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PROPOSED STANDARD
Errata Exist
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                        A.B. Roach
Request for Comments: 6140                                       Tekelec
Updates: 3680                                                 March 2011
Category: Standards Track
ISSN: 2070-1721


                Registration for Multiple Phone Numbers
                in the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)

Abstract

   This document defines a mechanism by which a Session Initiation
   Protocol (SIP) server acting as a traditional Private Branch Exchange
   (PBX) can register with a SIP Service Provider (SSP) to receive phone
   calls for SIP User Agents (UAs).  In order to function properly, this
   mechanism requires that each of the Addresses of Record (AORs)
   registered in bulk map to a unique set of contacts.  This requirement
   is satisfied by AORs representing phone numbers regardless of the
   domain, since phone numbers are fully qualified and globally unique.
   This document therefore focuses on this use case.

Status of This Memo

   This is an Internet Standards Track document.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
   Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 5741.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6140.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must




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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................3
   2. Constraints .....................................................3
   3. Terminology and Conventions .....................................4
   4. Mechanism Overview ..............................................5
   5. Registering for Multiple Phone Numbers ..........................5
      5.1. SIP-PBX Behavior ...........................................5
      5.2. Registrar Behavior .........................................6
      5.3. SIP URI "user" Parameter Handling ..........................8
   6. SSP Processing of Inbound Requests ..............................8
   7. Interaction with Other Mechanisms ...............................9
      7.1. Globally Routable User Agent URIs (GRUU) ...................9
           7.1.1. Public GRUUs ........................................9
           7.1.2. Temporary GRUUs ....................................11
      7.2. Registration Event Package ................................16
           7.2.1. SIP-PBX Aggregate Registration State ...............16
           7.2.2. Individual AOR Registration State ..................16
      7.3. Client-Initiated (Outbound) Connections ...................18
      7.4. Non-Adjacent Contact Registration (Path) and
           Service-Route Discovery ...................................19
   8. Examples .......................................................20
      8.1. Usage Scenario: Basic Registration ........................20
      8.2. Usage Scenario: Using Path to Control Request URI .........22
   9. IANA Considerations ............................................24
      9.1. New SIP Option Tag ........................................24
      9.2. New SIP URI Parameters ....................................25
           9.2.1. 'bnc' SIP URI Parameter ............................25
           9.2.2. 'sg' SIP URI Parameter .............................25
      9.3. New SIP Header Field Parameter ............................25
   10. Security Considerations .......................................25
   11. Acknowledgements ..............................................28
   12. References ....................................................28
      12.1. Normative References .....................................28
      12.2. Informative References ...................................29
   Appendix A. Requirements Analysis .................................31











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1.  Introduction

   The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an application-layer control
   (signaling) protocol for creating, modifying, and terminating
   sessions with one or more participants.  One of SIP's primary
   functions is providing rendezvous between users.  By design, these
   rendezvous have been provided through a combination of the server
   look-up procedures defined in RFC 3263 [4] and the registrar
   procedures described in RFC 3261 [3].

   The intention of the original protocol design was that any user's AOR
   (Address of Record) would be handled by the authority indicated by
   the hostport portion of the AOR.  The users would register individual
   reachability information with this authority, which would then route
   incoming requests accordingly.

   In actual deployments, some SIP servers have been deployed in
   architectures that, for various reasons, have requirements to provide
   dynamic routing information for large blocks of AORs, where all of
   the AORs in the block were to be handled by the same server.  For
   purposes of efficiency, many of these deployments do not wish to
   maintain separate registrations for each of the AORs in the block.
   Thus, an alternate mechanism to provide dynamic routing information
   for blocks of AORs is desirable.

   Although the use of SIP REGISTER request messages to update
   reachability information for multiple users simultaneously is
   somewhat beyond the original semantics defined for REGISTER requests
   by RFC 3261 [3], this approach has seen significant deployment in
   certain environments.  In particular, deployments in which small to
   medium SIP-PBX servers are addressed using E.164 numbers have used
   this mechanism to avoid the need to maintain DNS entries or static IP
   addresses for the SIP-PBX servers.

   In recognition of the momentum that REGISTER-based approaches have
   seen in deployments, this document defines a REGISTER-based approach.
   Since E.164-addressed UAs are very common today in SIP-PBX
   environments, and since SIP URIs in which the user portion is an
   E.164 number are always globally unique, regardless of the domain,
   this document focuses on registration of SIP URIs in which the user
   portion is an E.164 number.

2.  Constraints

   Within the problem space that has been established for this work,
   several constraints shape our solution.  These are defined in the
   MARTINI requirements document [22] and are analyzed in Appendix A.
   In terms of impact to the solution at hand, the following two



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   constraints have the most profound effect: (1) The SIP-PBX cannot be
   assumed to be assigned a static IP address; and (2) No DNS entry can
   be relied upon to consistently resolve to the IP address of the SIP-
   PBX.

3.  Terminology and Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [2].

   Further, the term "SSP" is meant as an acronym for a "SIP Service
   Provider," while the term "SIP-PBX" is used to indicate a SIP Private
   Branch Exchange.

      Indented portions of the document, such as this one, form non-
      normative, explanatory sections of the document.

   Although SIP is a text-based protocol, some of the examples in this
   document cannot be unambiguously rendered without additional markup
   due to the constraints placed on the formatting of RFCs.  This
   document uses the <allOneLine/> markup convention established in RFC
   4475 [17] to avoid ambiguity and meet the RFC layout requirements.
   For the sake of completeness, the text defining this markup (Section
   2.1 of RFC 4475 [17]) is reproduced in its entirety below:

      Several of these examples contain unfolded lines longer than 72
      characters.  These are captured between <allOneLine/> tags.  The
      single unfolded line is reconstructed by directly concatenating
      all lines appearing between the tags (discarding any line feeds or
      carriage returns).  There will be no whitespace at the end of
      lines.  Any whitespace appearing at a fold-point will appear at
      the beginning of a line.

      The following represent the same string of bits:

      Header-name: first value, reallylongsecondvalue, third value

      <allOneLine>
      Header-name: first value,
       reallylongsecondvalue
      , third value
      </allOneLine>








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      <allOneLine>
      Header-name: first value,
       reallylong
      second
      value,
       third value
      </allOneLine>

      Note that this is NOT SIP header-line folding, where different
      strings of bits have equivalent meaning.

4.  Mechanism Overview

   The overall mechanism is achieved using a REGISTER request with a
   specially formatted Contact URI.  This document also defines an
   option tag that can be used to ensure that a registrar and any
   intermediaries understand the mechanism described herein.

   The Contact URI itself is tagged with a URI parameter to indicate
   that it actually represents multiple phone-number-associated
   contacts.

   We also define some lightweight extensions to the Globally Routable
   UA URIs (GRUU) mechanism defined by RFC 5627 [20] to allow the use of
   public and temporary GRUUs assigned by the SSP.

   Aside from these extensions, the REGISTER request itself is processed
   by a registrar in the same way as normal registrations: by updating
   its location service with additional AOR-to-Contact bindings.

   Note that the list of AORs associated with a SIP-PBX is a matter of
   local provisioning at the SSP and the SIP-PBX.  The mechanism defined
   in this document does not provide any means to detect or recover from
   provisioning mismatches (although the registration event package can
   be used as a standardized means for auditing such AORs; see
   Section 7.2.1).

5.  Registering for Multiple Phone Numbers

5.1.  SIP-PBX Behavior

   To register for multiple AORs, the SIP-PBX sends a REGISTER request
   to the SSP.  This REGISTER request varies from a typical REGISTER
   request in two important ways.  First, it MUST contain an option tag
   of "gin" in both a "Require" header field and a "Proxy-Require"
   header field.  (The option tag "gin" is an acronym for "generate
   implicit numbers".)  Second, in at least one "Contact" header field,
   it MUST include a Contact URI that contains the URI parameter "bnc"



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   (which stands for "bulk number contact") and has no user portion
   (hence no "@" symbol).  A URI with a "bnc" parameter MUST NOT contain
   a user portion.  Except for the SIP URI "user" parameter, this URI
   MAY contain any other parameters that the SIP-PBX desires.  These
   parameters will be echoed back by the SSP in any requests bound for
   the SIP-PBX.

