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INFORMATIONAL
Errata Exist
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                       M. Phillips
Request for Comments: 6167                                      P. Adams
Category: Informational                                              IBM
ISSN: 2070-1721                                               D. Rokicki
                                                             Software AG
                                                              E. Johnson
                                                                   TIBCO
                                                              April 2011


              URI Scheme for Java(tm) Message Service 1.0

Abstract

   This document defines the format of Uniform Resource Identifiers
   (URIs) as defined in RFC 3986, for designating connections and
   destination addresses used in the Java(tm) Messaging Service (JMS).
   It was originally designed for particular uses, but applies generally
   wherever a JMS URI is needed to describe the connection to a JMS
   provider, and access to a JMS Destination.  The syntax of this JMS
   URI is not compatible with previously existing, but unregistered,
   "jms" URI schemes.  However, the expressiveness of the scheme
   described herein should satisfy the requirements of all existing
   circumstances.

Status of This Memo

   This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
   published for informational purposes.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Not all documents
   approved by the IESG are a candidate for any level of Internet
   Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 5741.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6167.











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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

   This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
   Contributions published or made publicly available before November
   10, 2008.  The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this
   material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow
   modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process.
   Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling
   the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified
   outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may
   not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format
   it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
   than English.

























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Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................3
      1.1. Requirements Notation ......................................4
   2. URI Scheme Name .................................................5
   3. Syntax of a JMS URI .............................................5
   4. URI Scheme Semantics ............................................5
      4.1. Shared Parameters ..........................................6
      4.2. "jndi" Variant .............................................7
      4.3. Vendor Destination Names -- Variants "queue" and "topic" ..11
      4.4. Custom Parameters .........................................12
   5. Encoding Considerations ........................................13
   6. Applications/Protocols That Use the JMS URI ....................13
   7. Interoperability Considerations ................................13
   8. Security Considerations ........................................14
      8.1. Reliability and Consistency ...............................14
      8.2. Malicious Construction ....................................14
      8.3. Back-End Transcoding ......................................15
      8.4. Semantic Attacks ..........................................15
      8.5. Other Security Concerns ...................................16
   9. IANA Considerations ............................................16
      9.1. URI Scheme Registration ...................................16
      9.2. "jms" URI Scheme Registries ...............................17
   10. Contributors ..................................................18
   11. Acknowledgements ..............................................19
   12. References ....................................................20
      12.1. Normative References .....................................20
      12.2. Informative References ...................................21

1.  Introduction

   The "jms" URI scheme is used to designate a javax.jms.Destination
   object and an associated javax.jms.ConnectionFactory object [JMS],
   and, optionally, to provide additional information concerning the way
   that the Destination object is to be used.  Probably the most common,
   and certainly the most compatible, way in Java to retrieve such
   Destinations is via Java Naming and Directory Information (JNDI)
   [JNDI] methods.  So as to extend compatibility to existing vendor
   mechanisms beyond JNDI lookup, the JMS URI syntax allows variants on
   the core syntax.  The variant exists as an explicit part of the
   syntax so that tools that are otherwise unfamiliar with the variant
   can recognize the presence of a URI with an alternate interpretation.









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   In its simplest and most interoperable form, this URI scheme starts
   with "jms:jndi:" plus a JNDI name for a Destination.  Since
   interaction with some resources might require JNDI contextual
   information or JMS header fields and properties to be specified as
   well, the "jndi" variant of the "jms" URI scheme includes support for
   supplying this additional JNDI information as query parameters.

   While the "jndi" variant provides compatibility, vendors can define
   additional variants.  This specification defines three variants:
   "jndi", "queue", and "topic".  Vendors defining additional variants
   are strongly encouraged to register them with IANA as documented in
   Section 9.2.1.

   While the "jms" URI scheme allows the location of network resources,
   it does not map to a single underlying protocol, unlike most other
   URI schemes that do so.  Instead, it achieves interoperability
   through the use of a common Java-based API [JAVA] for messaging.
   Because of this, interoperability is dependent upon the
   implementation of the API and its capabilities; two implementations
   of JMS might or might not interoperate in practice.  Furthermore, it
   might be impractical to use JMS URIs in non-Java environments.

