[Docs] [txt|pdf] [draft-ietf-radext...] [Diff1] [Diff2]

PROPOSED STANDARD

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                          A. DeKok
Request for Comments: 6929                                Network RADIUS
Updates: 2865, 3575, 6158                                        A. Lior
Category: Standards Track                                     April 2013
ISSN: 2070-1721

          Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS)
                          Protocol Extensions

Abstract

   The Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) protocol is
   nearing exhaustion of its current 8-bit Attribute Type space.  In
   addition, experience shows a growing need for complex grouping, along
   with attributes that can carry more than 253 octets of data.  This
   document defines changes to RADIUS that address all of the above
   problems.

Status of This Memo

   This is an Internet Standards Track document.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
   Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 5741.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6929.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.





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Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................3
      1.1. Caveats and Limitations ....................................5
           1.1.1. Failure to Meet Certain Goals .......................5
           1.1.2. Implementation Recommendations ......................5
      1.2. Terminology ................................................6
      1.3. Requirements Language ......................................7
   2. Extensions to RADIUS ............................................7
      2.1. Extended Type ..............................................8
      2.2. Long Extended Type .........................................9
      2.3. TLV Data Type .............................................12
           2.3.1. TLV Nesting ........................................14
      2.4. EVS Data Type .............................................14
      2.5. Integer64 Data Type .......................................16
      2.6. Vendor-Id Field ...........................................16
      2.7. Attribute Naming and Type Identifiers .....................17
           2.7.1. Attribute and TLV Naming ...........................17
           2.7.2. Attribute Type Identifiers .........................18
           2.7.3. TLV Identifiers ....................................18
           2.7.4. VSA Identifiers ....................................18
      2.8. Invalid Attributes ........................................19
   3. Attribute Definitions ..........................................21
      3.1. Extended-Type-1 ...........................................21
      3.2. Extended-Type-2 ...........................................22
      3.3. Extended-Type-3 ...........................................23
      3.4. Extended-Type-4 ...........................................24
      3.5. Long-Extended-Type-1 ......................................25
      3.6. Long-Extended-Type-2 ......................................26
   4. Vendor-Specific Attributes .....................................27
      4.1. Extended-Vendor-Specific-1 ................................28
      4.2. Extended-Vendor-Specific-2 ................................29
      4.3. Extended-Vendor-Specific-3 ................................30
      4.4. Extended-Vendor-Specific-4 ................................31
      4.5. Extended-Vendor-Specific-5 ................................32
      4.6. Extended-Vendor-Specific-6 ................................34
   5. Compatibility with Traditional RADIUS ..........................35
      5.1. Attribute Allocation ......................................35
      5.2. Proxy Servers .............................................36












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   6. Guidelines .....................................................37
      6.1. Updates to RFC 6158 .......................................37
      6.2. Guidelines for Simple Data Types ..........................38
      6.3. Guidelines for Complex Data Types .........................38
      6.4. Design Guidelines for the New Types .......................39
      6.5. TLV Guidelines ............................................40
      6.6. Allocation Request Guidelines .............................40
      6.7. Allocation Request Guidelines for TLVs ....................41
      6.8. Implementation Guidelines .................................42
      6.9. Vendor Guidelines .........................................42
   7. Rationale for This Design ......................................42
      7.1. Attribute Audit ...........................................43
   8. Diameter Considerations ........................................44
   9. Examples .......................................................44
      9.1. Extended Type .............................................46
      9.2. Long Extended Type ........................................47
   10. IANA Considerations ...........................................50
      10.1. Attribute Allocations ....................................50
      10.2. RADIUS Attribute Type Tree ...............................50
      10.3. Allocation Instructions ..................................52
           10.3.1. Requested Allocation from the Standard Space ......52
           10.3.2. Requested Allocation from the Short
                   Extended Space ....................................52
           10.3.3. Requested Allocation from the Long
                   Extended Space ....................................52
           10.3.4. Allocation Preferences ............................52
           10.3.5. Extending the Type Space via the TLV Data Type ....53
           10.3.6. Allocation within a TLV ...........................53
           10.3.7. Allocation of Other Data Types ....................54
   11. Security Considerations .......................................54
   12. References ....................................................54
      12.1. Normative References .....................................54
      12.2. Informative References ...................................55
   13. Acknowledgments ...............................................55
   Appendix A. Extended Attribute Generator Program ..................56

1.  Introduction

   Under current allocation pressure, we expect that the RADIUS
   Attribute Type space will be exhausted by 2014 or 2015.  We therefore
   need a way to extend the type space so that new specifications may
   continue to be developed.  Other issues have also been shown with
   RADIUS.  The attribute grouping method defined in [RFC2868] has been
   shown to be impractical, and a more powerful mechanism is needed.
   Multiple Attributes have been defined that transport more than the
   253 octets of data originally envisioned with the protocol.  Each of
   these attributes is handled as a "special case" inside of RADIUS
   implementations, instead of as a general method.  We therefore also



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   need a standardized method of transporting large quantities of data.
   Finally, some vendors are close to allocating all of the Attributes
   within their Vendor-Specific Attribute space.  It would be useful to
   leverage changes to the base protocol for extending the Vendor-
   Specific Attribute space.

   We satisfy all of these requirements through the following changes
   given in this document:

   * Defining an "Extended Type" format, which adds 8 bits of "Extended
     Type" to the RADIUS Attribute Type space, by using one octet of the
     "Value" field.  This method gives us a general way of extending the
     Attribute Type space (Section 2.1).

   * Allocating 4 attributes as using the format of "Extended Type".
     This allocation extends the RADIUS Attribute Type space by
     approximately 1000 values (Sections 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, and 3.4).

   * Defining a "Long Extended Type" format, which inserts an additional
     octet between the "Extended Type" octet and the "Value" field.
     This method gives us a general way of adding more functionality to
     the protocol (Section 2.2).

   * Defining a method that uses the additional octet in the "Long
     Extended Type" to indicate data fragmentation across multiple
     Attributes.  This method provides a standard way for an Attribute
     to carry more than 253 octets of data (Section 2.2).

   * Allocating 2 attributes as using the format "Long Extended Type".
     This allocation extends the RADIUS Attribute Type space by an
     additional 500 values (Sections 3.5 and 3.6).

   * Defining a new "Type-Length-Value" (TLV) data type.  This data type
     allows an attribute to carry TLVs as "sub-Attributes", which can in
     turn encapsulate other TLVs as "sub-sub-Attributes".  This change
     creates a standard way to group a set of Attributes (Section 2.3).

   * Defining a new "Extended-Vendor-Specific" (EVS) data type.  This
     data type allows an attribute to carry Vendor-Specific Attributes
     (VSAs) inside of the new Attribute formats (Section 2.4).

   * Defining a new "integer64" data type.  This data type allows
     counters that track more than 2^32 octets of data (Section 2.5).

   * Allocating 6 attributes using the new EVS data type.  This
     allocation extends the Vendor-Specific Attribute Type space by over
     1500 values (Sections 4.1 through 4.6).




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   * Defining the "Vendor-Id" for Vendor-Specific Attributes to
     encompass the entire 4 octets of the Vendor field.  [RFC2865]
     Section 5.26 defined it to be 3 octets, with the fourth octet being
     zero (Section 2.6).

   * Describing compatibility with existing RADIUS systems (Section 5).

   * Defining guidelines for the use of these changes for IANA,
     implementations of this specification, and for future RADIUS
     specifications (Section 6).

