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EXPERIMENTAL
Errata Exist
Independent Submission                                       M. Blanchet
Request for Comments: 5572                                      Viagenie
Category: Experimental                                         F. Parent
ISSN: 2070-1721                                           Beon Solutions
                                                           February 2010


        IPv6 Tunnel Broker with the Tunnel Setup Protocol (TSP)

Abstract

   A tunnel broker with the Tunnel Setup Protocol (TSP) enables the
   establishment of tunnels of various inner protocols, such as IPv6 or
   IPv4, inside various outer protocols packets, such as IPv4, IPv6, or
   UDP over IPv4 for IPv4 NAT traversal.  The control protocol (TSP) is
   used by the tunnel client to negotiate the tunnel with the broker.  A
   mobile node implementing TSP can be connected to both IPv4 and IPv6
   networks whether it is on IPv4 only, IPv4 behind a NAT, or on IPv6
   only.  A tunnel broker may terminate the tunnels on remote tunnel
   servers or on itself.  This document describes the TSP within the
   model of the tunnel broker model.

Status of This Memo

   This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
   published for examination, experimental implementation, and
   evaluation.

   This document defines an Experimental Protocol for the Internet
   community.  This is a contribution to the RFC Series, independently
   of any other RFC stream.  The RFC Editor has chosen to publish this
   document at its discretion and makes no statement about its value for
   implementation or deployment.  Documents approved for publication by
   the RFC Editor are not a candidate for any level of Internet
   Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 5741.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5572.

IESG Note

   The content of this RFC was at one time considered by the IETF, and
   therefore it may resemble a current IETF work in progress or a
   published IETF work.






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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.








































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Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................4
   2. Description of the TSP Framework ................................4
      2.1. NAT Discovery ..............................................6
      2.2. Any Encapsulation ..........................................6
      2.3. Mobility ...................................................6
   3. Advantages of TSP ...............................................7
   4. Protocol Description ............................................7
      4.1. Terminology ................................................7
      4.2. Topology ...................................................8
      4.3. Overview ...................................................8
      4.4. TSP Signaling ..............................................9
           4.4.1. Signaling Transport .................................9
           4.4.2. Authentication Phase ...............................11
           4.4.3. Command and Response Phase .........................14
      4.5. Tunnel Establishment ......................................16
           4.5.1. IPv6-over-IPv4 Tunnels .............................16
           4.5.2. IPv6-over-UDP Tunnels ..............................16
      4.6. Tunnel Keep-Alive .........................................16
      4.7. XML Messaging .............................................17
           4.7.1. Tunnel .............................................17
           4.7.2. Client Element .....................................18
           4.7.3. Server Element .....................................19
           4.7.4. Broker Element .....................................19
   5. Tunnel Request Examples ........................................19
      5.1. Host Tunnel Request and Reply .............................19
      5.2. Router Tunnel Request with a /48 Prefix Delegation
           and Reply .................................................20
      5.3. IPv4 over IPv6 Tunnel Request .............................22
      5.4. NAT Traversal Tunnel Request ..............................23
   6. Applicability of TSP in Different Networks .....................24
      6.1. Provider Networks with Enterprise Customers ...............24
      6.2. Provider Networks with Home/Small Office Customers ........25
      6.3. Enterprise Networks .......................................25
      6.4. Wireless Networks .........................................25
      6.5. Unmanaged Networks ........................................26
      6.6. Mobile Hosts and Mobile Networks ..........................26
   7. IANA Considerations ............................................26
   8. Security Considerations ........................................27
   9. Conclusion .....................................................27
   10. Acknowledgements ..............................................27
   11. References ....................................................28
      11.1. Normative References .....................................28
      11.2. Informative References ...................................28
   Appendix A.  The TSP DTD ..........................................30
   Appendix B.  Error Codes ..........................................31




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1.  Introduction

   This document first describes the TSP framework, the protocol
   details, and the different profiles used.  It then describes the
   applicability of TSP in different environments, some of which were
   described in the v6ops scenario documents.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

2.  Description of the TSP Framework

   Tunnel Setup Protocol (TSP) is a signaling protocol to set up tunnel
   parameters between two tunnel endpoints.  TSP is implemented as a
   tiny client code in the requesting tunnel endpoint.  The other
   endpoint is the server that will set up the tunnel service.  TSP uses
   XML [W3C.REC-xml-2004] basic messaging over TCP or UDP.  The use of
   XML gives extensibility and easy option processing.

   TSP negotiates tunnel parameters between the two tunnel endpoints.
   Parameters that are always negotiated are:

   o  Authentication of the users, using any kind of authentication
      mechanism (through Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL)
      [RFC4422]) including anonymous

   o  Tunnel encapsulation:

      *  IPv6 over IPv4 tunnels [RFC4213]

      *  IPv4 over IPv6 tunnels [RFC2473]

      *  IPv6 over UDP-IPv4 tunnels for NAT traversal

   o  IP address assignment for the tunnel endpoints

   o  DNS registration of the IP endpoint address (AAAA)

   Other tunnel parameters that may be negotiated are:

   o  Tunnel keep-alive

   o  IPv6 prefix assignment when the client is a router

   o  DNS delegation of the inverse tree, based on the IPv6 prefix
      assigned




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   o  Routing protocols

   The tunnel encapsulation can be explicitly specified by the client,
   or can be determined during the TSP exchange by the broker.  The
   latter is used to detect the presence of NAT in the path and select
   IPv6 over UDP-IPv4 encapsulation.

   The TSP connection can be established between two nodes, where each
   node can control a tunnel endpoint.

   The nodes involved in the framework are:

   1.  the TSP client

   2.  the client tunnel endpoint

   3.  the TSP server

   4.  the server tunnel endpoint

   1,3, and 4 form the tunnel broker model [RFC3053], where 3 is the
   tunnel broker and 4 is the tunnel server (Figure 1).  The tunnel
   broker may control one or many tunnel servers.