   As a consequence of building upon an API, rather than a protocol, the
   utility of a JMS URI depends on the context in which it is used.
   That context includes agreement on the same JMS provider or
   underlying protocol; agreement on how to look up endpoints (JNDI);
   and, when using serialized Java object messages, sufficiently similar
   Java Class environments that serialized objects can be appropriately
   read and written.  Users of this scheme need to establish the
   necessary shared-context parts as just enumerated -- a context that
   can span the globe, or merely a small local network.  With that
   shared context, this URI scheme enables endpoint identification in a
   uniform way, and the means to connect to those endpoints.

1.1.  Requirements Notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   All syntax descriptions use the ABNF specified by [RFC5234],
   "Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF".

   Note that some examples in this document wrap long JMS URIs for
   readability.  The line breaks are not part of the actual URIs.






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2.  URI Scheme Name

   The name of the URI scheme is "jms".

3.  Syntax of a JMS URI

   The following ABNF describes the "jms" scheme URI syntax:

     jms-uri = "jms:" jms-variant ":" jms-dest
        [ "?" param *( "&" param ) ]

     jms-variant = segment-nz-nc

     jms-dest = segment-nz ; specific meaning per variant

     param = param-name "=" param-value

     param-name = 1*(unreserved / pct-encoded)

     param-value = *(unreserved / pct-encoded)

     segment-nz-nc = <as defined in RFC 3986>

     path-rootless = <as defined in RFC 3986>

     unreserved = <as defined in RFC 3986>

     pct-encoded = <as defined in RFC 3986>

   The URIs are percent-encoded UTF-8 [RFC3629].  Please see Section 5
   of this document for encoding considerations.

4.  URI Scheme Semantics

   JMS URIs are used to locate JMS [JMS] Destination resources and do
   not specify actions to be taken on those resources.  Operations
   available on JMS Destinations are fully and normatively defined by
   the JMS specification and as such are out of scope for this URI
   specification.

   The required portions of the syntax include the terminal of "jms" for
   the URI scheme name; the <jms-variant> element to indicate the
   variant of the scheme; and the <jms-dest> element, which identifies
   the Destination based on the chosen variant.  For the <jms-variant>
   element, this document defines three values: "jndi", "queue", and
   "topic".  All the terminals resulting from <jms-variant> and
   <jms-dest> production rules are case-sensitive.




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   Parameters further refine how to locate and use the Destination.  The
   parameter names and values are case-sensitive.  They can occur in any
   order, and each parameter name SHOULD NOT appear more than once.  In
   the event that a parameter appears multiple times, all but the last
   instance of the parameter MUST be ignored.  For comparison purposes,
   the absence of a parameter does not mean the same thing as a URI with
   a parameter set to a default value, due to the potential variation in
   default values as determined by the context of a specific use.

   Each variant can have query parameters specific to that variation.
   All such variant-specific parameters SHOULD use the name of the
   variant as the prefix to the parameters.  For example, a vendor-
   specific variant of "vnd.example.ex" might also define a parameter
   with a name like "vnd.example.exParameter".  Parameters that apply
   across multiple variants -- perhaps because they are generally
   applicable, such as JMS settings -- MUST NOT have a name that starts
   with the name of any known variant.  This pattern enables tools that
   are otherwise unfamiliar with a particular variant to distinguish
   those parameters that are specific to a variant from those that are
   more generally applicable.

   Examples of the URI scheme include:

     jms:jndi:SomeJndiNameForDestination?
       jndiInitialContextFactory=
       com.example.jndi.JndiFactory&priority=3

     jms:queue:ExampleQueueName?timeToLive=1000

4.1.  Shared Parameters

   In addition to the required particles, the "jms" URI scheme supports
   the following shared parameters, which are available to all variants.
   These parameters correspond to headers and properties on the JMS
   Messages to be sent.  For the parameters deliveryMode, timeToLive,
   and priority, the default values might be specified in the context of
   a specific use, for example by environment variables, or in the
   configuration of a particular network application.  JMS also defines
   default values for these properties.  The context default is hereby
   defined as the default value in the context of a specific use, or the
   JMS default for a particular property if the context does not define
   a default.









