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INFORMATIONAL
Errata Exist
Independent Submission                                      B. Carpenter
Request for Comments: 6214                             Univ. of Auckland
Category: Informational                                        R. Hinden
ISSN: 2070-1721                                     Check Point Software
                                                            1 April 2011


                    Adaptation of RFC 1149 for IPv6

Abstract

   This document specifies a method for transmission of IPv6 datagrams
   over the same medium as specified for IPv4 datagrams in RFC 1149.

Status of This Memo

   This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
   published for informational purposes.

   This is a contribution to the RFC Series, independently of any other
   RFC stream.  The RFC Editor has chosen to publish this document at
   its discretion and makes no statement about its value for
   implementation or deployment.  Documents approved for publication by
   the RFC Editor are not a candidate for any level of Internet
   Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 5741.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6214.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.










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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
   2.  Normative Notation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
   3.  Detailed Specification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
     3.1.  Maximum Transmission Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
     3.2.  Frame Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
     3.3.  Address Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
     3.4.  Multicast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
   4.  Quality-of-Service Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
   5.  Routing and Tunneling Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
   6.  Multihoming Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
   7.  Internationalization Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
   8.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
   9.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
   10. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
   11. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
     11.1. Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
     11.2. Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.  Introduction

   As shown by [RFC6036], many service providers are actively planning
   to deploy IPv6 to alleviate the imminent shortage of IPv4 addresses.
   This will affect all service providers who have implemented
   [RFC1149].  It is therefore necessary, indeed urgent, to specify a
   method of transmitting IPv6 datagrams [RFC2460] over the RFC 1149
   medium, rather than obliging those service providers to migrate to a
   different medium.  This document offers such a specification.

2.  Normative Notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

3.  Detailed Specification

   Unless otherwise stated, the provisions of [RFC1149] and [RFC2460]
   apply throughout.

3.1.  Maximum Transmission Unit

   As noted in RFC 1149, the MTU is variable, and generally increases
   with increased carrier age.  Since the minimum link MTU allowed by
   RFC 2460 is 1280 octets, this means that older carriers MUST be used
   for IPv6.  RFC 1149 does not provide exact conversion factors between
   age and milligrams, or between milligrams and octets.  These



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   conversion factors are implementation dependent, but as an
   illustrative example, we assume that the 256 milligram MTU suggested
   in RFC 1149 corresponds to an MTU of 576 octets.  In that case, the
   typical MTU for the present specification will be at least
   256*1280/576, which is approximately 569 milligrams.  Again as an
   illustrative example, this is likely to require a carrier age of at
   least 365 days.

   Furthermore, the MTU issues are non-linear with carrier age.  That
   is, a young carrier can only carry small payloads, an adult carrier
   can carry jumbograms [RFC2675], and an elderly carrier can again
   carry only smaller payloads.  There is also an effect on transit time
   depending on carrier age, affecting bandwidth-delay product and hence
   the performance of TCP.

3.2.  Frame Format

   RFC 1149 does not specify the use of any link layer tag such as an
   Ethertype or, worse, an OSI Link Layer or SNAP header [RFC1042].
   Indeed, header snaps are known to worsen the quality of service
   provided by RFC 1149 carriers.  In the interests of efficiency and to
   avoid excessive energy consumption while packets are in flight
   through the network, no such link layer tag is required for IPv6
   packets either.  The frame format is therefore a pure IPv6 packet as
   defined in [RFC2460], encoded and decoded as defined in [RFC1149].

   One important consequence of this is that in a dual-stack deployment
   [RFC4213], the receiver MUST inspect the IP protocol version number
   in the first four bits of every packet, as the only means to
   demultiplex a mixture of IPv4 and IPv6 packets.

3.3.  Address Configuration

   The lack of any form of link layer protocol means that link-local
   addresses cannot be formed, as there is no way to address anything
   except the other end of the link.

   Similarly, there is no method to map an IPv6 unicast address to a
   link layer address, since there is no link layer address in the first
   place.  IPv6 Neighbor Discovery [RFC4861] is therefore impossible.

   Implementations SHOULD NOT even try to use stateless address auto-
   configuration [RFC4862].  This recommendation is because this
   mechanism requires a stable interface identifier formed in a way
   compatible with [RFC4291].  Unfortunately the transmission elements
   specified by RFC 1149 are not generally stable enough for this and
   may become highly unstable in the presence of a cross-wind.




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   In most deployments, either the end points of the link remain
   unnumbered, or a /127 prefix and static addresses MAY be assigned.
   See [IPv6-PREFIXLEN] for further discussion.

3.4.  Multicast

   RFC 1149 does not specify a multicast address mapping.  It has been
   reported that attempts to implement IPv4 multicast delivery have
   resulted in excessive noise in transmission elements, with subsequent
   drops of packet digests.  At the present time, an IPv6 multicast
   mapping has not been specified, to avoid such problems.

4.  Quality-of-Service Considerations

   [RFC2549] is also applicable in the IPv6 case.  However, the author
   of RFC 2549 did not take account of the availability of the
   Differentiated Services model [RFC2474].  IPv6 packets carrying a
   non-default Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) value in their
   Traffic Class field [RFC2460] MUST be specially encoded using green
   or blue ink such that the DSCP is externally visible.  Note that red
   ink MUST NOT be used to avoid confusion with the usage of red paint
   specified in RFC 2549.

