[Docs] [txt|pdf] [draft-ietf-mediac...] [Diff1] [Diff2] [Errata]

PROPOSED STANDARD
Errata Exist
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                      S. McGlashan
Request for Comments: 6505                               Hewlett-Packard
Category: Standards Track                                   T. Melanchuk
ISSN: 2070-1721                                               Rainwillow
                                                              C. Boulton
                                                         NS-Technologies
                                                              March 2012


    A Mixer Control Package for the Media Control Channel Framework

Abstract

   This document defines a Media Control Channel Framework Package for
   managing mixers for media conferences and connections.  The package
   defines request elements for managing conference mixers, managing
   mixers between conferences and/or connections, as well as associated
   responses and notifications.  The package also defines elements for
   auditing package capabilities and mixers.

Status of This Memo

   This is an Internet Standards Track document.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
   Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 5741.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6505.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.



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   This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
   Contributions published or made publicly available before November
   10, 2008.  The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this
   material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow
   modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process.
   Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling
   the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified
   outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may
   not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format
   it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
   than English.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Conventions and Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.  Control Package Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.1.  Control Package Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.2.  Framework Message Usage  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.3.  Common XML Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.4.  CONTROL Message Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.5.  REPORT Message Body  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.6.  Audit  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.7.  Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   4.  Element Definitions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.1.  <mscmixer> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.2.  Mixer Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       4.2.1.  Conference Elements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
         4.2.1.1.  <createconference> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
         4.2.1.2.  <modifyconference> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
         4.2.1.3.  <destroyconference>  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
         4.2.1.4.  Conference Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
           4.2.1.4.1.  <audio-mixing> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
           4.2.1.4.2.  <video-layouts>  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
             4.2.1.4.2.1.  <video-layout> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
           4.2.1.4.3.  <video-switch> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
             4.2.1.4.3.1.  Priority Assignment  . . . . . . . . . . . 26
           4.2.1.4.4.  <subscribe>  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
             4.2.1.4.4.1.  <active-talkers-sub> . . . . . . . . . . . 27
       4.2.2.  Joining Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
         4.2.2.1.  Joining Model  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
         4.2.2.2.  <join> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
         4.2.2.3.  <modifyjoin> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
         4.2.2.4.  <unjoin> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
         4.2.2.5.  <stream> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
           4.2.2.5.1.  <volume> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
           4.2.2.5.2.  <clamp>  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
           4.2.2.5.3.  <region> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38



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           4.2.2.5.4.  <priority> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
       4.2.3.  <response> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
       4.2.4.  <event>  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
         4.2.4.1.  <active-talkers-notify>  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
           4.2.4.1.1.  <active-talker>  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
         4.2.4.2.  <unjoin-notify>  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
         4.2.4.3.  <conferenceexit> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
     4.3.  Audit Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
       4.3.1.  <audit>  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
       4.3.2.  <auditresponse>  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
         4.3.2.1.  <capabilities> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
         4.3.2.2.  <mixers> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
           4.3.2.2.1.  <conferenceaudit>  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
             4.3.2.2.1.1.  <participants> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
               4.3.2.2.1.1.1.  <participant>  . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
           4.3.2.2.2.  <joinaudit>  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
     4.4.  <codecs> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
       4.4.1.  <codec>  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
     4.5.  <params> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
       4.5.1.  <param>  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
     4.6.  Response Status Codes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
     4.7.  Type Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
   5.  Formal Syntax  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
   6.  Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
     6.1.  AS-MS Framework Interaction Examples . . . . . . . . . . . 75
       6.1.1.  Creating a Conference Mixer and Joining a
               Participant  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
       6.1.2.  Receiving Active Talker Notifications  . . . . . . . . 76
       6.1.3.  Conference Termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
     6.2.  Mixing Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
       6.2.1.  Audio Conferencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
       6.2.2.  Bridging Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
       6.2.3.  Video Conferencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
   7.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
   8.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
     8.1.  Control Package Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
     8.2.  URN Sub-Namespace Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
     8.3.  XML Schema Registration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
     8.4.  MIME Media Type Registration for
           'application/msc-mixer+xml'  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
     8.5.  Mixer Control Package Status Code Registration . . . . . . 86
   9.  Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
   10. Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
   11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
     11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
     11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88





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1.  Introduction

   The Media Control Channel Framework [RFC6230] provides a generic
   approach for establishment and reporting capabilities of remotely
   initiated commands.  The Control Framework -- an equivalent term for
   the Media Control Channel Framework -- utilizes many functions
   provided by the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) [RFC3261] for the
   rendezvous and establishment of a reliable channel for control
   interactions.  The Control Framework also introduces the concept of a
   Control Package.  A Control Package is an explicit usage of the
   Control Framework for a particular interaction set.  This
   specification defines a package for media conference mixers and media
   connection mixers.

   This package defines mixer management elements for creating,
   modifying, and deleting conference mixers, elements for joining,
   modifying, and unjoining media streams between connections and
   conferences (including mixers between connections), as well as
   associated responses and notifications.  The package also defines
   elements for auditing package capabilities and mixers.

   This package has been designed to satisfy media-mixing requirements
   documented in the Media Server Control Protocol Requirements document
   [RFC5167]; more specifically REQ-MCP-22, REQ-MCP-23, REQ-MCP-24,
   REQ-MCP-25, REQ-MCP-26, and REQ-MCP-27.

   The package provides the major conferencing functionality of SIP
   media server languages such as MSCML [RFC5022] and MSML [RFC5707].  A
   key differentiator is that this package provides such functionality
   using the Media Control Channel Framework.

   Out of scope for this mixer package are more advanced functions
   including personalized video mixes for conference participants,
   support for floor control protocols, as well as support for video
   overlays and text insertion.  Such functionality can be addressed by
   extensions to this package (through addition of foreign elements or
   attributes from another namespace) or use of other Control Packages
   that could build upon this package.

   The functionality of this package is defined by messages, containing
   XML [XML] elements and transported using the Media Control Channel
   Framework.  The XML elements can be divided into two types: mixer
   management elements and audit elements (for auditing package
   capabilities and mixers managed by the package).

   The document is organized as follows.  Section 3 describes how this
   Control Package fulfills the requirements for a Media Control Channel
   Framework Control Package.  Section 4 describes the syntax and



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   semantics of defined elements, including mixer management
   (Section 4.2) and audit elements (Section 4.3).  Section 5 describes
   an XML schema for these elements and provides extensibility by
   allowing attributes and elements from other namespaces.  Section 6
   provides examples of package usage.  Section 7 describes important
   security considerations for use of this Control Package.  Section 8
   provides information on IANA registration of this Control Package,
   including its name, XML namespace, and MIME media type.

2.  Conventions and Terminology

   In this document, BCP 14 [RFC2119] defines the key words "MUST",
   "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT",
   "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL".  In
   addition, BCP 15 indicates requirement levels for compliant
   implementations.

   The following additional terms are defined for use in this document:

   Application Server:  A SIP [RFC3261] application server (AS) is a
      control client that hosts and executes services such as
      interactive media and conferencing in an operator's network.  An
      AS controls the media server (MS), influencing and impacting the
      SIP sessions terminating on an MS, which the AS can have
      established, for example, using SIP third-party call control.

   Media Server:  A media server (MS) processes media streams on behalf
      of an AS by offering functionality such as interactive media,
      conferencing, and transcoding to the end user.  Interactive media
      functionality is realized by way of dialogs, which are identified
      by a URI and initiated by the application server.

   MS Conference:  An MS Conference provides the media-related mixing
      resources and services for conferences.  In this document, an MS
      Conference is often referred to simply as a conference.

   MS Connection:  An MS connection represents the termination on a
      media server of one or more RTP [RFC3550] sessions that are
      associated to a single SIP dialog.  A media server receives media
      from the output(s) of a connection, and it transmits media on the
      input(s) of a connection.

   Media Stream:  A media stream on a media server represents a media
      flow between either a connection and a conference, between two
      connections, or between two conferences.  Streams can be audio or
      video and can be bidirectional or unidirectional.





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3.  Control Package Definition

   This section fulfills the mandatory requirement for information that
   MUST be specified during the definition of a Control Framework
   Package, as detailed in Section 8 of [RFC6230].

3.1.  Control Package Name

   The Control Framework requires a Control Package definition to
   specify and register a unique name.  The name and version of this
   Control Package is "msc-mixer/1.0" (Media Server Control - Mixer -
   version 1.0).  Its IANA registration is specified in Section 8.1.

   Since this is the initial ("1.0") version of the Control Package,
   there are no backwards compatibility issues to address.

3.2.  Framework Message Usage

   The Control Framework requires a Control Package to explicitly detail
   the control messages that can be used as well as provide an
   indication of directionality between entities.  This will include
   which role type is allowed to initiate a request type.

   This package specifies CONTROL and response messages in terms of XML
   elements defined in Section 4, where the message bodies have the MIME
   media type defined in Section 8.4.  These elements describe requests,
   responses, and notifications, and all are contained within a root
   <mscmixer> element (Section 4.1).

   In this package, the MS operates as a Control Server in receiving
   requests from, and sending responses to, the AS (operating as a
   Control Client).  Mixer management requests and responses are defined
   in Section 4.2.  Audit requests and responses are defined in
   Section 4.3.  Mixer management and audit responses are carried in a
   framework 200 response or REPORT message bodies.  This package's
   response codes are defined in Section 4.6.

   Note that package responses are different from framework response
   codes.  Framework error response codes (see Section 7 of [RFC6230])
   are used when the request or event notification is invalid, for
   example, a request is invalid XML (400) or not understood (500).

   The MS also operates as a Control Client in sending event
   notification to the AS (Control Server).  Event notifications
   (Section 4.2.4) are carried in CONTROL message bodies.  The AS MUST
   respond with a Control Framework 200 response.





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3.3.  Common XML Support

   The Control Framework requires a Control Package definition to
   specify if the attributes for media dialog or conference references
   are required.

   This package requires that the XML schema in Appendix A.1 of
   [RFC6230] MUST be supported for media dialogs and conferences.

   The package uses 'connectionid' and 'conferenceid' attributes for
   various element definitions (Section 4).  The XML schema (Section 5)
   imports the definitions of these attributes from the framework
   schema.

3.4.  CONTROL Message Body

   The Control Framework requires a Control Package to define the
   control body that can be contained within a CONTROL command request
   and to indicate the location of detailed syntax definitions and
   semantics for the appropriate body types.

   When operating as a Control Server, the MS receives CONTROL messages
   with the MIME media type defined in Section 8.4 and a body containing
   a <mscmixer> element (Section 4.1) with either a mixer management or
   audit request child element.

   The following mixer management request elements are carried in
   CONTROL message bodies to MS: <createconference> (Section 4.2.1.1),
   <modifyconference> (Section 4.2.1.2), <destroyconference>
   (Section 4.2.1.3), <join> (Section 4.2.2.2), <modifyjoin>
   (Section 4.2.2.3), and <unjoin> (Section 4.2.2.4) elements.

   The <audit> request element (Section 4.3.1) is also carried in
   CONTROL message bodies.

   When operating as a Control Client, the MS sends CONTROL messages
   with the MIME media type defined in Section 8.4 and a body containing
   a <mscmixer> element (Section 4.1) with a notification <event> child
   element (Section 4.2.4).

3.5.  REPORT Message Body

   The Control Framework requires a Control Package definition to define
   the REPORT body that can be contained within a REPORT command
   request, or to indicate that no report package body is required.
   This section indicates the location of detailed syntax definitions
   and semantics for the appropriate body types.




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   When operating as a Control Server, the MS sends REPORT bodies with
   the MIME media type defined in Section 8.4 and a <mscmixer> element
   with a response child element.  The response element for mixer
   management requests is a <response> element (Section 4.2.3).  The
   response element for an audit request is a <auditresponse> element
   (Section 4.3.2).

3.6.  Audit

   The Control Framework encourages Control Packages to specify whether
   auditing is available, how it is triggered, as well as the query/
   response formats.

   This Control Package supports auditing of package capabilities and
   mixers on the MS.  An audit request is carried in a CONTROL message
   and an audit response in a REPORT message (or a 200 response to the
   CONTROL if it can execute the audit in time).

   The syntax and semantics of audit request and response elements are
   defined in Section 4.3.

3.7.  Examples

   The Control Framework recommends Control Packages to provide a range
   of message flows that represent common flows using the package and
   this framework document.

   This Control Package provides examples of such message flows in
   Section 6.

4.  Element Definitions

   This section defines the XML elements for this package.  The elements
   are defined in the XML namespace specified in Section 8.2.

   The root element is <mscmixer> (Section 4.1).  All other XML elements
   (requests, responses, and notification elements) are contained within
   it.  Child elements describe mixer management (Section 4.2) and audit
   (Section 4.3) functionality.  Response status codes are defined in
   Section 4.6 and type definitions in Section 4.7.

   Implementation of this Control Package MUST address the security
   considerations described in Section 7.

   Implementation of this Control Package MUST adhere to the syntax and
   semantics of XML elements defined in this section and the schema
   (Section 5).  The XML schema supports extensibility by allowing
   attributes and elements from other namespaces.  Implementations MAY



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   support attributes and elements from other (foreign) namespaces.  If
   an MS implementation receives a <mscmixer> element containing
   attributes or elements from another namespace, which it does not
   support, the MS sends a 428 response (Section 4.6).

   Extensible attributes and elements are not described in this section.
   In all other cases where there is a difference in constraints between
   the XML schema and the textual description of elements in this
   section, the textual definition takes priority.

   Some elements in this Control Package contain attributes whose value
   is descriptive text primarily for diagnostic use.  The implementation
   can indicated the language used in the descriptive text by means of a
   'desclang' attribute [RFC2277].  The 'desclang' attribute can appear
   on the root element as well as selected subordinate elements (see
   Section 4.1).  The 'desclang' attribute value on the root element
   applies to all 'desclang' attributes in subordinate elements unless
   the subordinate element has an explicit 'desclang' attribute that
   overrides it.

   Usage examples are provided in Section 6.

4.1.  <mscmixer>

   The <mscmixer> element has the following attributes (in addition to
   standard XML namespace attributes such as 'xmlns'):

   version:  a string specifying the mscmixer package version.  The
      value is fixed as "1.0" for this version of the package.  The
      attribute is mandatory.

   desclang:  specifies the language used in descriptive text attributes
      of subordinate elements (unless the subordinate element provides a
      'desclang' attribute that overrides the value for its descriptive
      text attributes).  The descriptive text attributes on subordinate
      elements include: the 'reason' attribute on <response>
      (Section 4.2.3), <unjoin-notify> (Section 4.2.4.2),
      <conferenceexit> (Section 4.2.4.3), and <auditresponse>
      (Section 4.3.2).  A valid value is a language identifier
      (Section 4.7.7).  The attribute is optional.  The default value is
      "i-default" (BCP 47 [RFC5646]).










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   The <mscmixer> element has the following defined child elements, only
   one of which can occur:

   1.  mixer management elements defined in Section 4.2:

       <createconference>:  create and configure a new conference mixer.
          See Section 4.2.1.1

       <modifyconference>:  modify the configuration of an existing
          conference mixer.  See Section 4.2.1.2

       <destroyconference>:  destroy an existing conference mixer.  See
          Section 4.2.1.3

       <join>:  create and configure media streams between connections
          and/or conferences (for example, add a participant to a
          conference).  See Section 4.2.2.2

       <modifyjoin>:  modify the configuration of joined media streams.
          See Section 4.2.2.3

       <unjoin>:  delete a media stream (for example, remove a
          participant from a conference).  See Section 4.2.2.4

       <response>:  response to a mixer request.  See Section 4.2.3

       <event>:  mixer or subscription notification.  See Section 4.2.4

   2.  audit elements defined in Section 4.3:

       <audit>:  audit package capabilities and managed mixers.  See
          Section 4.3.1

       <auditresponse>:  response to an audit request.  See
          Section 4.3.2

   For example, a request to the MS to create a conference mixer is as
   follows:

   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <createconference/>
   </mscmixer>

   And a response from the MS that the conference was successfully
   created is as follows:






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   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer"
     desclang="en">
    <response status="200" conferenceid="conference1"
      reason="conference created"/>
   </mscmixer>

4.2.  Mixer Elements

   This section defines the mixer management XML elements for this
   Control Package.  These elements are divided into requests,
   responses, and notifications.