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4.1.1.  deliveryMode

   Indicates whether the request message is persistent or not.  This
   property corresponds to the JMS message header field
   "JMSDeliveryMode" defined in Section 3.4.2 of the JMS 1.1
   specification [JMS].  The value of this parameter MUST be
   "PERSISTENT" or "NON_PERSISTENT".  If this parameter is not
   specified, then the context default MUST be used.

4.1.2.  timeToLive

   The lifetime, in milliseconds, of the request message, specified as a
   decimal number.  This property corresponds to the JMS Time-To-Live
   value defined in Section 4.8 of the JMS 1.1 specification.  If this
   parameter is not specified, then the context default MUST be used.

4.1.3.  priority

   The JMS priority associated with the request message.  As per
   Section 3.4.10 of the JMS 1.1 specification, this MUST be a value
   between 0 and 9 inclusive, specified as a decimal number.  This
   corresponds to the JMS message header field "JMSPriority".  If this
   parameter is not specified, then the context default MUST be used.

4.1.4.  replyToName

   This property corresponds to the JMS message header field
   "JMSReplyTo" defined in Section 3.4.6 of the JMS 1.1 specification.
   As interpreted by the particular variant, this property value
   specifies the JMS Destination object to which a response message
   ought to be sent.

4.2.  "jndi" Variant

   The "jndi" variant implies the use of JNDI for discovering the
   Destination object.  When this is specified as the variant, the
   <jms-dest> portion of the syntax is the name for JNDI lookup
   purposes.  Additional JNDI-specific parameters can be specified.  The
   JNDI-specific parameters SHOULD only be processed when the URI
   variant is "jndi".

4.2.1.  JNDI Parameters

4.2.1.1.  jndiConnectionFactoryName

   Specifies the JNDI name of the Java class (see Section 3.8,
   "Identifiers", of [JLS] for the specification of a legal Java class
   name) providing the connection factory.



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4.2.1.2.  jndiInitialContextFactory

   Specifies the fully qualified Java class name of the
   "InitialContextFactory" implementation class to use.

4.2.1.3.  jndiURL

   Specifies the JNDI provider URL, in a form consistent with
   javax.naming.spi.NamingManager.getURLContext(String scheme, Hashtable
   environment) as defined in the JNDI specification [JNDI].

4.2.1.4.  Additional JNDI Parameters

   It is possible that connecting to a JNDI provider requires additional
   parameters.  These parameters can be passed in as custom parameters
   (see Section 4.4).  To identify a custom parameter as JNDI specific,
   the parameter name needs to start with the prefix "jndi-".

   For example, if the JNDI provider requires a parameter named
   "com.example.jndi.someParameter", you can supply the parameter in the
   URI as: jndi-com.example.jndi.someParameter=someValue

4.2.2.  Example of Performing a JNDI Lookup

   To perform a lookup based on a "jndi" variant URI using Java APIs, an
   application might start by creating a JNDI InitialContext object.
   The InitialContext object can then be used to look up the JMS
   ConnectionFactory object (using the "jndiConnectionFactoryName" URI
   parameter), the target JMS Destination object (using the <jms-dest>
   portion of the JMS URI), and the "replyToName" JMS Destination object
   (if the "replyToName" parameter is specified on the URI).  The
   application creates the InitialContext object by first setting up two
   properties: "Context.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY", with the value of the
   jndiInitialContextFactory JMS URI parameter; and
   "Context.PROVIDER_URL", with the value of the jndiURL URI parameter;
   and then passing the two properties to the InitialContext
   constructor.

   To locate a connection factory or Destination object, the application
   passes the name of the object into the InitialContext.lookup()
   method.










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   For example, the JMS URI...

     jms:jndi:REQ_QUEUE
       ?jndiURL=file:/C:/JMSAdmin
       &jndiInitialContextFactory
       =com.sun.jndi.fscontext.RefFSContextFactory
       &jndiConnectionFactoryName=CONNFACT
       &replyToName=RESP_QUEUE

   ...would be used by the following (non-normative) code sample to
   locate and retrieve a JMS ConnectionFactory called "CONNFACT", and
   JMS Destinations called "REQ_QUEUE" and "RESP_QUEUE", from a file-
   system JNDI context called "c:/JMSAdmin".