   As with any protocol change, the changes defined here are the result
   of a series of compromises.  We have tried to find a balance between
   flexibility, space in the RADIUS message, compatibility with existing
   deployments, and difficulty of implementation.

1.1.  Caveats and Limitations

   This section describes some caveats and limitations of the proposal.

1.1.1.  Failure to Meet Certain Goals

   One goal that was not met by the above modifications is to have an
   incentive for standards to use the new space.  That incentive is
   being provided by the exhaustion of the standard space.

1.1.2.  Implementation Recommendations

   It is RECOMMENDED that implementations support this specification.
   It is RECOMMENDED that new specifications use the formats defined in
   this specification.

   The alternative to the above recommendations is a circular argument
   of not implementing this specification because no other standards
   reference it, and also not defining new standards referencing this
   specification because no implementations exist.

   As noted earlier, the standard space is almost entirely allocated.
   Ignoring the looming crisis benefits no one.












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1.2.  Terminology

   This document uses the following terms:

   Silently discard

      This means the implementation discards the packet without further
      processing.  The implementation MAY provide the capability of
      logging the error, including the contents of the silently
      discarded packet, and SHOULD record the event in a statistics
      counter.

   Invalid attribute

      This means that the Length field of an Attribute is valid (as per
      [RFC2865], Section 5, top of page 25) but the contents of the
      Attribute do not follow the correct format, for example, an
      Attribute of type "address" that encapsulates more than four, or
      less than four, octets of data.  See Section 2.8 for a more
      complete definition.

   Standard space

      This refers to codes in the RADIUS Attribute Type space that are
      allocated by IANA and that follow the format defined in Section 5
      of [RFC2865].

   Extended space

      This refers to codes in the RADIUS Attribute Type space that
      require the extensions defined in this document and are an
      extension of the standard space, but that cannot be represented
      within the standard space.

   Short extended space

      This refers to codes in the extended space that use the "Extended
      Type" format.

   Long extended space

      This refers to codes in the extended space that use the "Long
      Extended Type" format.

   The following terms are used here with the meanings defined in BCP 26
   [RFC5226]: "namespace", "assigned value", "registration", "Private
   Use", "Reserved", "Unassigned", "IETF Review", and "Standards
   Action".



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1.3.  Requirements Language

   In this document, several words are used to signify the requirements
   of the specification.  The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED",
   "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY",
   and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   [RFC2119].

2.  Extensions to RADIUS

   This section defines two new Attribute formats: "Extended Type" and
   "Long Extended Type".  It defines a new Type-Length-Value (TLV) data
   type, an Extended-Vendor-Specific (EVS) data type, and an Integer64
   data type.  It defines a new method for naming attributes and
   identifying Attributes using the new Attribute formats.  It finally
   defines the new term "invalid attribute" and describes how it affects
   implementations.

   The new Attribute formats are designed to be compatible with the
   Attribute format given in [RFC2865] Section 5.  The meaning and
   interpretation of the Type and Length fields are unchanged from that
   specification.  This reuse allows the new formats to be compatible
   with RADIUS implementations that do not implement this specification.
   Those implementations can simply ignore the "Value" field of an
   attribute or forward it verbatim.

   The changes to the Attribute format come about by "stealing" one or
   more octets from the "Value" field.  This change has the effect that
   the "Value" field of [RFC2865] Section 5 contains both the new octets
   given here and any attribute-specific Value.  The result is that
   "Value"s in this specification are limited to less than 253 octets in
   size.  This limitation is overcome through the use of the "Long
   Extended Type" format.

   We reiterate that the formats given in this document do not insert
   new data into an attribute.  Instead, we "steal" one octet of Value,
   so that the definition of the Length field remains unchanged.  The
   new Attribute formats are designed to be compatible with the
   Attribute format given in [RFC2865] Section 5.  The meaning and
   interpretation of the Type and Length fields is unchanged from that
   specification.  This reuse allows the new formats to be compatible
   with RADIUS implementations that do not implement this specification.
   Those implementations can simply ignore the "Value" field of an
   attribute or forward it verbatim.







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2.1.  Extended Type

   This section defines a new Attribute format, called "Extended Type".
   A summary of the Attribute format is shown below.  The fields are
   transmitted from left to right.

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |     Type      |    Length     | Extended-Type |  Value ...
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type

      This field is identical to the Type field of the Attribute format
      defined in [RFC2865] Section 5.

   Length

      The Length field is one octet and indicates the length of this
      Attribute, including the Type, Length, "Extended-Type", and
      "Value" fields.  Permitted values are between 4 and 255.  If a
      client or server receives an Extended Attribute with a Length of 2
      or 3, then that Attribute MUST be considered to be an "invalid
      attribute" and handled as per Section 2.8, below.

   Extended-Type

      The Extended-Type field is one octet.  Up-to-date values of this
      field are specified according to the policies and rules described
      in Section 10.  Unlike the Type field defined in [RFC2865]
      Section 5, no values are allocated for experimental or
      implementation-specific use.  Values 241-255 are reserved and MUST
      NOT be used.

      The Extended-Type is meaningful only within a context defined by
      the Type field.  That is, this field may be thought of as defining
      a new type space of the form "Type.Extended-Type".  See
      Section 3.5, below, for additional discussion.

      A RADIUS server MAY ignore Attributes with an unknown
      "Type.Extended-Type".

      A RADIUS client MAY ignore Attributes with an unknown
      "Type.Extended-Type".






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   Value

      This field is similar to the "Value" field of the Attribute format
      defined in [RFC2865] Section 5.  The format of the data MUST be a
      valid RADIUS data type.

      The "Value" field is one or more octets.

      Implementations supporting this specification MUST use the
      identifier of "Type.Extended-Type" to determine the interpretation
      of the "Value" field.

      The addition of the Extended-Type field decreases the maximum
      length for attributes of type "text" or "string" from 253 to
      252 octets.  Where an Attribute needs to carry more than
      252 octets of data, the "Long Extended Type" format MUST be used.

   Experience has shown that the "experimental" and "implementation-
   specific" attributes defined in [RFC2865] Section 5 have had little
   practical value.  We therefore do not continue that practice here
   with the Extended-Type field.

2.2.  Long Extended Type

   This section defines a new Attribute format, called "Long Extended
   Type".  It leverages the "Extended Type" format in order to permit
   the transport of attributes encapsulating more than 253 octets of
   data.  A summary of the Attribute format is shown below.  The fields
   are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     | Extended-Type |M|  Reserved   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Value ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type

      This field is identical to the Type field of the Attribute format
      defined in [RFC2865] Section 5.

   Length

      The Length field is one octet and indicates the length of this
      Attribute, including the Type, Length, Extended-Type, and "Value"
      fields.  Permitted values are between 5 and 255.  If a client or



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      server receives a "Long Extended Type" with a Length of 2, 3, or
      4, then that Attribute MUST be considered to be an "invalid
      attribute" and handled as per Section 2.8, below.

      Note that this Length is limited to the length of this fragment.
      There is no field that gives an explicit value for the total size
      of the fragmented attribute.

   Extended-Type

      This field is identical to the Extended-Type field defined above
      in Section 2.1.

   M (More)

      The More field is one (1) bit in length and indicates whether or
      not the current attribute contains "more" than 251 octets of data.
      The More field MUST be clear (0) if the Length field has a value
      of less than 255.  The More field MAY be set (1) if the Length
      field has a value of 255.