   In its simplest model, one node is the client configured as a tunnel
   endpoint (1 and 2 on the same node), and the second node is the
   server configured as the other tunnel endpoint (3 and 4 on the same
   node).  This model is shown in Figure 2:

                              _______________
                             | TUNNEL BROKER |--> Databases (DNS)
                             |               |
                             |  TSP          |
                             | SERVER        |
                             |_______________|
                                 |     |
            __________           |     |          ________
           |           |         |     |         |        |
           |   TSP     |--[TSP]--      +---------|        |
           |  CLIENT   |                         | TUNNEL |--[NETWORK]--
   [HOST]--|           |<==[CONFIGURED TUNNEL]==>| SERVER |
           |___________|                         |        |
                                                 |________|

        Figure 1: Tunnel Setup Protocol Used on Tunnel Broker Model






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            ___________                           ________
           |           |                         |  TSP   |
           |   TSP     |-----------[TSP]---------| SERVER |
           |  CLIENT   |                         |        |--[NETWORK]--
   [HOST]--|           |<==[CONFIGURED TUNNEL]==>| TUNNEL |
           |___________|                         | SERVER |
                                                 |________|

        Figure 2: Tunnel Setup Protocol Used on Tunnel Server Model

   From the point of view of an operating system, TSP is implemented as
   a client application that is able to configure network parameters of
   the operating system.

2.1.  NAT Discovery

   TSP is also used to discover if a NAT is in the path.  In this
   discovery mode, the client sends a TSP message over UDP, containing
   its tunnel request information (such as its source IPv4 address) to
   the TSP server.  The TSP server compares the IPv4 source address of
   the packet with the address in the TSP message.  If they differ, one
   or many IPv4 NATs are in the path.

   If an IPv4 NAT is discovered, then IPv6 over UDP-IPv4 tunnel
   encapsulation is selected.  Once the TSP signaling is done, the
   tunnel is established over the same UDP channel used for TSP, so the
   same NAT address-port mapping is used for both the TSP session and
   the IPv6 traffic.  If no IPv4 NAT is detected in the path by the TSP
   server, then IPv6 over IPv4 encapsulation is used.

   A keep-alive mechanism is also included to keep the NAT mapping
   active.

   The IPv4 NAT discovery builds the most effective tunnel for all
   cases, including in a dynamic situation where the client moves.

2.2.  Any Encapsulation

   TSP is used to negotiate IPv6 over IPv4 tunnels, IPv6 over UDP-IPv4
   tunnels, and IPv4 over IPv6 tunnels.  IPv4 over IPv6 tunnels is used
   in the Dual-Stack Transition Mechanism (DSTM) together with TSP
   [DSTM].

2.3.  Mobility

   When a node moves to a different IP network (i.e., change of its IPv4
   address when doing IPv6 over IPv4 encapsulation), the TSP client
   reconnects automatically to the broker to re-establish the tunnel



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   (keep-alive mechanism).  On the IPv6 layer, if the client uses user
   authentication, the same IPv6 address and prefix are kept and re-
   established, even if the IPv4 address or tunnel encapsulation type
   changes.

3.  Advantages of TSP

   o  Tunnels established by TSP are static tunnels, which are more
      secure than automated tunnels [RFC3964]; no third-party relay
      required.

   o  Stability of the IP address and prefix, enabling applications
      needing stable address to be deployed and used.  For example, when
      tunneling IPv6, there is no dependency on the underlying IPv4
      address.

   o  Prefix assignment supported.  Can use provider address space.

   o  Signaling protocol flexible and extensible (XML, SASL)

   o  One solution to many encapsulation techniques: IPv6 in IPv4, IPv4
      in IPv6, IPv6 over UDP over IPv4.  Can be extended to other
      encapsulation types, such as IPv6 in IPv6.

   o  Discovery of IPv4 NAT in the path, establishing the most optimized
      tunneling technique depending on the discovery.

4.  Protocol Description

4.1.  Terminology

   Tunnel Broker:  In a tunnel broker model, the broker is taking charge
      of all communication between tunnel servers (TSs) and tunnel
      clients (TCs).  Tunnel clients query brokers for a tunnel and the
      broker finds a suitable tunnel server, asks the tunnel server to
      set up the tunnel, and sends the tunnel information to the tunnel
      Client.

   Tunnel Server:  Tunnel servers are providing the specific tunnel
      service to a tunnel client.  It can receive the tunnel request
      from a tunnel broker (as in the tunnel broker model) or directly
      from the tunnel client.  The tunnel server is the tunnel endpoint.

   Tunnel Client:  The tunnel client is the entity that needs a tunnel
      for a particular service or connectivity.  A tunnel client can be
      either a host or a router.  The tunnel client is the other tunnel
      endpoint.




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   v6v4:  IPv6-over-IPv4 tunnel encapsulation

   v6udpv4:  IPv6-over-UDP-over-IPv4 tunnel encapsulation

   v4v6:  IPv4-over-IPv6 tunnel encapsulation

4.2.  Topology

   The following diagrams describe typical TSP scenarios.  The goal is
   to establish a tunnel between tunnel client and tunnel server.

4.3.  Overview

   The Tunnel Setup Protocol is initiated from a client node to a tunnel
   broker.  The Tunnel Setup Protocol has three phases:

   Authentication phase:  The Authentication phase is when the tunnel
      broker/server advertises its capability to a tunnel client and
      when a tunnel client authenticate to the broker/server.

   Command phase:  The command phase is where the client requests or
      updates a tunnel.

   Response phase:  The response phase is where the tunnel client
      receives the request response from the tunnel broker/server, and
      the client accepts or rejects the tunnel offered.

   For each command sent by a tunnel client, there is an expected
   response from the server.

   After the response phase is completed, a tunnel is established as
   requested by the client.  If requested, periodic keep-alive packets
   can be sent from the client to the server.


















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           tunnel                              tunnel
           client                              broker
             +|         Send version              +
             ||---------------------------------> ||
             ||         Send capabilities         ||
             ||<--------------------------------- +| Authentication
             ||         SASL authentication       || phase
             ||<--------------------------------> ||
    TSP      ||         Authentication OK         ||
    signaling||<--------------------------------- +
             ||         Tunnel request            || Command
             ||---------------------------------> || phase
             ||         Tunnel response           +
             ||<--------------------------------- || Response
             ||         Tunnel acknowledge        || phase
             ||---------------------------------> +
             +|                                   |
             ||         Tunnel established        |
    Data     ||===================================|
    phase    ||                                   |
             +|           (keep-alive)            |

                 Figure 3: Tunnel Setup Protocol Exchange

4.4.  TSP Signaling

   The following sections describe in detail the TSP and the different
   phases in the TSP signaling.