   Because of the constraints discussed in Section 2, the host portion
   of the Contact URI will generally contain an IP address, although
   nothing in this mechanism enforces or relies upon that fact.  If the
   SIP-PBX operator chooses to maintain DNS entries that resolve to the
   IP address of his SIP-PBX via RFC 3263 resolution procedures, then
   this mechanism works just fine with domain names in the "Contact"
   header field.

   The "bnc" URI parameter indicates that special interpretation of the
   Contact URI is necessary: instead of indicating the insertion of a
   single Contact URI into the location service, it indicates that
   multiple URIs (one for each associated AOR) should be inserted.

   Any SIP-PBX implementing the registration mechanism defined in this
   document MUST also support the path mechanism defined by RFC 3327
   [10], and MUST include a 'path' option tag in the "Supported" header
   field of the REGISTER request (which is a stronger requirement than
   imposed by the path mechanism itself).  This behavior is necessary
   because proxies between the SIP-PBX and the registrar may need to
   insert "Path" header field values in the REGISTER request for this
   document's mechanism to function properly, and, per RFC 3327 [10],
   they can only do so if the User Agent Client (UAC) inserted the
   option tag in the "Supported" header field.  In accordance with the
   procedures defined in RFC 3327 [10], the SIP-PBX is allowed to ignore
   the "Path" header fields returned in the REGISTER response.

5.2.  Registrar Behavior

   The registrar, upon receipt of a REGISTER request containing at least
   one "Contact" header field with a "bnc" parameter, will use the value
   in the "To" header field to identify the SIP-PBX for which
   registration is being requested.  It then authenticates the SIP-PBX
   (e.g., using SIP digest authentication, mutual Transport Layer
   Security (TLS) [18], or some other authentication mechanism).  After
   the SIP-PBX is authenticated, the registrar updates its location
   service with a unique AOR-to-Contact mapping for each of the AORs
   associated with the SIP-PBX.  Semantically, each of these mappings
   will be treated as a unique row in the location service.  The actual
   implementation may, of course, perform internal optimizations to
   reduce the amount of memory used to store such information.




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   For each of these unique rows, the AOR will be in the format that the
   SSP expects to receive from external parties (e.g.,
   "sip:+12145550102@ssp.example.com").  The corresponding contact will
   be formed by adding to the REGISTER request's Contact URI a user
   portion containing the fully qualified, E.164-formatted number
   (including the preceding "+" symbol) and removing the "bnc"
   parameter.  Aside from the initial "+" symbol, this E.164-formatted
   number MUST consist exclusively of digits from 0 through 9 and
   explicitly MUST NOT contain any visual separator symbols (e.g., "-",
   ".", "(", or ")").  For example, if the "Contact" header field
   contains the URI <sip:198.51.100.3:5060;bnc>, then the contact value
   associated with the aforementioned AOR will be
   <sip:+12145550102@198.51.100.3:5060>.

   Although the SSP treats this registration as a number of discrete
   rows for the purpose of re-targeting incoming requests, the renewal,
   expiration, and removal of these rows is bound to the registered
   contact.  In particular, this means that REGISTER requests that
   attempt to de-register a single AOR that has been implicitly
   registered MUST NOT remove that AOR from the bulk registration.  In
   this circumstance, the registrar simply acts as if the UA attempted
   to unregister a contact that wasn't actually registered (e.g., return
   the list of presently registered contacts in a success response).  A
   further implication of this property is that an individual extension
   that is implicitly registered may also be explicitly registered using
   a normal, non-bulk registration (subject to SSP policy).  If such a
   registration exists, it is refreshed independently of the bulk
   registration and is not removed when the bulk registration is
   removed.

   A registrar that receives a REGISTER request containing a Contact URI
   with both a "bnc" parameter and a user portion MUST NOT send a 200-
   class (Success) response.  If no other error is applicable, the
   registrar can use a 400 (Bad Request) response to indicate this error
   condition.

      Note that the preceding paragraph is talking about the user
      portion of a URI:

      sip:+12145550100@example.com
          ^^^^^^^^^^^^

   A registrar compliant with this document MUST support the path
   mechanism defined in RFC 3327 [10].  The rationale for support of
   this mechanism is given in Section 5.1.






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   Aside from the "bnc" parameter, all URI parameters present on the
   Contact URI in the REGISTER request MUST be copied to the contact
   value stored in the location service.

   If the SSP servers perform processing based on User Agent
   Capabilities (as defined in RFC 3840 [13]), they will treat any
   feature tags present on a "Contact" header field with a "bnc"
   parameter in its URI as applicable to all of the resulting AOR-to-
   Contact mappings.  Similarly, any option tags present on the REGISTER
   request that indicate special handling for any subsequent requests
   are also applicable to all of the AOR-to-Contact mappings.

5.3.  SIP URI "user" Parameter Handling

   This document does not modify the behavior specified in RFC 3261 [3]
   for inclusion of the "user" parameter on Request URIs.  However, to
   avoid any ambiguity in handling at the SIP-PBX, the following
   normative behavior is imposed on its interactions with the SSP.

   When a SIP-PBX registers with an SSP using a Contact URI containing a
   "bnc" parameter, that Contact URI MUST NOT include a "user"
   parameter.  A registrar that receives a REGISTER request containing a
   Contact URI with both a "bnc" parameter and a "user" parameter MUST
   NOT send a 200-class (success) response.  If no other error is
   applicable, the registrar can use a 400 (Bad Request) response to
   indicate this error condition.

      Note that the preceding paragraph is talking about the "user"
      parameter of a URI:

      sip:+12145550100@example.com;user=phone
                                   ^^^^^^^^^^

   When a SIP-PBX receives a request from an SSP, and the Request URI
   contains a user portion corresponding to an AOR registered using a
   Contact URI containing a "bnc" parameter, then the SIP-PBX MUST NOT
   reject the request (or otherwise cause the request to fail) due to
   the absence, presence, or value of a "user" parameter on the Request
   URI.

6.  SSP Processing of Inbound Requests

   In general, after processing the AOR-to-Contact mapping described in
   the preceding section, the SSP proxy/registrar (or equivalent entity)
   performs traditional proxy/registrar behavior, based on the mapping.
   For any inbound SIP requests whose AOR indicates an E.164 number
   assigned to one of the SSP's customers, this will generally involve
   setting the target set to the registered contacts associated with



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   that AOR and performing request forwarding as described in Section
   16.6 of RFC 3261 [3].  An SSP using the mechanism defined in this
   document MUST perform such processing for inbound INVITE requests and
   SUBSCRIBE requests to the "reg" event package (see Section 7.2.2) and
   SHOULD perform such processing for all other method types, including
   unrecognized SIP methods.

7.  Interaction with Other Mechanisms

   The following sections describe the means by which this mechanism
   interacts with relevant REGISTER-related extensions currently defined
   by the IETF.

7.1.  Globally Routable User Agent URIs (GRUU)

   To enable advanced services to work with UAs behind a SIP-PBX, it is
   important that the GRUU mechanism defined by RFC 5627 [20] work
   correctly with the mechanism defined by this document -- that is,
   that user agents served by the SIP-PBX can acquire and use GRUUs for
   their own use.

7.1.1.  Public GRUUs

   Support of public GRUUs is OPTIONAL in SSPs and SIP-PBXes.

   When a SIP-PBX registers a Bulk Number Contact (a contact with a
   "bnc" parameter), and also invokes GRUU procedures for that contact
   during registration, then the SSP will assign a public GRUU to the
   SIP-PBX in the normal fashion.  Because the URI being registered
   contains a "bnc" parameter, the GRUU will also contain a "bnc"
   parameter.  In particular, this means that the GRUU will not contain
   a user portion.