     /*
      * Preconditions on URI:
      * - portion <jms-dest> has been parsed into variable "jms_dest"
      * - parameters "jndiConnectionFactoryName",
      *   "jndiInitialContextFactory", "replyToName", and "jndiURL" have
      *   been parsed into variables of the same name.
      */
     Hashtable environment = new Hashtable();
     environment.put(Context.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY,
       jndiInitialContextFactory);
     environment.put(Context.PROVIDER_URL, jndiURL);
     /*
      *  Create File-System Initial Context
      */
     Context ctx = new InitialContext(environment);
     /*
      * Now get the JMS ConnectionFactory and Destination.  These will
      * be used later on in the application to create the JMS
      * Connection and send/receive messages.
      */
     ConnectionFactory jmsConnFact = (ConnectionFactory)
       ctx.lookup(jndiConnectionFactoryName);
     Destination requestDest = (Destination) ctx.lookup(jms_dest);
     Destination replyDest = (Destination) ctx.lookup(replyToName);

   The ConnectionFactory is used to create a Connection, which itself is
   used to create a Session.  The Session can then be used to create the
   MessageProducer, which sends messages to the target Destination; and
   the MessageConsumer, which receives messages from the replyToName
   Destination (as shown in the following code extract).







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     /*
      * Create a producer to send a message to the request Destination
      * that was specified in the URI, then create the message, setting
      * the replyToName Destination in the message to the one specified
      * in the URI, and send it.
      */
     MessageProducer producer = sess.createProducer(requestDest);
     BytesMessage reqMsg = sess.createBytesMessage();
     reqMsg.setJMSReplyTo(replyDest);
     producer.send(reqMsg);
     /*
      * Create a consumer to get a message from the replyToName
      * Destination using a selector to get the specific response to
      * this request.  The responder sets the correlation ID of the
      * response to the message ID of the request message.
      */
     MessageConsumer consumer = sess.createConsumer(replyDest,
           "JMSCorrelationID = '" + reqMsg.getJMSMessageID() + "'");
     Message respMsg = (Message) consumer.receive(300000);

4.2.2.1.  Performing a JNDI Lookup with Custom Parameters

   Any parameters with a prefix of "jndi-" MUST be used to set custom
   properties when establishing a connection to the JNDI provider.  The
   name of the custom property is derived by removing the "jndi-" prefix
   from the URI parameter name, and the value of the property is the
   value of the parameter.

   For example, the JMS URI...

     jms:jndi:REQ_QUEUE
       ?jndiURL=file:/C:/JMSAdmin
       &jndiInitialContextFactory
       =com.sun.jndi.fscontext.RefFSContextFactory
       &jndiConnectionFactoryName=CONNFACT
       &jndi-com.example.jndi.someParameter=someValue

   ...instructs the consumer to use the following properties to connect
   to the JNDI provider:

     java.naming.provider.url=file:/C:/JMSAdmin
     java.naming.factory.initial=
       com.sun.jndi.fscontext.RefFSContextFactory
     com.example.jndi.someParameter=someValue







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4.3.  Vendor Destination Names -- Variants "queue" and "topic"

   The JMS Session object provides a means to directly access Queues and
   Topics.  Specifically, it has the methods Session.createQueue(String
   name) and Session.createTopic(String name).  These methods can be
   used to "create" the Java representation of an existing JMS Topic or
   Queue.

   Since the Session interface requires external knowledge about whether
   a given name relates to a Queue or Topic, rather than introducing one
   new variant, this section defines two variants.  A JMS URI can
   indicate which of these methods to use by specifying the appropriate
   variant -- either "queue" or "topic".  For example:

     jms:queue:ExampleQueueName

   to identify a JMS Queue Destination, and

     jms:topic:ExampleTopicName

   to identify a JMS Topic Destination.

   JMS only specifies one way to obtain the names used by these APIs.
   With a JMS Queue or Topic available, an implementation can call
   Queue.getQueueName() or Topic.getTopicName(), respectively, both of
   which return a String object.  To create a correct corresponding URI,
   the resulting string MUST use standard URI escape mechanisms so that
   the resulting characters conform to the production <jms-dest>.