4.4.1.  Signaling Transport

   TSP signaling can be transported over TCP or UDP, and over IPv4 or
   IPv6.  The tunnel client selects the transport according to the
   tunnel encapsulation being requested.  Figure 4 shows the transport
   used for TSP signaling with possible tunnel encapsulation requested.

   TSP signaling over UDP/v4 MUST be used if a v6 over UDP over IPv4
   (v6udpv4) tunnel is to be requested (e.g., for NAT traversal).













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       Tunnel
       Encapsulation   Valid       Valid
       Requested       Transport   Address family
       ------------------------------------------
       v6anyv4         TCP UDP     IPv4
       v6v4            TCP UDP     IPv4
       v6udpv4             UDP     IPv4
       v4v6            TCP UDP     IPv6

                     Figure 4: TSP Signaling Transport

   Note that the TSP framework allows for other type of encapsulation to
   be defined, such as IPv6 over Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) or
   IPv6 over IPv6.

4.4.1.1.  TSP Signaling over TCP

   TSP over TCP is sent over port number 3653 (IANA assigned).  TSP data
   used during signaling is detailed in the next sections.

                      +------+-----------+----------+
                      |  IP  | TCP       | TSP data |
                      |      | port 3653 |          |
                      +------+-----------+----------+
                      where IP is IPv4 or IPv6

            Figure 5: Tunnel Setup Protocol Packet Format (TCP)

4.4.1.2.  TSP Signaling over UDP/v4

   While TCP provides the connection-oriented and reliable data delivery
   features required during the TSP signaling session, UDP does not
   offer any reliability.  This reliability is added inside the TSP
   session as an extra header at the beginning of the UDP payload.

                   +------+-----------+------------+----------+
                   | IPv4 | UDP       | TSP header | TSP data |
                   |      | port 3653 |            |          |
                   +------+-----------+------------+----------+

            Figure 6: Tunnel Setup Protocol Packet Format (UDP)

   The algorithm used to add reliability to TSP packets sent over UDP is
   described in Section 22.5 of [UNP].







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      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  0xF  |                 Sequence Number                       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                            Timestamp                          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                            TSP data                           |
     ...

                   Figure 7: TSP Header for Reliable UDP

      The 4-bit field (0-3) is set to 0xF.  This marker is used by the
      tunnel broker to identify a TSP signaling packet that is sent
      after an IPv6 over UDP is established.  This is explained in
      Section 4.5.2

   Sequence Number:  28-bit field.  Set by the tunnel client.  Value is
      increased by one for every new packet sent to the tunnel broker.
      The return packet from the broker contains the unaltered sequence
      number.

   Timestamp:  32-bit field.  Set by the tunnel client.  Generated from
      the client local-time value.  The return packet from the broker
      contains the unaltered timestamp.

   TSP data:  Same as in the TCP/v4 case.  Content described in later
      sections.

   The TSP client builds its UDP packet as described above and sends it
   to the tunnel broker.  When the tunnel broker responds, the same
   values for the sequence number and timestamp MUST be sent back to the
   client.  The TSP client can use the timestamp to determine the
   retransmission timeout (current time minus the packet timestamp).
   The client SHOULD retransmit the packet when the retransmission
   timeout is reached.  The retransmitted packet MUST use the same
   sequence number as the original packet so that the server can detect
   duplicate packets.  The client SHOULD use exponential backoff when
   retransmitting packets to avoid network congestion.

4.4.2.  Authentication Phase

   The authentication phase has 3 steps:

   o  Client's protocol version identification






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   o  Server's capability advertisement

   o  Client authentication

   When a TCP or UDP session is established to a tunnel broker, the
   tunnel client sends the current protocol version it is supporting.
   The version number syntax is:

      VERSION=2.0.0 CR LF

   Version 2.0.0 is the version number of this specification.  Version
   1.0.0 was defined in earlier documents.

   If the server doesn't support the protocol version, it sends an error
   message and closes the session.  The server can optionally send a
   server list that may support the protocol version of the client.

   Example of an unsupported client version (without a server list):

         -- Successful TCP Connection --
         C:VERSION=0.1 CR LF
         S:302 Unsupported client version CR LF
         -- Connection closed --

              Figure 8: Example of Unsupported Client Version

   Example of a version not supported (with a server list):

         -- Successful TCP Connection --
         C:VERSION=1.1 CR LF
         S:1302 Unsupported client version CR LF
           <tunnel action="list" type="broker">
              <broker>
                 <address type="ipv4">1.2.3.4</address>
              </broker>
              <broker>
                 <address type="dn">ts1.isp1.com</address>
              </broker>
           </tunnel>
         -- Connection closed --

       Figure 9: Example of Unsupported Client Version, with Server
                                Redirection

   If the server supports the version sent by the client, then the
   server sends a list of the capabilities supported for authentication
   and tunnels.




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      CAPABILITY TUNNEL=V6V4 TUNNEL=V6UDPV4 AUTH=ANONYMOUS AUTH=PLAIN
      AUTH=DIGEST-MD5 CR LF

   Tunnel types must be registered with IANA and their profiles are
   defined in Section 7.  Authentication is done using SASL [RFC4422].
   Each authentication mechanism should be a registered SASL mechanism.
   Description of such mechanisms is not in the scope of this document.

   The tunnel client can then choose to close the session if none of the
   capabilities fit its needs.  If the tunnel client chooses to
   continue, it authenticates to the server using one of the advertised
   mechanisms using SASL.  If the authentication fails, the server sends
   an error message and closes the session.

   The example in Figure 10 shows a failed authentication where the
   tunnel client requests an anonymous authentication that is not
   supported by the server.

   Note that linebreaks and indentation within a "C:" or "S:" are
   editorial and not part of the protocol.

