   header).  The traceroute ended at hop 9 because the packets are
   administratively filtered (!X).  A corresponding XML representation
   follows:
   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <traceRoute xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:traceroute-1.0">
     <RequestMetadata>
       <TestName>Example 2</TestName>
       <OSName/>
       <OSVersion/>
       <ToolVersion/>
       <ToolName/>
       <CtlTargetAddress>
         <inetAddressDns>w2.example</inetAddressDns>
       </CtlTargetAddress>
       <CtlBypassRouteTable/>
       <CtlProbeDataSize>128</CtlProbeDataSize>
       <CtlTimeOut/>
       <CtlProbesPerHop/>
       <CtlPort/>
       <CtlMaxTtl/>
       <CtlDSField/>
       <CtlSourceAddress>
         <inetAddressUnknown/>
       </CtlSourceAddress>
       <CtlIfIndex/>
       <CtlMiscOptions/>



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       <CtlMaxFailures/>
       <CtlDontFragment/>
       <CtlInitialTtl/>
       <CtlDescr>Show how it encodes in XML</CtlDescr>
       <CtlType><TCP/></CtlType>
     </RequestMetadata>
     <Measurement>
       <MeasurementMetadata>
         <TestName>Example 2</TestName>
         <OSName>OpenBSD</OSName>
         <OSVersion>4.1 i386</OSVersion>
         <ToolVersion></ToolVersion>
         <ToolName>traceroute</ToolName>
         <CtlTargetAddress>
           <inetAddressDns>w2.example</inetAddressDns>
         </CtlTargetAddress>
         <CtlBypassRouteTable/>
         <CtlProbeDataSize>128</CtlProbeDataSize>
         <CtlTimeOut/>
         <CtlProbesPerHop/>
         <CtlPort/>
         <CtlMaxTtl/>
         <CtlDSField/>
         <CtlSourceAddress>
           <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.42</inetAddressIpv4>
         </CtlSourceAddress>
         <CtlIfIndex>1</CtlIfIndex>
         <CtlMiscOptions/>
         <CtlMaxFailures/>
         <CtlDontFragment/>
         <CtlInitialTtl/>
         <CtlDescr>Show how it encodes in XML</CtlDescr>
         <CtlType><TCP/></CtlType>
       </MeasurementMetadata>
       <MeasurementResult>
         <TestName>Example 2</TestName>
         <ResultsStartDateAndTime>2008-05-14T09:57:11+02:00</ResultsStar
   tDateAndTime>
         <ResultsIpTgtAddr>
           <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.254</inetAddressIpv4>
         </ResultsIpTgtAddr>
         <ProbeResults>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.22</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>router1.example.org</HopName>



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               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>0</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:13+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.22</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>router1.example.org</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>0</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:13+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.22</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>router1.example.org</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>0</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:13+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.1</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>router7.example.org</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>3</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:13+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.1</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>router7.example.org</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>1</roundTripTime>



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               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:13+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.1</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>router7.example.org</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>1</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:14+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.105</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop0.c.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>3</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:14+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.105</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop0.c.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>3</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:14+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.105</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop0.c.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>3</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>



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               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:14+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.107</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop6.c.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>5</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:15+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.107</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop6.c.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>4</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:16+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.107</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop6.c.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>5</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:16+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.111</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop3.c.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>20</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>



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               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:17+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.111</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop3.c.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>20</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:18+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.111</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop3.c.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>19</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:19+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.222</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>in.example.net</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>20</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:20+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.222</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>in.example.net</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>19</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:20+02:00</Time>
             </probe>



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             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.222</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>in.example.net</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>19</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:21+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.227</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>egress.example.net</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>20</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:22+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.227</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>egress.example.net</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>21</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:22+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.227</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>egress.example.net</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>19</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:23+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>



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RFC 5388               Traceroute Storage Format           December 2008


             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.253</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>routerin.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>19</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:24+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.253</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>routerin.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>19</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:24+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.253</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>routerin.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>19</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:25+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.249</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>routerdmz.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>20</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>unknown</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:26+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>



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RFC 5388               Traceroute Storage Format           December 2008