      If the More field is set (1), it indicates that the "Value" field
      has been fragmented across multiple RADIUS attributes.  When the
      More field is set (1), the Attribute MUST have a Length field of
      value 255, there MUST be an attribute following this one, and the
      next attribute MUST have both the same Type and "Extended Type".
      That is, multiple fragments of the same value MUST be in order and
      MUST be consecutive attributes in the packet, and the last
      attribute in a packet MUST NOT have the More field set (1).

      That is, a packet containing a fragmented attribute needs to
      contain all fragments of the Attribute, and those fragments need
      to be contiguous in the packet.  RADIUS does not support
      inter-packet fragmentation, which means that fragmenting an
      attribute across multiple packets is impossible.

      If a client or server receives an attribute fragment with the
      "More" field set (1) but for which no subsequent fragment can be
      found, then the fragmented attribute is considered to be an
      "invalid attribute" and handled as per Section 2.8, below.

   Reserved

      This field is 7 bits long and is reserved for future use.
      Implementations MUST set it to zero (0) when encoding an attribute
      for sending in a packet.  The contents SHOULD be ignored on
      reception.




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      Future specifications may define additional meaning for this
      field.  Implementations therefore MUST NOT treat this field as
      invalid if it is non-zero.

   Value

      This field is similar to the "Value" field of the Attribute format
      defined in [RFC2865] Section 5.  It may contain a complete set of
      data (when the Length field has a value of less than 255), or it
      may contain a fragment of data.

      The "Value" field is one or more octets.

      Implementations supporting this specification MUST use the
      identifier of "Type.Extended-Type" to determine the interpretation
      of the "Value" field.

      Any interpretation of the resulting data MUST occur after the
      fragments have been reassembled.  The length of the data MUST be
      taken as the sum of the lengths of the fragments (i.e., "Value"
      fields) from which it is constructed.  The format of the data
      SHOULD be a valid RADIUS data type.  If the reassembled data does
      not match the expected format, all fragments MUST be treated as
      "invalid attributes", and the reassembled data MUST be discarded.

      We note that the maximum size of a fragmented attribute is limited
      only by the RADIUS packet length limitation (i.e., 4096 octets,
      not counting various headers and overhead).  Implementations MUST
      be able to handle the case where one fragmented attribute
      completely fills the packet.

   This definition increases the RADIUS Attribute Type space as above
   but also provides for transport of Attributes that could contain more
   than 253 octets of data.

   Note that [RFC2865] Section 5 says:

      If multiple Attributes with the same Type are present, the order
      of Attributes with the same Type MUST be preserved by any proxies.
      The order of Attributes of different Types is not required to be
      preserved.  A RADIUS server or client MUST NOT have any
      dependencies on the order of attributes of different types.  A
      RADIUS server or client MUST NOT require attributes of the same
      type to be contiguous.

   These requirements also apply to the "Long Extended Type" Attribute,
   including fragments.  Implementations MUST be able to process
   non-contiguous fragments -- that is, fragments that are mixed



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   together with other attributes of a different Type.  This will allow
   them to accept packets, so long as the Attributes can be correctly
   decoded.

2.3.  TLV Data Type

   We define a new data type in RADIUS, called "tlv".  The "tlv" data
   type is an encapsulation layer that permits the "Value" field of an
   Attribute to contain new sub-Attributes.  These sub-Attributes can in
   turn contain "Value"s of data type TLV.  This capability both extends
   the Attribute space and permits "nested" attributes to be used.  This
   nesting can be used to encapsulate or group data into one or more
   logical containers.

   The "tlv" data type reuses the RADIUS Attribute format, as given
   below:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   TLV-Type    |  TLV-Length   |     TLV-Value ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   TLV-Type

      The TLV-Type field is one octet.  Up-to-date values of this field
      are specified according to the policies and rules described in
      Section 10.  Values 254-255 are "Reserved" for use by future
      extensions to RADIUS.  The value 26 has no special meaning and
      MUST NOT be treated as a Vendor-Specific Attribute.

      As with the Extended-Type field defined above, the TLV-Type is
      meaningful only within the context defined by "Type" fields of the
      encapsulating Attributes.  That is, the field may be thought of as
      defining a new type space of the form
      "Type.Extended-Type.TLV-Type".  Where TLVs are nested, the type
      space is of the form "Type.Extended-Type.TLV-Type.TLV-Type", etc.

      A RADIUS server MAY ignore Attributes with an unknown "TLV-Type".

      A RADIUS client MAY ignore Attributes with an unknown "TLV-Type".

      A RADIUS proxy SHOULD forward Attributes with an unknown
      "TLV-Type" verbatim.







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   TLV-Length

      The TLV-Length field is one octet and indicates the length of this
      TLV, including the TLV-Type, TLV-Length, and TLV-Value fields.  It
      MUST have a value between 3 and 255.  If a client or server
      receives a TLV with an invalid TLV-Length, then the Attribute that
      encapsulates that TLV MUST be considered to be an "invalid
      attribute" and handled as per Section 2.8, below.

   TLV-Value

      The TLV-Value field is one or more octets and contains information
      specific to the Attribute.  The format and length of the TLV-Value
      field are determined by the TLV-Type and TLV-Length fields.

      The TLV-Value field SHOULD encapsulate a standard RADIUS data
      type.  Non-standard data types SHOULD NOT be used within TLV-Value
      fields.  We note that the TLV-Value field MAY also contain one or
      more attributes of data type TLV; data type TLV allows for simple
      grouping and multiple layers of nesting.

      The TLV-Value field is limited to containing 253 or fewer octets
      of data.  Specifications that require a TLV to contain more than
      253 octets of data are incompatible with RADIUS and need to be
      redesigned.  Specifications that require the transport of empty
      "Value"s (i.e., Length = 2) are incompatible with RADIUS and need
      to be redesigned.

      The TLV-Value field MUST NOT contain data using the "Extended
      Type" formats defined in this document.  The base Extended
      Attributes format allows for sufficient flexibility that nesting
      them inside of a TLV offers little additional value.

   This TLV definition is compatible with the suggested format of the
   "String" field of the Vendor-Specific Attribute, as defined in
   [RFC2865] Section 5.26, though that specification does not discuss
   nesting.

   Vendors MAY use attributes of type "TLV" in any Vendor-Specific
   Attribute.  It is RECOMMENDED to use type "TLV" for VSAs, in
   preference to any other format.

   If multiple TLVs with the same TLV-Type are present, the order of
   TLVs with the same TLV-Type MUST be preserved by any proxies.  The
   order of TLVs of different TLV-Types is not required to be preserved.
   A RADIUS server or client MUST NOT have any dependencies on the order
   of TLVs of different TLV-Types.  A RADIUS server or client MUST NOT
   require TLVs of the same TLV-Type to be contiguous.



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   The interpretation of multiple TLVs of the same TLV-Type MUST be that
   of a logical "and", unless otherwise specified.  That is, multiple
   TLVs are interpreted as specifying an unordered set of values.
   Specifications SHOULD NOT define TLVs to be interpreted as a logical
   "or".  Doing so would mean that a RADIUS client or server would make
   an arbitrary and non-deterministic choice among the values.

2.3.1.  TLV Nesting

   TLVs may contain other TLVs.  When this occurs, the "container" TLV
   MUST be completely filled by the "contained" TLVs.  That is, the
   "container" TLV-Length field MUST be exactly two (2) more than the
   sum of the "contained" TLV-Length fields.  If the "contained" TLVs
   overfill the "container" TLV, the "container" TLV MUST be considered
   to be an "invalid attribute" and handled as described in Section 2.8,
   below.