   When a UA registers a contact with the SIP-PBX using GRUU procedures,
   the SIP-PBX provides to the UA a public GRUU formed by adding an "sg"
   parameter to the GRUU parameter it received from the SSP.  This "sg"
   parameter contains a disambiguation token that the SIP-PBX can use to
   route inbound requests to the proper UA.

   So, for example, when the SIP-PBX registers with the following
   "Contact" header field:

   Contact: <sip:198.51.100.3;bnc>;
     +sip.instance="<urn:uuid:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6>"

   the SSP may choose to respond with a "Contact" header field that
   looks like this:




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   <allOneLine>
   Contact: <sip:198.51.100.3;bnc>;
   pub-gruu="sip:ssp.example.com;bnc;gr=urn:
   uuid:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6";
   +sip.instance="<urn:uuid:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6>"
   ;expires=7200
   </allOneLine>

   When its own UAs register using GRUU procedures, the SIP-PBX can then
   add whatever device identifier it feels appropriate in an "sg"
   parameter and present this value to its own UAs.  For example, assume
   the UA associated with the AOR "+12145550102" sent the following
   "Contact" header field in its REGISTER request:

   Contact: <sip:line-1@10.20.1.17>;
     +sip.instance="<urn:uuid:d0e2f290-104b-11df-8a39-0800200c9a66>"

   The SIP-PBX will add an "sg" parameter to the pub-gruu it received
   from the SSP with a token that uniquely identifies the device
   (possibly the URN itself; possibly some other identifier), insert a
   user portion containing the fully qualified E.164 number associated
   with the UA, and return the result to the UA as its public GRUU.  The
   resulting "Contact" header field sent from the SIP-PBX to the
   registering UA would look something like this:

   <allOneLine>
   Contact: <sip:line-1@10.20.1.17>;
   pub-gruu="sip:+12145550102@ssp.example.com;gr=urn:
   uuid:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6;sg=00:05:03:5e:70:a6";
   +sip.instance="<urn:uuid:d0e2f290-104b-11df-8a39-0800200c9a66>"
   ;expires=3600
   </allOneLine>

   When an incoming request arrives at the SSP for a GRUU corresponding
   to a bulk number contact ("bnc"), the SSP performs slightly different
   processing for the GRUU than it would for a URI without a "bnc"
   parameter.  When the GRUU is re-targeted to the registered bulk
   number contact, the SSP MUST copy the "sg" parameter from the GRUU to
   the new target.  The SIP-PBX can then use this "sg" parameter to
   determine to which user agent the request should be routed.  For
   example, the first line of an INVITE request that has been re-
   targeted to the SIP-PBX for the UA shown above would look like this:

   INVITE sip:+12145550102@198.51.100.3;sg=00:05:03:5e:70:a6 SIP/2.0







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7.1.2.  Temporary GRUUs

   In order to provide support for privacy, the SSP SHOULD implement the
   temporary GRUU mechanism described in this section.  Reasons for not
   doing so would include systems with an alternative privacy mechanism
   that maintains the integrity of public GRUUs (i.e., if public GRUUs
   are anonymized, then the anonymizer function would need to be capable
   of providing -- as the anonymized URI -- a globally routable URI that
   routes back only to the target identified by the original public
   GRUU).

   Temporary GRUUs are used to provide anonymity for the party creating
   and sharing the GRUU.  Being able to correlate two temporary GRUUs as
   having originated from behind the same SIP-PBX violates this
   principle of anonymity.  Consequently, rather than relying upon a
   single, invariant identifier for the SIP-PBX in its UA's temporary
   GRUUs, we define a mechanism whereby the SSP provides the SIP-PBX
   with sufficient information for the SIP-PBX to mint unique temporary
   GRUUs.  These GRUUs have the property that the SSP can correlate them
   to the proper SIP-PBX, but no other party can do so.  To achieve this
   goal, we use a slight modification of the procedure described in
   Appendix A.2 of RFC 5627 [20].

   The SIP-PBX needs to be able to construct a temp-gruu in a way that
   the SSP can decode.  In order to ensure that the SSP can decode
   GRUUs, we need to standardize the algorithm for creation of temp-
   gruus at the SIP-PBX.  This allows the SSP to reverse the algorithm
   in order to identify the registration entry that corresponds to the
   GRUU.

   It is equally important that no party other than the SSP be capable
   of decoding a temporary GRUU, including other SIP-PBXes serviced by
   the SSP.  To achieve this property, an SSP that supports temporary
   GRUUs MUST create and store an asymmetric key pair: {K_e1,K_e2}.
   K_e1 is kept secret by the SSP, while K_e2 is shared with the SIP-
   PBXes via provisioning.

   All base64 encoding discussed in the following sections MUST use the
   character set and encoding defined in Section 4 of RFC 4648 [8],
   except that any trailing "=" characters are discarded on encoding and
   added as necessary to decode.

   The following sections make use of the term "HMAC-SHA256-80" to
   describe a particular Hashed Message Authentication Code (HMAC)
   algorithm.  In this document, HMAC-SHA256-80 is defined as the
   application of the SHA-256 [24] secure hashing algorithm, truncating
   the results to 80 bits by discarding the trailing (least-significant)
   bits.



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7.1.2.1.  Generation of "temp-gruu-cookie" by the SSP

   An SSP that supports temporary GRUUs MUST include a "temp-gruu-
   cookie" parameter on all "Contact" header fields containing a "bnc"
   parameter in a 200-class REGISTER response.  This "temp-gruu-cookie"
   MUST have the following properties:

   1.  It can be used by the SSP to uniquely identify the registration
       to which it corresponds.

   2.  It is encoded using base64.  This allows the SIP-PBX to decode it
       into as compact a form as possible for use in its calculations.

   3.  It is of a fixed length.  This allows for its extraction once the
       SIP-PBX has concatenated a distinguisher onto it.

   4.  The temp-gruu-cookie MUST NOT be forgeable by any party.  In
       other words, the SSP needs to be able to examine the cookie and
       validate that it was generated by the SSP.

   5.  The temp-gruu-cookie MUST be invariant during the course of a
       registration, including any refreshes to that registration.  This
       property is important, as it allows the SIP-PBX to examine the
       temp-gruu-cookie to determine whether the temp-gruus it has
       issued to its UAs are still valid.

   The above properties can be met using the following algorithm, which
   is non-normative.  Implementors may chose to implement any algorithm
   of their choosing for generation of the temp-gruu-cookie, as long as
   it fulfills the five properties listed above.

      The registrar maintains a counter, I.  This counter is 48 bits
      long and initialized to zero.  This counter is persistently
      stored, using a back-end database or similar technique.  When the
      registrar creates the first temporary GRUU for a particular SIP-
      PBX and instance ID (as defined by [20]), the registrar notes the
      current value of the counter, I_i, and increments the counter in
      the database.  The registrar then maps I_i to the contact and
      instance ID using the database, a persistent hash-map, or similar
      technology.  If the registration expires such that there are no
      longer any contacts with that particular instance ID bound to the
      GRUU, the registrar removes the mapping.  Similarly, if the
      temporary GRUUs are invalidated due to a change in Call-ID, the
      registrar removes the current mapping from I_i to the AOR and
      instance ID, notes the current value of the counter I_j, and
      stores a mapping from I_j to the contact containing a "bnc"
      parameter and instance ID.  Based on these rules, the hash-map




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      will contain a single mapping for each contact containing a "bnc"
      parameter and instance ID for which there is a currently valid
      registration.

      The registrar maintains a symmetric key SK_a, which is regenerated
      every time the counter rolls over or is reset.  When the counter
      rolls over or is reset, the registrar remembers the old value of
      SK_a for a while.  To generate a temp-gruu-cookie, the registrar
      computes:

         SA = HMAC(SK_a, I_i)
         temp-gruu-cookie = base64enc(I_i || SA)

   where || denotes concatenation.  "HMAC" represents any suitably
   strong HMAC algorithm; see RFC 2104 [1] for a discussion of HMAC
   algorithms.  One suitable HMAC algorithm for this purpose is HMAC-
   SHA256-80.