4.3.1.  Treatment of replyToName Parameter

   When used with the "queue" and "topic" variants, the replyToName
   parameter, specified in Section 4.1.4, always refers to a name of a
   JMS Queue to look up via the Session.createQueue() method, or its
   equivalent.  For either variant, if a JMS Topic is instead required
   as a response Destination, a JMS URI can employ the
   "topicReplyToName" parameter.  This parameter defines a name to look
   up with the Session.createTopic() method, or its equivalent.

   A JMS URI MUST NOT specify both a "topicReplyToName" and a
   "replyToName" parameter.

4.3.2.  Obtaining a Session via JNDI

   Using the Session.createQueue() and Session.createTopic() methods
   assumes that a client program has already obtained a Session object.
   Where does that Session object come from -- how does a client get it?
   One way to get a Session is simply to access vendor-specific APIs.



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   Another way to get a Session object is to simply revert to using
   JNDI.  That is, if a Session is not available to the client from some
   other context, the "queue" and "topic" variants MAY reuse the URL
   parameters specified in Section 4.2.1, "JNDI Parameters".  Via JNDI,
   those parameters will identify a ConnectionFactory, which can then be
   used to obtain a Session object.

   Combining the "queue" and "topic" variants with JNDI lookup for an
   implementation of ConnectionFactory raises an important consideration
   for JMS URI clients.  Once clients employ JNDI for one part of
   discovering a Destination, they almost certainly could use a vendor-
   neutral JNDI lookup for a Destination object itself, rather than
   using vendor-specific means.  As a result, clients need to carefully
   consider whether it makes sense to use JNDI for one part of this
   problem, without using it for the other.

4.3.3.  Limitations of "queue" and "topic"

   The JMS specification clearly identifies the two methods on the
   Session interface as returning vendor-specific names for
   Destinations.  Consequently, users of the "jms" URI scheme ought to
   carefully consider when these two variants might be employed.  If
   users plan on switching between JMS vendors, they might also need to
   plan on regenerating resources that contain URIs in this vendor-
   specific form.

   A JMS vendor can provide alternate ways to obtain the names that can
   be passed to Session.createQueue() and Session.createTopic().  When
   using names derived from those alternate means, users of this URI
   specification are encouraged to verify that the obtained names work
   as expected in all circumstances.

4.4.  Custom Parameters

   The set of parameters is extensible.  Any other vendor- or
   application-defined parameter can be supplied, in the URI, by passing
   it as <param-name>=<param-value>, just like the set of well-known
   parameters.

   WARNING: Vendors and applications MUST NOT include sensitive
   information (such as authorization tokens) in a URI.  Other means of
   authorization, authentication, and identification ought to be used.
   Also see the security discussion below about properties that might be
   duplicated as JMS message properties.







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5.  Encoding Considerations

   The "jms" URI scheme distinguishes between <unreserved> characters
   and <pct-encoded> characters, as defined in [RFC3986].  Apart from
   these encoding considerations, the characters "?" and "&" MUST be
   encoded when they appear within the <jms-dest> particle (for example,
   a JNDI name) or in query parameters.  The character ":" SHOULD be
   escaped when appearing in the <jms-dest> portion of the syntax.

   Conversions to and from Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs)
   follow the rules of RFC 3987, Sections 3.1 and 3.2.  As per
   Sections 1.2-c. and 6.4 of [RFC3987], all parts of the JMS URI MUST
   use the UTF-8 encoding when converting to and from the IRI format.

6.  Applications/Protocols That Use the JMS URI

   A variety of vendors provide implementations of the JMS Service
   Provider Interface (SPI).  These products interoperate at the API
   level, in the Java programming language.

   Some vendors have provided additional products that interoperate with
   their own SPI implementations.  These extensions might also be able
   to make use of this URI scheme.

   The vendors working on this URI scheme are also working on a
   specification for carrying SOAP messages over their respective
   implementations of JMS [SOAP-JMS].  In addition, the Service
   Component Architecture Bindings technical committee (TC) [SCA-TC] at
   OASIS employs the "jms" URI scheme to identify JMS Destinations in
   [SCA-JMS].

7.  Interoperability Considerations

   This "jms" URI scheme focuses on identifying a JMS Destination
   object, and some characteristics of communication using that
   Destination, and specifically excludes any notion of describing how
   JMS itself is implemented and how it delivers messages.  As a
   consequence of this focus, interoperability concerns are limited to
   how implementations obtain and use a Destination object.