   The depth of TLV nesting is limited only by the restrictions on the
   TLV-Length field.  The limit of 253 octets of data results in a limit
   of 126 levels of nesting.  However, nesting depths of more than 4 are
   NOT RECOMMENDED.  They have not been demonstrated to be necessary in
   practice, and they appear to make implementations more complex.
   Reception of packets with such deeply nested TLVs may indicate
   implementation errors or deliberate attacks.  Where implementations
   do not support deep nesting of TLVs, it is RECOMMENDED that the
   unsupported layers are treated as "invalid attributes".

2.4.  EVS Data Type

   We define a new data type in RADIUS, called "evs", for "Extended-
   Vendor-Specific".  The "evs" data type is an encapsulation layer that
   permits the EVS-Value field of an Attribute to contain a Vendor-Id,
   followed by an EVS-Type, and then vendor-defined data.  This data can
   in turn contain valid RADIUS data types or any other data as
   determined by the vendor.

   This data type is intended for use in attributes that carry vendor-
   specific information, as is done with the Vendor-Specific Attribute
   (Attribute number 26).  It is RECOMMENDED that this data type be used
   by a vendor only when the Vendor-Specific Attribute Type space has
   been fully allocated.

   Where [RFC2865] Section 5.26 makes a recommendation for the format of
   the data following the Vendor-Id, we give a strict definition.
   Experience has shown that many vendors have not followed the
   [RFC2865] recommendations, leading to interoperability issues.  We
   hope here to give vendors sufficient flexibility as to meet their
   needs while minimizing the use of non-standard VSA formats.



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   The "evs" data type MAY be used in Attributes having the format of
   "Extended Type" or "Long Extended Type".  It MUST NOT be used in any
   other Attribute definition, including standard RADIUS attributes,
   TLVs, and VSAs.

   A summary of the "evs" data type format is shown below.  The fields
   are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                            Vendor-Id                          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  EVS-Type      |  EVS-Value ....
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Vendor-Id

      The 4 octets of the Vendor-Id field are the Network Management
      Private Enterprise Code [PEN] of the vendor in network byte order.

   EVS-Type

      The EVS-Type field is one octet.  Values are assigned at the sole
      discretion of the vendor.

   EVS-Value

      The EVS-Value field is one or more octets.  It SHOULD encapsulate
      a standard RADIUS data type.  Using non-standard data types is NOT
      RECOMMENDED.  We note that the EVS-Value field may be of data type
      TLV.  However, it MUST NOT be of data type "evs", as the use cases
      are unclear for one vendor delegating Attribute Type space to
      another vendor.

      The actual format of the information is site or application
      specific, and a robust implementation SHOULD support the field as
      undistinguished octets.  While we recognize that vendors have
      complete control over the contents and format of the EVS-Value
      field, we recommend that good practices be followed.

      Further codification of the range of allowed usage of this field
      is outside the scope of this specification.

   Note that unlike the format described in [RFC2865] Section 5.26, this
   data type has no "Vendor-Length" field.  The length of the EVS-Value
   field is implicit and is determined by taking the "Length" of the
   encapsulating RADIUS attribute and then subtracting the length of the



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   Attribute header (2 octets), the "Extended Type" (1 octet), the
   Vendor-Id (4 octets), and the EVS-Type (1 octet).  That is, for
   "Extended Type" Attributes the length of the EVS-Value field is eight
   (8) less than the value of the Length field, and for "Long Extended
   Type" Attributes the length of the EVS-Value field is nine (9) less
   than the value of the Length field.

2.5.  Integer64 Data Type

   We define a new data type in RADIUS, called "integer64", which
   carries a 64-bit unsigned integer in network byte order.

   This data type is intended to be used in any situation where there is
   a need to have counters that can count past 2^32.  The expected use
   of this data type is within Accounting-Request packets, but this data
   type SHOULD be used in any packet where 32-bit integers are expected
   to be insufficient.

   The "integer64" data type can be used in Attributes of any format,
   standard space, extended attributes, TLVs, and VSAs.

   A summary of the "integer64" data type format is shown below.  The
   fields are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                  Value ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                                                   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Attributes having data type "integer64" MUST have the relevant Length
   field set to eight more than the length of the Attribute header.  For
   standard space Attributes and TLVs, this means that the Length field
   MUST be set to ten (10).  For "Extended Type" Attributes, the Length
   field MUST be set to eleven (11).  For "Long Extended Type"
   Attributes, the Length field MUST be set to twelve (12).

2.6.  Vendor-Id Field

   We define the Vendor-Id field of Vendor-Specific Attributes
   to encompass the entire 4 octets of the Vendor field.
   [RFC2865] Section 5.26 defined it to be 3 octets, with the fourth
   octet being zero.  This change has no immediate impact on RADIUS, as
   the maximum Private Enterprise Code defined is still within 16 bits.





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   However, it is best to make advance preparations for changes in the
   protocol.  As such, it is RECOMMENDED that all implementations
   support four (4) octets for the Vendor-Id field, instead of
   three (3).

2.7.  Attribute Naming and Type Identifiers

   Attributes have traditionally been identified by a unique name and
   number.  For example, the Attribute "User-Name" has been allocated
   number one (1).  This scheme needs to be extended in order to be able
   to refer to attributes of "Extended Type", and to TLVs.  It will also
   be used by IANA for allocating RADIUS Attribute Type values.

   The names and identifiers given here are intended to be used only in
   specifications.  The system presented here may not be useful when
   referring to the contents of a RADIUS packet.  It imposes no
   requirements on implementations, as implementations are free to
   reference RADIUS attributes via any method they choose.

2.7.1.  Attribute and TLV Naming

   RADIUS specifications traditionally use names consisting of one or
   more words, separated by hyphens, e.g., "User-Name".  However, these
   names are not allocated from a registry, and there is no restriction
   other than convention on their global uniqueness.

   Similarly, vendors have often used their company name as the prefix
   for VSA names, though this practice is not universal.  For example,
   for a vendor named "Example", the name "Example-Attribute-Name"
   SHOULD be used instead of "Attribute-Name".  The second form can
   conflict with attributes from other vendors, whereas the first form
   cannot.

   It is therefore RECOMMENDED that specifications give names to
   Attributes that attempt to be globally unique across all RADIUS
   Attributes.  It is RECOMMENDED that a vendor use its name as a unique
   prefix for attribute names, e.g., Livingston-IP-Pool instead of
   IP-Pool.  It is RECOMMENDED that implementations enforce uniqueness
   on names; not doing so would lead to ambiguity and problems.

   We recognize that these suggestions may sometimes be difficult to
   implement in practice.

   TLVs SHOULD be named with a unique prefix that is shared among
   related attributes.  For example, a specification that defines a set
   of TLVs related to time could create attributes called "Time-Zone",
   "Time-Day", "Time-Hour", "Time-Minute", etc.




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2.7.2.  Attribute Type Identifiers

   The RADIUS Attribute Type space defines a context for a particular
   "Extended-Type" field.  The "Extended-Type" field allows for 256
   possible type code values, with values 1 through 240 available for
   allocation.  We define here an identification method that uses a
   "dotted number" notation similar to that used for Object Identifiers
   (OIDs), formatted as "Type.Extended-Type".

   For example, an attribute within the Type space of 241, having
   Extended-Type of one (1), is uniquely identified as "241.1".
   Similarly, an attribute within the Type space of 246, having
   Extended-Type of ten (10), is uniquely identified as "246.10".

2.7.3.  TLV Identifiers

   We can extend the Attribute reference scheme defined above for TLVs.
   This is done by leveraging the "dotted number" notation.  As above,
   we define an additional TLV Type space, within the "Extended Type"
   space, by appending another "dotted number" in order to identify the
   TLV.  This method can be repeated in sequence for nested TLVs.