7.1.2.2.  Generation of temp-gruu by the SIP-PBX

   According to Section 3.2 of RFC 5627 [20], every registration refresh
   generates a new temp-gruu that is valid for as long as the contact
   remains registered.  This property is both critical for the privacy
   properties of temp-gruu and is expected by UAs that implement the
   temp-gruu procedures.  Nothing in this document should be construed
   as changing this fundamental temp-gruu property in any way.  SIP-
   PBXes that implement temporary GRUUs MUST generate a new temp-gruu
   according to the procedures in this section for every registration or
   registration refresh from GRUU-supporting UAs attached to the SIP-
   PBX.

   Similarly, if the registration that a SIP-PBX has with its SSP
   expires or is terminated, then the temp-gruu cookie it maintains with
   the SSP will change.  This change will invalidate all the temp-gruus
   the SIP-PBX has issued to its UAs.  If the SIP-PBX tracks this
   information (e.g., to include <temp-gruu> elements in registration
   event bodies, as described in RFC 5628 [9]), it can determine that
   previously issued temp-gruus are invalid by observing a change in the
   temp-gruu-cookie provided to it by the SSP.

   A SIP-PBX that issues temporary GRUUs to its UAs MUST maintain an
   HMAC key: PK_a.  This value is used to validate that incoming GRUUs
   were generated by the SIP-PBX.








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   To generate a new temporary GRUU for use by its own UAs, the SIP-PBX
   MUST generate a random distinguisher value: D.  The length of this
   value is up to implementors, but it MUST be long enough to prevent
   collisions among all the temporary GRUUs issued by the SIP-PBX.  A
   size of 80 bits or longer is RECOMMENDED.  See RFC 4086 [16] for
   further considerations on the generation of random numbers in a
   security context.  After generating the distinguisher D, the SIP-PBX
   MUST calculate:

     M    = base64dec(SSP-cookie) || D
     E    = RSA-Encrypt(K_e2, M)
     PA   = HMAC(PK_a, E)

     Temp-Gruu-userpart = "tgruu." || base64(E) || "." || base64(PA)

   where || denotes concatenation.  "HMAC" represents any suitably
   strong HMAC algorithm; see RFC 2104 [1] for a discussion of HMAC
   algorithms.  One suitable HMAC algorithm for this purpose is HMAC-
   SHA256-80.

   Finally, the SIP-PBX adds a "gr" parameter to the temporary GRUU that
   can be used to uniquely identify the UA registration record to which
   the GRUU corresponds.  The means of generation of the "gr" parameter
   are left to the implementor, as long as they satisfy the properties
   of a GRUU as described in RFC 5627 [20].

      One valid approach for generation of the "gr" parameter is
      calculation of "E" and "A" as described in Appendix A.2 of RFC
      5627 [20] and forming the "gr" parameter as:

         gr = base64enc(E) || base64enc(A)

   Using this procedure may result in a temporary GRUU returned to the
   registering UA by the SIP-PBX that looks similar to this:

   <allOneLine>
   Contact: <sip:line-1@10.20.1.17>
   ;temp-gruu="sip:tgruu.MQyaRiLEd78RtaWkcP7N8Q.5qVbsasdo2pkKw@
   ssp.example.com;gr=YZGSCjKD42ccxO08pA7HwAM4XNDIlMSL0HlA"
   ;+sip.instance="<urn:uuid:d0e2f290-104b-11df-8a39-0800200c9a66>"
   ;expires=3600
   </allOneLine>









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7.1.2.3.  Decoding of temp-gruu by the SSP

   When the SSP proxy receives a request in which the user part begins
   with "tgruu.", it extracts the remaining portion and splits it at the
   "." character into E' and PA'.  It discards PA'.  It then computes E
   by performing a base64 decode of E'.  Next, it computes:

     M = RSA-Decrypt(K_e1, E)

   The SSP proxy extracts the fixed-length temp-gruu-cookie information
   from the beginning of this M and discards the remainder (which will
   be the distinguisher added by the SIP-PBX).  It then validates this
   temp-gruu-cookie.  If valid, it uses it to locate the corresponding
   SIP-PBX registration record and routes the message appropriately.

      If the non-normative, exemplary algorithm described in
      Section 7.1.2.1 is used to generate the temp-gruu-cookie, then
      this identification is performed by splitting the temp-gruu-cookie
      information into its 48-bit counter I and 80-bit HMAC.  It
      validates that the HMAC matches the counter I and then uses
      counter I to locate the SIP-PBX registration record in its map.
      If the counter has rolled over or reset, this computation is
      performed with the current and previous SK_a.

7.1.2.4.  Decoding of temp-gruu by the SIP-PBX

   When the SIP-PBX receives a request in which the user part begins
   with "tgruu.", it extracts the remaining portion and splits it at the
   "." character into E' and PA'.  It then computes E and PA by
   performing a base64 decode of E' and PA', respectively.  Next, it
   computes:

     PAc = HMAC(PK_a, E)

   where HMAC is the HMAC algorithm used for the steps in
   Section 7.1.2.2.  If this computed value for PAc does not match the
   value of PA extracted from the GRUU, then the GRUU is rejected as
   invalid.

   The SIP-PBX then uses the value of the "gr" parameter to locate the
   UA registration to which the GRUU corresponds, and routes the message
   accordingly.









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7.2.  Registration Event Package

   Neither the SSP nor the SIP-PBX is required to support the
   registration event package defined by RFC 3680 [12].  However, if
   they do support the registration event package, they MUST conform to
   the behavior described in this section and its subsections.

   As this mechanism inherently deals with REGISTER transaction
   behavior, it is imperative to consider its impact on the registration
   event package defined by RFC 3680 [12].  In practice, there will be
   two main use cases for subscribing to registration data: learning
   about the overall registration state for the SIP-PBX and learning
   about the registration state for a single SIP-PBX AOR.

7.2.1.  SIP-PBX Aggregate Registration State

   If the SIP-PBX (or another interested and authorized party) wishes to
   monitor or audit the registration state for all of the AORs currently
   registered to that SIP-PBX, it can subscribe to the SIP registration
   event package at the SIP-PBX's main URI -- that is, the URI used in
   the "To" header field of the REGISTER request.

   The NOTIFY messages for such a subscription will contain a body that
   contains one record for each AOR associated with the SIP-PBX.  The
   AORs will be in the format expected to be received by the SSP (e.g.,
   "sip:+12145550105@ssp.example.com"), and the contacts will correspond
   to the mapped contact created by the registration (e.g.,
   "sip:+12145550105@98.51.100.3").

   In particular, the "bnc" parameter is forbidden from appearing in the
   body of a reg-event NOTIFY request unless the subscriber has
   indicated knowledge of the semantics of the "bnc" parameter.  The
   means for indicating this support are out of scope of this document.

   Because the SSP does not necessarily know which GRUUs have been
   issued by the SIP-PBX to its associated UAs, these records will not
   generally contain the <temp-gruu> or <pub-gruu> elements defined in
   RFC 5628 [9].  This information can be learned, if necessary, by
   subscribing to the individual AOR registration state, as described in
   Section 7.2.2.

7.2.2.  Individual AOR Registration State

   As described in Section 6, the SSP will generally re-target all
   requests addressed to an AOR owned by a SIP-PBX to that SIP-PBX
   according to the mapping established at registration time.  Although
   policy at the SSP may override this generally expected behavior,
   proper behavior of the registration event package requires that all



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   "reg" event SUBSCRIBE requests are processed by the SIP-PBX.  As a
   consequence, the requirements on an SSP for processing registration
   event package SUBSCRIBE requests are not left to policy.