   Request elements are sent to the MS to request a specific mixer
   operation to be executed.  The following request elements are
   defined:

   <createconference>:  create and configure a new a conference mixer.
      See Section 4.2.1.1

   <modifyconference>:  modify the configuration of an existing
      conference mixer.  See Section 4.2.1.2

   <destroyconference>:  destroy an existing conference mixer.  See
      Section 4.2.1.3

   <join>:  create and configure media streams between connections
      and/or conferences (for example, add a participant to a
      conference).  See Section 4.2.2.2

   <modifyjoin>:  modify the configuration of joined media streams.  See
      Section 4.2.2.3

   <unjoin>:  delete a media stream (for example, remove a participant
      from a conference).  See Section 4.2.2.4

   Responses from the MS describe the status of the requested operation.
   Responses are specified in a <response> element (Section 4.2.3) that
   includes a mandatory attribute describing the status in terms of a
   numeric code.  Response status codes are defined in Section 4.6.  The
   MS MUST respond to a request message with a response message.  If the
   MS is not able to process the request and carry out the mixer
   operation (in whole or in part), then the request has failed: the MS
   MUST ensure that no part of the requested mixer operation is carried
   out, and the MS MUST indicate the class of failure using an
   appropriate 4xx response code.  Unless an error response code is
   specified for a class of error within this section, implementations
   follow Section 4.6 in determining the appropriate status code for the
   response.



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   Notifications are sent from the MS to provide updates on the status
   of a mixer operation or subscription.  Notifications are specified in
   an <event> element (Section 4.2.4).

4.2.1.  Conference Elements

4.2.1.1.  <createconference>

   The <createconference> element is sent to the MS to request creation
   of a new conference (multiparty) mixer.

   The <createconference> element has the following attributes:

   conferenceid:  string indicating a unique name for the new
      conference.  If this attribute is not specified, the MS MUST
      create a unique name for the conference.  The value is used in
      subsequent references to the conference (e.g., as conferenceid in
      a <response>).  The attribute is optional.  There is no default
      value.

   reserved-talkers:  indicates the requested number of guaranteed
      speaker slots to be reserved for the conference.  A valid value is
      a non-negative integer (see Section 4.7.2).  The attribute is
      optional.  The default value is 0.

   reserved-listeners:  indicates the requested number of guaranteed
      listener slots to be reserved for the conference.  A valid value
      is a non-negative integer (see Section 4.7.2).  The attribute is
      optional.  The default value is 0.

   The <createconference> element has the following sequence of child
   elements:

   <codecs>:  an element to configure the codecs supported by the
      conference (see Section 4.4).  If codecs are specified, then they
      impose limitations on media capability when the MS attempts to
      join the conference to other entities (see Sections 4.2.2.2 and
      4.2.2.3).  The element is optional.

   <audio-mixing>:  an element to configure the audio mixing
      characteristics of a conference (see Section 4.2.1.4.1).  The
      element is optional.

   <video-layouts>:  an element to configure the video layouts of a
      conference (see Section 4.2.1.4.2).  The element is optional.






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   <video-switch>:  an element to configure the video switch policy for
      the layout of a conference (see Section 4.2.1.4.3).  The element
      is optional.

   <subscribe>:  an element to request subscription to conference
      events. (see Section 4.2.1.4.4).  The element is optional.

   If the 'conferenceid' attribute specifies a value that is already
   used by an existing conference, the MS reports an error (405) and
   MUST NOT create a new conference and MUST NOT affect the existing
   conference.

   If the MS is unable to configure the conference according to
   specified 'reserved-talkers' or 'reserved-listeners' attributes, the
   MS reports an error (420) and MUST NOT create the conference.

   If the MS is unable to configure the conference according to a
   specified <audio-mixing> element, the MS reports an error (421) and
   MUST NOT create the conference.

   If the MS is unable to configure the conference according to a
   specified <video-layouts> element, the MS reports an error (423) and
   MUST NOT create the conference.

   If the MS is unable to configure the conference according to a
   specified <video-switch> element, the MS reports an error (424) and
   MUST NOT create the conference.

   If the MS is unable to configure the conference according to a
   specified <codecs> element, the MS reports an error (425) and MUST
   NOT create the conference.

   When a MS has finished processing a <createconference> request, it
   MUST reply with an appropriate <response> element (Section 4.2.3).

   For example, a request to create an audio video conference mixer with
   specified codecs, video layout, video switch, and subscription is as
   follows:













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   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <createconference conferenceid="conference1"
          reserved-talkers="1" reserved-listeners="10">
      <codecs>
       <codec name="video">
        <subtype>H264</subtype>
       </codec>
       <codec name="audio">
        <subtype>PCMA</subtype>
       </codec>
      </codecs>
      <audio-mixing type="nbest"/>
      <video-layouts>
       <video-layout min-participants="1"><single-view/></video-layout>
       <video-layout min-participants="2"><dual-view/></video-layout>
       <video-layout min-participants="3"><quad-view/></video-layout>
      </video-layouts>
      <video-switch interval="5"><vas/></video-switch>
      <subscribe>
       <active-talkers-sub interval="4"/>
      </subscribe>
    </createconference>
   </mscmixer>

   A response from the MS if the conference was successfully created is
   as follows:

   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <response status="200" conferenceid="conference1"/>
   </mscmixer>

   Alternatively, a response if the MS could not create the conference
   due to a lack of support for the H264 codec is as follows:

   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <response status="425" conferenceid="conference1"
              reason="H264 codec not supported"/>
   </mscmixer>

4.2.1.2.  <modifyconference>

   The <modifyconference> element is sent to the MS to request
   modification of an existing conference.

   The <modifyconference> element has the following attribute:

   conferenceid:  string indicating the name of the conference to
      modify.  This attribute is mandatory.



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   The <modifyconference> element has the following sequence of child
   elements (one or more):

   <codecs>:  an element to configure the codecs supported by the
      conference (see Section 4.4).  If codecs are specified, then they
      impose limitations in media capability when the MS attempts to
      join the conference to other entities (see Sections 4.2.2.2 and
      4.2.2.3).  Existing conference participants are unaffected by any
      policy change.  The element is optional.

   <audio-mixing>:  an element to configure the audio mixing
      characteristics of a conference (see Section 4.2.1.4.1).  The
      element is optional.

   <video-layouts>:  an element to configure the video layouts of a
      conference (see Section 4.2.1.4.2).  The element is optional.

   <video-switch>:  an element to configure the video switch policy for
      the layout of a conference (see Section 4.2.1.4.3).  The element
      is optional.

   <subscribe>:  an element to request subscription to conference
      events. (see Section 4.2.1.4.4).  The element is optional.

   If the 'conferenceid' attribute specifies the name of a conference
   that does not exist, the MS reports an error (406).

   If the MS is unable to configure the conference according to a
   specified <audio-mixing> element, the MS reports an error (421) and
   MUST NOT modify the conference in any way.

   If the MS is unable to configure the conference according to a
   specified <video-layouts> element, the MS reports an error (423) and
   MUST NOT modify the conference in any way.

   If the MS is unable to configure the conference according to a
   specified <video-switch> element, the MS reports an error (424) and
   MUST NOT modify the conference in any way.

   If the MS is unable to configure the conference according to a
   specified <codecs> element, the MS reports an error (425) and MUST
   NOT modify the conference.

   When a MS has finished processing a <modifyconference> request, it
   MUST reply with an appropriate <response> element (Section 4.2.3).






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4.2.1.3.  <destroyconference>

   The <destroyconference> element is sent to the MS to request
   destruction of an existing conference.

   The <destroyconference> element has the following attribute:

   conferenceid:  string indicating the name of the conference to
      destroy.  This attribute is mandatory.

   The <destroyconference> element does not specify any child elements.

   If the 'conferenceid' attribute specifies the name of a conference
   that does not exist, the MS reports an error (406).

   When a MS has finished processing a <destroyconference> request, it
   MUST reply with an appropriate <response> element (Section 4.2.3).

   Successfully destroying the conference (status code 200) will result
   in all connection or conference participants being removed from the
   conference mixer, <unjoin-notify> notification events
   (Section 4.2.4.2) being sent for each conference participant, and a
   <conferenceexit> notification event (Section 4.2.4.3) indicating that
   conference has exited.  A <response> with any other status code
   indicates that the conference mixer still exists and participants are
   still joined to the mixer.

4.2.1.4.  Conference Configuration

   The elements in this section are used to establish and modify the
   configuration of conferences.

4.2.1.4.1.  <audio-mixing>

   The <audio-mixing> element defines the configuration of the
   conference audio mix.

   The <audio-mixing> element has the following attributes:

   type:  is a string indicating the audio stream mixing policy.
      Defined values are: "nbest" (where the N best (loudest)
      participant signals are mixed) and "controller" (where the
      contributing participant(s) is/are selected by the controlling AS
      via an external floor control protocol).  The attribute is
      optional.  The default value is "nbest".






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   n: indicates the number of eligible participants included in the
      conference audio mix.  An eligible participant is a participant
      who contributes audio to the conference.  Inclusion is based on
      having the greatest audio energy.  A valid value is a non-negative
      integer (see Section 4.7.2).  A value of 0 indicates that all
      participants contributing audio to the conference are included in
      the audio mix.  The default value is 0.  The element is optional.

   If the 'type' attribute does not have the value "nbest", the MS
   ignores the 'n' attribute.

   The <audio-mixing> element has no child elements.

   For example, a fragment where the audio-mixing policy is set to
   "nbest" with 3 participants to be included is as follows:

      <audio-mixing type="nbest" n="3"/>

   If the conference had 200 participants of whom 30 contributed audio,
   then there would be 30 eligible participants for the audio mix.  Of
   these, the 3 loudest participants would have their audio included in
   the conference.

4.2.1.4.2.  <video-layouts>

   The <video-layouts> element describes the video presentation layout
   configuration for participants providing a video input stream to the
   conference.  This element allows multiple video layouts to be
   specified so that the MS automatically changes layout depending on
   the number of video-enabled participants.

   The <video-layouts> element has no attributes.

   The <video-layouts> element has the following sequence of child
   elements (one or more):

   <video-layout>:  element describing a video layout
      (Section 4.2.1.4.2.1).

   If the MS does not support video conferencing at all, or does not
   support multiple video layouts, or does not support a specific video
   layout, the MS reports an 423 error in the response to the request
   element containing the <video-layouts> element.

   An MS MAY support more than one <video-layout> element, although only
   one layout can be active at a time.  A <video-layout> is active if
   the number of participants in the conference is equal to or greater
   than the value of its 'min-participants' attribute, but less than the



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   value of the 'min-participants' attribute for any other <video-
   layout> element.  An MS reports an error (400) if more than one
   <video-layout> has the same value for the 'min-participants'
   attribute.  When the number of regions within the active layout is
   greater than the number of participants in the conference, the
   display of unassigned regions is implementation-specific.

   The assignment of participant video streams to regions within the
   layout is according to the video switch policy specified by the
   <video-switch> element (Section 4.2.1.4.3).

   For example, a fragment describing a single layout is as follows:

   <video-layouts>
     <video-layout><single-view/></video-layout>
   </video-layouts>

   A fragment describing a sequence of layouts is as follows:

   <video-layouts>
     <video-layout min-participants="1"><single-view/></video-layout>
     <video-layout min-participants="2"><dual-view/></video-layout>
     <video-layout min-participants="3"><quad-view/></video-layout>
     <video-layout min-participants="5"><multiple-3x3/></video-layout>
   </video-layouts>

   When the conference has one participant providing a video input
   stream to the conference, then the single-view format is used.  When
   the conference has two such participants, the dual-view layout is
   used.  When the conference has three or four participants, the quad-
   view layout is used.  When the conference has five or more
   participants, the multiple-3x3 layout is used.

4.2.1.4.2.1.  <video-layout>

   The <video-layout> element describes a video layout containing one or
   more regions in which participant video input streams are displayed.

   The <video-layout> element has the following attribute:

   min-participants:  the minimum number of conference participants
      needed to allow this layout to be active.  A valid value is a
      positive integer (see Section 4.7.3).  The attribute is optional.
      The default value is 1.

   The <video-layout> element has one child element specifying the video
   layout.  An MS MAY support the predefined video layouts defined in
   the conference information data model for centralized conferencing



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   (XCON) [RFC6501]: <single-view>, <dual-view>, <dual-view-crop>,
   <dual-view-2x1>, <dual-view-2x1-crop>, <quad-view>, <multiple-3x3>,
   <multiple-4x4>, and <multiple-5x1>.

   The MS MAY support other video layouts.  Non-XCON layouts MUST be
   specified using an element from a namespace other than the one used
   in this specification, for example:

   <video-layout>
    <mylayout xmlns='http://example.com/foo'>my-single-view</mylayout>
   </video-layout>

   If the MS does not support the specified video layout configuration,
   then the MS reports a 423 error (Section 4.6) in the response to the
   request element containing the <video-layout> element.

   Each video layout has associated with it one or more regions.  The
   XCON layouts are associated with the following named regions:

   <single-view/>:  layout with one stream in a single region as shown
      in Figure 1.

                               +-----------+
                               |           |
                               |           |
                               |     1     |
                               |           |
                               |           |
                               +-----------+

                      Figure 1: single-view video layout

   <dual-view/>:  layout presenting two streams side-by-side in two
      regions as shown in Figure 2.  The MS MUST NOT alter the aspect
      ratio of each stream to fit the region, and hence the MS might
      need to blank out part of each region.

                         +-----------+-----------+
                         |           |           |
                         |           |           |
                         |     1     |     2     |
                         |           |           |
                         |           |           |
                         +-----------+-----------+

                       Figure 2: dual-view video layout





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   <dual-view-crop/>:  layout presenting two streams side-by-side in two
      regions as shown in Figure 3.  The MS MUST alter the aspect ratio
      of each stream to fit its region so that no blanking is required.

                         +-----------+-----------+
                         |           |           |
                         |           |           |
                         |     1     |     2     |
                         |           |           |
                         |           |           |
                         +-----------+-----------+

                    Figure 3: dual-view-crop video layout

   <dual-view-2x1/>:  layout presenting two streams, one above the
      other, in two regions as shown in Figure 4.  The MS MUST NOT alter
      the aspect ratio of each stream to fit its region, and hence the
      MS might need to blank out part of each region.

                               +-----------+
                               |           |
                               |           |
                               |     1     |
                               |           |
                               |           |
                               +-----------+
                               |           |
                               |           |
                               |     2     |
                               |           |
                               |           |
                               +-----------+

                     Figure 4: dual-view-2x1 video layout

















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   <dual-view-2x1-crop/>:  layout presenting two streams one above the
      other in two regions as shown in Figure 5.  The MS MUST alter the
      aspect ratio of each stream to fit its region so that no blanking
      is required.

                               +-----------+
                               |           |
                               |           |
                               |     1     |
                               |           |
                               |           |
                               +-----------+
                               |           |
                               |           |
                               |     2     |
                               |           |
                               |           |
                               +-----------+

                  Figure 5: dual-view-2x1-crop video layout

   <quad-view/>:  layout presenting four equal-sized regions in a 2x2
      layout as shown in Figure 6.  Typically, the aspect ratio of the
      streams is preserved, so blanking is required.

                         +-----------+-----------+
                         |           |           |
                         |           |           |
                         |     1     |     2     |
                         |           |           |
                         |           |           |
                         +-----------+-----------+
                         |           |           |
                         |           |           |
                         |     3     |     4     |
                         |           |           |
                         |           |           |
                         +-----------+-----------+

                       Figure 6: quad-view video layout











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   <multiple-3x3/>:  layout presenting nine equal-sized regions in a 3x3
      layout as shown in Figure 7.  Typically, the aspect ratio of the
      streams is preserved, so blanking is required.