                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.249</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>routerdmz.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTimeNotAvailable/>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>requestTimedOut</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:26+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.249</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>routerdmz.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>19</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>unknown</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T09:57:30+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
         </ProbeResults>
         <ResultsEndDateAndTime>2008-05-14T09:57:30+02:00</ResultsEndDat
   eAndTime>
       </MeasurementResult>
     </Measurement>
   </traceRoute>

   The third and last example is based on the Microsoft Windows pendant
   of traceroute.  On an MS Windows system, the command is called
   "tracert" and typically looks as follows:

   # tracert -h 10 www.example.org

   Tracing route to www.example.org [192.0.2.11]
   over a maximum of 10 hops:

     1     1 ms     1 ms     8 ms  192.0.2.99
     2    <1 ms    <1 ms    <1 ms  r1.provider4.example [192.0.2.102]
     3    <1 ms    <1 ms    <1 ms  rtr8.provider8.example [192.0.2.254]
     4     1 ms     1 ms     1 ms  hop11.hoster7.example [192.0.2.4]
     5     2 ms     3 ms     1 ms  sw6.provider2.example [192.0.2.201]
     6     3 ms     3 ms     3 ms  out.provider2.example [192.0.2.111]
     7     *        6 ms     5 ms  192.0.2.123
     8     5 ms     5 ms     5 ms  192.0.2.42
     9    94 ms    95 ms    95 ms  ingress.example.org [192.0.2.199]
    10   168 ms   169 ms   169 ms  192.0.2.44




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RFC 5388               Traceroute Storage Format           December 2008


   Trace complete.

   In this example, the trace was limited to 10 hops, so the tenth and
   last hop of this example was not the final destination.  Applying the
   XML schema defined in this document, the trace could look as follows:
   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <traceRoute xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:traceroute-1.0">
     <RequestMetadata>
       <TestName>Example 3</TestName>
       <OSName/>
       <OSVersion/>
       <ToolVersion/>
       <ToolName/>
       <CtlTargetAddress>
         <inetAddressDns>www.example.org</inetAddressDns>
       </CtlTargetAddress>
       <CtlBypassRouteTable/>
       <CtlProbeDataSize/>
       <CtlTimeOut/>
       <CtlProbesPerHop/>
       <CtlPort/>
       <CtlMaxTtl>10</CtlMaxTtl>
       <CtlDSField/>
       <CtlSourceAddress>
         <inetAddressUnknown/>
       </CtlSourceAddress>
       <CtlIfIndex/>
       <CtlMiscOptions/>
       <CtlMaxFailures/>
       <CtlDontFragment/>
       <CtlInitialTtl/>
       <CtlDescr>Show how it encodes in XML</CtlDescr>
       <CtlType><TCP/></CtlType>
     </RequestMetadata>
     <Measurement>
       <MeasurementMetadata>
         <TestName>Example 3</TestName>
         <OSName>Windows</OSName>
         <OSVersion>XP SP2 32-bit</OSVersion>
         <ToolVersion></ToolVersion>
         <ToolName>tracert</ToolName>
         <CtlTargetAddress>
           <inetAddressDns>www.example.org</inetAddressDns>
         </CtlTargetAddress>
         <CtlBypassRouteTable/>
         <CtlProbeDataSize/>
         <CtlTimeOut/>
         <CtlProbesPerHop/>



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RFC 5388               Traceroute Storage Format           December 2008


         <CtlPort/>
         <CtlMaxTtl>10</CtlMaxTtl>
         <CtlDSField/>
         <CtlSourceAddress>
           <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.142</inetAddressIpv4>
         </CtlSourceAddress>
         <CtlIfIndex>3</CtlIfIndex>
         <CtlMiscOptions/>
         <CtlMaxFailures/>
         <CtlDontFragment/>
         <CtlInitialTtl/>
         <CtlDescr>Show how it encodes in XML</CtlDescr>
         <CtlType><TCP/></CtlType>
       </MeasurementMetadata>
       <MeasurementResult>
         <TestName>Example 3</TestName>
         <ResultsStartDateAndTime>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</ResultsStar
   tDateAndTime>
         <ResultsIpTgtAddr>
           <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.11</inetAddressIpv4>
         </ResultsIpTgtAddr>
         <ProbeResults>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.99</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>1</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.99</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>1</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.99</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>