   If the SSP receives a SUBSCRIBE request for the registration event
   package with a Request URI that indicates an AOR registered via the
   "Bulk Number Contact" mechanism defined in this document, then the
   SSP MUST proxy that SUBSCRIBE to the SIP-PBX in the same way that it
   would proxy an INVITE bound for that AOR, unless the SSP has and can
   maintain a copy of complete, accurate, and up-to-date information
   from the SIP-PBX (e.g., through an active back-end subscription).

   If the Request URI in a SUBSCRIBE request for the registration event
   package indicates a contact that is registered by more than one SIP-
   PBX, then the SSP proxy will fork the SUBSCRIBE request to all the
   applicable SIP-PBXes.  Similarly, if the Request URI corresponds to a
   contact that is both implicitly registered by a SIP-PBX and
   explicitly registered directly with the SSP proxy, then the SSP proxy
   will semantically fork the SUBSCRIBE request to the applicable SIP-
   PBX or SIP-PBXes and to the registrar function (which will respond
   with registration data corresponding to the explicit registrations at
   the SSP).  The forking in both of these cases can be avoided if the
   SSP has and can maintain a copy of up-to-date information from the
   PBXes.

   Section 4.9 of RFC 3680 [12] indicates that "a subscriber MUST NOT
   create multiple dialogs as a result of a single [registration event]
   subscription request".  Consequently, subscribers who are not aware
   of the extension described by this document will accept only one
   dialog in response to such requests.  In the case described in the
   preceding paragraph, this behavior will result in such clients
   receiving accurate but incomplete information about the registration
   state of an AOR.  As an explicit change to the normative behavior of
   RFC 3680, this document stipulates that subscribers to the
   registration event package MAY create multiple dialogs as the result
   of a single subscription request.  This will allow subscribers to
   create a complete view of an AOR's registration state.

   Defining the behavior as described above is important, since the reg-
   event subscriber is interested in finding out about the comprehensive
   list of devices associated with the AOR.  Only the SIP-PBX will have
   authoritative access to this information.  For example, if the user
   has registered multiple UAs with differing capabilities, the SSP will
   not know about the devices or their capabilities.  By contrast, the
   SIP-PBX will.






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   If the SIP-PBX is not registered with the SSP when a registration
   event subscription for a contact that would be implicitly registered
   if the SIP-PBX were registered is received, then the SSP SHOULD
   accept the subscription and indicate that the user is not currently
   registered.  Once the associated SIP-PBX is registered, the SSP
   SHOULD use the subscription migration mechanism defined in RFC 3265
   [5] to migrate the subscription to the SIP-PBX.

   When a SIP-PBX receives a registration event subscription addressed
   to an AOR that has been registered using the bulk registration
   mechanism described in this document, then each resulting
   registration information document SHOULD contain an 'aor' attribute
   in its <registration/> element that corresponds to the AOR at the
   SSP.

      For example, consider a SIP-PBX that has registered with an SSP
      that has a domain of "ssp.example.com".  The SIP-PBX used a
      Contact URI of "sip:198.51.100.3:5060;bnc".  After such
      registration is complete, a registration event subscription
      arriving at the SSP with a Request URI of
      "sip:+12145550102@ssp.example.com" will be re-targeted to the SIP-
      PBX, with a Request URI of "sip:+12145550102@198.51.100.3:5060".
      The resulting registration document created by the SIP-PBX would
      contain a <registration/> element with an "aor" attribute of
      "sip:+12145550102@ssp.example.com".

      This behavior ensures that subscribers external to the system (and
      unaware of GIN (generate implicit numbers) procedures) will be
      able to find the relevant information in the registration document
      (since they will be looking for the publicly visible AOR, not the
      address used for sending information from the SSP to the SIP-PBX).

   A SIP-PBX that supports both GRUU procedures and the registration
   event packages SHOULD implement the extension defined in RFC 5628
   [9].

7.3.  Client-Initiated (Outbound) Connections

   RFC 5626 [19] defines a mechanism that allows UAs to establish long-
   lived TCP connections or UDP associations with a proxy in a way that
   allows bidirectional traffic between the proxy and the UA.  This
   behavior is particularly important in the presence of NATs, and
   whenever TLS [18] security is required.  Neither the SSP nor the SIP-
   PBX is required to support client-initiated connections.

   Generally, the outbound mechanism works with the solution defined in
   this document, without any modifications.  Implementors should note
   that the instance ID used between the SIP-PBX and the SSP's registrar



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   identifies the SIP-PBX itself, and not any of the UAs registered with
   the SIP-PBX.  As a consequence, any attempts to use caller
   preferences (defined in RFC 3841 [14]) to target a specific instance
   are likely to fail.  This shouldn't be an issue, as the preferred
   mechanism for targeting specific instances of a user agent is GRUU
   (see Section 7.1).

7.4.  Non-Adjacent Contact Registration (Path) and Service-Route
      Discovery

   RFC 3327 [10] defines a means by which a registrar and its associated
   proxy can be informed of a route that is to be used between the proxy
   and the registered user agent.  The scope of the route created by a
   "Path" header field is contact specific; if an AOR has multiple
   contacts associated with it, the routes associated with each contact
   may be different from each other.  Support for non-adjacent contact
   registration is required in all SSPs and SIP-PBXes implementing the
   multiple-AOR-registration protocol described in this document.

   At registration time, any proxies between the user agent and the
   registrar may add themselves to the "Path" header field.  By doing
   so, they request that any requests destined to the user agent as a
   result of the associated registration include them as part of the
   Route towards the user agent.  Although the path mechanism does
   deliver the final path value to the registering UA, UAs typically
   ignore the value of the path.

   To provide similar functionality in the opposite direction -- that
   is, to establish a route for requests sent by a registering UA -- RFC
   3608 [11] defines a means by which a UA can be informed of a route
   that is to be used by the UA to route all outbound requests
   associated with the AOR used in the registration.  This information
   is scoped to the AOR within the UA, and is not specific to the
   contact (or contacts) in the REGISTER request.  Support of service
   route discovery is OPTIONAL in SSPs and SIP-PBXes.

   The registrar unilaterally generates the values of the service route
   using whatever local policy it wishes to apply.  Although it is
   common to use the "Path" and/or "Route" header field information in
   the request in composing the service route, registrar behavior is not
   constrained in any way that requires it to do so.

   In considering the interaction between these mechanisms and the
   registration of multiple AORs in a single request, implementors of
   proxies, registrars, and intermediaries must keep in mind the
   following issues, which stem from the fact that GIN effectively
   registers multiple AORs and multiple contacts.




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   First, all location service records that result from expanding a
   single Contact URI containing a "bnc" parameter will necessarily
   share a single path.  Proxies will be unable to make policy decisions
   on a contact-by-contact basis regarding whether to include themselves
   in the path.  Second, and similarly, all AORs on the SIP-PBX that are
   registered with a common REGISTER request will be forced to share a
   common service route.

   One interesting technique that the path and service route mechanisms
   enable is the inclusion of a token or cookie in the user portion of
   the service route or path entries.  This token or cookie may convey
   information to proxies about the identity, capabilities, and/or
   policies associated with the user.  Since this information will be
   shared among several AORs and several contacts when multiple AOR
   registration is employed, care should be taken to ensure that doing
   so is acceptable for all AORs and all contacts registered in a single
   REGISTER request.

8.  Examples

   Note that the following examples elide any steps related to
   authentication.  This is done for the sake of clarity.  Actual
   deployments will need to provide a level of authentication
   appropriate to their system.

8.1.  Usage Scenario: Basic Registration

   This example shows the message flows for a basic bulk REGISTER
   transaction, followed by an INVITE addressed to one of the registered
   UAs.  Example messages are shown after the sequence diagram.