                   +-----------+-----------+-----------+
                   |           |           |           |
                   |           |           |           |
                   |     1     |     2     |     3     |
                   |           |           |           |
                   |           |           |           |
                   +-----------+-----------+-----------+
                   |           |           |           |
                   |           |           |           |
                   |     4     |     5     |     6     |
                   |           |           |           |
                   |           |           |           |
                   +-----------+-----------+-----------+
                   |           |           |           |
                   |           |           |           |
                   |    7      |     8     |     9     |
                   |           |           |           |
                   |           |           |           |
                   +-----------+-----------+-----------+

                     Figure 7: multiple-3x3 video layout


























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   <multiple-4x4/>:  layout presenting 16 equal-sized regions in a 4x4
      layout as shown in Figure 8.  Typically, the aspect ratio of the
      streams is preserved, so blanking is required.

             +-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
             |           |           |           |           |
             |           |           |           |           |
             |     1     |     2     |     3     |     4     |
             |           |           |           |           |
             |           |           |           |           |
             +-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
             |           |           |           |           |
             |           |           |           |           |
             |     5     |     6     |     7     |     8     |
             |           |           |           |           |
             |           |           |           |           |
             +-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
             |           |           |           |           |
             |           |           |           |           |
             |     9     |    10     |    11     |    12     |
             |           |           |           |           |
             |           |           |           |           |
             +-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
             |           |           |           |           |
             |           |           |           |           |
             |    13     |    14     |    15     |    16     |
             |           |           |           |           |
             |           |           |           |           |
             +-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+

                     Figure 8: multiple-4x4 video layout




















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   <multiple-5x1/>:  layout presents a 5x1 layout as shown in Figure 9
      where one region will occupy 4/9 of the mixed video stream, while
      the others will each occupy 1/9 of the stream.  Typically, the
      aspect ratio of the streams is preserved, so blanking is required.

                   +-----------------------+-----------+
                   |                       |           |
                   |                       |           |
                   |                       |     2     |
                   |                       |           |
                   |                       |           |
                   |           1           +-----------+
                   |                       |           |
                   |                       |           |
                   |                       |     3     |
                   |                       |           |
                   |                       |           |
                   +-----------+-----------+-----------+
                   |           |           |           |
                   |           |           |           |
                   |    4      |     5     |     6     |
                   |           |           |           |
                   |           |           |           |
                   +-----------+-----------+-----------+

                     Figure 9: multiple-5x1 video layout

4.2.1.4.3.  <video-switch>

   The <video-switch> element describes the configuration of the
   conference policy for how participants' input video streams are
   assigned to regions within the active video layout.

   The <video-switch> element has the following child elements defined
   (one child occurrence only) to indicate the video-switching policy of
   the conference:

   <vas/>:  (Voice-Activated Switching) enables automatic display of the
      loudest speaker participant that is contributing both audio and
      video to the conference mix.  Participants who do not provide an
      audio stream are not considered for automatic display.  If a
      participant provides more than one audio stream, then the policy
      for inclusion of such a participant in the VAS is implementation-
      specific; an MS could select one stream, sum audio streams, or
      ignore the participant for VAS consideration.  If there is only
      one region in the layout, then the loudest speaker is displayed
      there.  If more than one region is available, then the loudest
      speaker is displayed in the largest region (if any), and then in



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      the first region from the top-left corner of the layout.  The MS
      assigns the remaining regions based on the priority mechanism
      described in Section 4.2.1.4.3.1.

   <controller/>:  enables manual control over video switching.  The
      controller AS determines how the regions are assigned based on an
      external floor control policy.  The MS receives <join>,
      <modifyjoin>, and <unjoin> commands with a <stream> element
      (Section 4.2.2.5) indicating the region where the stream is
      displayed.  If no explicit region is specified, the MS assigns the
      region based on the priority mechanism described in
      Section 4.2.1.4.3.1.

   An MS MAY support other video-switching policies.  Other policies
   MUST be specified using an element from a namespace other than the
   one used in this specification.  For example:

   <video-switch>
    <mypolicy xmlns='http://example.com/foo'/>
   </video-switch>

   The <video-switch> element has the following attributes:

   interval:  specifies the period between video switches as a number of
      seconds.  In the case of <vas/> policy, a speaker needs to be the
      loudest speaker for the interval before the switch takes place.  A
      valid value is a non-negative integer (see Section 4.7.2).  A
      value of 0 indicates that switching is applied immediately.  The
      attribute is optional.  The default value is 3 (seconds).

   activespeakermix:  indicates whether or not the active (loudest)
      speaker participant receives a video stream without themselves
      displayed in the case of the <vas/> switching policy.  If enabled,
      the MS needs to generate two video streams for each conference
      mix: one for the active speaker participant without themselves
      displayed (details of this video layout are implementation-
      specific) and one for other participants (as described in the
      <vas/> switching policy above).  A valid value is a boolean (see
      Section 4.7.1).  A value of "true" indicates that a separate video
      mix is generated for the active speaker without themselves being
      displayed.  A value of "false" indicates that all participants
      receive the same video mix.  The attribute is optional.  The
      default value is "false".  If the 'type' attribute is not set to
      <vas/>, the MS ignores this attribute.







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   If the MS does not support the specified video-switching policy or
   other configuration parameters (including separate active speaker
   video mixes), then the MS reports a 424 error (Section 4.6) in the
   response to the request element containing the <video-switch>
   element.

   If the MS receives a <join> or <modifyjoin> request containing a
   <stream> element (Section 4.2.2.5) that specifies a region and the
   conference video-switching policy is set to <vas/>, then the MS
   ignores the region (i.e., conference-switching policy takes
   precedence).

   If the MS receives a <join> or <modifyjoin> request containing a
   <stream> element (Section 4.2.2.5) specifying a region that is not
   defined for the currently active video layout, the MS MUST NOT report
   an error.  Even though the participant is not currently visible, the
   MS displays the participant if the layout changes to one that defines
   the specified region.

   For example, a fragment specifying a <vas/> video-switching policy
   with an interval of 2s

    <video-switch interval="2"><vas/></video-switch>

   For example, a fragment specifying a <controller/> video-switching
   policy where video switching takes place immediately is as follows:

    <video-switch interval="0"><controller/></video-switch>

4.2.1.4.3.1.  Priority Assignment

   In cases where the video-switching policy does not explicitly
   determine the region to which a participant is assigned, the
   following priority assignment mechanism applies:

   1.  Each participant has a (positive integer) priority value: the
       lower the value, the higher the priority.  The priority value is
       determined by the <priority> child element (Section 4.2.2.5.4) of
       <stream>.  If not explicitly specified, the default priority
       value is 100.

   2.  The MS uses priority values to assign participants to regions in
       the video layout which remain unfilled after application of the
       video-switching policy.  The MS MUST dedicate larger and/or more
       prominent portions of the layout to participants with higher
       priority values first (e.g., first, all participants with
       priority 1, then those with 2, 3, etc.).




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   3.  The policy for displaying participants with the same priority is
       implementation-specific.

   The MS applies this priority policy each time the video layout is
   changed or updated.  It is RECOMMENDED that the MS does not move a
   participant from one region to another unless required by the video-
   switching policy when an active video layout is updated.

   This model allows the MS to apply default video layouts after
   applying the video-switching policy.  For example, region 2 is
   statically assigned to Bob, so the priority mechanism only applies to
   regions 1, 3, 4, etc.

4.2.1.4.4.  <subscribe>

   The <subscribe> element is a container for specifying conference
   notification events to which a controlling entity subscribes.
   Notifications of conference events are delivered using the <event>
   element (see Section 4.2.4).

   The <subscribe> element has no attributes, but has the following
   child element:

   <active-talkers-sub>:  subscription to active talker events
      (Section 4.2.1.4.4.1).  The element is optional.

   The MS MUST support a <active-talkers-sub> subscription.  It MAY
   support other event subscriptions (specified using attributes and
   child elements from a foreign namespace).  If the MS does not support
   a subscription specified in a foreign namespace, it sends a
   <response> with a 428 status code (see Section 4.6).

4.2.1.4.4.1.  <active-talkers-sub>

   The <active-talkers-sub> element has the following attribute:

   interval:  the minimum amount of time (in seconds) that elapses
      before further active talker events can be generated.  A valid
      value is a non-negative integer (see Section 4.7.2).  A value of 0
      suppresses further notifications.  The attribute is optional.  The
      default value is 3 (seconds).

   The <active-talkers-sub> element has no child elements.

   Active talker notifications are delivered in the <active-talkers-
   notify> element (Section 4.2.4.1).





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4.2.2.  Joining Elements

   This section contains definitions of the joining model
   (Section 4.2.2.1) as well as the <join> (Section 4.2.2.2),
   <modifyjoin> (Section 4.2.2.3), <unjoin> (Section 4.2.2.4) and
   <stream> (Section 4.2.2.5) elements.

4.2.2.1.  Joining Model

   The <join> operation creates a media stream between a connection and
   a conference, between connections, or between conferences.  This
   section describes the model of conferences and connections and
   specifies the behavior for join requests to targets that already have
   an associated media stream.

   Conferences support multiple inputs and have resources to mix them
   together.  A media server conference in essence is a mixer that
   combines media streams.  A simple audio mixer simply sums its input
   audio signals to create a single common output.  Conferences,
   however, use a more complex algorithm so that participants do not
   hear themselves as part of the mix.  That algorithm, sometimes called
   an "n-minus mix", subtracts each participants input signal from the
   summed input signals, creating a unique output for each contributing
   participant.  Each <join> operation to a conference uses one of the
   conference's available inputs and/or outputs, to the maximum number
   of supported participants.

   A connection is the termination of one or more RTP sessions on a
   media server.  It has a single input and output for each media
   session established by its SIP dialog.  The output of a connection
   can feed several different inputs such as both a conference mixer and
   a recording of that participant's audio.

   Joining two connections that are not joined to anything else simply
   creates a media stream from the outputs(s) of one connection to the
   corresponding inputs(s) of the other connection.  It is not necessary
   to combine media from multiple sources in this case.  There are,
   however, several common scenarios where combining media from several
   sources to create a single input to a connection is needed.

   In the first case, a connection can be receiving media from one
   source (for example, a conference), and it is necessary to play an
   announcement to the connection so that both the conference audio and
   announcement can be heard by the conference participant.  This is
   sometimes referred to as a "whisper announcement".  An alternative to
   a whisper announcement is to have the announcement preempt the
   conference media.




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   Another common case is the call-center coaching scenario where a
   supervisor can listen to the conversation between an agent and a
   customer, and provide hints to the agent that are not heard by the
   customer.

   Both of these cases can be solved by having the controlling AS create
   one or more conferences for audio mixing, and then join and unjoin
   the media streams as required.  A better solution is to have the
   media server automatically mix media streams that are requested to be
   joined to a common input when only the simple summing of audio
   signals as described above is required.  This is the case for both
   the use cases presented above.

   Automatically mixing streams has several benefits.  Conceptually, it
   is straightforward and simple, requiring no indirect requests on the
   part of the controlling AS.  This increases transport efficiency and
   reduces the coordination complexity and the latency of the overall
   operation.  Therefore, it is RECOMMENDED that a media server be able
   to automatically mix at least two audio streams where only the simple
   summing of signals is required.

   When a media server receives a <join> request, it MUST automatically
   mix all of the media streams included in the request with any streams
   already joined to one of the entities identified in the request, or
   it MUST fail the request and MUST NOT join any of the streams (and
   MUST NOT change existing streams of the entities).  A controlling AS
   uses the <createconference> request for generic conferences where the
   complex mixing algorithm is required.

   Specifications that extend this package to handle additional media
   types such as text MUST define the semantics of the join operation
   when multiple streams are requested to be joined to a single input,
   such as that for a connection with a single RTP session per media
   type.

4.2.2.2.  <join>

   The <join> element is sent to the MS to request creation of one or
   more media streams either between a connection and a conference,
   between connections, or between conferences.  The two entities to
   join are specified by the attributes of <join>.

   Streams can be of any media type and can be bidirectional or
   unidirectional.  A bidirectional stream is implicitly composed of two
   unidirectional streams that can be manipulated independently.  The
   streams to be established are specified by child <stream> elements
   (see Section 4.2.2.5).




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   The <join> element has the following attributes:

   id1:  an identifier for either a connection or a conference.  The
      identifier MUST conform to the syntax defined in Appendix A.1 of
      [RFC6230].  The attribute is mandatory.

   id2:  an identifier for either a connection or a conference.  The
      identifier MUST conform to the syntax defined in Appendix A.1 of
      [RFC6230].  The attribute is mandatory.

   Note: Appendix A.1 of [RFC6230] defines the semantics for a
   conference identifier but not its syntax.  Media server
   implementations need to distinguish between conferences and
   connections based upon the values of the 'id1' and 'id2' attributes.

   If id1 or id2 specify a conference identifier and the conference does
   not exist on the MS, the MS reports an error (406).  If id1 or id2
   specify a connection identifier and the connection does not exist on
   the MS, the MS reports an error (412).

   The <join> element has the following child element (zero or more):

   <stream>:   an element that both identifies the media streams to join
      and defines the way that they are to be joined (see
      Section 4.2.2.5).  The element is optional.

   If no <stream> elements are specified, then the default is to join
   all streams between the entities according to the media configuration
   of the connection or conference.

   One or more <stream> elements can be specified so that individual
   media streams can be controlled independently.  For example, if a
   connection supports both audio and video streams, a <stream> element
   could be used to indicate that only the audio stream is used in
   receive mode.  In cases where there are multiple media streams of the
   same type for a connection or conference, the configuration MUST be
   explicitly specified using <stream> elements.

   Multiple <stream> elements can be specified for precise control over
   the media flow in different directions within the same media stream.
   One <stream> element can be specified for the receiving media flow
   and another element for the sending media flow, where each
   independently controls features such as volume (see child element of
   <stream> in Section 4.2.2.5).  If there is only one <stream> element
   for a given media specifying a 'sendonly' or 'recvonly' direction,
   then the media flow in the opposite direction is inactive
   (established but there's no actual flow of media) unless this leads
   to a stream conflict.



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   If the MS is unable to execute the join as specified in <stream>
   because a <stream> element is in conflict with (a) another <stream>
   element, (b) specified connection or conference media capabilities
   (including supported or available codec information), or (c) an
   Session Description Protocol (SDP) label value as part of the
   connection-id (see Appendix A.1 of [RFC6230]), then the MS reports an
   error (407) and MUST NOT join the entities and MUST NOT change
   existing streams of the entities.

   If the MS is unable to execute the join as specified in <stream>
   elements because the MS does not support the media stream
   configuration, the MS reports an error (422) and MUST NOT join the
   entities and MUST NOT change existing streams of the entities.

   If the MS is unable to join an entity to a conference because it is
   full, then the MS reports an error (410).

   If the specified entities are already joined, then the MS reports an
   error (408).

   If the MS does not support joining two specified connections
   together, the MS reports an error (426).

   If the MS does not support joining two specified conferences
   together, the MS reports an error (427).

   If the MS is unable to join the specified entities for any other
   reason, the MS reports an error (411).

   When the MS has finished processing a <join> request, it MUST reply
   with an <response> element (Section 4.2.3).

   For example, a request to join two connections together is as
   follows:

   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <join id1="1536067209:913cd14c" id2="1536067209:913cd14c"/>
   </mscmixer>

   The response if the MS doesn't support joining media streams between
   connections is as follows:

   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <response status="426" reason="mixing connections not supported"/>
   </mscmixer>






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4.2.2.3.  <modifyjoin>

   The <modifyjoin> element is sent to the MS to request changes in the
   configuration of media stream(s) that were previously established
   between a connection and a conference, between two connections, or
   between two conferences.