   This scheme definition describes three variants for obtaining a
   Destination.  These variants achieve their aims with the use of JNDI
   and JMS APIs, with no new APIs or protocols defined here.  As a
   consequence of using JNDI and JMS, interoperability concerns might
   arise if implementations do not conform to the specifications for
   those APIs.  Further, the use of Java, and JNDI in particular, means
   that the configuration of the execution environment and the use of
   Java ClassLoaders can affect the interpretation of any given URI.



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   Consumers of these URIs are urged to consider the scope and
   consistency of the environment across which these URIs will be
   shared.

   As described in Section 4, others can define additional variants,
   which provide the means to describe how to look up JMS Destination
   objects in a manner specific to some environment.  For any new
   variant, the shared parameters defined in Section 4.1 MUST have the
   same meaning in that variant as they do here.  That way, tools and
   people can safely copy these parameters between environments.  Note
   that while additional variants might seem more flexible, employing
   variants not defined here might make it more difficult to switch to
   an alternate JMS provider.

8.  Security Considerations

   Section 7 of [RFC3986] identifies some of the security concerns that
   ought to be addressed by this specification.

8.1.  Reliability and Consistency

   This specification identifies only the variant (<jms-variant>) and
   variant-specific details (<jms-dest>) as an essential part of the
   URI.  For reliability and consistency purposes, these variants are
   the only part that can reasonably be expected to be stable.  Other
   optional JMS configuration and message properties indicated as URI
   parameters, like "timeToLive", can reasonably be determined by the
   sender of a message, without affecting the recipient.  Insofar as a
   recipient might wish to dictate certain parameters, such as the
   "jndiConnectionFactoryName", those parameters can be specified.

8.2.  Malicious Construction

8.2.1.  Recipient Concerns

   A malicious consumer of a service using a JMS URI could send, as part
   of a JMS message, a URI with a parameter such as "timeToLive" with a
   value specified in the URI that differs from the corresponding JMS
   message property ("JMSExpiration" header field, in this example).  In
   the case of such messages with such URIs, recipients are strongly
   cautioned to avoid applying processing logic based on particular URI
   parameters.  Discrepancies in the message could be used to exploit
   differences in behavior between the selectors that a JMS-based
   application might use to affect which messages it sees, and the
   processing of the rest of the application.  As defined in this
   document, the parameters of concern include:





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      deliveryMode

      timeToLive

      priority

   Message senders are strongly urged to remove from the URI extra
   parameters like the above in environments where the data will be
   redundant with information specified elsewhere in the JMS message.

   Any use of additional parameters, either as a part of a definition of
   a new variant or for more general use, SHOULD also specify whether
   those parameters ought to be removed by a sender as specified here.
   If a recipient is aware of the "jms" URI scheme, and it receives a
   message containing a JMS URI, it MUST ignore or discard parameters
   that it does not recognize.

8.2.2.  Sender Concerns

   A third party could intercept and replace a URI containing any of the
   JMS/JNDI configuration parameters, such as
   "jndiConnectionFactoryName", "jndiInitialContextFactory", or
   "jndiURL".  As these parameters can affect how an implementation
   establishes an initial connection, such parameters could be used as a
   means to subvert communications.  This could possibly result in
   re-routing communications to third parties, who could then monitor
   sent messages.  Clients SHOULD NOT use these URI parameters unless
   assured of their validity in trusted environments.

8.3.  Back-End Transcoding

   This specification, in using the URI specification and building
   around the JMS specification, has no particular transcoding issues.
   Any such issues are problems with the underlying implementation of
   Java and the Java Messaging Service being employed.

8.4.  Semantic Attacks

   A possible semantic attack on the "jndi" variant could be
   accomplished by replacing characters of the JMS URI from one language
   with equivalent-looking characters from another language, known as an
   "Internationalized Domain Name (IDN) homograph attack" [HOMOGRAPH].
   This kind of attack could occur in a variety of ways.  For example,








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   if an environment allows for the automatic registration of JNDI
   Destination names, a malicious actor could register and then
   publicize an alternate of an existing Destination name.  Such an
   environment ought to prevent the use of homograph equivalents,
   perhaps by restricting allowed characters, so that clients do not
   accidentally send their requests to unintended Destinations.