   For example, let us say that "245.1" identifies RADIUS Attribute Type
   245, containing an "Extended Type" of one (1), which is of type
   "TLV".  That attribute will contain 256 possible TLVs, one for each
   value of the TLV-Type field.  The first TLV-Type value of one (1) can
   then be identified by appending a ".1" to the number of the
   encapsulating attribute ("241.1"), to yield "241.1.1".  Similarly,
   the sequence "245.2.3.4" identifies RADIUS attribute 245, containing
   an "Extended Type" of two (2), which is of type "TLV", which in turn
   contains a TLV with TLV-Type number three (3), which in turn contains
   another TLV, with TLV-Type number four (4).

2.7.4.  VSA Identifiers

   There has historically been no method for numerically addressing
   VSAs.  The "dotted number" method defined here can also be leveraged
   to create such an addressing scheme.  However, as the VSAs are
   completely under the control of each individual vendor, this section
   provides a suggested practice but does not define a standard of any
   kind.

   The Vendor-Specific Attribute has been assigned the Attribute
   number 26.  It in turn carries a 32-bit Vendor-Id, and possibly
   additional VSAs.  Where the VSAs follow the format recommended
   by [RFC2865] Section 5.26, a VSA can be identified as
   "26.Vendor-Id.Vendor-Type".




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   For example, Livingston has Vendor-Id 307 and has defined an
   attribute "IP-Pool" as number 6.  This VSA can be uniquely identified
   as 26.307.6, but it cannot be uniquely identified by name, as other
   vendors may have used the same name.

   Note that there are few restrictions on the size of the numerical
   values in this notation.  The Vendor-Id is a 32-bit number, and the
   VSA may have been assigned from a 16-bit Vendor-Specific Attribute
   Type space.  Implementations SHOULD be capable of handling 32-bit
   numbers at each level of the "dotted number" notation.

   For example, the company USR has historically used Vendor-Id 429 and
   has defined a "Version-Id" attribute as number 32768.  This VSA can
   be uniquely identified as 26.429.32768 but again cannot be uniquely
   identified by name.

   Where a VSA is a TLV, the "dotted number" notation can be used as
   above: 26.Vendor-Id.Vendor-Type.TLV1.TLV2.TLV3, where the "TLVn"
   values are the numerical values assigned by the vendor to the
   different nested TLVs.

2.8.  Invalid Attributes

   The term "invalid attribute" is new to this specification.  It is
   defined to mean that the Length field of an Attribute permits the
   packet to be accepted as not being "malformed".  However, the "Value"
   field of the Attribute does not follow the format required by the
   data type defined for that Attribute, and therefore the Attribute is
   "malformed".  In order to distinguish the two cases, we refer to
   "malformed" packets and "invalid attributes".

   For example, an implementation receives a packet that is well formed.
   That packet contains an Attribute allegedly of data type "address"
   but that has Length not equal to four.  In that situation, the packet
   is well formed, but the Attribute is not.  Therefore, it is an
   "invalid attribute".

   A similar analysis can be performed when an attribute carries TLVs.
   The encapsulating attribute may be well formed, but the TLV may be an
   "invalid attribute".  The existence of an "invalid attribute" in a
   packet or attribute MUST NOT result in the implementation discarding
   the entire packet or treating the packet as a negative
   acknowledgment.  Instead, only the "invalid attribute" is treated
   specially.

   When an implementation receives an "invalid attribute", it SHOULD be
   silently discarded, except when the implementation is acting as a
   proxy (see Section 5.2 for discussion of proxy servers).  If it is



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   not discarded, it MUST NOT be handled in the same manner as a well-
   formed attribute.  For example, receiving an Attribute of data type
   "address" containing either less than four octets or more than
   four octets of data means that the Attribute MUST NOT be treated as
   being of data type "address".  The reason here is that if the
   Attribute does not carry an IPv4 address, the receiver has no idea
   what format the data is in, and it is therefore not an IPv4 address.

   For Attributes of type "Long Extended Type", an Attribute is
   considered to be an "invalid attribute" when it does not match the
   criteria set out in Section 2.2, above.

   For Attributes of type "TLV", an Attribute is considered to be an
   "invalid attribute" when the TLV-Length field allows the
   encapsulating Attribute to be parsed but the TLV-Value field does not
   match the criteria for that TLV.  Implementations SHOULD NOT treat
   the "invalid attribute" property as being transitive.  That is, the
   Attribute encapsulating the "invalid attribute" SHOULD NOT be treated
   as an "invalid attribute".  That encapsulating Attribute might
   contain multiple TLVs, only one of which is an "invalid attribute".

   However, a TLV definition may require particular sub-TLVs to be
   present and/or to have specific values.  If a sub-TLV is missing or
   contains incorrect value(s), or if it is an "invalid attribute", then
   the encapsulating TLV SHOULD be treated as an "invalid attribute".
   This requirement ensures that strongly connected TLVs are either
   handled as a coherent whole or ignored entirely.

   It is RECOMMENDED that Attributes with unknown Type, Extended-Type,
   TLV-Type, or EVS-Type are treated as "invalid attributes".  This
   recommendation is compatible with the suggestion in [RFC2865]
   Section 5 that implementations "MAY ignore Attributes with an
   unknown Type".


















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3.  Attribute Definitions

   We define four (4) attributes of "Extended Type", which are allocated
   from the "Reserved" Attribute Type codes of 241, 242, 243, and 244.
   We also define two (2) attributes of "Long Extended Type", which are
   allocated from the "Reserved" Attribute Type codes of 245 and 246.

      Type  Name
      ----  ----
      241   Extended-Type-1
      242   Extended-Type-2
      243   Extended-Type-3
      244   Extended-Type-4
      245   Long-Extended-Type-1
      246   Long-Extended-Type-2

   The rest of this section gives detailed definitions for each
   Attribute based on the above summary.

3.1.  Extended-Type-1

   Description

      This attribute encapsulates attributes of the "Extended Type"
      format, in the RADIUS Attribute Type space of 241.{1-255}.

   A summary of the Extended-Type-1 Attribute format is shown below.
   The fields are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     | Extended-Type |  Value ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type

      241 for Extended-Type-1.

   Length

      >= 4









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   Extended-Type

      The Extended-Type field is one octet.  Up-to-date values of this
      field are specified in the 241.{1-255} RADIUS Attribute Type
      space, according to the policies and rules described in
      Section 10.  Further definition of this field is given in
      Section 2.1, above.

   Value

      The "Value" field is one or more octets.

      Implementations supporting this specification MUST use the
      identifier of "Type.Extended-Type" to determine the interpretation
      of the "Value" field.

3.2.  Extended-Type-2

   Description

      This attribute encapsulates attributes of the "Extended Type"
      format, in the RADIUS Attribute Type space of 242.{1-255}.

   A summary of the Extended-Type-2 Attribute format is shown below.
   The fields are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     | Extended-Type |  Value ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type

      242 for Extended-Type-2.

   Length

      >= 4

   Extended-Type

      The Extended-Type field is one octet.  Up-to-date values of this
      field are specified in the 242.{1-255} RADIUS Attribute Type
      space, according to the policies and rules described in
      Section 10.  Further definition of this field is given in
      Section 2.1, above.




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   Value

      The "Value" field is one or more octets.

      Implementations supporting this specification MUST use the
      identifier of "Type.Extended-Type" to determine the interpretation
      of the "Value" field.