   The <modifyjoin> element has the following attributes:

   id1:  an identifier for either a connection or a conference.  The
      identifier MUST conform to the syntax defined in Appendix A.1 of
      [RFC6230].  The attribute is mandatory.

   id2:  an identifier for either a connection or a conference.  The
      identifier MUST conform to the syntax defined in Appendix A.1 of
      [RFC6230].  The attribute is mandatory.

   The <modifyjoin> element has the following child elements (one or
   more):

   <stream>:   an element that both identifies the media streams to
      modify and defines the way that each stream is to be configured
      from this point forward (see Section 4.2.2.5).

   The MS MUST support <modifyjoin> for any stream that was established
   using <join>.

   The MS MUST configure the streams that are included within
   <modifyjoin> to that stated by the child elements.

   If the MS is unable to modify the join as specified in <stream>
   elements because a <stream> element is in conflict with (a) another
   <stream> element, (b) specified connection or conference media
   capabilities (including supported or available codec information), or
   (c) a SDP label value as part of the connection-id (see Appendix A.1
   of [RFC6230]), then the MS reports an error (407) and MUST NOT modify
   the join between the entities and MUST NOT change existing streams of
   the entities.

   If the MS is unable to modify the join as specified in <stream>
   elements because the MS does not support the media stream
   configuration, the MS reports an error (422) and MUST NOT modify the
   join between the entities and MUST NOT change existing streams of the
   entities.

   If the specified entities are not already joined, then the MS reports
   an error (409).




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   If the MS is unable to modify the join between the specified entities
   for any other reason, the MS reports an error (411).

   When an MS has finished processing a <modifyjoin> request, it MUST
   reply with an appropriate <response> element (Section 4.2.3).

   In cases where stream characteristics are controlled independently
   for each direction, then a <modifyjoin> request needs to specify a
   child element for each direction in order to retain the original
   stream directionality.  For the example, if a <join> request
   establishes independent control for each direction of an audio stream
   (see Section 4.2.2.5):

   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <join id1="1536067209:913cd14c" id2="conference1">
     <stream media="audio" direction="sendonly">
      <volume controltype="setgain" value="-3"/>
     </stream>
     <stream media="audio" direction="recvonly">
      <volume controltype="setgain" value="+3"/>
     </stream>
    </join>
   </mscmixer>

   then the following <modifyjoin> request

   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <modifyjoin id1="1536067209:913cd14c" id2="conference1">
     <stream media="audio" direction="sendonly">
       <volume controltype="setgain" value="0"/>
     </stream>
     </modifyjoin>
   </mscmixer>

   would cause, in addition to the modification of the sendonly volume,
   the overall stream directionality to change from sendrecv to sendonly
   since there is no <stream> element in this <modifyjoin> request for
   the recvonly direction.  The following would change the sendonly
   volume and retain the recvonly stream together with its original
   characteristics such as volume:











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   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <modifyjoin id1="1536067209:913cd14c" id2="conference1">
     <stream media="audio" direction="sendonly">
       <volume controltype="setgain" value="0"/>
     </stream>
     <stream media="audio" direction="recvonly"/>
     </modifyjoin>
   </mscmixer>

4.2.2.4.  <unjoin>

   The <unjoin> element is sent to the MS to request removal of
   previously established media stream(s) from between a connection and
   a conference, between two connections, or between two conferences.

   The <unjoin> element has the following attributes:

   id1:  an identifier for either a connection or a conference.  The
      identifier MUST conform to the syntax defined in Appendix A.1 of
      [RFC6230].  The attribute is mandatory.

   id2:  an identifier for either a connection or a conference.  The
      identifier MUST conform to the syntax defined in Section 15.1 of
      [RFC6230].  The attribute is mandatory.

   The <unjoin> element has the following child element (zero or more
   occurrences):

   <stream>:   an element that identifies the media stream(s) to remove
      (see Section 4.2.2.5).  The element is optional.  When not
      present, all currently established streams between "id1" and "id2"
      are removed.

   The MS MUST support <unjoin> for any stream that was established
   using <join> and that has not already been removed by a previous
   <unjoin> on the same stream.

   If the MS is unable to terminate the join as specified in <stream>
   elements because a <stream> element is in conflict with (a) another
   <stream> element, (b) specified connection or conference media
   capabilities, or (c) a SDP label value as part of the connection-id
   (see Appendix A.1 of [RFC6230]), then the MS reports an error (407)
   and MUST NOT terminate the join between the entities and MUST NOT
   change existing streams of the entities.







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   If the MS is unable to terminate the join as specified in <stream>
   elements because the MS does not support the media stream
   configuration, the MS reports an error (422) and MUST NOT terminate
   the join between the entities and MUST NOT change existing streams of
   the entities.

   If the specified entities are not already joined, then the MS reports
   an error (409).

   If the MS is unable to terminate the join between the specified
   entities for any other reason, the MS reports an error (411).

   When an MS has successfully processed a <unjoin> request, it MUST
   reply with a successful <response> element (Section 4.2.3).

4.2.2.5.  <stream>

   <join>, <modifyjoin>, and <unjoin> require the identification and
   manipulation of media streams.  Media streams represent the flow of
   media between a participant connection and a conference, between two
   connections, or between two conferences.  The <stream> element is
   used (as a child to <join>, <modifyjoin>, and <unjoin>) to identify
   the media stream(s) for the request and to specify the configuration
   of the media stream.

   The <stream> element has the following attributes:

   media:  a string indicating the type of media associated with the
      stream.  A valid value is a MIME type name as defined in Section
      4.2 of [RFC4288].  The following values MUST be used for common
      types of media: "audio" for audio media, and "video" for video
      media.  See [IANA] for registered MIME type names.  The attribute
      is mandatory.

   label:  a string indicating the SDP label associated with a media
      stream [RFC4574].  The attribute is optional.

   direction:  a string indicating the allowed media flow of the stream
      relative to the value of the 'id1' attribute of the parent
      element.  Defined values are: "sendrecv" (media can be sent and
      received), "sendonly" (media can only be sent), "recvonly" (media
      can only be received), and "inactive" (stream established but no
      media flow).  The default value is "sendrecv".  The attribute is
      optional.







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   The <stream> element has the following sequence of child elements:

   <volume>:  an element (Section 4.2.2.5.1) to configure the volume or
      gain of the media stream.  The element is optional.

   <clamp>:  an element (Section 4.2.2.5.2) to configure filtering and
      removal of tones from the media stream.  The element is optional.

   <region>:  an element (Section 4.2.2.5.3) to configure a region
      within a video layout where the media stream is displayed.  The
      element is optional.

   <priority>:  an element (Section 4.2.2.5.4) to configure priority
      associated with the stream in the media mix.  The element is
      optional.

   In each child element, the media stream affected is indicated by the
   value of the 'direction' attribute of the parent element.

   If the 'media' attribute does not have the value of "audio", then the
   MS ignores <volume> and <clamp> elements.

   If the 'media' attribute does not have the value of "video", then the
   MS ignores a <region> element.

   For example, a request to join a connection to conference in both
   directions with volume control is as follows:

   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <join id1="1536067209:913cd14c" id2="conference1">
     <stream media="audio" direction="sendrecv">
      <volume controltype="setgain" value="-3"/>
     </stream>
    </join>
   </mscmixer>

   where audio flow from the connection (id1) to the conference (id2)
   has the volume lowered by 3 dB, and likewise the volume of the audio
   flow from the conference to the connection is lowered by 3 dB.

   In this example, the volume is independently controlled for each
   direction.









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   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <join id1="1536067209:913cd14c" id2="conference1">
     <stream media="audio" direction="sendonly">
      <volume controltype="setgain" value="-3"/>
     </stream>
     <stream media="audio" direction="recvonly">
      <volume controltype="setgain" value="+3"/>
     </stream>
    </join>
   </mscmixer>

   where audio flow from the connection (id1) to the conference (id2)
   has the volume lowered by 3 dB, but the volume of the audio flow from
   the conference to the connection is raised by 3 dB.

4.2.2.5.1.  <volume>

   The <volume> element is used to configure the volume of an audio
   media stream.  It can be set to a specific gain amount, to
   automatically adjust the gain to a desired target level, or to mute
   the volume.

   The <volume> element has no child elements but has the following
   attributes:

   controltype:  a string indicating the type of volume control to use
      for the stream.  Defined values are: "automatic" (the volume will
      be adjusted automatically to the level specified by the 'value'
      attribute), "setgain" (use the value of the 'value' attribute as a
      specific gain measured in dB to apply), and "setstate" (set the
      state of the stream to "mute" or "unmute" as specified by the
      value of the 'value' attribute).  The attribute is mandatory.

   value:  a string specifying the amount or state for the volume
      control defined by the value of the 'controltype' attribute.  The
      attribute is optional.  There is no default value.

   If the audio media stream is in a muted state, then the MS also
   changes automatically the state to unmuted with an "automatic" or
   "setgain" volume control.  For example, assume an audio stream has
   been muted with <volume controltype="setstate" value="mute"/>.  If
   the gain on the same stream is changed with <volume
   controltype="setgain" value="+3"/>, then the volume is increased and
   stream state is also changed to unmuted.







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4.2.2.5.2.  <clamp>

   The <clamp> element is used to configure whether tones are filtered
   and removed from a media stream.

   The <clamp> element has no child elements but has the following
   attribute:

   tones:  A space-separated list of the tones to remove.  The attribute
      is optional.  The default value is "1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 * # A B C
      D" (i.e., all DTMF (Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency) tones are removed).

4.2.2.5.3.  <region>

   As described in Section 4.2.1.4.2.1, each <video-layout> is composed
   of one or more named regions (or areas) in which video media can be
   presented.  For example, the XCON layout <dual-view> has two regions
   named "1" and "2", respectively.

   The <region> element is used to explicitly specify the name of the
   area within a video layout where a video media stream is displayed.

   The <region> element has no attributes, and its content model
   specifies the name of the region.

4.2.2.5.4.  <priority>

   The <priority> element is used to explicitly specify the priority of
   a participant.  The MS uses this priority to determine where the
   media stream is displayed within a video layout
   (Section 4.2.1.4.3.1).

   The <priority> element has no attributes, and its content model
   specifies a positive integer (see Section 4.7.3).  The lower the
   value, the higher the priority.

4.2.3.  <response>

   Responses to requests are indicated by a <response> element.

   The <response> element has following attributes:

   status:  numeric code indicating the response status.  Valid values
      are defined in Section 4.6.  The attribute is mandatory.

   reason:  string specifying a reason for the response status.  The
      attribute is optional.




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   desclang:  specifies the language used in the value of the 'reason'
      attribute.  A valid value is a language identifier
      (Section 4.7.7).  The attribute is optional.  If not specified,
      the value of the 'desclang' attribute on <mscmixer> (Section 4.1)
      applies.

   conferenceid:  string identifying the conference (see Appendix A.1 of
      [RFC6230]).  The attribute is optional.

   connectionid:  string identifying the SIP dialog connection (see
      Appendix A.1 of [RFC6230]).  The attribute is optional.

   For example, a response when a conference was created successfully is
   as follows:

   <response code="200"/>

   If conference creation failed due to the requested conference ID
   already existing, the response is:

   <response code="405" reason="Conference already exists"/>

4.2.4.  <event>

   When a mixer generates a notification event, the MS sends the event
   using an <event> element.

   The <event> element has no attributes, but has the following sequence
   of child elements (zero or more instances of each child):

   <active-talkers-notify>:  specifies an active talkers notification
      (Section 4.2.4.1).

   <unjoin-notify>:  notifies that a connection or conference has been
      completely unjoined (Section 4.2.4.2).

   <conferenceexit>:  notifies that a conference has exited
      (Section 4.2.4.3).

4.2.4.1.  <active-talkers-notify>

   The <active-talkers-notify> element describes zero or more speakers
   that have been active in a conference during the specified interval
   (see Section 4.2.1.4.4.1).







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   The <active-talkers-notify> element has the following attribute:

   conferenceid:  string indicating the name of the conference from
      which the event originated.  This attribute is mandatory.

   The <active-talkers-notify> element has the following sequence of
   child elements (zero or more occurrences):

   <active-talker>:  element describing an active talker
      (Section 4.2.4.1.1).

4.2.4.1.1.  <active-talker>

   The <active-talker> element describes an active talker, associated
   with either a connection or conference participant in a conference.

   The <active-talker> element has the following attributes:

   connectionid:  string indicating the connectionid of the active
      talker.  This attribute is optional.  There is no default value.

   conferenceid:  string indicating the conferenceid of the active
      talker.  This attribute is optional.  There is no default value.

   Note that the element does not describe an active talker if both the
   'connectionid' and 'conferenceid' attributes are specified, or if
   neither attribute is specified.

   The <active-talker> element has no child elements.

4.2.4.2.  <unjoin-notify>

   The <unjoin-notify> element describes a notification event where a
   connection and/or conference have been completely unjoined.

   The <unjoin-notify> element has the following attributes:

   status:  a status code indicating why the unjoin occurred.  A valid
      value is a non-negative integer (see Section 4.7.2).  The MS MUST
      support the following values:

      0  indicates the join has been terminated by a <unjoin> request.

      1  indicates the join terminated due to an execution error.

      2  indicates that the join terminated because a connection or
         conference has terminated.




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      All other valid but undefined values are reserved for future use,
      where new status codes are assigned using the Standards Action
      process defined in [RFC5226].  The AS MUST treat any status code
      it does not recognize as being equivalent to 1 (join execution
      error).  The attribute is mandatory.

   reason:  a textual description providing a reason for the status
      code, e.g., details about an error.  A valid value is a string
      (see Section 4.7.4).  The attribute is optional.  There is no
      default value.

   desclang:  specifies the language used in the value of the 'reason'
      attribute.  A valid value is a language identifier
      (Section 4.7.7).  The attribute is optional.  If not specified,
      the value of the 'desclang' attribute on <mscmixer> (Section 4.1)
      applies.

   id1:  an identifier for either a connection or a conference.  The
      identifier MUST conform to the syntax defined in Appendix A.1 of
      [RFC6230].  The attribute is mandatory.

   id2:  an identifier for either a connection or a conference.  The
      identifier MUST conform to the syntax defined in Appendix A.1 of
      [RFC6230].  The attribute is mandatory.

   The <unjoin-notify> element has no child elements.

4.2.4.3.  <conferenceexit>

   The <conferenceexit> element indicates that a conference has exited
   because it has been terminated or because a error occurred (for
   example, a hardware error in the conference mixing unit).  This event
   MUST be sent by the MS whenever a successfully created conference
   exits.

   The <conferenceexit> element has the following attributes:

   conferenceid:  string indicating the name of the conference.  This
      attribute is mandatory.

   status:  a status code indicating why the conference exited.  A valid
      value is a non-negative integer (see Section 4.7.2).  The MS MUST
      support the following values:

      0  indicates the conference has been terminated by a
         <destroyconference> request.

      1  indicates the conference terminated due to an execution error.



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      2  indicates the conference terminated due to exceeding the
         maximum duration for a conference.

      All other valid but undefined values are reserved for future use,
      where new status codes are assigned using the Standards Action
      process defined in [RFC5226].  The AS MUST treat any status code
      it does not recognize as being equivalent to 1 (conference
      execution error).  The attribute is mandatory.

   reason:  a textual description providing a reason for the status
      code, e.g., details about an error.  A valid value is a string
      (see Section 4.7.4).  The attribute is optional.  There is no
      default value.

   desclang:  specifies the language used in the value of the 'reason'
      attribute.  A valid value is a language identifier
      (Section 4.7.7).  The attribute is optional.  If not specified,
      the value of the 'desclang' attribute on <mscmixer> (Section 4.1)
      applies.

   The <conferenceexit> element has no child elements.

   When a MS sends a <conferenceexit> event, the identifier for the
   conference ('conferenceid' attribute) is no longer valid on the MS
   and can be reused for another conference.