   RFC 2549 did not consider the impact on quality of service of
   different types of carriers.  There is a broad range.  Some are very
   fast but can only carry small payloads and transit short distances,
   others are slower but carry large payloads and transit very large
   distances.  It may be appropriate to select the individual carrier
   for a packet on the basis of its DSCP value.  Indeed, different
   carriers will implement different per-hop behaviors according to RFC
   2474.

5.  Routing and Tunneling Considerations

   Routing carriers through the territory of similar carriers, without
   peering agreements, will sometimes cause abrupt route changes,
   looping packets, and out-of-order delivery.  Similarly, routing
   carriers through the territory of predatory carriers may potentially
   cause severe packet loss.  It is strongly recommended that these
   factors be considered in the routing algorithm used to create carrier
   routing tables.  Implementers should consider policy-based routing to
   ensure reliable packet delivery by routing around areas where
   territorial and predatory carriers are prevalent.

   There is evidence that some carriers have a propensity to eat other
   carriers and then carry the eaten payloads.  Perhaps this provides a
   new way to tunnel an IPv4 packet in an IPv6 payload, or vice versa.




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   However, the decapsulation mechanism is unclear at the time of this
   writing.

6.  Multihoming Considerations

   Some types of carriers are notoriously good at homing.  Surprisingly,
   this property is not mentioned in RFC 1149.  Unfortunately, they
   prove to have no talent for multihoming, and in fact enter a routing
   loop whenever multihoming is attempted.  This appears to be a
   fundamental restriction on the topologies in which both RFC 1149 and
   the present specification can be deployed.

7.  Internationalization Considerations

   In some locations, such as New Zealand, a significant proportion of
   carriers are only able to execute short hops, and only at times when
   the background level of photon emission is extremely low.  This will
   impact the availability and throughput of the solution in such
   locations.

8.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations of [RFC1149] apply.  In addition, recent
   experience suggests that the transmission elements are exposed to
   many different forms of denial-of-service attacks, especially when
   perching.  Also, the absence of link layer identifiers referred to
   above, combined with the lack of checksums in the IPv6 header,
   basically means that any transmission element could be mistaken for
   any other, with no means of detecting the substitution at the network
   layer.  The use of an upper-layer security mechanism of some kind
   seems like a really good idea.

   There is a known risk of infection by the so-called H5N1 virus.
   Appropriate detection and quarantine measures MUST be available.

9.  IANA Considerations

   This document requests no action by IANA.  However, registry clean-up
   may be necessary after interoperability testing, especially if
   multicast has been attempted.

10.  Acknowledgements

   Steve Deering was kind enough to review this document for conformance
   with IPv6 requirements.  We acknowledge in advance the many errata in
   this document that will be reported by Alfred Hoenes.

   This document was produced using the xml2rfc tool [RFC2629].



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11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [RFC1149]         Waitzman, D., "Standard for the transmission of IP
                     datagrams on avian carriers", RFC 1149, April 1990.

   [RFC2119]         Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
                     Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2460]         Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol,
                     Version 6 (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460,
                     December 1998.

   [RFC2474]         Nichols, K., Blake, S., Baker, F., and D. Black,
                     "Definition of the Differentiated Services Field
                     (DS Field) in the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers", RFC 2474,
                     December 1998.

   [RFC2675]         Borman, D., Deering, S., and R. Hinden, "IPv6
                     Jumbograms", RFC 2675, August 1999.

   [RFC4213]         Nordmark, E. and R. Gilligan, "Basic Transition
                     Mechanisms for IPv6 Hosts and Routers", RFC 4213,
                     October 2005.

11.2.  Informative References

   [IPv6-PREFIXLEN]  Kohno, M., Nitzan, B., Bush, R., Matsuzaki, Y.,
                     Colitti, L., and T. Narten, "Using 127-bit IPv6
                     Prefixes on Inter-Router Links", Work in Progress,
                     October 2010.

   [RFC1042]         Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "Standard for the
                     transmission of IP datagrams over IEEE 802
                     networks", STD 43, RFC 1042, February 1988.

   [RFC2549]         Waitzman, D., "IP over Avian Carriers with Quality
                     of Service", RFC 2549, April 1999.

   [RFC2629]         Rose, M., "Writing I-Ds and RFCs using XML",
                     RFC 2629, June 1999.

   [RFC4291]         Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
                     Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006.






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   [RFC4861]         Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H.
                     Soliman, "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6
                     (IPv6)", RFC 4861, September 2007.

   [RFC4862]         Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6
                     Stateless Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862,
                     September 2007.

   [RFC6036]         Carpenter, B. and S. Jiang, "Emerging Service
                     Provider Scenarios for IPv6 Deployment", RFC 6036,
                     October 2010.

Authors' Addresses

   Brian Carpenter
   Department of Computer Science
   University of Auckland
   PB 92019
   Auckland,   1142
   New Zealand

   EMail: brian.e.carpenter@gmail.com


   Robert M. Hinden
   Check Point Software Technologies, Inc.
   800 Bridge Parkway
   Redwood City, CA  94065
   US

   Phone: +1.650.387.6118
   EMail: bob.hinden@gmail.com



















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