   -- Successful TCP Connection --
   C:VERSION=2.0.0 CR LF
   S:CAPABILITY TUNNEL=V6V4 AUTH=DIGEST-MD5 CR LF
   C:AUTHENTICATE ANONYMOUS CR LF
   S:300 Authentication failed CR LF

                Figure 10: Example of Failed Authentication

   Figure 11 shows a successful anonymous authentication.

   -- Successful TCP Connection --
   C:VERSION=2.0.0 CR LF
   S:CAPABILITY TUNNEL=V6V4 TUNNEL=V6UDPV4 AUTH=ANONYMOUS AUTH=PLAIN
     AUTH=DIGEST-MD5 CR LF
   C:AUTHENTICATE ANONYMOUS CR LF
   S:200 Success CR LF

              Figure 11: Successful Anonymous Authentication












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   Digest-MD5 authentication with SASL follows [RFC2831].  Figure 12
   shows a successful digest-MD5 SASL authentication.

   -- Successful TCP Connection --
   C:VERSION=2.0.0 CR LF
   S:CAPABILITY TUNNEL=V6V4 TUNNEL=V6UDPV4 AUTH=ANONYMOUS AUTH=PLAIN
     AUTH=DIGEST-MD5 CR LF
   C:AUTHENTICATE DIGEST-MD5 CR LF
   S:cmVhbG09aGV4b3Msbm9uY2U9MTExMzkwODk2OCxxb3A9YXV0aCxhbGdvcml0aG09bWQ
     1LXNlc3MsY2hhcnNldD11dGY4
   C:Y2hhcnNldD11dGY4LHVzZXJuYW1lPSJ1c2VybmFtZTEiLHJlYWxtPSJoZXhvcyIsbm9
     uY2U9IjExMTM5MDg5NjgiLG5jPTAwMDAwMDAxLGNub25jZT0iMTExMzkyMzMxMSIsZG
     lnZXN0LXVyaT0idHNwL2hleG9zIixyZXNwb25zZT1mOGU0MmIzYzUwYzU5NzcxODUzZ
     jYyNzRmY2ZmZDFjYSxxb3A9YXV0aA==
   S:cnNwYXV0aD03MGQ1Y2FiYzkyMzU1NjhiZTM4MGJhMmM5MDczODFmZQ==
   S:200 Success CR LF

              Figure 12: Successful Digest-MD5 Authentication

   The base64-decoded version of the SASL exchange is:

   S:realm="hexos",nonce="1113908968",qop="auth",algorithm=md5-sess,
     charset=utf8
   C:charset=utf8,username="username1",realm="hexos",nonce="1113908968",
     nc=00000001,cnonce="1113923311",digest-uri="tsp/hexos",
     response=f8e42b3c50c59771853f6274fcffd1ca,qop=auth
   S:rspauth=70d5cabc9235568be380ba2c907381fe

   Once the authentication succeeds, the server sends a success return
   code and the protocol enters the Command phase.

4.4.3.  Command and Response Phase

   The Command phase is where the tunnel client sends a tunnel request
   or a tunnel update to the server.  In this phase, commands are sent
   as XML messages.  The first line is a "Content-length" directive that
   indicates the size of the following XML message.  When the server
   sends a response, the first line is the "Content-length" directive,
   the second is the return code, and third one is the XML message, if
   any.  The "Content-length" is calculated from the first character of
   the return code line to the last character of the XML message,
   inclusively.

   Spaces can be inserted freely.







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         -- UDP session established --
         C:VERSION=2.0.0 CR LF
         S:CAPABILITY TUNNEL=V6V4 TUNNEL=V6UDPV4 AUTH=ANONYMOUS
           AUTH=PLAIN AUTH=DIGEST-MD5 CR LF
         C:AUTHENTICATE ANONYMOUS CR LF
         S:200 Success CR LF

         C:Content-length: 205 CR LF
         <tunnel action="create" type="v6udpv4">
          <client>
           <address type="ipv4">192.0.2.135</address>
         <keepalive interval="30"></keepalive>
         </client>
         </tunnel> CR LF

         S:Content-length: 501 CR LF
         200 Success CR LF
         <tunnel action="info" type="v6udpv4" lifetime="604800">
           <server>
             <address type="ipv4">192.0.2.115</address>
             <address type="ipv6">
             2001:db8:8000:0000:0000:0000:0000:38b2
             </address>
           </server>
           <client>
             <address type="ipv4">192.0.2.135</address>
             <address type="ipv6">
             2001:db8:8000:0000:0000:0000:0000:38b3
             </address>
             <keepalive interval="30">
               <address type="ipv6">
               2001:db8:8000:0000:0000:0000:0000:38b2
               </address>
             </keepalive>
           </client>
         </tunnel> CR LF

         C:Content-length: 35 CR LF
         <tunnel action="accept"></tunnel> CR LF

             Figure 13: Example of a Command/Response Sequence

   The example in Figure 13 shows a client requesting an anonymous
   v6udpv4 tunnel, indicating that a keep-alive packet will be sent
   every 30 seconds.  The tunnel broker responds with the tunnel






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   parameters and indicates its acceptance of the keep-alive period
   (Section 4.6).  Finally, the client sends an accept message to the
   server.

   Once the accept message has been sent, the server and client
   configure their tunnel endpoint based on the negotiated tunnel
   parameters.

4.5.  Tunnel Establishment

4.5.1.  IPv6-over-IPv4 Tunnels

   Once the TSP signaling is complete, a tunnel can be established on
   the tunnel server and client node.  If a v6v4 tunnel has been
   negotiated, then an IPv6-over-IPv4 tunnel [RFC4213] is established
   using the operating system tunneling interface.  On the client node,
   this is accomplished by the TSP client calling the appropriate OS
   commands or system calls.

4.5.2.  IPv6-over-UDP Tunnels

   If a v6udpv4 tunnel is configured, the same source/destination
   address and port used during the TSP signaling are used to configure
   the v6udpv4 tunnel.  If a NAT is in the path between the TSP client
   and the tunnel broker, the TSP signaling session will have created a
   UDP state in the NAT.  By reusing the same UDP socket parameters to
   transport IPv6, the traffic will flow across the NAT using the same
   state.