   The "queue" and "topic" variants are subject to the same concerns as
   the "jndi" variant.  In addition, because the Destination names are
   vendor defined, URIs employing these two variants might employ
   special characters that significantly change the meaning of the URI.
   It is possible that the introduction of a single character --
   difficult for a human to notice -- might dramatically change the
   intended meaning of a URI.  In situations where this might be an
   issue, users of this URI are urged to strongly consider the "jndi"
   variant instead.

8.5.  Other Security Concerns

   This specification does not define or anticipate any use for IP
   addresses as part of the URI, so no issues around IP addresses, rare
   or otherwise, are raised by this specification.

   This specification does not define any characteristics of a "jms"
   scheme URI that contain sensitive information.

9.  IANA Considerations

9.1.  URI Scheme Registration

   IANA registered the Java Message Service URI scheme described in this
   document, according to the following scheme registration request,
   using the template from [RFC4395]:

   o  URI scheme name: jms

   o  Status: Provisional

   o  URI scheme syntax: See Section 3

   o  URI scheme semantics: See Section 4

   o  Encoding considerations: See Section 5

   o  Applications/protocols that use this URI scheme name: See
      Section 6

   o  Interoperability considerations: See Section 7



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   o  Security considerations: See Section 8

   o  Contact: See the Authors' Addresses section

   o  References: See the References section

9.2.  "jms" URI Scheme Registries

   Per this URI scheme, IANA has created a registry for possible
   "variants".  IANA can reject obviously bogus registrations.

9.2.1.  JMS URI Variants

   This registry provides a listing of "jms" URI scheme variants.
   Variant names beginning with "vnd." are reserved for vendor
   extensions.  Such variants should follow a pattern of
   vnd.<vendorname>.<label>.  The <vendorname> corresponds to the
   iana-vendor-tag production from [RFC6075], and vendor.<vendorname>
   must already be registered in the Application Configuration Access
   Protocol (ACAP) Vendor Subtree.  The <label> is chosen by said
   vendor.

   All variant names are to be registered on a first come, first served
   basis.

   Variants must conform to the "jms-variant" production above.  Since
   variants occur in URIs, they ought to be short, and MUST NOT be more
   than forty characters in length.

   This document defines the "jndi", "queue", and "topic" variants
   initially included in the registry.

9.2.2.  "jms" URI Scheme Variant Registration Template

   This template describes the fields that must be present to register a
   new variant for use in a JMS URI.

   To: iana@iana.org
   Subject: Registration of JMS URI variant name

   JMS URI variant name:  Variants must conform to the "jms-variant"
      production above.  Since variants occur in URIs, they ought to be
      short, and MUST NOT be more than forty characters in length.

   Description:  A description of the purpose of the variant being
      registered.





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   Contact Information:  Name(s) and email address(es) to contact for
      more information about this registration.

   Description URL:  If available, a URL for a document describing the
      details of how the variant works.

   Comments:  Any comments the requester thinks are relevant to this
      request.

   Change Controller:  Contact information for the person who controls
      further changes to this variant definition.

9.2.3.  Change Control

   Once a JMS URI variant registration has been published by IANA, the
   change controller can request a change to its definition.  The change
   request follows the same procedure as the registration request.

   The change controller of a JMS URI variant can pass responsibility
   for the JMS URI variant to another person or agency by informing
   IANA; this can be done without discussion or review.

   JMS URI variant registrations MUST NOT be deleted; mechanisms that
   are no longer believed appropriate for use can be marked as obsolete
   in the Comment field.

   In exceptional circumstances, the IESG can reassign responsibility
   for a JMS URI variant.

   The IESG is considered to be the owner of all JMS URI variants that
   are on the IETF Standards Track.