   Internet                        SSP                          SIP-PBX
   |                                |                                 |
   |                                |(1) REGISTER                     |
   |                                |Contact:<sip:198.51.100.3;bnc>   |
   |                                |<--------------------------------|
   |                                |                                 |
   |                                |(2) 200 OK                       |
   |                                |-------------------------------->|
   |                                |                                 |
   |(3) INVITE                      |                                 |
   |sip:+12145550105@ssp.example.com|                                 |
   |------------------------------->|                                 |
   |                                |                                 |
   |                                |(4) INVITE                       |
   |                                |sip:+12145550105@198.51.100.3    |
   |                                |-------------------------------->|




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   (1) The SIP-PBX registers with the SSP for a range of AORs.

   REGISTER sip:ssp.example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 198.51.100.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7
   Max-Forwards: 70
   To: <sip:pbx@ssp.example.com>
   From: <sip:pbx@ssp.example.com>;tag=a23589
   Call-ID: 843817637684230@998sdasdh09
   CSeq: 1826 REGISTER
   Proxy-Require: gin
   Require: gin
   Supported: path
   Contact: <sip:198.51.100.3:5060;bnc>
   Expires: 7200
   Content-Length: 0


   (3) The SSP receives a request for an AOR assigned
       to the SIP-PBX.

   INVITE sip:+12145550105@ssp.example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP foo.example;branch=z9hG4bKa0bc7a0131f0ad
   Max-Forwards: 69
   To: <sip:2145550105@some-other-place.example.net>
   From: <sip:gsmith@example.org>;tag=456248
   Call-ID: f7aecbfc374d557baf72d6352e1fbcd4
   CSeq: 24762 INVITE
   Contact: <sip:line-1@192.0.2.178:2081>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: ...

   <sdp body here>



















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   (4) The SSP re-targets the incoming request according to the
       information received from the SIP-PBX at registration time.

   INVITE sip:+12145550105@198.51.100.3 SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ssp.example.com;branch=z9hG4bKa45cd5c52a6dd50
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP foo.example;branch=z9hG4bKa0bc7a0131f0ad
   Max-Forwards: 68
   To: <sip:2145550105@some-other-place.example.net>
   From: <sip:gsmith@example.org>;tag=456248
   Call-ID: f7aecbfc374d557baf72d6352e1fbcd4
   CSeq: 24762 INVITE
   Contact: <sip:line-1@192.0.2.178:2081>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: ...

   <sdp body here>

8.2.  Usage Scenario: Using Path to Control Request URI

   This example shows a bulk REGISTER transaction with the SSP making
   use of the "Path" header field extension [10].  This allows the SSP
   to designate a domain on the incoming Request URI that does not
   necessarily resolve to the SIP-PBX when the SSP applies RFC 3263
   procedures to it.

   Internet                        SSP                          SIP-PBX
   |                                |                                 |
   |                                |(1) REGISTER                     |
   |                                |Path:<sip:pbx@198.51.100.3;lr>   |
   |                                |Contact:<sip:pbx.example;bnc>    |
   |                                |<--------------------------------|
   |                                |                                 |
   |                                |(2) 200 OK                       |
   |                                |-------------------------------->|
   |                                |                                 |
   |(3) INVITE                      |                                 |
   |sip:+12145550105@ssp.example.com|                                 |
   |------------------------------->|                                 |
   |                                |                                 |
   |                                |(4) INVITE                       |
   |                                |sip:+12145550105@pbx.example     |
   |                                |Route:<sip:pbx@198.51.100.3;lr>  |
   |                                |-------------------------------->|








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   (1) The SIP-PBX registers with the SSP for a range of AORs.
       It includes the form of the URI it expects to receive in the
       Request URI in its "Contact" header field, and it includes
       information that routes to the SIP-PBX in the "Path" header
       field.

   REGISTER sip:ssp.example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 198.51.100.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7
   Max-Forwards: 70
   To: <sip:pbx@ssp.example.com>
   From: <sip:pbx@ssp.example.com>;tag=a23589
   Call-ID: 326983936836068@998sdasdh09
   CSeq: 1826 REGISTER
   Proxy-Require: gin
   Require: gin
   Supported: path
   Path: <sip:pbx@198.51.100.3:5060;lr>
   Contact: <sip:pbx.example;bnc>
   Expires: 7200
   Content-Length: 0


   (3) The SSP receives a request for an AOR assigned
       to the SIP-PBX.

   INVITE sip:+12145550105@ssp.example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP foo.example;branch=z9hG4bKa0bc7a0131f0ad
   Max-Forwards: 69
   To: <sip:2145550105@some-other-place.example.net>
   From: <sip:gsmith@example.org>;tag=456248
   Call-ID: 7ca24b9679ffe9aff87036a105e30d9b
   CSeq: 24762 INVITE
   Contact: <sip:line-1@192.0.2.178:2081>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: ...

   <sdp body here>














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   (4) The SSP re-targets the incoming request according to the
       information received from the SIP-PBX at registration time.
       Per the normal processing associated with "Path", it
       will insert the "Path" value indicated by the SIP-PBX at
       registration time in a "Route" header field, and
       set the Request URI to the registered contact.

   INVITE sip:+12145550105@pbx.example SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ssp.example.com;branch=z9hG4bKa45cd5c52a6dd50
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP foo.example;branch=z9hG4bKa0bc7a0131f0ad
   Route: <sip:pbx@198.51.100.3:5060;lr>
   Max-Forwards: 68
   To: <sip:2145550105@some-other-place.example.net>
   From: <sip:gsmith@example.org>;tag=456248
   Call-ID: 7ca24b9679ffe9aff87036a105e30d9b
   CSeq: 24762 INVITE
   Contact: <sip:line-1@192.0.2.178:2081>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: ...

   <sdp body here>

9.  IANA Considerations

   This document registers a new SIP option tag to indicate support for
   the mechanism it defines, two new SIP URI parameters, and a "Contact"
   header field parameter.  The process governing registration of these
   protocol elements is outlined in RFC 5727 [21].

9.1.  New SIP Option Tag

   This section defines a new SIP option tag per the guidelines in
   Section 27.1 of RFC 3261 [3].

   Name:  gin

   Description:  This option tag is used to identify the extension that
      provides registration for Multiple Phone Numbers in SIP.  When
      present in a "Require" or "Proxy-Require" header field of a
      REGISTER request, it indicates that support for this extension is
      required of registrars and proxies, respectively, that are a party
      to the registration transaction.

   Reference:  RFC 6140







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9.2.  New SIP URI Parameters

   This specification defines two new SIP URI parameters, as per the
   registry created by RFC 3969 [7].

9.2.1.  'bnc' SIP URI Parameter

   Parameter Name:  bnc

   Predefined Values:  No (no values are allowed)

   Reference:  RFC 6140

9.2.2.  'sg' SIP URI Parameter

   Parameter Name:  sg

   Predefined Values:  No

   Reference:  RFC 6140

9.3.  New SIP Header Field Parameter

   This section defines a new SIP header field parameter per the
   registry created by RFC 3968 [6].

   Header field:  Contact

   Parameter name:  temp-gruu-cookie

   Predefined values:  No

   Reference:  RFC 6140

10.  Security Considerations

   The change proposed for the mechanism described in this document
   takes the unprecedented step of extending the previously defined
   REGISTER method to apply to more than one AOR.  In general, this kind
   of change has the potential to cause problems at intermediaries --
   such as proxies -- that are party to the REGISTER transaction.  In
   particular, such intermediaries may attempt to apply policy to the
   user indicated in the "To" header field (i.e., the SIP-PBX's
   identity), without any knowledge of the multiple AORs that are being
   implicitly registered.






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   The mechanism defined by this document solves this issue by adding an
   option tag to a "Proxy-Require" header field in such REGISTER
   requests.  Proxies that are unaware of this mechanism will not
   process the requests, preventing them from misapplying policy.
   Proxies that process requests with this option tag are clearly aware
   of the nature of the REGISTER request and can make reasonable policy
   decisions.

   As noted in Section 7.4, intermediaries need to take care if they use
   a policy token in the path and service route mechanisms, as doing so
   will cause them to apply the same policy to all users serviced by the
   same SIP-PBX.  This may frequently be the correct behavior, but
   circumstances can arise in which differentiation of user policy is
   required.