   For example, the following notification event would be sent from the
   MS when the conference with identifier "conference99" exits due to a
   successful <destroyconference/>:

   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <event>
     <conferenceexit conferenceid="conference99"
        status="0"/>
    </event>
   </mscmixer>

4.3.  Audit Elements

   The audit elements defined in this section allow the MS to be audited
   for package capabilities as well as mixers managed by the package.
   Auditing is particularly important for two use cases.  First, it
   enables discovery of package capabilities supported on an MS before
   an AS creates a conference mixer or joins connections and
   conferences.  The AS can then use this information to create request
   elements using supported capabilities and, in the case of codecs, to
   negotiate an appropriate SDP for a user agent's connection.  Second,
   auditing enables discovery of the existence and status of mixers



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   currently managed by the package on the MS.  This could be used when
   one AS takes over management of mixers if the AS that created the
   mixers fails or is no longer available (see the security
   considerations in Section 7).

4.3.1.  <audit>

   The <audit> request element is sent to the MS to request information
   about the capabilities of, and mixers currently managed with, this
   Control Package.  Capabilities include supported conference codecs
   and video layouts.  Mixer information includes the status of managed
   mixers as well as codecs.

   The <audit> element has the following attributes:

   capabilities:  indicates whether package capabilities are to be
      audited.  A valid value is a boolean (see Section 4.7.1).  A value
      of "true" indicates that capability information is to be reported.
      A value of "false" indicates that capability information is not to
      be reported.  The attribute is optional.  The default value is
      "true".

   mixers:  indicates whether mixers currently managed by the package
      are to be audited.  A valid value is a boolean (see
      Section 4.7.1).  A value of "true" indicates that mixer
      information is to be reported.  A value of "false" indicates that
      mixer information is not to be reported.  The attribute is
      optional.  The default value is "true".

   conferenceid:  string identifying a specific conference mixer to
      audit.  It is an error (406) if the 'conferenceid' attribute is
      specified and the conference identifier is not valid.  The
      attribute is optional.  There is no default value.

   If the 'mixers' attribute has the value "true" and 'conferenceid'
   attribute is specified, then only audit information about the
   specified conference mixer is reported.  If the 'mixers' attribute
   has the value "false", then no mixer audit information is reported
   even if a 'conferenceid' attribute is specified.

   The <audit> element has no child elements.

   When the MS receives an <audit> request, it MUST reply with a
   <auditresponse> element (Section 4.3.2) that includes a mandatory
   attribute describing the status in terms of a numeric code.  Response
   status codes are defined in Section 4.6.  If the request is
   successful, the <auditresponse> contains (depending on attribute
   values) a <capabilities> element (Section 4.3.2.1) reporting package



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   capabilities and a <mixers> element (Section 4.3.2.2) reporting
   managed mixer information.  If the MS is not able to process the
   request and carry out the audit operation, the audit request has
   failed and the MS MUST indicate the class of failure using an
   appropriate 4xx response code.  Unless an error response code is
   specified for a class of error within this section, implementations
   follow Section 4.6 in determining the appropriate status code for the
   response.

   For example, a request to audit capabilities and mixers managed by
   the package is as follows:

   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
     <audit/>
   </mscmixer>

   In this example, only capabilities are to be audited:

   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
     <audit mixers="false"/>
   </mscmixer>

   With this example, only a specific conference mixer is to be audited:

   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
     <audit capabilities="false" conferenceid="conf4"/>
   </mscmixer>

4.3.2.  <auditresponse>

   The <auditresponse> element describes a response to a <audit>
   request.

   The <auditresponse> element has the following attributes:

   status:  numeric code indicating the audit response status.  The
      attribute is mandatory.  Valid values are defined in Section 4.6.

   reason:  string specifying a reason for the status.  The attribute is
      optional.

   desclang:  specifies the language used in the value of the 'reason'
      attribute.  A valid value is a language identifier
      (Section 4.7.7).  The attribute is optional.  If not specified,
      the value of the 'desclang' attribute on <mscmixer> (Section 4.1)
      applies.





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   The <auditresponse> element has the following sequence of child
   elements:

   <capabilities>:  element describing capabilities of the package (see
      Section 4.3.2.1).  The element is optional.

   <mixers>:  element describing information about managed mixers (see
      Section 4.3.2.2).  The element is optional.

   For example, a successful response to an <audit> request for
   capabilities and mixer information is as follows:

   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <auditresponse status="200">
     <capabilities>
      <codecs>
       <codec name="video">
        <subtype>H263</subtype>
       </codec>
       <codec name="video">
        <subtype>H264</subtype>
       </codec>
       <codec name="audio">
        <subtype>PCMU</subtype>
       </codec>
       <codec name="audio">
        <subtype>PCMA</subtype>
       </codec>
      </codecs>
     </capabilities>
     <mixers>
      <conferenceaudit conferenceid="conf1">
       <codecs>
        <codec name="audio">
         <subtype>PCMA</subtype>
        </codec>
       </codecs>
       <participants>
        <participant id="1536067209:913cd14c"/>
       </participants>
      </conferenceaudit>
      <joinaudit id1="1536067209:913cd14c" id2="conf1"/>
      <joinaudit id1="1636067209:113cd14c" id2="1836067209:313cd14c"/>
      <joinaudit id1="1736067209:213cd14c" id2="1936067209:413cd14c"/>
     </mixers>
    </auditresponse>
   </mscmixer>




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4.3.2.1.  <capabilities>

   The <capabilities> element provides audit information about package
   capabilities.

   The <capabilities> element has no attributes.

   The <capabilities> element has the following sequence of child
   elements:

   <codecs>:  element (Section 4.4) describing codecs available to the
      package.  The element is mandatory.

   For example, a fragment describing capabilities is as follows:

     <capabilities>
      <codecs>
       <codec name="video">
        <subtype>H263</subtype>
       </codec>
       <codec name="video">
        <subtype>H264</subtype>
       </codec>
       <codec name="audio">
        <subtype>PCMU</subtype>
       </codec>
       <codec name="audio">
        <subtype>PCMA</subtype>
       </codec>
      </codecs>
     </capabilities>

4.3.2.2.  <mixers>

   The <mixers> element provides audit information about mixers.

   The <mixers> element has no attributes.

   The <mixers> element has the following sequence of child elements
   (zero or more occurrences, any order):

   <conferenceaudit>:  audit information for a conference mixer
      (Section 4.3.2.2.1).  The element is optional.

   <joinaudit>:  audit information for a join mixer (Section 4.3.2.2.2).
      The element is optional.





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4.3.2.2.1.  <conferenceaudit>

   The <conferenceaudit> element has the following attribute:

   conferenceid:  string identifying the conference (see Appendix A.1 of
      [RFC6230]).  The attribute is mandatory.

   The <conferenceaudit> element has the following sequence of child
   elements:

   <codecs>  element describing codecs used in the conference.  See
      Section 4.4.  The element is optional.

   <participants>  element listing connections or conferences joined to
      the conference.  See Section 4.3.2.2.1.1.  The element is
      optional.

   <video-layout>  element describing the active video layout for the
      conference.  See Section 4.2.1.4.2.1.  The element is optional.

   For example, a fragment describing a conference that has been created
   but has no participants is as follows:

   <conferenceaudit conferenceid="conference1"/>

   A fragment when the same conference has three participants (two
   connections and another conference) joined to it is as follows:

   <conferenceaudit conferenceid="conference1">
    <codecs>
     <codec name="audio">
      <subtype>PCMU</subtype>
     </codec>
    </codecs>
    <participants>
      <participant id="connection1"/>
      <participant id="connection2"/>
      <participant id="conference2"/>
    </participants>
   </conferenceaudit>

4.3.2.2.1.1.  <participants>

   The <participants> element is a container for <participant> elements
   (Section 4.3.2.2.1.1.1).

   The <participants> element has no attributes, but the following child
   elements are defined (zero or more):



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   <participant>:  specifies a participant (Section 4.3.2.2.1.1.1).

4.3.2.2.1.1.1.  <participant>

   The <participant> element describes a participant.

   The <participant> element has the following attribute:

   id:  an identifier for either a connection or a conference.  The
      identifier MUST conform to the syntax defined in Appendix A.1 of
      [RFC6230].  The attribute is mandatory.

   The <participant> element has no children.

4.3.2.2.2.  <joinaudit>

   The <joinaudit> element has the following attributes:

   id1:  an identifier for either a connection or a conference.  The
      identifier MUST conform to the syntax defined in Appendix A.1 of
      [RFC6230].  The attribute is mandatory.

   id2:  an identifier for either a connection or a conference.  The
      identifier MUST conform to the syntax defined in Appendix A.1 of
      [RFC6230].  The attribute is mandatory.

   The <joinaudit> element has no children.

   For example, a fragment describing an audit of two join mixers, one
   between connections and the second between conferences, is as
   follows:

   <mixers>
    <joinaudit id1="1536067209:913cd14" id2="1636067209:413cd14"/>
    <joinaudit id1="conference1" id2="conference2"/>
   </mixers>

4.4.  <codecs>

   The <codecs> element is a container for one or more codec
   definitions.  Codec definitions are used by an AS to specify the
   codecs allowed for a conference (e.g., when used as a child of
   <createconference> or <modifyconference).  Codec definitions are used
   by an MS to provide audit information about the codecs supported by
   an MS and used in specific conferences.

   The <codecs> element has no attributes.




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   The <codecs> element has the following sequence of child elements
   (zero or more occurrences):

   <codec>:  defines a codec and optionally its policy (Section 4.4.1).
      The element is optional.

   For example, a fragment describing two codecs is as follows:

   <codecs>
     <codec name="audio">
      <subtype>PCMA</subtype>
     </codec>
     <codec name="video">
       <subtype>H263</subtype>
     </codec>
   </codecs>

4.4.1.  <codec>

   The <codec> element describes a codec.  The element is modeled on the
   <codec> element in the XCON conference information data model
   ([RFC6501]) and allows additional information (e.g., rate, speed,
   etc.) to be specified.

   The <codec> element has the following attribute:

   name:  indicates the type name of the codec's media format as defined
      in [IANA].  A valid value is a "type-name" as defined in Section
      4.2 of [RFC4288].  The attribute is mandatory.

   The <codec> element has the following sequence of child elements:

   <subtype>:  element whose content model describes the subtype of the
      codec's media format as defined in [IANA].  A valid value is a
      "subtype-name" as defined in Section 4.2 of [RFC4288].  The
      element is mandatory.

   <params>:  element (Section 4.5) describing additional information
      about the codec.  This package is agnostic to the names and values
      of the codec parameters supported by an implementation.  The
      element is optional.

   For example, a fragment with a <codec> element describing the H263
   codec is as follows:

   <codec name="video">
    <subtype>H263</subtype>
   </codec>



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   A fragment where the <codec> element describes the H264 video codec
   with additional information about the profile level and packetization
   mode is as follows:

   <codec name="video">
    <subtype>H264</subtype>
    <params>
     <param name="profile-level-id">42A01E</param>
     <param name="packetization-mode">0</param>
    </params>
   </codec>

4.5.  <params>

   The <params> element is a container for <param> elements
   (Section 4.5.1).

   The <params> element has no attributes, but the following child
   elements are defined (zero or more):

   <param>:  specifies a parameter name and value (Section 4.5.1).

4.5.1.  <param>

   The <param> element describes a parameter name and value.

   The <param> element has the following attributes:

   name:  a string indicating the name of the parameter.  The attribute
      is mandatory.

   type:  specifies a type indicating how the in-line value of the
      parameter is to be interpreted.  A valid value is a MIME media
      type (see Section 4.7.6).  The attribute is optional.  The default
      value is "text/plain".

   encoding:  specifies a content-transfer-encoding schema applied to
      the in-line value of the parameter on top of the MIME media type
      specified with the 'type' attribute.  A valid value is a content-
      transfer-encoding schema as defined by the "mechanism" token in
      Section 6.1 of [RFC2045].  The attribute is optional.  There is no
      default value.

   The <param> element content model is the value of the parameter.
   Note that a value that contains XML characters (e.g., "<") needs to
   be escaped following standard XML conventions.





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4.6.  Response Status Codes

   This section describes the response codes in Table 1 for the 'status'
   attribute of mixer management <response> (Section 4.2.3) and
   <auditresponse> (Section 4.3.2).  The MS MUST support the status
   response codes defined here.  All other valid but undefined values
   are reserved for future use, where new status codes are assigned
   using the Standards Action process defined in [RFC5226].  The AS MUST
   treat any responses it does not recognize as being equivalent to the
   x00 response code for all classes.  For example, if an AS receives an
   unrecognized response code of 499, it can safely assume that there
   was something wrong with its request and treat the response as if it
   had received a 400 (Syntax error) response code.

   4xx responses are definite failure responses from a particular MS.
   The 'reason' attribute in the response SHOULD identify the failure in
   more detail, for example, "Mandatory attribute missing: id2 join
   element" for a 400 (Syntax error) response code.

   The AS SHOULD NOT retry the same request without modification (for
   example, correcting a syntax error or changing the conferenceid to
   use one available on the MS).  However, the same request to a
   different MS might be successful, for example, if another MS supports
   a capability required in the request.

   4xx failure responses can be grouped into three classes: failure due
   to a syntax error in the request (400); failure due to an error
   executing the request on the MS (405-419); and failure due to the
   request requiring a capability not supported by the MS (420-435).

   In cases where more than one request code could be reported for a
   failure, the MS SHOULD use the most specific error code of the
   failure class for the detected error.  For example, if the MS detects
   that the conference identifier in the request is invalid, then it
   uses a 406 status code.  However, if the MS merely detects that an
   execution error occurred, then 419 is used.