                   +------+-----------+--------+
                   | IPv4 | UDP       |  IPv6  |
                   | hdr. | port 3653 |        |
                   +------+-----------+--------+

                    Figure 14: IPv6 Transport over UDP

   At any time, a client may re-establish a TSP signaling session.  The
   client disconnects the current tunnel and starts a new TSP signaling
   session as described in Section 4.4.1.2.  If a NAT is present and the
   new TSP session uses the same UDP mapping in the NAT as for the
   tunnel, the tunnel broker will need to disconnect the client tunnel
   before the client can establish a new TSP session.

4.6.  Tunnel Keep-Alive

   A TSP client may select to send periodic keep-alive messages to the
   server in order to maintain its tunnel connectivity.  This allows the
   client to detect network changes and enable automatic tunnel



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   re-establishment.  In the case of IPv6-over-UDP tunnels, periodic
   keep-alive messages can help refresh the connection state in a NAT if
   such a device is in the tunnel path.

   For IPv6-over-IPv4 and IPv6-over-UDP tunnels, the keep-alive message
   is an ICMPv6 echo request [RFC4443] sent from the client to the
   tunnel server.  The IPv6 destination address of the echo message MUST
   be the address from the 'keepalive' element sent in the tunnel
   response during the TSP signaling (Section 4.4.3).  The echo message
   is sent over the configured tunnel.

   The tunnel server responds to the ICMPv6 echo requests and can keep
   track of which tunnel is active.  Any client traffic can also be used
   to verify if the tunnel is active.  This can be used by the broker to
   disconnect tunnels that are no longer in use.

   The broker can send a different keep-alive interval from the value
   specified in the client request.  The client MUST conform to the
   broker-specified keep-alive interval.  The client SHOULD apply a
   random "jitter" value to avoid synchronization of keep-alive messages
   from many clients to the server [FJ93].  This is achieved by using an
   interval value in the range of [0.75T - T], where T is the keep-alive
   interval specified by the server.

4.7.  XML Messaging

   This section describes the XML messaging used in the TSP signaling
   during the command and response phase.  The XML elements and
   attributes are listed in the DTD (Appendix A).

4.7.1.  Tunnel

   The client and server use the tunnel token with an action attribute.
   Valid actions for this profile are: 'create', 'delete', 'info',
   'accept', and 'reject'.

   create:  action used to request a new tunnel or update an existing
      tunnel.  Sent by the tunnel client.

   delete:  action used to remove an existing tunnel from the server.
      Sent by the tunnel client.

   info:  action used to request current properties of an existing
      tunnel.  This action is also used by the tunnel broker to send
      tunnel parameters following a client 'create' action.






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   accept:  action used by the client to acknowledge the server that the
      tunnel parameters are accepted.  The client will establish a
      tunnel.

   reject:  action used by the client to signal the server that the
      tunnel parameters offered are rejected and no tunnel will be
      established.

   The tunnel 'lifetime' attribute is set by the tunnel broker and
   specifies the lifetime of the tunnel in minutes.  The lifetime is an
   administratively set value.  When a tunnel lifetime has expired, it
   is disconnected on the tunnel server.

   The 'tunnel' message contains three elements:

   <client>:   Client's information

   <server>:   Server's information

   <broker>:   List of other servers

4.7.2.  Client Element

   The 'client' element contains 3 sub-elements: 'address', 'router',
   and 'keepalive'.  These elements are used to describe the client
   request and will be used by the server to create the appropriate
   tunnel.  The client element is the only element sent by a client.

   The 'address' element is used to identify the client IP endpoint of
   the tunnel.  When tunneling over IPv4, the client MUST send only its
   IPv4 address to the server.  When tunneling over IPv6, the client
   MUST only send its IPv6 address to the server.

   The broker then returns the assigned IPv6 or IPv4 address endpoint
   and domain name inside the 'client' element when the tunnel is
   created or updated.  If supported by the broker, the 'client' element
   MAY contain the registered DNS name for the address endpoint assigned
   to the client.

   Optionally, a client MAY send a 'router' element to ask for a prefix
   delegation.

   Optionally, a client MAY send a 'keepalive' element that contains the
   keep-alive time interval requested by the client.







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4.7.3.  Server Element

   The 'server' element contains two elements: 'address' and 'router'.
   These elements are used to describe the server's tunnel endpoint.
   The 'address' element is used to provide both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses
   of the server's tunnel endpoint, while the 'router' element provides
   information for the routing method chosen by the client.

4.7.4.  Broker Element

   The 'broker' element is used by a tunnel broker to provide an
   alternate list of brokers to a client in the case where the server is
   not able to provide the requested tunnel.

   The 'broker' element contains an 'address' element or a series of
   'address' elements.

5.  Tunnel Request Examples

   This section presents multiple examples of requests.

5.1.  Host Tunnel Request and Reply

   A simple tunnel request consist of a 'tunnel' element that contains
   only an 'address' element.  The tunnel action is 'create', specifying
   a 'v6v4' tunnel encapsulation type.  The response sent by the tunnel
   broker is an 'info' action.  Note that the registered Fully-Qualified
   Domain Name (FQDN) of the assigned client IPv6 address is also
   returned to the tunnel client.






















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         -- Successful TCP Connection --
         C:VERSION=2.0.0 CR LF
         S:CAPABILITY TUNNEL=V6V4 AUTH=ANONYMOUS CR LF
         C:AUTHENTICATE ANONYMOUS CR LF
         S:200 Authentication successful CR LF
         C:Content-length: 123 CR LF
           <tunnel action="create" type="v6v4">
              <client>
                  <address type="ipv4">1.1.1.1</address>
              </client>
           </tunnel> CR LF
         S: Content-length: 234 CR LF
            200 OK CR LF
            <tunnel action="info" type="v6v4" lifetime="1440">
              <server>
                 <address type="ipv4">192.0.2.114</address>
                 <address type="ipv6">
                 2001:db8:c18:ffff:0000:0000:0000:0000
                 </address>
              </server>
              <client>
                 <address type="ipv4">1.1.1.1</address>
                 <address type="ipv6">
                 2001:db8:c18:ffff::0000:0000:0000:0001
                 </address>
                 <address type="dn">userid.domain</address>
              </client>
            </tunnel> CR LF
         C: Content-length: 35 CR LF
            <tunnel action="accept"></tunnel> CR LF

             Figure 15: Simple Tunnel Request Made by a Client

5.2.  Router Tunnel Request with a /48 Prefix Delegation and Reply

   A tunnel request with a prefix consists of a 'tunnel' element that
   contains an 'address' element and a 'router' element.  The 'router'
   element also contains the 'dns_server' element that is used to
   request a DNS delegation of the assigned IPv6 prefix.  The
   'dns_server' element lists the IP address of the DNS servers to be
   registered for the reverse-mapping zone.