3.3.  Extended-Type-3

   Description

      This attribute encapsulates attributes of the "Extended Type"
      format, in the RADIUS Attribute Type space of 243.{1-255}.

   A summary of the Extended-Type-3 Attribute format is shown below.
   The fields are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     | Extended-Type |  Value ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type

      243 for Extended-Type-3.

   Length

      >= 4

   Extended-Type

      The Extended-Type field is one octet.  Up-to-date values of this
      field are specified in the 243.{1-255} RADIUS Attribute Type
      space, according to the policies and rules described in
      Section 10.  Further definition of this field is given in
      Section 2.1, above.

   Value

      The "Value" field is one or more octets.

      Implementations supporting this specification MUST use the
      identifier of "Type.Extended-Type" to determine the interpretation
      of the "Value" field.




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3.4.  Extended-Type-4

   Description

      This attribute encapsulates attributes of the "Extended Type"
      format, in the RADIUS Attribute Type space of 244.{1-255}.

   A summary of the Extended-Type-4 Attribute format is shown below.
   The fields are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     | Extended-Type |  Value ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type

      244 for Extended-Type-4.

   Length

      >= 4

   Extended-Type

      The Extended-Type field is one octet.  Up-to-date values of this
      field are specified in the 244.{1-255} RADIUS Attribute Type
      space, according to the policies and rules described in
      Section 10.  Further definition of this field is given in
      Section 2.1, above.

   Value

      The "Value" field is one or more octets.

      Implementations supporting this specification MUST use the
      identifier of "Type.Extended-Type" to determine the interpretation
      of the Value Field.












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3.5.  Long-Extended-Type-1

   Description

      This attribute encapsulates attributes of the "Long Extended Type"
      format, in the RADIUS Attribute Type space of 245.{1-255}.

   A summary of the Long-Extended-Type-1 Attribute format is shown
   below.  The fields are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     | Extended-Type |M|  Reserved   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Value ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type

      245 for Long-Extended-Type-1

   Length

      >= 5

   Extended-Type

      The Extended-Type field is one octet.  Up-to-date values of this
      field are specified in the 245.{1-255} RADIUS Attribute Type
      space, according to the policies and rules described in
      Section 10.  Further definition of this field is given in
      Section 2.1, above.

   M (More)

      The More field is one (1) bit in length and indicates whether or
      not the current attribute contains "more" than 251 octets of data.
      Further definition of this field is given in Section 2.2, above.

   Reserved

      This field is 7 bits long and is reserved for future use.
      Implementations MUST set it to zero (0) when encoding an attribute
      for sending in a packet.  The contents SHOULD be ignored on
      reception.





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   Value

      The "Value" field is one or more octets.

      Implementations supporting this specification MUST use the
      identifier of "Type.Extended-Type" to determine the interpretation
      of the "Value" field.

3.6.  Long-Extended-Type-2

   Description

      This attribute encapsulates attributes of the "Long Extended Type"
      format, in the RADIUS Attribute Type space of 246.{1-255}.

   A summary of the Long-Extended-Type-2 Attribute format is shown
   below.  The fields are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     | Extended-Type |M|  Reserved   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Value ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type

      246 for Long-Extended-Type-2

   Length

      >= 5

   Extended-Type

      The Extended-Type field is one octet.  Up-to-date values of this
      field are specified in the 246.{1-255} RADIUS Attribute Type
      space, according to the policies and rules described in
      Section 10.  Further definition of this field is given in
      Section 2.1, above.

   M (More)

      The More field is one (1) bit in length and indicates whether or
      not the current attribute contains "more" than 251 octets of data.
      Further definition of this field is given in Section 2.2, above.




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   Reserved

      This field is 7 bits long and is reserved for future use.
      Implementations MUST set it to zero (0) when encoding an attribute
      for sending in a packet.  The contents SHOULD be ignored on
      reception.

   Value

      The "Value" field is one or more octets.

      Implementations supporting this specification MUST use the
      identifier of "Type.Extended-Type" to determine the interpretation
      of the "Value" field.

4.  Vendor-Specific Attributes

   We define six new attributes that can carry vendor-specific
   information.  We define four (4) attributes of the "Extended Type"
   format, with Type codes (241.26, 242.26, 243.26, 244.26), using the
   "evs" data type.  We also define two (2) attributes using "Long
   Extended Type" format, with Type codes (245.26, 246.26), which are of
   the "evs" data type.

      Type.Extended-Type  Name
      ------------------  ----
      241.26              Extended-Vendor-Specific-1
      242.26              Extended-Vendor-Specific-2
      243.26              Extended-Vendor-Specific-3
      244.26              Extended-Vendor-Specific-4
      245.26              Extended-Vendor-Specific-5
      246.26              Extended-Vendor-Specific-6

   The rest of this section gives detailed definitions for each
   Attribute based on the above summary.
















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4.1.  Extended-Vendor-Specific-1

   Description

      This attribute defines a RADIUS Type Code of 241.26, using the
      "evs" data type.

   A summary of the Extended-Vendor-Specific-1 Attribute format is shown
   below.  The fields are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     | Extended-Type |  Vendor-Id ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      ... Vendor-Id  (cont)                        |  Vendor-Type  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Value ....
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type.Extended-Type

      241.26 for Extended-Vendor-Specific-1

   Length

      >= 9

   Vendor-Id

      The 4 octets of the Vendor-Id field are the Network Management
      Private Enterprise Code [PEN] of the vendor in network byte order.

   Vendor-Type

      The Vendor-Type field is one octet.  Values are assigned at the
      sole discretion of the vendor.

   Value

      The "Value" field is one or more octets.  The actual format of the
      information is site or application specific, and a robust
      implementation SHOULD support the field as undistinguished octets.

      The codification of the range of allowed usage of this field is
      outside the scope of this specification.





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      The length of the "Value" field is eight (8) less than the value
      of the Length field.

      Implementations supporting this specification MUST use the
      identifier of "Type.Extended-Type.Vendor-Id.Vendor-Type" to
      determine the interpretation of the "Value" field.

4.2.  Extended-Vendor-Specific-2

   Description

      This attribute defines a RADIUS Type Code of 242.26, using the
      "evs" data type.

   A summary of the Extended-Vendor-Specific-2 Attribute format is shown
   below.  The fields are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     | Extended-Type |  Vendor-Id ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      ... Vendor-Id  (cont)                        |  Vendor-Type  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Value ....
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type.Extended-Type

      242.26 for Extended-Vendor-Specific-2

   Length

      >= 9

   Vendor-Id

      The 4 octets of the Vendor-Id field are the Network Management
      Private Enterprise Code [PEN] of the vendor in network byte order.

   Vendor-Type

      The Vendor-Type field is one octet.  Values are assigned at the
      sole discretion of the vendor.







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   Value

      The "Value" field is one or more octets.  The actual format of the
      information is site or application specific, and a robust
      implementation SHOULD support the field as undistinguished octets.

      The codification of the range of allowed usage of this field is
      outside the scope of this specification.

      The length of the "Value" field is eight (8) less than the value
      of the Length field.

      Implementations supporting this specification MUST use the
      identifier of "Type.Extended-Type.Vendor-Id.Vendor-Type" to
      determine the interpretation of the "Value" field.

4.3.  Extended-Vendor-Specific-3

   Description

      This attribute defines a RADIUS Type Code of 243.26, using the
      "evs" data type.