   Section 7.4 also notes that these techniques use a token or cookie in
   the "Path" and/or "Service-Route" header values, and that this value
   will be shared among all AORs associated with a single registration.
   Because this information will be visible to user agents under certain
   conditions, proxy designers using this mechanism in conjunction with
   the techniques described in this document need to take care that
   doing so does not leak sensitive information.

   One of the key properties of the outbound client connection mechanism
   discussed in Section 7.3 is the assurance that a single connection is
   associated with a single user and cannot be hijacked by other users.
   With the mechanism defined in this document, such connections
   necessarily become shared between users.  However, the only entity in
   a position to hijack calls as a consequence is the SIP-PBX itself.
   Because the SIP-PBX acts as a registrar for all the potentially
   affected users, it already has the ability to redirect any such
   communications as it sees fit.  In other words, the SIP-PBX must be
   trusted to handle calls in an appropriate fashion, and the use of the
   outbound connection mechanism introduces no additional
   vulnerabilities.

   The ability to learn the identity and registration state of every
   user on the PBX (as described in Section 7.2.1) is invaluable for
   diagnostic and administrative purposes.  For example, this allows the
   SIP-PBX to determine whether all its extensions are properly
   registered with the SSP.  However, this information can also be
   highly sensitive, as many organizations may not wish to make their
   entire list of phone numbers available to external entities.
   Consequently, SSP servers are advised to use explicit (i.e., white-
   list) and configurable policies regarding who can access this
   information, with very conservative defaults (e.g., an empty access
   list or an access list consisting only of the PBX itself).




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   The procedure for the generation of temporary GRUUs requires the use
   of an HMAC to detect any tampering that external entities may attempt
   to perform on the contents of a temporary GRUU.  The mention of HMAC-
   SHA256-80 in Section 7.1.2 is intended solely as an example of a
   suitable HMAC algorithm.  Since all HMACs used in this document are
   generated and consumed by the same entity, the choice of an actual
   HMAC algorithm is entirely up to an implementation, provided that the
   cryptographic properties are sufficient to prevent third parties from
   spoofing GRUU-related information.

   The procedure for the generation of temporary GRUUs also requires the
   use of RSA keys.  The selection of the proper key length for such
   keys requires careful analysis, taking into consideration the current
   and foreseeable speed of processing for the period of time during
   which GRUUs must remain anonymous, as well as emerging cryptographic
   analysis methods.  The most recent guidance from RSA Laboratories
   [25] suggests a key length of 2048 bits for data that needs
   protection through the year 2030, and a length of 3072 bits
   thereafter.

   Similarly, implementors are warned to take precautionary measures to
   prevent unauthorized disclosure of the private key used in GRUU
   generation.  Any such disclosure would result in the ability to
   correlate temporary GRUUs to each other and, potentially, to their
   associated PBXes.

   Further, the use of RSA decryption when processing GRUUs received
   from arbitrary parties can be exploited by Denial-of-Service (DoS)
   attackers to amplify the impact of an attack: because of the presence
   of a cryptographic operation in the processing of such messages, the
   CPU load may be marginally higher when the attacker uses (valid or
   invalid) temporary GRUUs in the messages employed by such an attack.
   Normal DoS mitigation techniques, such as rate-limiting processing of
   received messages, should help to reduce the impact of this issue as
   well.

   Finally, good security practices should be followed regarding the
   duration an RSA key is used.  For implementors, this means that
   systems MUST include an easy way to update the public key provided to
   the SIP-PBX.  To avoid immediately invalidating all currently issued
   temporary GRUUs, the SSP servers SHOULD keep the retired RSA key
   around for a grace period before discarding it.  If decryption fails
   based on the new RSA key, then the SSP server can attempt to use the
   retired key instead.  By contrast, the SIP-PBXes MUST discard the
   retired public key immediately and exclusively use the new public
   key.





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11.  Acknowledgements

   This document represents the hard work of many people in the IETF
   MARTINI working group and the IETF RAI community as a whole.
   Particular thanks are owed to John Elwell for his requirements
   analysis of the mechanism described in this document, to Dean Willis
   for his analysis of the interaction between this mechanism and the
   "Path" and "Service-Route" extensions, to Cullen Jennings for his
   analysis of the interaction between this mechanism and the SIP
   Outbound extension, and to Richard Barnes for his detailed security
   analysis of the GRUU construction algorithm.  Thanks to Eric
   Rescorla, whose text in the appendix of RFC 5627 was lifted directly
   to provide substantial portions of Section 7.1.2.  Finally, thanks to
   Bernard Aboba, Francois Audet, Brian Carpenter, John Elwell, David
   Hancock, Ted Hardie, Martien Huysmans, Cullen Jennings, Alan
   Johnston, Hadriel Kaplan, Paul Kyzivat, and Radia Perlman for their
   careful reviews of and constructive feedback on this document.

12.  References

12.1.  Normative References

   [1]   Krawczyk, H., Bellare, M., and R. Canetti, "HMAC: Keyed-Hashing
         for Message Authentication", RFC 2104, February 1997.

   [2]   Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
         Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [3]   Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston, A.,
         Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E. Schooler, "SIP:
         Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261, June 2002.

   [4]   Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "Session Initiation Protocol
         (SIP): Locating SIP Servers", RFC 3263, June 2002.

   [5]   Roach, A., "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)-Specific Event
         Notification", RFC 3265, June 2002.

   [6]   Camarillo, G., "The Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA)
         Header Field Parameter Registry for the Session Initiation
         Protocol (SIP)", BCP 98, RFC 3968, December 2004.

   [7]   Camarillo, G., "The Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA)
         Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) Parameter Registry for the
         Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)", BCP 99, RFC 3969,
         December 2004.





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   [8]   Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings",
         RFC 4648, October 2006.

   [9]   Kyzivat, P., "Registration Event Package Extension for Session
         Initiation Protocol (SIP) Globally Routable User Agent URIs
         (GRUUs)", RFC 5628, October 2009.

12.2.  Informative References

   [10]  Willis, D. and B. Hoeneisen, "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
         Extension Header Field for Registering Non-Adjacent Contacts",
         RFC 3327, December 2002.

   [11]  Willis, D. and B. Hoeneisen, "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
         Extension Header Field for Service Route Discovery During
         Registration", RFC 3608, October 2003.

   [12]  Rosenberg, J., "A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Event
         Package for Registrations", RFC 3680, March 2004.

   [13]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., and P. Kyzivat, "Indicating
         User Agent Capabilities in the Session Initiation Protocol
         (SIP)", RFC 3840, August 2004.

   [14]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., and P. Kyzivat, "Caller
         Preferences for the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)",
         RFC 3841, August 2004.

   [15]  Schulzrinne, H., "The tel URI for Telephone Numbers", RFC 3966,
         December 2004.

   [16]  Eastlake, D., Schiller, J., and S. Crocker, "Randomness
         Requirements for Security", BCP 106, RFC 4086, June 2005.

   [17]  Sparks, R., Hawrylyshen, A., Johnston, A., Rosenberg, J., and
         H. Schulzrinne, "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Torture Test
         Messages", RFC 4475, May 2006.

   [18]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security (TLS)
         Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008.

   [19]  Jennings, C., Mahy, R., and F. Audet, "Managing Client-
         Initiated Connections in the Session Initiation Protocol
         (SIP)", RFC 5626, October 2009.

   [20]  Rosenberg, J., "Obtaining and Using Globally Routable User
         Agent URIs (GRUUs) in the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)",
         RFC 5627, October 2009.



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   [21]  Peterson, J., Jennings, C., and R. Sparks, "Change Process for
         the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and the Real-time
         Applications and Infrastructure Area", BCP 67, RFC 5727,
         March 2010.

   [22]  Elwell, J. and H. Kaplan, "Requirements for Multiple Address of
         Record (AOR) Reachability Information in the Session Initiation
         Protocol (SIP)", RFC 5947, September 2010.