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   Tunnel request with prefix and static routes.

   C: Content-length: 234 CR LF
      <tunnel action="create" type="v6v4">
       <client>
        <address type="ipv4">192.0.2.9</address>
        <router>
         <prefix length="48"/>
         <dns_server>
          <address type="ipv4">192.0.2.5</address>
          <address type="ipv4">192.0.2.4</address>
          <address type="ipv6">2001:db8::1</address>
         </dns_server>
        </router>
       </client>
      </tunnel> CR LF
   S: Content-length: 234 CR LF
      200 OK CR LF
      <tunnel action="info" type="v6v4" lifetime="1440">
       <server>
        <address type="ipv4">192.0.2.114</address>
        <address type="ipv6">
        2001:db8:c18:ffff:0000:0000:0000:0000
        </address>
       </server>
       <client>
        <address type="ipv4">192.0.2.9</address>
        <address type="ipv6">
        2001:db8:c18:ffff::0000:0000:0000:0001
        </address>
        <address type="dn">userid.domain</address>
        <router>
         <prefix length="48">2001:db8:c18:1234::</prefix>
         <dns_server>
          <address type="ipv4">192.0.2.5</address>
          <address type="ipv4">192.0.2.4</address>
          <address type="ipv6">2001:db8::1</address>
         </dns_server>
        </router>
       </client>
      </tunnel> CR LF
   C: Content-length: 35 CR LF
      <tunnel action="accept"></tunnel> CR LF

         Figure 16: Tunnel Request with Prefix and DNS Delegation






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5.3.  IPv4 over IPv6 Tunnel Request

   This is similar to the previous 'create' action, but with the tunnel
   type is set to 'v4v6'.

             -- Successful TCP Connection --
             C:VERSION=1.0 CR LF
             S:CAPABILITY TUNNEL=V4V6 AUTH=DIGEST-MD5 AUTH=ANONYMOUS
               CR LF
             C:AUTHENTICATE ANONYMOUS CR LF
             S:OK Authentication successful CR LF
             C:Content-length: 228 CR LF
               <tunnel action="create" type="v4v6">
                  <client>
                      <address type="ipv6">
                      2001:db8:0c18:ffff:0000:0000:0000:0001
                      </address>
                  </client>
               </tunnel> CR LF

             Figure 17: Simple Tunnel Request Made by a Client

   If the allocation request is accepted, the broker will acknowledge
   the allocation to the client by sending a 'tunnel' element with the
   attribute 'action' set to 'info', 'type' set to 'v4v6' and the
   'lifetime' attribute set to the period of validity or lease time of
   the allocation.  The 'tunnel' element contains 'server' and 'client'
   elements.























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             S: Content-length: 370 CR LF
                200 OK CR LF
                <tunnel action="info" type="v4v6" lifetime="1440">
                  <server>
                     <address type="ipv4" length="30">
                     192.0.2.2
                     </address>
                     <address type="ipv6">
                     2001:db8:c18:ffff:0000:0000:0000:0002
                     </address>
                  </server>
                  <client>
                     <address type="ipv4" length="30">
                     192.0.2.1
                     </address>
                     <address type="ipv6">
                     2001:db8:c18:ffff::0000:0000:0000:0001
                     </address>
                  </client>
                </tunnel> CR LF

                 Figure 18: IPv4 over IPv6 Tunnel Response

   In DSTM [DSTM] terminology, the DSTM server is the TSP broker and the
   Tunnel Endpoint (TEP) is the tunnel server.

5.4.  NAT Traversal Tunnel Request

   When a client is capable of both IPv6 over IPv4 and IPv6 over UDP
   over IPv4 encapsulation, it can request the broker, by using the
   "v6anyv4" tunnel mode, to determine if it is behind a NAT and to send
   the appropriate tunnel encapsulation mode as part of the response.
   The client can also explicitly request an IPv6 over UDP over IPv4
   tunnel by specifying "v6udpv4" in its request.

   In the following example, the client informs the broker that it
   requests to send keep-alives every 30 seconds.  In its response, the
   broker accepted the client-suggested keep-alive interval, and the
   IPv6 destination address for the keep-alive packets is specified.












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     C:VERSION=2.0.0 CR LF
     S:CAPABILITY TUNNEL=V6V4 TUNNEL=V6UDPV4 AUTH=DIGEST-MD5 CR LF
     C:AUTHENTICATE ... CR LF
     S:200 Authentication successful CR LF
     C:Content-length: ... CR LF
       <tunnel action="create" type="v6anyv4">
          <client>
              <address type="ipv4">10.1.1.1</address>
              <keepalive interval="30"></keepalive>
          </client>
       </tunnel> CR LF
     S: Content-length: ... CR LF
        200 OK CR LF
        <tunnel action="info" type="v6udpv4" lifetime="1440">
          <server>
             <address type="ipv4">192.0.2.114</address>
             <address type="ipv6">
             2001:db8:c18:ffff:0000:0000:0000:0002
             </address>
          </server>
          <client>
             <address type="ipv4">10.1.1.1</address>
             <address type="ipv6">
             2001:db8:c18:ffff::0000:0000:0000:0003
             </address>
             <keepalive interval="30">
                <address type="ipv6">
                2001:db8:c18:ffff:0000:0000:0000:0002
                </address>
             </keepalive>
          </client>
        </tunnel> CR LF

               Figure 19: Tunnel Request Using v6anyv4 Mode

6.  Applicability of TSP in Different Networks

   This section describes the applicability of TSP in different
   networks.