   A summary of the Extended-Vendor-Specific-3 Attribute format is shown
   below.  The fields are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     | Extended-Type |  Vendor-Id ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      ... Vendor-Id  (cont)                        |  Vendor-Type  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Value ....
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type.Extended-Type

      243.26 for Extended-Vendor-Specific-3

   Length

      >= 9

   Vendor-Id

      The 4 octets of the Vendor-Id field are the Network Management
      Private Enterprise Code [PEN] of the vendor in network byte order.



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   Vendor-Type

      The Vendor-Type field is one octet.  Values are assigned at the
      sole discretion of the vendor.

   Value

      The "Value" field is one or more octets.  The actual format of the
      information is site or application specific, and a robust
      implementation SHOULD support the field as undistinguished octets.

      The codification of the range of allowed usage of this field is
      outside the scope of this specification.

      The length of the "Value" field is eight (8) less than the value
      of the Length field.

      Implementations supporting this specification MUST use the
      identifier of "Type.Extended-Type.Vendor-Id.Vendor-Type" to
      determine the interpretation of the "Value" field.

4.4.  Extended-Vendor-Specific-4

   Description

      This attribute defines a RADIUS Type Code of 244.26, using the
      "evs" data type.

   A summary of the Extended-Vendor-Specific-4 Attribute format is shown
   below.  The fields are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     | Extended-Type |  Vendor-Id ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      ... Vendor-Id  (cont)                        |  Vendor-Type  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Value ....
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type.Extended-Type

      244.26 for Extended-Vendor-Specific-4

   Length

      >= 9



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   Vendor-Id

      The 4 octets of the Vendor-Id field are the Network Management
      Private Enterprise Code [PEN] of the vendor in network byte order.

   Vendor-Type

      The Vendor-Type field is one octet.  Values are assigned at the
      sole discretion of the vendor.

   Value

      The "Value" field is one or more octets.  The actual format of the
      information is site or application specific, and a robust
      implementation SHOULD support the field as undistinguished octets.

      The codification of the range of allowed usage of this field is
      outside the scope of this specification.

      The length of the "Value" field is eight (8) less than the value
      of the Length field.

      Implementations supporting this specification MUST use the
      identifier of "Type.Extended-Type.Vendor-Id.Vendor-Type" to
      determine the interpretation of the "Value" field.

4.5.  Extended-Vendor-Specific-5

   Description

      This attribute defines a RADIUS Type Code of 245.26, using the
      "evs" data type.

   A summary of the Extended-Vendor-Specific-5 Attribute format is shown
   below.  The fields are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     | Extended-Type |M|  Reserved   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                            Vendor-Id                          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Vendor-Type   |  Value ....
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+






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   Type.Extended-Type

      245.26 for Extended-Vendor-Specific-5

   Length

      >= 10   (first fragment)
      >= 5    (subsequent fragments)

      When a VSA is fragmented across multiple Attributes, only the
      first Attribute contains the Vendor-Id and Vendor-Type fields.
      Subsequent Attributes contain fragments of the "Value" field only.

   M (More)

      The More field is one (1) bit in length and indicates whether or
      not the current attribute contains "more" than 251 octets of data.
      Further definition of this field is given in Section 2.2, above.

   Reserved

      This field is 7 bits long and is reserved for future use.
      Implementations MUST set it to zero (0) when encoding an attribute
      for sending in a packet.  The contents SHOULD be ignored on
      reception.

   Vendor-Id

      The 4 octets of the Vendor-Id field are the Network Management
      Private Enterprise Code [PEN] of the vendor in network byte order.

   Vendor-Type

      The Vendor-Type field is one octet.  Values are assigned at the
      sole discretion of the vendor.

   Value

      The "Value" field is one or more octets.  The actual format of the
      information is site or application specific, and a robust
      implementation SHOULD support the field as undistinguished octets.

      The codification of the range of allowed usage of this field is
      outside the scope of this specification.

      Implementations supporting this specification MUST use the
      identifier of "Type.Extended-Type.Vendor-Id.Vendor-Type" to
      determine the interpretation of the "Value" field.



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4.6.  Extended-Vendor-Specific-6

   Description

      This attribute defines a RADIUS Type Code of 246.26, using the
      "evs" data type.

   A summary of the Extended-Vendor-Specific-6 Attribute format is shown
   below.  The fields are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     | Extended-Type |M|  Reserved   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                            Vendor-Id                          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Vendor-Type   |  Value ....
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Type.Extended-Type

      246.26 for Extended-Vendor-Specific-6

   Length

      >= 10   (first fragment)
      >= 5    (subsequent fragments)

      When a VSA is fragmented across multiple Attributes, only the
      first Attribute contains the Vendor-Id and Vendor-Type fields.
      Subsequent Attributes contain fragments of the "Value" field only.

   M (More)

      The More field is one (1) bit in length and indicates whether or
      not the current attribute contains "more" than 251 octets of data.
      Further definition of this field is given in Section 2.2, above.

   Reserved

      This field is 7 bits long and is reserved for future use.
      Implementations MUST set it to zero (0) when encoding an attribute
      for sending in a packet.  The contents SHOULD be ignored on
      reception.






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   Vendor-Id

      The 4 octets of the Vendor-Id field are the Network Management
      Private Enterprise Code [PEN] of the vendor in network byte order.

   Vendor-Type

      The Vendor-Type field is one octet.  Values are assigned at the
      sole discretion of the vendor.

   Value

      The "Value" field is one or more octets.  The actual format of the
      information is site or application specific, and a robust
      implementation SHOULD support the field as undistinguished octets.

      The codification of the range of allowed usage of this field is
      outside the scope of this specification.

      Implementations supporting this specification MUST use the
      identifier of "Type.Extended-Type.Vendor-Id.Vendor-Type" to
      determine the interpretation of the "Value" field.

5.  Compatibility with Traditional RADIUS

   There are a number of potential compatibility issues with traditional
   RADIUS, as defined in [RFC6158] and earlier.  This section describes
   them.

5.1.  Attribute Allocation

   Some vendors have used Attribute Type codes from the "Reserved" space
   as part of vendor-defined dictionaries.  This practice is considered
   antisocial behavior, as noted in [RFC6158].  These vendor definitions
   conflict with the Attributes in the RADIUS Attribute Type space.  The
   conflicting definitions may make it difficult for implementations to
   support both those Vendor Attributes, and the new Extended Attribute
   formats.

   We RECOMMEND that RADIUS client and server implementations delete all
   references to these improperly defined attributes.  Failing that, we
   RECOMMEND that RADIUS server implementations have a per-client
   configurable flag that indicates which type of attributes are being
   sent from the client.  If the flag is set to "Non-Standard
   Attributes", the conflicting attributes can be interpreted as being
   improperly defined Vendor-Specific Attributes.  If the flag is set to





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   "IETF Attributes", the Attributes MUST be interpreted as being of the
   Extended Attributes format.  The default SHOULD be to interpret the
   Attributes as being of the Extended Attributes format.

   Other methods of determining how to decode the Attributes into a
   "correct" form are NOT RECOMMENDED.  Those methods are likely to be
   fragile and prone to error.

   We RECOMMEND that RADIUS server implementations reuse the above flag
   to determine which types of attributes to send in a reply message.
   If the request is expected to contain the improperly defined
   attributes, the reply SHOULD NOT contain Extended Attributes.  If the
   request is expected to contain Extended Attributes, the reply MUST
   NOT contain the improper Attributes.

   RADIUS clients will have fewer issues than servers.  Clients MUST NOT
   send improperly defined Attributes in a request.  For replies,
   clients MUST interpret attributes as being of the Extended Attributes
   format, instead of the improper definitions.  These requirements
   impose no change in the RADIUS specifications, as such usage by
   vendors has always been in conflict with the standard requirements
   and the standards process.