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   +-------+---------------+----------------------+--------------------+
   | Code  | Summary       | Description          | Informational: AS  |
   |       |               |                      | Possible Recovery  |
   |       |               |                      | Action             |
   +-------+---------------+----------------------+--------------------+
   | 200   | OK            | request has          |                    |
   |       |               | succeeded.           |                    |
   |       |               |                      |                    |
   | 400   | Syntax error  | request is           | Change the request |
   |       |               | syntactically        | so that it is      |
   |       |               | invalid: it is not   | syntactically      |
   |       |               | valid with respect   | valid.             |
   |       |               | to the XML schema    |                    |
   |       |               | specified in         |                    |
   |       |               | Section 5 or it      |                    |
   |       |               | violates a           |                    |
   |       |               | co-occurrence        |                    |
   |       |               | constraint for a     |                    |
   |       |               | request element      |                    |
   |       |               | defined in           |                    |
   |       |               | Section 4.           |                    |
   |       |               |                      |                    |
   | 405   | Conference    | request uses an      | Send an <audit>    |
   |       | already       | identifier to create | request            |
   |       | exists        | a new conference     | (Section 4.3.1)    |
   |       |               | (Section 4.2.1.1)    | requesting the     |
   |       |               | that is already used | list of conference |
   |       |               | by another           | mixer identifiers  |
   |       |               | conference on the    | already used by    |
   |       |               | MS.                  | the MS and then    |
   |       |               |                      | use a conference   |
   |       |               |                      | identifier that is |
   |       |               |                      | not listed.        |
   |       |               |                      |                    |
   | 406   | Conference    | request uses an      | Send an <audit>    |
   |       | does not      | identifier for a     | request            |
   |       | exist         | conference that does | (Section 4.3.1)    |
   |       |               | not exist on the MS. | requesting the     |
   |       |               |                      | list of conference |
   |       |               |                      | mixer identifiers  |
   |       |               |                      | used by the MS and |
   |       |               |                      | then use a         |
   |       |               |                      | conference         |
   |       |               |                      | identifier that is |
   |       |               |                      | listed.            |
   |       |               |                      |                    |





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   | 407   | Incompatible  | request specifies a  | Change the media   |
   |       | stream        | media stream         | stream             |
   |       | configuration | configuration that   | configuration to   |
   |       |               | is in conflict with  | match the          |
   |       |               | itself, the          | capabilities of    |
   |       |               | connection, or       | the connection or  |
   |       |               | conference           | conference.        |
   |       |               | capabilities (see    |                    |
   |       |               | Section 4.2.2.2).    |                    |
   |       |               |                      |                    |
   | 408   | Joining       | request attempts to  | Send an <audit>    |
   |       | entities      | create a join mixer  | request            |
   |       | already       | (Section 4.2.2.2)    | (Section 4.3.1)    |
   |       | joined        | where the entities   | requesting the     |
   |       |               | are already joined.  | list of join       |
   |       |               |                      | mixers on the MS   |
   |       |               |                      | and then use       |
   |       |               |                      | entities that are  |
   |       |               |                      | not listed.        |
   |       |               |                      |                    |
   | 409   | Joining       | request attempts to  | Send an <audit>    |
   |       | entities not  | manipulate a join    | request            |
   |       | joined        | mixer where the      | (Section 4.3.1)    |
   |       |               | entities are not     | requesting the     |
   |       |               | joined.              | list of join       |
   |       |               |                      | mixers on the MS   |
   |       |               |                      | and then use       |
   |       |               |                      | entities that are  |
   |       |               |                      | listed.            |
   |       |               |                      |                    |
   | 410   | Unable to     | request attempts to  |                    |
   |       | join -        | join a participant   |                    |
   |       | conference    | to a conference      |                    |
   |       | full          | (Section 4.2.2.2)    |                    |
   |       |               | but the conference   |                    |
   |       |               | is already full.     |                    |
   |       |               |                      |                    |
   | 411   | Unable to     | request attempts to  |                    |
   |       | perform join  | create, modify, or   |                    |
   |       | mixer         | delete a join        |                    |
   |       | operation     | between entities but |                    |
   |       |               | fails.               |                    |
   |       |               |                      |                    |
   | 412   | Connection    | request uses an      |                    |
   |       | does not      | identifier for a     |                    |
   |       | exist         | connection that does |                    |
   |       |               | not exist on the MS. |                    |
   |       |               |                      |                    |



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   | 419   | Other         | requested operation  |                    |
   |       | execution     | cannot be executed   |                    |
   |       | error         | by the MS.           |                    |
   |       |               |                      |                    |
   | 420   | Conference    | request to create a  |                    |
   |       | reservation   | new conference       |                    |
   |       | failed        | (Section 4.2.1.1)    |                    |
   |       |               | failed due to        |                    |
   |       |               | unsupported          |                    |
   |       |               | reservation of       |                    |
   |       |               | talkers or           |                    |
   |       |               | listeners.           |                    |
   |       |               |                      |                    |
   | 421   | Unable to     | request to create or |                    |
   |       | configure     | modify a conference  |                    |
   |       | audio mix     | failed due to        |                    |
   |       |               | unsupported audio    |                    |
   |       |               | mix.                 |                    |
   |       |               |                      |                    |
   | 422   | Unsupported   | request contains one |                    |
   |       | media stream  | or more <stream>     |                    |
   |       | configuration | elements             |                    |
   |       |               | (Section 4.2.2.5)    |                    |
   |       |               | whose configuration  |                    |
   |       |               | is not supported by  |                    |
   |       |               | the MS.              |                    |
   |       |               |                      |                    |
   | 423   | Unable to     | request to create or |                    |
   |       | configure     | modify a conference  |                    |
   |       | video layouts | failed due to        |                    |
   |       |               | unsupported video    |                    |
   |       |               | layout               |                    |
   |       |               | configuration.       |                    |
   |       |               |                      |                    |
   | 424   | Unable to     | request to create or |                    |
   |       | configure     | modify a conference  |                    |
   |       | video switch  | failed due to        |                    |
   |       |               | unsupported video    |                    |
   |       |               | switch               |                    |
   |       |               | configuration.       |                    |
   |       |               |                      |                    |
   | 425   | Unable to     | request to create or |                    |
   |       | configure     | modify a conference  |                    |
   |       | codecs        | failed due to        |                    |
   |       |               | unsupported codec.   |                    |
   |       |               |                      |                    |





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   | 426   | Unable to     | request to join      |                    |
   |       | join - mixing | connection entities  |                    |
   |       | connections   | (Section 4.2.2.2)    |                    |
   |       | not supported | failed due to lack   |                    |
   |       |               | of support for       |                    |
   |       |               | mixing connections.  |                    |
   |       |               |                      |                    |
   | 427   | Unable to     | request to join      |                    |
   |       | join - mixing | conference entities  |                    |
   |       | conferences   | (Section 4.2.2.2)    |                    |
   |       | not supported | failed due to lack   |                    |
   |       |               | of support for       |                    |
   |       |               | mixing conferences.  |                    |
   |       |               |                      |                    |
   | 428   | Unsupported   | the request contains |                    |
   |       | foreign       | attributes or        |                    |
   |       | namespace     | elements from        |                    |
   |       | attribute or  | another namespace    |                    |
   |       | element       | that the MS does not |                    |
   |       |               | support.             |                    |
   |       |               |                      |                    |
   | 435   | Other         | request requires     |                    |
   |       | unsupported   | another capability   |                    |
   |       | capability    | not supported by the |                    |
   |       |               | MS.                  |                    |
   +-------+---------------+----------------------+--------------------+

                           Table 1: Status Codes

4.7.  Type Definitions

   This section defines types referenced in attribute definitions.

4.7.1.  Boolean

   The value space of boolean is the set {true, false, 1, 0} as defined
   in Section 3.2.2 of [XMLSchema:Part2].  In accordance with this
   definition, the concept of false can be lexically represented by the
   strings "0" and "false" and the concept of true by the strings "1"
   and "true"; implementations MUST support both styles of lexical
   representation.

4.7.2.  Non-Negative Integer

   The value space of non-negative integer is the infinite set
   {0,1,2,...} as defined in Section 3.3.20 of [XMLSchema:Part2].





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4.7.3.  Positive Integer

   The value space of positive integer is the infinite set {1,2,...} as
   defined in Section 3.3.25 of [XMLSchema:Part2].

4.7.4.  String

   A string in the character encoding associated with the XML element as
   defined in Section 3.2.1 of [XMLSchema:Part2].

4.7.5.  Time Designation

   A time designation consists of a non-negative real number followed by
   a time unit identifier.

   The time unit identifiers are: "ms" (milliseconds) and "s" (seconds).

   Examples include: "3s", "850ms", "0.7s", ".5s" and "+1.5s".

4.7.6.  MIME Media Type

   A string formatted as an IANA MIME media type [MIME.mediatypes].  The
   ABNF ([RFC5234]) production for the string is:

   media-type = type-name "/" subtype-name *(";" parameter)

   parameter = parameter-name "=" value

   where "type-name" and "subtype-name" are defined in Section 4.2 of
   [RFC4288], "parameter-name" is defined in Section 4.3 of [RFC4288],
   and "value" is defined in Section 5.1 of [RFC2045].

4.7.7.  Language Identifier

   A language identifier labels information content as being of a
   particular human language variant.  Following the XML specification
   for language identification [XML], a legal language identifier is
   identified by a [RFC5646] code and matched according to [RFC4647].

5.  Formal Syntax

   This section defines the XML schema for the Mixer Control Package.
   The schema is normative.

   The schema defines datatypes, attributes, and mixer elements in the
   urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer namespace.  In most elements, the
   order of child elements is significant.  The schema is extensible:
   elements allow attributes and child elements from other namespaces.



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   Elements from outside this package's namespace can occur after
   elements defined in this package.

   The schema is dependent upon the schema (framework.xsd) defined in
   Appendix A.1 of the Control Framework [RFC6230].

   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <xsd:schema targetNamespace="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer"
    xmlns:fw="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:control:framework-attributes"
    elementFormDefault="qualified"
    xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
    xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer"
    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">

    <xsd:annotation>
     <xsd:documentation>
      IETF MediaCtrl Mixer 1.0 (20110104)

      This is the schema of the Mixer Control Package.  It
      defines request, response, and notification elements for
      mixing.

      The schema namespace is urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer

     </xsd:documentation>
    </xsd:annotation>

    <!--
     #############################################################

     SCHEMA IMPORTS

     #############################################################
    -->


    <xsd:import
     namespace="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:control:framework-attributes"
     schemaLocation="framework.xsd">
     <xsd:annotation>
      <xsd:documentation>
       This import brings in the framework attributes for
       conferenceid and connectionid.
      </xsd:documentation>
     </xsd:annotation>
    </xsd:import>

    <!--



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     #####################################################

     Extensible core type

     #####################################################
    -->


    <xsd:complexType name="Tcore">
     <xsd:annotation>
      <xsd:documentation>
       This type is extended by other (non-mixed) component types to
       allow attributes from other namespaces.
      </xsd:documentation>
     </xsd:annotation>
     <xsd:sequence/>
     <xsd:anyAttribute namespace="##other" processContents="lax" />
    </xsd:complexType>

    <!--
     #####################################################

     TOP-LEVEL ELEMENT: mscmixer

     #####################################################
    -->

    <xsd:complexType name="mscmixerType">
     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
       <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:choice>
         <xsd:element ref="createconference" />
         <xsd:element ref="modifyconference" />
         <xsd:element ref="destroyconference" />
         <xsd:element ref="join" />
         <xsd:element ref="unjoin" />
         <xsd:element ref="modifyjoin" />
         <xsd:element ref="response" />
         <xsd:element ref="event" />
         <xsd:element ref="audit" />
         <xsd:element ref="auditresponse" />
         <xsd:any namespace="##other" minOccurs="0"
          maxOccurs="unbounded" processContents="lax" />
        </xsd:choice>
       </xsd:sequence>
       <xsd:attribute name="version" type="version.datatype"
        use="required" />



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       <xsd:attribute name="desclang" type="xsd:language"
        default="i-default" />
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="mscmixer" type="mscmixerType" />

    <!--
     #####################################################

     CONFERENCE MANAGEMENT TYPES

     #####################################################
    -->

    <!--  createconference -->

    <xsd:complexType name="createconferenceType">
     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
       <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:element ref="codecs" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="1" />
        <xsd:element ref="audio-mixing" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="1" />
        <xsd:element ref="video-layouts" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="1" />
        <xsd:element ref="video-switch" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="1" />
        <xsd:element ref="subscribe" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="1" />
        <xsd:any namespace="##other"
         processContents="lax" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded" />
       </xsd:sequence>
       <xsd:attribute name="conferenceid" type="xsd:string" />
       <xsd:attribute name="reserved-talkers"
        type="xsd:nonNegativeInteger" default="0" />
       <xsd:attribute name="reserved-listeners"
        type="xsd:nonNegativeInteger" default="0" />
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>


    <xsd:element name="createconference" type="createconferenceType" />

    <!--  modifyconference -->



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    <xsd:complexType name="modifyconferenceType">
     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
       <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:element ref="codecs" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="1" />
        <xsd:element ref="audio-mixing" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="1" />
        <xsd:element ref="video-layouts" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="1" />
        <xsd:element ref="video-switch" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="1" />
        <xsd:element ref="subscribe" />
        <xsd:any namespace="##other"
         processContents="lax" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded" />
       </xsd:sequence>
       <xsd:attribute name="conferenceid" type="xsd:string"
        use="required" />
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="modifyconference" type="modifyconferenceType" />


    <!--  destroyconference -->

    <xsd:complexType name="destroyconferenceType">
    <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
      <xsd:sequence>
       <xsd:any namespace="##other" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" processContents="lax" />
       </xsd:sequence>
      <xsd:attribute name="conferenceid" type="xsd:string"
      use="required" />
      </xsd:extension>
      </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="destroyconference"
     type="destroyconferenceType" />

    <!--
     #####################################################

     JOIN TYPES




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     #####################################################
    -->

    <xsd:complexType name="joinType">
     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
       <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:element ref="stream" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" />
        <xsd:any namespace="##other"
         processContents="lax" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded" />
       </xsd:sequence>
       <xsd:attribute name="id1" type="xsd:string"
        use="required" />
       <xsd:attribute name="id2" type="xsd:string"
        use="required" />
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="join" type="joinType" />

    <xsd:complexType name="modifyjoinType">
     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
       <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:element ref="stream" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" />
        <xsd:any namespace="##other"
         processContents="lax" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded" />
       </xsd:sequence>
       <xsd:attribute name="id1" type="xsd:string"
        use="required" />
       <xsd:attribute name="id2" type="xsd:string"
        use="required" />
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="modifyjoin" type="modifyjoinType" />


    <xsd:complexType name="unjoinType">
     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
       <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:element ref="stream" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" />



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        <xsd:any namespace="##other"
         processContents="lax" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded" />
       </xsd:sequence>
       <xsd:attribute name="id1" type="xsd:string"
        use="required" />
       <xsd:attribute name="id2" type="xsd:string"
        use="required" />
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="unjoin" type="unjoinType" />

    <!--
     #####################################################

     OTHER TYPES

     #####################################################
    -->

    <xsd:complexType name="eventType">
     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
       <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:choice>
         <xsd:element ref="active-talkers-notify"
          minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" />
         <xsd:element ref="unjoin-notify"
          minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" />
         <xsd:element ref="conferenceexit"
          minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" />
         <xsd:any namespace="##other" minOccurs="0"
          maxOccurs="unbounded" processContents="lax" />
        </xsd:choice>
       </xsd:sequence>
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="event" type="eventType" />

    <xsd:complexType name="activetalkersnotifyType">
     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
       <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:element ref="active-talker" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" />



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        <xsd:any namespace="##other" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" processContents="lax" />
       </xsd:sequence>
       <xsd:attribute name="conferenceid" type="xsd:string"
        use="required" />
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="active-talkers-notify"
     type="activetalkersnotifyType" />


    <xsd:complexType name="activetalkerType">
     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
       <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:any namespace="##other" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" processContents="lax" />
       </xsd:sequence>
       <xsd:attributeGroup ref="fw:framework-attributes" />
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="active-talker" type="activetalkerType" />


    <xsd:complexType name="unjoinnotifyType">
     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
       <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:any namespace="##other" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" processContents="lax" />
       </xsd:sequence>
       <xsd:attribute name="status" type="xsd:nonNegativeInteger"
         use="required" />
       <xsd:attribute name="reason" type="xsd:string" />
         <xsd:attribute name="desclang" type="xsd:language"/>
       <xsd:attribute name="id1" type="xsd:string"
        use="required" />
       <xsd:attribute name="id2" type="xsd:string"
        use="required" />
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="unjoin-notify" type="unjoinnotifyType" />



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    <!--  conferenceexit-->

    <xsd:complexType name="conferenceexitType">
     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
       <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:any namespace="##other" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" processContents="lax" />
       </xsd:sequence>
       <xsd:attribute name="conferenceid" type="xsd:string"
        use="required" />
       <xsd:attribute name="status"
        type="xsd:nonNegativeInteger" use="required" />
       <xsd:attribute name="reason" type="xsd:string" />
         <xsd:attribute name="desclang" type="xsd:language"/>
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="conferenceexit" type="conferenceexitType" />


    <xsd:complexType name="responseType">
     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
      <xsd:sequence>
       <xsd:any namespace="##other" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" processContents="lax" />
       </xsd:sequence>
       <xsd:attribute name="status" type="status.datatype"
        use="required" />
       <xsd:attribute name="reason" type="xsd:string" />
         <xsd:attribute name="desclang" type="xsd:language"/>
       <xsd:attributeGroup ref="fw:framework-attributes" />
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>


    <xsd:element name="response" type="responseType" />

    <xsd:complexType name="subscribeType">
     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
       <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:element ref="active-talkers-sub"
         minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" />
        <xsd:any namespace="##other" minOccurs="0"



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         maxOccurs="unbounded" processContents="lax" />
       </xsd:sequence>
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>


    <xsd:element name="subscribe" type="subscribeType" />

    <xsd:complexType name="activetalkerssubType">
     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
       <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:any namespace="##other" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" processContents="lax" />
       </xsd:sequence>
       <xsd:attribute name="interval"
        type="xsd:nonNegativeInteger" default="3" />
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="active-talkers-sub"
     type="activetalkerssubType" />