   [23]  Kaplan, H., "GIN with Literal AORs for SIP in SSPs (GLASS)",
         Work in Progress, November 2010.

   [24]  National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Secure Hash
         Standard (SHS)", FIPS PUB 180-3, October 2008, <http://
         csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips/fips180-3/fips180-3_final.pdf>.

   [25]  Kaliski, B., "TWIRL and RSA Key Size", May 2003.


































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Appendix A.  Requirements Analysis

   The document "Requirements for Multiple Address of Record (AOR)
   Reachability Information in the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)"
   [22] contains a list of requirements and desired properties for a
   mechanism to register multiple AORs with a single SIP transaction.
   This section evaluates those requirements against the mechanism
   described in this document.

   REQ1 - The mechanism MUST allow a SIP-PBX to enter into a trunking
   arrangement with an SSP whereby the two parties have agreed on a set
   of telephone numbers assigned to the SIP-PBX.

      The requirement is satisfied.

   REQ2 - The mechanism MUST allow a set of assigned telephone numbers
   to comprise E.164 numbers, which can be in contiguous ranges,
   discrete, or in any combination of the two.

      The requirement is satisfied.  The Direct Inward Dialing (DID)
      numbers associated with a registration are established by
      bilateral agreement between the SSP and the SIP-PBX; they are not
      part of the mechanism described in this document.

   REQ3 - The mechanism MUST allow a SIP-PBX to register reachability
   information with its SSP, in order to enable the SSP to route to the
   SIP-PBX inbound requests targeted at assigned telephone numbers.

      The requirement is satisfied.

   REQ4 - The mechanism MUST allow UAs attached to a SIP-PBX to register
   with the SIP-PBX for AORs based on assigned telephone numbers, in
   order to receive requests targeted at those telephone numbers,
   without needing to involve the SSP in the registration process.

      The requirement is satisfied; in the presumed architecture, SIP-
      PBX UAs register with the SIP-PBX and require no interaction with
      the SSP.

   REQ5 - The mechanism MUST allow a SIP-PBX to handle requests
   originating at its own UAs and targeted at its assigned telephone
   numbers, without routing those requests to the SSP.

      The requirement is satisfied; SIP-PBXes may recognize their own
      DID numbers and GRUUs, and perform on-SIP-PBX routing without
      sending the requests to the SSP.





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   REQ6 - The mechanism MUST allow a SIP-PBX to receive requests to its
   assigned telephone numbers originating outside the SIP-PBX and
   arriving via the SSP, so that the SIP-PBX can route those requests
   onwards to its UAs, as it would for internal requests to those
   telephone numbers.

      The requirement is satisfied

   REQ7 - The mechanism MUST provide a means whereby a SIP-PBX knows
   which of its assigned telephone numbers an inbound request from its
   SSP is targeted at.

      The requirement is satisfied.  For ordinary calls and calls using
      public GRUUs, the DID number is indicated in the user portion of
      the Request URI.  For calls using Temp GRUUs constructed with the
      mechanism described in Section 7.1.2, the "gr" parameter provides
      a correlation token the SIP-PBX can use to identify to which UA
      the call should be routed.

   REQ8 - The mechanism MUST provide a means of avoiding problems due to
   one side using the mechanism and the other side not.

      The requirement is satisfied through the 'gin' option tag and the
      'bnc' Contact URI parameter.

   REQ9 - The mechanism MUST observe SIP backwards compatibility
   principles.

      The requirement is satisfied through the 'gin' option tag.

   REQ10 - The mechanism MUST work in the presence of a sequence of
   intermediate SIP entities on the SIP-PBX-to-SSP interface (i.e.,
   between the SIP-PBX and the SSP's domain proxy), where those
   intermediate SIP entities indicated during registration a need to be
   on the path of inbound requests to the SIP-PBX.

      The requirement is satisfied through the use of the path mechanism
      defined in RFC 3327 [10]

   REQ11 - The mechanism MUST work when a SIP-PBX obtains its IP address
   dynamically.

      The requirement is satisfied by allowing the SIP-PBX to use an IP
      address in the Bulk Number Contact URI contained in a REGISTER
      "Contact" header field.






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   REQ12 - The mechanism MUST work without requiring the SIP-PBX to have
   a domain name or the ability to publish its domain name in the DNS.

      The requirement is satisfied by allowing the SIP-PBX to use an IP
      address in the Bulk Number Contact URI contained in a REGISTER
      "Contact" header field.

   REQ13 - For a given SIP-PBX and its SSP, there MUST be no impact on
   other domains, which are expected to be able to use normal RFC 3263
   procedures to route requests, including requests needing to be routed
   via the SSP in order to reach the SIP-PBX.

      The requirement is satisfied by allowing the domain name in the
      Request URI used by external entities to resolve to the SSP's
      servers via normal RFC 3263 resolution procedures.

   REQ14 - The mechanism MUST be able to operate over a transport that
   provides end-to-end integrity protection and confidentiality between
   the SIP-PBX and the SSP, e.g., using TLS as specified in [3].

      The requirement is satisfied; nothing in the proposed mechanism
      prevents the use of TLS between the SSP and the SIP-PBX.

   REQ15 - The mechanism MUST support authentication of the SIP-PBX by
   the SSP and vice versa, e.g., using SIP digest authentication plus
   TLS server authentication as specified in [3].

      The requirement is satisfied; SIP-PBXes may employ either SIP
      digest authentication or mutually authenticated TLS for
      authentication purposes.

   REQ16 - The mechanism MUST allow the SIP-PBX to provide its UAs with
   public or temporary Globally Routable UA URIs (GRUUs) [20].

      The requirement is satisfied via the mechanisms detailed in
      Section 7.1.

   REQ17 - The mechanism MUST work over any existing transport specified
   for SIP, including UDP.

      The requirement is satisfied to the extent that UDP can be used
      for REGISTER requests in general.  The application of certain
      extensions and/or network topologies may exceed UDP MTU sizes, but
      such issues arise both with and without the mechanism described in
      this document.  This document does not exacerbate such issues.






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   REQ18 - Documentation MUST give guidance or warnings about how
   authorization policies may be affected by the mechanism, to address
   the problems described in Section 3.3 [of RFC 5947].

      These issues are addressed at length in Section 10, as well as
      summarized in Section 7.4.

   REQ19 - The mechanism MUST be extensible to allow a set of assigned
   telephone numbers to comprise local numbers as specified in RFC 3966
   [15], which can be in contiguous ranges, discrete, or in any
   combination of the two.

      Assignment of telephone numbers to a registration is performed by
      the SSP's registrar, which is not precluded from assigning local
      numbers in any combination it desires.

   REQ20 - The mechanism MUST be extensible to allow a set of
   arbitrarily assigned SIP URI's as specified in RFC 3261 [3], as
   opposed to just telephone numbers, without requiring a complete
   change of mechanism as compared to that used for telephone numbers.

      The mechanism is extensible in such a fashion, as demonstrated by
      the document "GIN with Literal AoRs for SIP in SSPs (GLASS)" [23].

   DES1 - The mechanism SHOULD allow an SSP to exploit its mechanisms
   for providing SIP service to normal UAs in order to provide a SIP
   trunking service to SIP-PBXes.

      The desired property is satisfied; the routing mechanism described
      in this document is identical to the routing performed for singly
      registered AORs.

   DES2 - The mechanism SHOULD scale to SIP-PBXes of several thousand
   assigned telephone numbers.

      The desired property is satisfied; nothing in this document
      precludes DID number pools of arbitrary size.

   DES3 - The mechanism SHOULD scale to support several thousand SIP-
   PBX's on a single SSP.

      The desired property is satisfied; nothing in this document
      precludes an arbitrary number of SIP-PBXes from attaching to a
      single SSP.







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Author's Address

   Adam Roach
   Tekelec
   17210 Campbell Rd.
   Suite 250
   Dallas, TX  75252
   US

   EMail: adam@nostrum.com









































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