6.1.  Provider Networks with Enterprise Customers

   In a provider network where IPv4 is dominant, a tunneled
   infrastructure can be used to provide IPv6 services to the enterprise
   customers, before a full IPv6 native infrastructure is built.  In
   order to start deploying in a controlled manner and to give
   enterprise customers a prefix, the TSP framework is used.  The TSP
   server can be in the core, in the aggregation points or in the Points



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   of Presence (PoPs) to offer the service to the customers.  IPv6 over
   IPv4 encapsulation can be used.  If the customers are behind an IPv4
   NAT, then IPv6 over UDP-IPv4 encapsulation can be used.  TSP can be
   used in combination with other techniques.

6.2.  Provider Networks with Home/Small Office Customers

   In a provider network where IPv4 is dominant, a tunneled
   infrastructure can be used to provide IPv6 services to the home/small
   office customers, before a full IPv6 native infrastructure is built.
   The small networks such as Home/Small offices have a non-upgradable
   gateway with NAT.  TSP with NAT traversal is used to offer IPv6
   connectivity and a prefix to the internal network.

   Automation of the prefix assignment and DNS delegation, done by TSP,
   is a very important feature for a provider in order to substantially
   decrease support costs.  The provider can use the same
   Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) database that is
   used to authenticate the IPv4 broadband users.  Customers can deploy
   home IPv6 networks without any intervention of the provider support
   people.

   With the NAT discovery function of TSP, providers can use the same
   TSP infrastructure for both NAT and non-NAT parts of the network.

6.3.  Enterprise Networks

   In an enterprise network where IPv4 is dominant, a tunneled
   infrastructure can be used to provide IPv6 services to the IPv6
   islands (hosts or networks) inside the enterprise, before a full IPv6
   native infrastructure is built [RFC4057].  TSP can be used to give
   IPv6 connectivity, prefix, and routing for the islands.  This gives
   the enterprise a fully controlled deployment of IPv6 while
   maintaining automation and permanence of the IPv6 assignments to the
   islands.

6.4.  Wireless Networks

   In a wireless network where IPv4 is dominant, hosts and networks move
   and change IPv4 address.  TSP enables the automatic re-establishment
   of the tunnel when the IPv4 address changes.

   In a wireless network where IPv6 is dominant, hosts and networks
   move.  TSP enables the automatic re-establishment of the IPv4 over
   IPv6 tunnel.






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6.5.  Unmanaged Networks

   An unmanaged network is where no network manager or staff is
   available to configure network devices [RFC3904].  TSP is
   particularly useful in this context where automation of all necessary
   information for the IPv6 connectivity is handled by TSP: tunnel
   endpoint parameters, prefix assignment, DNS delegation, and routing.

   An unmanaged network may (or may not) be behind a NAT.  With the NAT
   discovery function, TSP works automatically in both cases.

6.6.  Mobile Hosts and Mobile Networks

   Mobile hosts are common and used.  Laptops moving from wireless,
   wired in an office, home, etc., are examples.  They often have IPv4
   connectivity, but not necessarily IPv6.  The TSP framework enables
   the mobile hosts to have IPv6 connectivity wherever they are, by
   having the TSP client send updated information of the new environment
   to the TSP server, when a change occurs.  Together with NAT discovery
   and traversal, the mobile host can always be IPv6 connected wherever
   it is.

   Mobile here means only the change of IPv4 address.  Mobile-IP
   mechanisms and fast hand-off take care of additional constraints in
   mobile environments.

   Mobile networks share the applicability of the mobile hosts.
   Moreover, in the TSP framework, they also keep their prefix
   assignment and can control the routing.  NAT discovery can also be
   used.

7.  IANA Considerations

   A tunnel type registry has been created by IANA.  The following
   strings are defined in this document:

   o  "v6v4" for IPv6 in IPv4 encapsulation (using IPv4 protocol 41)

   o  "v6udpv4" for IPv6 in UDP in IPv4 encapsulation

   o  "v6anyv4" for IPv6 in IPv4 or IPv6 in UDP in IPv4 encapsulation

   o  "v4v6" for IPv4 in IPv6 encapsulation

   Registration of a new tunnel type can be obtained on a first come,
   first served policy [RFC5226].  A new registration should provide a
   point of contact, the tunnel type string, and a brief description on
   the applicability.



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   IANA assigned 3653 as the TSP port number.

8.  Security Considerations

   Authentication of the TSP session uses the SASL [RFC4422] framework,
   where the authentication mechanism is negotiated between the client
   and the server.  The framework uses the level of authentication
   needed for securing the session, based on the policies.

   Static tunnels are created when the TSP negotiation is terminated.
   Static tunnels are not open gateways and exhibit less security issues
   than automated tunnels.  Static IPv6 in IPv4 tunnel security
   considerations are described in [RFC4213].

   In order to help ensure that the traffic is traceable to its correct
   source network, a tunnel server implementation should allow ingress
   filtering on the user tunnel [RFC3704].

   A customer A behind a NAT can use a large number of (private) IPv4
   addresses and/or source ports and request multiple v6udpv4 tunnels.
   That would quickly saturate the tunnel server capacity.  The tunnel
   broker implementation should offer a way to throttle and limit the
   number of tunnel established to the same IPv4 address.

9.  Conclusion

   The Tunnel Setup Protocol (TSP) is applicable in many environments,
   such as: providers, enterprises, wireless, unmanaged networks, mobile
   hosts, and networks.  TSP gives the two tunnel endpoints the ability
   to negotiate tunnel parameters, as well as prefix assignment, DNS
   delegation and routing in an authenticated session.  It also provides
   an IPv4 NAT discovery function by using the most effective
   encapsulation.  It also supports the IPv4 mobility of the nodes.

10.  Acknowledgements

   This document is the merge of many previous documents about TSP.
   Octavio Medina has contributed to an earlier document (IPv4 in IPv6).
   Thanks to the following people for comments on improving and
   clarifying this document: Pekka Savola, Alan Ford, Jeroen Massar, and
   Jean-Francois Tremblay.