    <xsd:complexType name="streamType">
     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
       <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:element ref="volume" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="1" />
        <xsd:element ref="clamp" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="1" />
        <xsd:element ref="region" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="1" />
        <xsd:element ref="priority" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="1" />
        <xsd:any namespace="##other" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" processContents="lax" />
       </xsd:sequence>
       <xsd:attribute name="media" type="media.datatype"
        use="required" />
       <xsd:attribute name="label" type="label.datatype" />
       <xsd:attribute name="direction"
        type="direction.datatype" default="sendrecv" />
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>



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    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="stream" type="streamType" />


    <xsd:complexType name="volumeType">
     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
       <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:any namespace="##other" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" processContents="lax" />
       </xsd:sequence>
       <xsd:attribute name="controltype"
        type="volumecontroltype.datatype" use="required" />
       <xsd:attribute name="value" type="xsd:string" />
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="volume" type="volumeType" />


    <xsd:complexType name="clampType">
     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
       <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:any namespace="##other" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" processContents="lax" />
       </xsd:sequence>
       <xsd:attribute name="tones" type="xsd:string"
        default="1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 * # A B C D"/>
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="clamp" type="clampType" />


    <!--  region  -->
    <xsd:simpleType name="regionType">
     <xsd:restriction base="xsd:NMTOKEN" />
    </xsd:simpleType>

    <xsd:element name="region" type="regionType" />


    <!--  priority  -->
    <xsd:simpleType name="priorityType">



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     <xsd:restriction base="xsd:positiveInteger" />
    </xsd:simpleType>

    <xsd:element name="priority" type="priorityType" />

    <xsd:complexType name="audiomixingType">
     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
      <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:any namespace="##other" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" processContents="lax" />
       </xsd:sequence>
       <xsd:attribute name="type" type="audiomix.datatype"
        default="nbest" />
       <xsd:attribute name="n" type="xsd:nonNegativeInteger"
        default="0" />
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="audio-mixing" type="audiomixingType" />

    <!-- video-switch -->

    <xsd:complexType name="videoswitchType">
     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
       <xsd:sequence>
         <xsd:choice>
          <xsd:element name="vas" type="Tcore"/>
          <xsd:element name="controller" type="Tcore"/>
          <xsd:any namespace="##other" processContents="lax" />
        </xsd:choice>
       </xsd:sequence>
       <xsd:attribute name="interval"
        type="xsd:nonNegativeInteger" default="3" />
       <xsd:attribute name="activespeakermix"
        type="xsd:boolean" default="false" />
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="video-switch" type="videoswitchType" />

    <!-- video-layouts -->

    <xsd:complexType name="videolayoutsType">
     <xsd:complexContent>



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      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
       <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:element ref="video-layout" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" />
        <xsd:any namespace="##other" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" processContents="lax" />
       </xsd:sequence>
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="video-layouts" type="videolayoutsType" />


    <!-- video-layout -->
    <xsd:complexType name="videolayoutType">
    <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
       <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:choice>
          <xsd:element name="single-view" type="Tcore"/>
          <xsd:element name="dual-view" type="Tcore"/>
          <xsd:element name="dual-view-crop" type="Tcore"/>
          <xsd:element name="dual-view-2x1" type="Tcore"/>
          <xsd:element name="dual-view-2x1-crop" type="Tcore"/>
          <xsd:element name="quad-view" type="Tcore"/>
          <xsd:element name="multiple-3x3" type="Tcore"/>
          <xsd:element name="multiple-4x4" type="Tcore"/>
          <xsd:element name="multiple-5x1" type="Tcore"/>
          <xsd:any namespace="##other" processContents="lax" />
        </xsd:choice>
       </xsd:sequence>
      <xsd:attribute name="min-participants"
        type="xsd:positiveInteger" default="1" />
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="video-layout" type="videolayoutType" />

    <xsd:complexType name="auditType">
     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
      <xsd:sequence>
      <xsd:any namespace="##other" minOccurs="0"
       maxOccurs="unbounded" processContents="lax" />
      </xsd:sequence>
       <xsd:attribute name="capabilities"



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        type="xsd:boolean" default="true" />
       <xsd:attribute name="mixers" type="xsd:boolean"
        default="true" />
       <xsd:attribute name="conferenceid" type="xsd:string" />
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="audit" type="auditType" />


    <xsd:complexType name="auditresponseType">
     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
       <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:element ref="capabilities" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="1" />
        <xsd:element ref="mixers" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="1" />
        <xsd:any namespace="##other" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" processContents="lax" />
       </xsd:sequence>
       <xsd:attribute name="status" type="status.datatype"
        use="required" />
       <xsd:attribute name="reason" type="xsd:string" />
         <xsd:attribute name="desclang" type="xsd:language"/>
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="auditresponse" type="auditresponseType" />

    <!-- mixers -->

    <xsd:complexType name="mixersType">
     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
       <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:element ref="conferenceaudit" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" />
        <xsd:element ref="joinaudit" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" />
        <xsd:any namespace="##other" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" processContents="lax" />
       </xsd:sequence>
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>



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    <xsd:element name="mixers" type="mixersType" />

    <!--  joinaudit -->

    <xsd:complexType name="joinauditType">
     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
       <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:any namespace="##other"
         processContents="lax" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded" />
       </xsd:sequence>
       <xsd:attribute name="id1" type="xsd:string"
        use="required" />
       <xsd:attribute name="id2" type="xsd:string"
        use="required" />
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="joinaudit" type="joinauditType" />

    <!-- conferenceaudit -->

    <xsd:complexType name="conferenceauditType">
     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
       <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:element ref="codecs" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="1" />
        <xsd:element ref="participants" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="1" />
        <xsd:element ref="video-layout" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="1" />
        <xsd:any namespace="##other" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" processContents="lax" />
       </xsd:sequence>
       <xsd:attribute name="conferenceid" type="xsd:string"
        use="required" />
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="conferenceaudit" type="conferenceauditType" />


    <!-- participants -->

    <xsd:complexType name="participantsType">



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     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
       <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:element ref="participant" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" />
        <xsd:any namespace="##other" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" processContents="lax" />
       </xsd:sequence>
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="participants" type="participantsType" />

    <!-- participant -->

    <xsd:complexType name="participantType">
     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
       <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:any namespace="##other" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" processContents="lax" />
       </xsd:sequence>
       <xsd:attribute name="id" type="xsd:string"
        use="required" />
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="participant" type="participantType" />

    <!-- capabilities -->

    <xsd:complexType name="capabilitiesType">
     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
       <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:element ref="codecs" minOccurs="1"
         maxOccurs="1" />
        <xsd:any namespace="##other" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" processContents="lax" />
       </xsd:sequence>
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="capabilities" type="capabilitiesType" />




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    <!-- codecs -->

    <xsd:complexType name="codecsType">
     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
       <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:element ref="codec" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" />
        <xsd:any namespace="##other" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" processContents="lax" />
       </xsd:sequence>
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="codecs" type="codecsType" />

    <!-- codec -->

    <xsd:complexType name="codecType">
     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
       <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:element ref="subtype" minOccurs="1"
         maxOccurs="1" />
        <xsd:element ref="params" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="1" />
        <xsd:any namespace="##other" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" processContents="lax" />
       </xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:attribute name="name" type="xsd:string"
        use="required" />
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="codec" type="codecType" />

    <!-- subtype -->

    <xsd:simpleType name="subtypeType">
     <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string" />
    </xsd:simpleType>

    <xsd:element name="subtype" type="subtypeType" />


    <!-- params -->



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    <xsd:complexType name="paramsType">
     <xsd:complexContent>
      <xsd:extension base="Tcore">
       <xsd:sequence>
        <xsd:element ref="param" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" />
        <xsd:any namespace="##other" minOccurs="0"
         maxOccurs="unbounded" processContents="lax" />
       </xsd:sequence>
      </xsd:extension>
     </xsd:complexContent>
    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="params" type="paramsType" />


    <!--  param -->
       <!--  doesn't extend tCore since its content model is mixed -->
    <xsd:complexType name="paramType" mixed="true">
     <xsd:sequence/>
     <xsd:attribute name="name" type="xsd:string" use="required" />
     <xsd:attribute name="type" type="mime.datatype"
     default="text/plain" />
        <xsd:attribute name="encoding" type="xsd:string"/>
    </xsd:complexType>

    <xsd:element name="param" type="paramType" />


    <!--
     ####################################################

     DATATYPES

     ####################################################
    -->

   <xsd:simpleType name="version.datatype">
     <xsd:restriction base="xsd:NMTOKEN">
      <xsd:enumeration value="1.0" />
     </xsd:restriction>
    </xsd:simpleType>

    <xsd:simpleType name="eventname.datatype">
     <xsd:restriction base="xsd:NMTOKEN">
      <xsd:pattern value="[a-zA-Z0-9\.]+" />
     </xsd:restriction>
    </xsd:simpleType>



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    <xsd:simpleType name="audiomix.datatype">
     <xsd:restriction base="xsd:NMTOKEN">
      <xsd:enumeration value="nbest" />
      <xsd:enumeration value="controller" />
     </xsd:restriction>
    </xsd:simpleType>

    <xsd:simpleType name="media.datatype">
     <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string" />
    </xsd:simpleType>

    <xsd:simpleType name="label.datatype">
     <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string" />
    </xsd:simpleType>

    <xsd:simpleType name="status.datatype">
     <xsd:restriction base="xsd:positiveInteger">
      <xsd:pattern value="[0-9][0-9][0-9]" />
     </xsd:restriction>
    </xsd:simpleType>

    <xsd:simpleType name="direction.datatype">
     <xsd:restriction base="xsd:NMTOKEN">
      <xsd:enumeration value="sendonly" />
      <xsd:enumeration value="recvonly" />
      <xsd:enumeration value="sendrecv" />
      <xsd:enumeration value="inactive" />
     </xsd:restriction>
    </xsd:simpleType>


    <xsd:simpleType name="mime.datatype">
     <xsd:restriction base="xsd:string" />
    </xsd:simpleType>


    <xsd:simpleType name="volumecontroltype.datatype">
     <xsd:restriction base="xsd:NMTOKEN">
      <xsd:enumeration value="automatic" />
      <xsd:enumeration value="setgain" />
      <xsd:enumeration value="setstate" />
     </xsd:restriction>
    </xsd:simpleType>


   </xsd:schema>

                    Figure 10: Mixer Package XML Schema



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6.  Examples

   This section provides examples of the Mixer Control Package.

6.1.  AS-MS Framework Interaction Examples

   The following example assumes a Control Channel has been established
   and synced as described in the Media Control Channel Framework
   ([RFC6230]).

   The XML messages are in angled brackets (with the root <mscmixer> and
   other details omitted for clarity); the REPORT status is in
   parentheses.  Other aspects of the protocol are omitted for
   readability.

6.1.1.  Creating a Conference Mixer and Joining a Participant

   A conference mixer is created successfully and a participant is
   joined.

             Application Server (AS)                   Media Server (MS)
                |                                             |
                |       (1) CONTROL: <createconference>       |
                |  ---------------------------------------->  |
                |                                             |
                |       (2) 202                               |
                |  <---------------------------------------   |
                |                                             |
                |                                             |
                |       (3) REPORT: <response status="200"/>  |
                |                   (terminate)               |
                |  <----------------------------------------  |
                |                                             |
                |       (4) 200                               |
                |  ---------------------------------------->  |
                |                                             |
                |       (5) CONTROL: <join id1=.. id2=..>     |
                |  ---------------------------------------->  |
                |                                             |
                |       (6) 202                               |
                |  <---------------------------------------   |
                |                                             |
                |       (7) REPORT: <response status="200"/>  |
                |                   (terminate)               |
                |  <----------------------------------------  |
                |                                             |
                |       (8) 200                               |
                |  ---------------------------------------->  |



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6.1.2.  Receiving Active Talker Notifications

   An active talker notification event is sent by the MS.

             Application Server (AS)                   Media Server (MS)
                |                                             |
                |       (1) CONTROL: <event ...>              |
                |  <---------------------------------------   |
                |                                             |
                |       (4) 200                               |
                |  ---------------------------------------->  |
                |                                             |

6.1.3.  Conference Termination

   The MS receives a request to terminate the conference, resulting in
   conferenceexit and participant unjoined notifications.

             Application Server (AS)                   Media Server (MS)
                |                                             |
                |       (1) CONTROL: <destroyconference>      |
                |  ---------------------------------------->  |
                |                                             |
                |       (2) 200: <response status="200"/>     |
                |  <---------------------------------------   |
                |                                             |
                |       (3) CONTROL: <event ..>               |
                |                   (unjoin-notify)           |
                |  <----------------------------------------  |
                |                                             |
                |       (4) 200                               |
                |  ---------------------------------------->  |
                |                                             |
                |       (5) CONTROL:  <event ..>              |
                |                   (conferenceexit)          |
                |  <----------------------------------------  |
                |                                             |
                |       (6) 200                               |
                |  ---------------------------------------->  |

6.2.  Mixing Examples

   The following examples show how the mixing package can be used to
   create audio conferences, bridge connections, and video conferences.

   The examples do not specify all messages between the AS and MS.





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6.2.1.  Audio Conferencing

   The AS sends a request to create a conference mixer:

   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <createconference conferenceid="conf1"
     reserved-talkers="2" reserved-listeners="3">
     <audio-mixing type="nbest"/>
     <subscribe>
      <active-talkers-sub interval="5"/>
     </subscribe>
    </createconference>
   </mscmixer>

   The request specifies that the conference is assigned the conference
   id "conf1" and is configured with 2 reserved talkers, 3 reserved
   listener slots, audio-mixing policy set to nbest, and with active
   talkers notifications set to 5 seconds.

   If the MS is able to create this conference mixer, it sends a 200
   response:

   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <response status="200" reason="conference created"
              conferenceid="conf1"/>
   </mscmixer>

   The AS is now able to join connections to the conference as
   participants.  A participant able to contribute to the audio mix
   would be joined as follows:

   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <join id1="1536067209:913cd14c" id2="conf1">
     <stream media="audio" direction="sendrecv"/>
    </join>
   </mscmixer>

   If the MS can join the participant 1536067209:913cd14c to the
   conference conf1 with audio in both directions, then it sends a
   successful response:

   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <response status="200" reason="join successful"/>
   </mscmixer>

   The AS could also join listener-only participants to the conference
   by setting the stream direction to receive only:




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   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <join id1="9936067209:914cd14c" id2="conf1">
     <stream media="audio" direction="recvonly"/>
    </join>
   </mscmixer>

   If the MS can join the participant 9936067209:914cd14c to the
   conference conf1, then it would send a successful response (not
   shown).

   As the active talker changes, the MS sends an active talker
   notification to the AS:

   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <event>
     <active-talkers-notify conferenceid="conf1">
      <active-talker connectionid="1536067209:913cd14c"/>
     </active-talkers-notify>
    </event>
   </mscmixer>

   The AS could decide to change the status of a talker connection so
   that they can only listen:

   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <modifyjoin id1="1536067209:913cd14c" id2="conf1">
     <stream media="audio" direction="recvonly"/>
    </modifyjoin>
   </mscmixer>

   Where the participant 1536067209:913cd14c is no longer able to
   contribute to the audio mix on the conference.  If the MS is able to
   execute this request, it would send a 200 response.

   The AS could decide to remove this participant from the conference:

   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <unjoin id1="1536067209:913cd14c" id2="conf1"/>
   </mscmixer>

   Again, if the MS can execute this request, a 200 response would be
   sent.