10.  Contributors

   The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of:

      Phil Adams
      International Business Machines Corporation
      EMail: phil_adams@us.ibm.com

      Glen Daniels
      WSO2
      EMail: glen@wso2.com

      Peter Easton
      Progress Software
      EMail: peaston@progress.com




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      Tim Frank
      Software AG.
      EMail: tim.frank@softwareag.com

      Lei Jin
      BEA Systems, Inc. until March 2007

      Eric Johnson
      TIBCO Software Inc.
      EMail: eric@tibco.com

      Vinod Kumar
      BEA Systems, Inc. until May 2007

      Amelia A. Lewis
      TIBCO Software Inc.
      EMail: alewis@tibco.com

      Roland Merrick
      International Business Machines Corporation until June 2009

      Mark Phillips
      International Business Machines Corporation
      EMail: m8philli@uk.ibm.com

      Derek Rokicki
      Software AG.
      EMail: derek.rokicki@softwareag.com

      Stephen Todd
      International Business Machines Corporation until April 2007

      Dongbo Xiao
      Oracle Corp.
      EMail: dongbo.xiao@oracle.com

      Prasad Yendluri
      Software AG.
      EMail: prasad.yendluri@softwareag.com

11.  Acknowledgements

   Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its
   affiliates.  Other names may be trademarks of their respective
   owners.






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12.  References

12.1.  Normative References

   [JLS]        Sun Microsystems, Inc., "The Java Language
                Specification, Third Edition", January 2005,
                <http://java.sun.com/docs/books/jls/third_edition/html/
                j3TOC.html>.

   [JMS]        Hapner, M., Burridge, R., Sharma, R., Fialli, J., and K.
                Stout, "Java Message Service", April 2002,
                <http://java.sun.com/products/jms/>.

   [JNDI]       Sun Microsystems, Inc., "Java Naming and Directory
                Interface Application Programming Interface", July 1999,
                <http://java.sun.com/products/jndi/docs.html>.

   [RFC2119]    Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
                Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3629]    Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
                10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003.

   [RFC3986]    Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
                Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
                RFC 3986, January 2005.

   [RFC3987]    Duerst, M. and M. Suignard, "Internationalized Resource
                Identifiers (IRIs)", RFC 3987, January 2005.

   [RFC4395]    Hansen, T., Hardie, T., and L. Masinter, "Guidelines and
                Registration Procedures for New URI Schemes", BCP 35,
                RFC 4395, February 2006.

   [RFC5234]    Crocker, D., Ed., and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for
                Syntax Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234,
                January 2008.

   [RFC6075]    Cridland, D., "The Internet Assigned Number Authority
                (IANA) Application Configuration Access Protocol (ACAP)
                Vendor Subtrees Registry", RFC 6075, December 2010.










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12.2.  Informative References

   [HOMOGRAPH]  "IDN Homograph attack", 2011, <http://en.wikipedia.org/
                w/index.php?title=IDN_homograph_attack&oldid=416746950>.

   [JAVA]       Oracle Corporation, "Oracle Technology for Java
                Developers", 2011,
                <http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/index.html>.

   [SCA-JMS]    Holdsworth, S. and A. Karmarkar, "Service Component
                Architecture JMS Binding Specification Version 1.1",
                November 2010, <http://docs.oasis-open.org/opencsa/
                sca-bindings/sca-jmsbinding-1.1-spec.html>.

   [SCA-TC]     "OASIS Service Component Architecture / Bindings (SCA-
                Bindings) TC", <http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/
                tc_home.php?wg_abbrev=sca-bindings>.

   [SOAP-JMS]   Adams, P., Easton, P., Johnson, E., Merrick, R., and M.
                Phillips, "SOAP over Java Message Service 1.0",
                October 2010,
                <http://www.w3.org/TR/2010/WD-soapjms-20101026/>.





























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Authors' Addresses

   Mark Phillips
   International Business Machines Corporation
   Hursley House, Hursley Park
   Winchester, Hampshire  SO21 2JN
   United Kingdom

   EMail: m8philli@uk.ibm.com


   Phil Adams
   International Business Machines Corporation
   11501 Burnet Rd.
   Austin, TX  78758
   United States

   EMail: phil_adams@us.ibm.com


   Derek Rokicki
   Software AG.
   11700 Plaza America Drive
   Reston, VA  20190
   United States

   EMail: derek.rokicki@softwareag.com


   Eric Johnson
   TIBCO Software Inc.
   3303 Hillview Avenue
   Palo Alto, CA  94304
   United States

   EMail: eric@tibco.com















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