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11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]           Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to
                       Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
                       March 1997.

   [RFC2473]           Conta, A. and S. Deering, "Generic Packet
                       Tunneling in IPv6 Specification", RFC 2473,
                       December 1998.

   [RFC2831]           Leach, P. and C. Newman, "Using Digest
                       Authentication as a SASL Mechanism", RFC 2831,
                       May 2000.

   [RFC4213]           Nordmark, E. and R. Gilligan, "Basic Transition
                       Mechanisms for IPv6 Hosts and Routers", RFC 4213,
                       October 2005.

   [RFC4422]           Melnikov, A. and K. Zeilenga, "Simple
                       Authentication and Security Layer (SASL)",
                       RFC 4422, June 2006.

   [RFC4443]           Conta, A., Deering, S., and M. Gupta, "Internet
                       Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for the
                       Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)
                       Specification", RFC 4443, March 2006.

   [W3C.REC-xml-2004]  Yergeau, F., Paoli, J., Sperberg-McQueen, C.,
                       Bray, T., and E. Maler, "Extensible Markup
                       Language (XML) 1.0 (Third Edition)", W3C REC REC-
                       xml-20040204, February 2004.

11.2.  Informative References

   [DSTM]              Bound, J., Toutain, L., and JL. Richier, "Dual
                       Stack IPv6 Dominant Transition Mechanism", Work
                       in Progress, October 2005.

   [FJ93]              Floyd, S. and V. Jacobson, "The Synchronization
                       of Periodic Routing Messages", Proceedings of
                       ACM SIGCOMM, September 1993.

   [RFC3053]           Durand, A., Fasano, P., Guardini, I., and D.
                       Lento, "IPv6 Tunnel Broker", RFC 3053,
                       January 2001.




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   [RFC3704]           Baker, F. and P. Savola, "Ingress Filtering for
                       Multihomed Networks", BCP 84, RFC 3704,
                       March 2004.

   [RFC3904]           Huitema, C., Austein, R., Satapati, S., and R.
                       van der Pol, "Evaluation of IPv6 Transition
                       Mechanisms for Unmanaged Networks", RFC 3904,
                       September 2004.

   [RFC3964]           Savola, P. and C. Patel, "Security Considerations
                       for 6to4", RFC 3964, December 2004.

   [RFC4057]           Bound, J., "IPv6 Enterprise Network Scenarios",
                       RFC 4057, June 2005.

   [RFC5226]           Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for
                       Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs",
                       BCP 26, RFC 5226, May 2008.

   [UNP]               Stevens, R., Fenner, B., and A. Rudoff, "Unix
                       Network Programming, 3rd edition", Addison
                       Wesley ISBN 0-13-141155-1, 2004.





























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Appendix A.  The TSP DTD

   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <!DOCTYPE tunnel  [
   <!ELEMENT tunnel (server?,client?,broker?)>
     <!ATTLIST tunnel action
                  (create|delete|info|accept|reject) #REQUIRED >
     <!ATTLIST tunnel type
                  (v6v4|v4v6|v6anyv4|v6udpv4) #REQUIRED >
     <!ATTLIST tunnel lifetime CDATA "1440"    >

   <!ELEMENT server        (address+,router?)>

   <!ELEMENT client        (address+,router?)>

   <!ELEMENT broker        (address+)>

   <!ELEMENT router        (prefix?,dns_server?)>

   <!ELEMENT dns_server    (address+)>

   <!ELEMENT prefix        (#PCDATA)>
     <!ATTLIST prefix length CDATA #REQUIRED>

   <!ELEMENT address       (#PCDATA)>
     <!ATTLIST address type (ipv4|ipv6|dn) #REQUIRED>
     <!ATTLIST address length CDATA "">

   <!ELEMENT keepalive (address?)>
     <!ATTLIST keepalive interval CDATA #REQUIRED>
   ]>

                            Figure 20: TSP DTD


















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Appendix B.  Error Codes

   Error codes are sent as a numeric value followed by a text message
   describing the code, similar to SMTP.  The codes are sent from the
   broker to the client.  The currently defined error codes are shown
   below.  Upon receiving an error, the client will display the
   appropriate message to the user.

   New error messages may be defined in the future.  For
   interoperability purpose, the error code range to use should be from
   300 to 599.

   The reply code 200 is used to inform the client that an action
   successfully completed.  For example, this reply code is used in
   response to an authentication request and a tunnel creation request.

   The server may redirect the client to another broker.  The details on
   how these brokers are known or discovered is beyond the scope of this
   document.  When a list of tunnel brokers follows the error code as a
   referral service, then 1000 is added to the error code.

   The predefined values are:

   200 Success:  Successful operation.

   300 Authentication failed:  Invalid userid, password, or
      authentication mechanism.

   301 No more tunnels available:  The server has reached its capacity
      limit.

   302 Unsupported client version:  The client version is not supported
      by the server.

   303 Unsupported tunnel type:  The server does not provide the
      requested tunnel type.

   310 Server side error:  Undefined server error.

   500 Invalid request format or specified length:  The received request
      has invalid syntax or is truncated.

   501 Invalid IPv4 address:  The IPv4 address specified by the client
      is invalid.

   502 Invalid IPv6 address:  The IPv6 address specified by the client
      is invalid.




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   506 IPv4 address already used for existing tunnel:  An IPv6-over-IPv4
      tunnel already exists using the same IPv4 address endpoints.

   507 Requested prefix length cannot be assigned:  The requested prefix
      length cannot be allocated on the server.

   521 Request already in progress:  The client tunnel request is being
      processed by the server.  Temporary error.

   530 Server too busy:  Request cannot be processed, insufficient
      resources.  Temporary error.

Authors' Addresses

   Marc Blanchet
   Viagenie
   2600 boul. Laurier, suite 625
   Quebec, QC  G1V 4W1
   Canada

   Phone: +1-418-656-9254
   EMail: Marc.Blanchet@viagenie.ca


   Florent Parent
   Beon Solutions
   Quebec, QC
   Canada

   Phone: +1 418 265 7357
   EMail: Florent.Parent@beon.ca




















Blanchet & Parent             Experimental                     [Page 32]


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