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RFC 5388               Traceroute Storage Format           December 2008


                 <roundTripTime>8</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.102</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>r1.provider4.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>0</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.102</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>r1.provider4.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>0</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.102</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>r1.provider4.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>0</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.254</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>rtr8.provider8.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>



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RFC 5388               Traceroute Storage Format           December 2008


                 <roundTripTime>0</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.254</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>rtr8.provider8.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>0</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.254</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>rtr8.provider8.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>0</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.4</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop11.hoster7.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>1</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:09+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.4</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop11.hoster7.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>1</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>



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               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:10+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.4</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>hop11.hoster7.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>1</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:10+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.201</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>sw6.provider2.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>2</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:10+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.201</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>sw6.provider2.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>3</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:11+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.201</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>sw6.provider2.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>1</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:11+02:00</Time>



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RFC 5388               Traceroute Storage Format           December 2008


             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.111</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>out.provider2.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>3</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:11+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.111</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>out.provider2.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>3</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:11+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.111</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>out.provider2.example</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>3</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:12+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.123</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTimeNotAvailable/>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>requestTimedOut</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:14+02:00</Time>
             </probe>



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RFC 5388               Traceroute Storage Format           December 2008


             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.123</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>6</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:15+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.123</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>5</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:16+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.42</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>5</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:17+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.42</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>5</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:17+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.42</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>5</roundTripTime>



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RFC 5388               Traceroute Storage Format           December 2008


               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:17+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.199</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>ingress.example.org</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>94</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:19+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.199</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>ingress.example.org</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>95</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:19+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.199</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <HopName>ingress.example.org</HopName>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>95</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:19+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
           <hop>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.44</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>168</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>



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RFC 5388               Traceroute Storage Format           December 2008


               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:20+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.44</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>169</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:21+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
             <probe>
               <HopAddr>
                 <inetAddressIpv4>192.0.2.44</inetAddressIpv4>
               </HopAddr>
               <ProbeRoundTripTime>
                 <roundTripTime>169</roundTripTime>
               </ProbeRoundTripTime>
               <ResponseStatus>responseReceived</ResponseStatus>
               <Time>2008-05-14T11:03:23+02:00</Time>
             </probe>
           </hop>
         </ProbeResults>
         <ResultsEndDateAndTime>2008-05-14T11:03:23+02:00</ResultsEndDat
   eAndTime>
       </MeasurementResult>
     </Measurement>
   </traceRoute>

   The three examples given in this section are intended to give an
   impression of how a trace could be represented in XML.  The
   representation generated by an implementation may differ from the
   examples here depending on the system and the capabilities of the
   traceroute implementation.















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RFC 5388               Traceroute Storage Format           December 2008


Authors' Addresses

   Saverio Niccolini
   NEC Laboratories Europe, NEC Europe Ltd.
   Kurfuersten-Anlage 36
   Heidelberg  69115
   Germany
   Phone: +49 (0) 6221 4342 118
   EMail: saverio.niccolini@nw.neclab.eu
   URI:   http://www.nw.neclab.eu


   Sandra Tartarelli
   NEC Laboratories Europe, NEC Europe Ltd.
   Kurfuersten-Anlage 36
   Heidelberg  69115
   Germany
   Phone: +49 (0) 6221 4342 132
   EMail: sandra.tartarelli@nw.neclab.eu
   URI:   http://www.nw.neclab.eu


   Juergen Quittek
   NEC Laboratories Europe, NEC Europe Ltd.
   Kurfuersten-Anlage 36
   Heidelberg  69115
   Germany
   Phone: +49 (0) 6221 4342 115
   EMail: quittek@nw.neclab.eu
   URI:   http://www.nw.neclab.eu


   Thomas Dietz
   NEC Laboratories Europe, NEC Europe Ltd.
   Kurfuersten-Anlage 36
   Heidelberg  69115
   Germany
   Phone: +49 (0) 6221 4342 128
   EMail: thomas.dietz@nw.neclab.eu
   URI:   http://www.nw.neclab.eu


   Martin Swany
   Dept. of Computer and Information Sciences
   University of Delaware
   Newark  DE 19716
   U.S.A.
   EMail: swany@UDel.Edu



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