   Finally, the AS terminates the conference:

   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <destroyconference conferenceid="conf1"/>
   </mscmixer>



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   If the MS is able to destroy the conference conf1, it sends a 200
   response:

   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <response status="200" conferenceid="conf1"/>
   </mscmixer>

   For each participant attached to the conference when it is destroyed,
   the MS sends an unjoin notification event:

   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <event>
     <unjoin-notify status="2" id1="9936067209:914cd14c"
         id2="conf1"/>
    </event>
   </mscmixer>

   And the MS sends a conferenceexit notification event when the
   conference finally exits:

   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <event>
     <conferenceexit status="0" conferenceid="conf1"/>
    </event>
   </mscmixer>

6.2.2.  Bridging Connections

   The mixer package can be used to join connections to one another.  In
   a call-center scenario, for example, this package can be used to set
   up and modify connections between a caller, agent, and supervisor.

   A caller is joined to an agent with bidirectional audio:

   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <join id1="caller:001" id2="agent:002">
     <stream media="audio" direction="sendrecv"/>
    </join>
   </mscmixer>

   If the MS is able to establish this connection, then it would send a
   200 response:

   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <response status="200"/>
   </mscmixer>





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   Now assume that the AS wants a supervisor to listen into the agent
   conversation with the caller and provide whispered guidance to the
   agent.  First, the AS would send a request to join the supervisor and
   the caller connections:

   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <join  id1="supervisor:003" id2="caller:001">
     <stream media="audio" direction="recvonly"/>
    </join>
   </mscmixer>

   If this request was successful, audio output from the caller
   connection would now be sent to both the agent and the supervisor.

   Second, the AS would send a request to join the supervisor and the
   agent connections:

   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <join id1="supervisor:001" id2="agent:002">
     <stream media="audio" direction="sendrecv"/>
    </join>
   </mscmixer>

   If this request was successful, the audio mixing would occur on both
   the agent and supervisor connections: the agent would hear the caller
   and supervisor, and the supervisor would hear the agent and caller.
   The caller would only hear the agent.  If the MS is unable to join
   and mix connections in this way, it would send a 426 response.

6.2.3.  Video Conferencing

   In this example, an audio-video conference is created where the
   loudest participant has the most prominent region in the video
   layout.

   The AS sends a request to create an audio-video conference:















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   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <createconference conferenceid="conf2">
     <audio-mixing type="nbest"/>
     <video-layouts>
      <video-layout min-participants="1"><single-view/></video-layout>
      <video-layout min-participants="2"><dual-view/></video-layout>
      <video-layout min-participants="3"><quad-view/></video-layout>
      <video-layout min-participants="5"><multiple-5x1/></video-layout>
     </video-layouts>
     <video-switch><vas/></video-switch>
    </createconference>
   </mscmixer>

   In this configuration, the conference uses a nbest audio mixing
   policy and a <vas/> video-switching policy, so that the loudest
   speaker receives the most prominent region in the layout.  Multiple
   video layouts are specified and the active one depends on the number
   of participants.

   Assume that 4 participants are already joined to the conference.  In
   that case, the video layout will be quad-view (Figure 6) with the
   most active speaker displayed in region 1.  When a fifth participant
   joins, the video layout automatically switches to a multiple-5x1
   layout (Figure 9), again with the most active speaker in region 1.

   The AS can manipulate which participants are displayed in the
   remaining regions.  For example, it could force an existing
   conference participant to be displayed in region 2:

   <mscmixer version="1.0" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer">
    <modifyjoin id1="1536067209:913cd14c" id2="conf2">
     <stream media="video">
      <region>2</region>
     </stream>
    </modifyjoin>
   </mscmixer>

7.  Security Considerations

   As this Control Package processes XML markup, implementations MUST
   address the security considerations of [RFC3023].

   As a Control Package of the Media Control Channel Framework,
   security, confidentiality, and integrity of messages transported over
   the Control Channel MUST be addressed as described in Section 12 of
   the Media Control Channel Framework ([RFC6230]), including transport-
   level protection, Control Channel policy management, and session
   establishment.  In addition, implementations MUST address security,



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   confidentiality, and integrity of User Agent sessions with the MS,
   both in terms of SIP signaling and the associated RTP media flow; see
   [RFC6230] for further details on this topic.

   Adequate transport protection and authentication are critical,
   especially when the implementation is deployed in open networks.  If
   the implementation fails to correctly address these issues, it risks
   exposure to malicious attacks, including (but not limited to):

   Denial of Service:  An attacker could insert a request message into
      the transport stream causing specific conferences or join mixers
      on the MS to be destroyed.  For example, <destroyconference
      conferenceid="XXXX">, where the value of "XXXX" could be guessed
      or discovered by auditing active mixers on the MS using an <audit>
      request.  Likewise, an attacker could impersonate the MS and
      insert error responses into the transport stream thereby denying
      the AS access to package capabilities.

   Resource Exhaustion:  An attacker could insert into the Control
      Channel new request messages (or modify existing ones) with, for
      instance, <createconference> elements causing large numbers of
      conference mixer resources to be allocated.  At some point, this
      will exhaust the number of conference mixers that the MS is able
      to allocate.

   The Media Control Channel Framework permits additional policy
   management (beyond that specified for the Media Control Channel
   Framework), including resource access and Control Channel usage, to
   be specified at the Control Package level.  (See Section 12.3 of
   [RFC6230].)

   Since creation of conference and join mixers is associated with
   media-mixing resources on the MS, the security policy for this
   Control Package needs to address how such mixers are securely managed
   across more than one Control Channel.  Such a security policy is only
   useful for secure, confidential, and integrity-protected channels.
   The identity of Control Channels is determined by the channel
   identifier, i.e., the value of the 'cfw-id' attribute in the SDP and
   Dialog-ID header in the channel protocol (see [RFC6230]).  Channels
   are the same if they have the same identifier; otherwise, they are
   different.  This Control Package imposes the following additional
   security policies:

   Responses:  The MS MUST only send a response to a mixer management or
      audit request using the same Control Channel as the one used to
      send the request.





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   Notifications:  The MS MUST only send notification events for
      conference and join mixers using the same Control Channel as it
      received the request creating the mixer.

   Auditing:  The MS MUST only provide audit information about
      conference and join mixers that have been created on the same
      Control Channel as the one upon which the <audit> request is sent.
      For example, if a join between two connections has been created on
      one channel, then a request on another channel to audit all mixers
      -- <audit mixers="true"/> -- would not report on this join mixer.

   Rejection:  The MS SHOULD reject requests to audit or manipulate an
      existing conference or join mixer on the MS if the channel is not
      the same as the one used when the mixer was created.  The MS
      rejects a request by sending a Control Framework 403 response (see
      Sections 7.4 and 12.3 of [RFC6230]).  For example, if a channel
      with identifier 'cfw1234' has been used to send a request to
      create a particular conference and the MS receives on channel
      'cfw98969' a request to audit or destroy this particular
      conference, then the MS sends a Control Framework 403 response.

   There can be valid reasons why an implementation does not reject an
   audit or mixer manipulation request on a different channel from the
   one that created the mixer.  For example, a system administrator
   might require a separate channel to audit mixer resources created by
   system users and to terminate mixers consuming excessive system
   resources.  Alternatively, a system monitor or resource broker might
   require a separate channel to audit mixers managed by this package on
   a MS.  However, the full implications need to be understood by the
   implementation and carefully weighed before accepting these reasons
   as valid.  If the reasons are not valid in their particular
   circumstances, the MS rejects such requests.

   There can also be valid reasons for 'channel handover' including high
   availability support or when one AS needs to take over management of
   mixers after the AS that created them has failed.  This could be
   achieved by the Control Channels using the same channel identifier,
   one after another.  For example, assume a channel is created with the
   identifier 'cfw1234', and the channel is used to create mixers on the
   MS.  This channel (and associated SIP dialog) then terminates due to
   a failure on the AS.  As permitted by the Control Framework, the
   channel identifier 'cfw1234' could then be reused so that another
   channel is created with the same identifier 'cfw1234', allowing it to
   'take over' management of the mixers on the MS.  Again, the
   implementation needs to understand the full implications and
   carefully weigh them before accepting these reasons as valid.  If the
   reasons are not valid for their particular circumstances, the MS uses




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   the appropriate SIP mechanisms to prevent session establishment when
   the same channel identifier is used in setting up another Control
   Channel (see Section 4 of [RFC6230]).

8.  IANA Considerations

   Per this specification, IANA has registered a new Media Control
   Channel Framework Package, a new XML namespace, a new XML schema, and
   a new MIME type.

   IANA has further created a new registry for the response codes for
   the MEDIACTRL Mixer Control Package, RFC 6505.

8.1.  Control Package Registration

   This section registers a new Media Control Channel Framework package,
   per the instructions in Section 13.1 of [RFC6230].

      To: ietf-sip-control@iana.org
      Subject: Registration of new Channel Framework package
      Package Name: msc-mixer/1.0
      Published Specification(s): RFC 6505
      Person & email address to contact for further information:
         IETF MEDIACTRL working group (mediactrl@ietf.org),
         Scott McGlashan (smcg.stds01@mcglashan.org).

8.2.  URN Sub-Namespace Registration

   This section registers a new XML namespace,
   "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer", per the guidelines in RFC 3688
   [RFC3688].

         URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer
         Registrant Contact:
            IETF MEDIACTRL working group (mediactrl@ietf.org),
            Scott McGlashan (smcg.stds01@mcglashan.org).















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         XML:
            BEGIN
            <?xml version="1.0"?>
            <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
                "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
             <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en">
              <head>
               <title>Media Control Channel Framework Mixer
                      Package attributes</title>
              </head>
              <body>
               <h1>Namespace for Media Control Channel
                   Framework Mixer Package attributes</h1>
               <h2>urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:msc-mixer</h2>
           <p>See <a href="http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc6505.txt">
              RFC 6505</a>.</p>
              </body>
             </html>
            END

8.3.  XML Schema Registration

   This section registers an XML schema as per the guidelines in RFC
   3688 [RFC3688].

      URI:  urn:ietf:params:xml:schema:msc-mixer
      Registrant Contact:
         IETF MEDIACTRL working group (mediactrl@ietf.org),
         Scott McGlashan (smcg.stds01@mcglashan.org).
      Schema:  The XML for this schema can be found in
         Section 5 of this document.

8.4.  MIME Media Type Registration for 'application/msc-mixer+xml'

   This section registers the "application/msc-mixer+xml" MIME type.

   To:  ietf-types@iana.org
   Subject:  Registration of MIME media type
             application/msc-mixer+xml
   MIME media type name:  application
   MIME subtype name:  msc-mixer+xml
   Required parameters:  (none)
   Optional parameters:  charset
      Indicates the character encoding of enclosed XML.  Default is
      UTF-8.
   Encoding considerations:  Uses XML, which can employ 8-bit
      characters, depending on the character encoding used.  See RFC
      3023 [RFC3023], Section 3.2.



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   Security considerations:  No known security considerations outside
      of those provided by the Media Control Channel Framework Mixer
      Package.
   Interoperability considerations:  This content type provides
      constructs for the Media Control Channel Framework Mixer Package.
   Published specification:  RFC 6505
   Applications that use this media type:  Implementations of
      the Media Control Channel Framework Mixer package.
   Additional Information:
      Magic Number(s): (none)
      File extension(s): (none)
      Macintosh File Type Code(s): (none)
   Person & email address to contact for further information:
      Scott McGlashan <smcg.stds01@mcglashan.org>
   Intended usage:  LIMITED USE
   Author/Change controller:  The IETF
   Other information:  None.

8.5.  Mixer Control Package Status Code Registration

   This section creates an IANA registry for the response codes for the
   MEDIACTRL Mixer Control Package.  New status codes are assigned using
   the Standards Action process defined in RFC 5226 [RFC5226].  The
   initial population of the registry is defined in Section 4.6.

   The format of this registry is as follows:

   +----------+----------------+----------------+----------------------+
   | Code     | Summary        | Description    | Reference            |
   +----------+----------------+----------------+----------------------+
   | status   | brief summary  | full           | reference document   |
   | code     | of the status  | description of | defining the status  |
   | number   | code           | the status     | code                 |
   |          |                | code           |                      |
   +----------+----------------+----------------+----------------------+

      Table 2: Fields for Mixer Control Package Status Code Registry

9.  Contributors

   Asher Shiratzky provided valuable support and contributions to early
   draft versions of this document.

   The authors would like to thank the Mixer design team consisting of
   Roni Even, Lorenzo Miniero, Adnan Saleem, Diego Besprosvan, and Mary
   Barnes who provided valuable feedback, input, diagrams, and text to
   this document.




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10.  Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank Steve Buko and Stephane Bastien for
   expert reviews of this work.

   Shawn Emery carried out a thorough security review.

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2045]          Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose
                      Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format
                      of Internet Message Bodies", RFC 2045,
                      November 1996.

   [RFC2119]          Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to
                      Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
                      March 1997.

   [RFC3023]          Murata, M., St. Laurent, S., and D. Kohn, "XML
                      Media Types", RFC 3023, January 2001.

   [RFC3688]          Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81,
                      RFC 3688, January 2004.

   [RFC4288]          Freed, N. and J. Klensin, "Media Type
                      Specifications and Registration Procedures",
                      BCP 13, RFC 4288, December 2005.

   [RFC4574]          Levin, O. and G. Camarillo, "The Session
                      Description Protocol (SDP) Label Attribute",
                      RFC 4574, August 2006.

   [RFC4647]          Phillips, A. and M. Davis, "Matching of Language
                      Tags", BCP 47, RFC 4647, September 2006.

   [RFC5226]          Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for
                      Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs",
                      BCP 26, RFC 5226, May 2008.

   [RFC5234]          Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for
                      Syntax Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234,
                      January 2008.

   [RFC5646]          Phillips, A. and M. Davis, "Tags for Identifying
                      Languages", BCP 47, RFC 5646, September 2009.




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   [RFC6230]          Boulton, C., Melanchuk, T., and S. McGlashan,
                      "Media Control Channel Framework", RFC 6230,
                      May 2011.

   [RFC6501]          Novo, O., Camarillo, G., Morgan, D., and J.
                      Urpalainen, "Conference Information Data Model for
                      Centralized Conferencing (XCON)", RFC 6501,
                      March 2012.

   [XML]              Bray, T., Paoli, J., Sperberg-McQueen, C., Maler,
                      E., and F. Yergeau, "Extensible Markup Language
                      (XML) 1.0 (Fifth Edition)", World Wide Web
                      Consortium Recommendation REC-xml-20081126,
                      November 2008,
                      <http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-xml-20081126>.

   [XMLSchema:Part2]  Biron, P. and A. Malhotra, "XML Schema Part 2:
                      Datatypes Second Edition", W3C Recommendation,
                      October 2004.

11.2.  Informative References

   [IANA]             IANA, "RTP Payload Types",
                      <http://www.iana.org/assignments/rtp-parameters>.

   [MIME.mediatypes]  IANA, "MIME Media Types",
                      <http://www.iana.org/assignments/media-types>.

   [RFC2277]          Alvestrand, H., "IETF Policy on Character Sets and
                      Languages", BCP 18, RFC 2277, January 1998.

   [RFC3261]          Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G.,
                      Johnston, A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley,
                      M., and E. Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation
                      Protocol", RFC 3261, June 2002.

   [RFC3550]          Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., and V.
                      Jacobson, "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time
                      Applications", STD 64, RFC 3550, July 2003.

   [RFC5022]          Van Dyke, J., Burger, E., and A. Spitzer, "Media
                      Server Control Markup Language (MSCML) and
                      Protocol", RFC 5022, September 2007.

   [RFC5167]          Dolly, M. and R. Even, "Media Server Control
                      Protocol Requirements", RFC 5167, March 2008.





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   [RFC5707]          Saleem, A., Xin, Y., and G. Sharratt, "Media
                      Server Markup Language (MSML)", RFC 5707,
                      February 2010.

Authors' Addresses

   Scott McGlashan
   Hewlett-Packard

   EMail: smcg.stds01@mcglashan.org


   Tim Melanchuk
   Rainwillow

   EMail: timm@rainwillow.com


   Chris Boulton
   NS-Technologies

   EMail: chris@ns-technologies.com





























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