   Existing clients that send these improperly defined attributes
   usually have a configuration setting that can disable this behavior.
   We RECOMMEND that vendors ship products with the default set to
   "disabled".  We RECOMMEND that administrators set this flag to
   "disabled" on all equipment that they manage.

5.2.  Proxy Servers

   RADIUS proxy servers will need to forward Attributes having the new
   format, even if they do not implement support for the encoding and
   decoding of those attributes.  We remind implementers of the
   following text in [RFC2865] Section 2.3:

      The forwarding server MUST NOT change the order of any attributes
      of the same type, including Proxy-State.

   This requirement solves some of the issues related to proxying of the
   new format, but not all.  The reason is that proxy servers are
   permitted to examine the contents of the packets that they forward.
   Many proxy implementations not only examine the Attributes, but they
   refuse to forward attributes that they do not understand (i.e.,
   attributes for which they have no local dictionary definitions).






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   This practice is NOT RECOMMENDED.  Proxy servers SHOULD forward
   attributes, even attributes that they do not understand or that are
   not in a local dictionary.  When forwarded, these attributes SHOULD
   be sent verbatim, with no modifications or changes.  This requirement
   includes "invalid attributes", as there may be some other system in
   the network that understands them.

   The only exception to this recommendation is when local site policy
   dictates that filtering of attributes has to occur.  For example, a
   filter at a visited network may require removal of certain
   authorization rules that apply to the home network but not to the
   visited network.  This filtering can sometimes be done even when the
   contents of the Attributes are unknown, such as when all Vendor-
   Specific Attributes are designated for removal.

   As seen during testing performed in 2010 via the EDUcation ROAMing
   (EDUROAM) service (A. DeKok, unpublished data), many proxies do not
   follow these practices for unknown Attributes.  Some proxies filter
   out unknown attributes or attributes that have unexpected lengths
   (24%, 17/70), some truncate the Attributes to the "expected" length
   (11%, 8/70), some discard the request entirely (1%, 1/70), and the
   rest (63%, 44/70) follow the recommended practice of passing the
   Attributes verbatim.  It will be difficult to widely use the Extended
   Attributes format until all non-conformant proxies are fixed.  We
   therefore RECOMMEND that all proxies that do not support the Extended
   Attributes (241 through 246) define them as being of data type
   "string" and delete all other local definitions for those attributes.

   This last change should enable wider usage of the Extended Attributes
   format.

6.  Guidelines

   This specification proposes a number of changes to RADIUS and
   therefore requires a set of guidelines, as has been done in
   [RFC6158].  These guidelines include suggestions related to design,
   interaction with IANA, usage, and implementation of attributes using
   the new formats.

6.1.  Updates to RFC 6158

   This specification updates [RFC6158] by adding the data types "evs",
   "tlv", and "integer64"; defining them to be "basic" data types; and
   permitting their use subject to the restrictions outlined below.

   The recommendations for the use of the new data types and Attribute
   formats are given below.




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6.2.  Guidelines for Simple Data Types

   [RFC6158] Section A.2.1 says in part:

   * Unsigned integers of size other than 32 bits.  SHOULD be replaced
     by an unsigned integer of 32 bits.  There is insufficient
     justification to define a new size of integer.

   We update that specification to permit unsigned integers of 64 bits,
   for the reasons defined above in Section 2.5. The updated text is as
   follows:

   * Unsigned integers of size other than 32 or 64 bits.  SHOULD be
     replaced by an unsigned integer of 32 or 64 bits.  There is
     insufficient justification to define a new size of integer.

   That section later continues with the following list item:

   * Nested attribute-value pairs (AVPs).  Attributes should be defined
     in a flat typespace.

   We update that specification to permit nested TLVs, as defined in
   this document:

   * Nested attribute-value pairs (AVPs) using the extended Attribute
     format MAY be used.  All other nested AVP or TLV formats MUST NOT
     be used.

   The [RFC6158] recommendations for "basic" data types apply to the
   three types listed above.  All other recommendations given in
   [RFC6158] for "basic" data types remain unchanged.

6.3.  Guidelines for Complex Data Types

   [RFC6158] Section 2.1 says:

      Complex data types MAY be used in situations where they reduce
      complexity in non-RADIUS systems or where using the basic data
      types would be awkward (such as where grouping would be required
      in order to link related attributes).

   Since the extended Attribute format allows for grouping of complex
   types via TLVs, the guidelines for complex data types need to be
   updated as follows:

      [RFC6158], Section 3.2.4, describes situations in which complex
      data types might be appropriate.  They SHOULD NOT be used even in
      those situations, without careful consideration of the described



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      limitations.  In all other cases not covered by the complex data
      type exceptions, complex data types MUST NOT be used.  Instead,
      complex data types MUST be decomposed into TLVs.

   The checklist in [RFC6158] Appendix A.2.2 is similarly updated to add
   a new requirement at the top of that section, as follows:

      Does the Attribute

      * define a complex type that can be represented via TLVs?

      If so, this data type MUST be represented via TLVs.

   Note that this requirement does not override [RFC6158] Appendix A.1,
   which permits the transport of complex types in certain situations.

   All other recommendations given in [RFC6158] for "complex" data types
   remain unchanged.

6.4.  Design Guidelines for the New Types

   This section gives design guidelines for specifications defining
   attributes using the new format.  The items listed below are not
   exhaustive.  As experience is gained with the new formats, later
   specifications may define additional guidelines.

   * The data type "evs" MUST NOT be used for standard RADIUS
     Attributes, or for TLVs, or for VSAs.

   * The data type TLV SHOULD NOT be used for standard RADIUS
     attributes.

   * [RFC2866] "tagged" attributes MUST NOT be defined in the
     Extended-Type space.  The "tlv" data type should be used instead to
     group attributes.

   * The "integer64" data type MAY be used in any RADIUS attribute.  The
     use of 64-bit integers was not recommended in [RFC6158], but their
     utility is now evident.

   * Any attribute that is allocated from the long extended space of
     data type "text", "string", or "tlv" can potentially carry more
     than 251 octets of data.  Specifications defining such attributes
     SHOULD define a maximum length to guide implementations.

   All other recommendations given in [RFC6158] for attribute design
   guidelines apply to attributes using the short extended space and
   long extended space.



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6.5.  TLV Guidelines

   The following items give design guidelines for specifications using
   TLVs.

   * When multiple Attributes are intended to be grouped or managed
     together, the use of TLVs to group related attributes is
     RECOMMENDED.

   * More than 4 layers (depth) of TLV nesting is NOT RECOMMENDED.

   * Interpretation of an attribute depends only on its type definition
     (e.g., Type.Extended-Type.TLV-Type) and not on its encoding or
     location in the RADIUS packet.

   * Where a group of TLVs is strictly defined, and not expected to
     change, and totals less than 247 octets of data, the specifications
     SHOULD request allocation from the short extended space.

   * Where a group of TLVs is loosely defined or is expected to change,
     the specifications SHOULD request allocation from the long extended
     space.

   All other recommendations given in [RFC6158] for attribute design
   guidelines apply to attributes using the TLV format.

6.6.  Allocation Request Guidelines

   The following items give guidelines for allocation requests made in a
   RADIUS specification.

   * Discretion is recommended when requesting allocation of attributes.
     The new space is much larger than the old one, but it is not
     infinite.

   * Specifications that allocate many attributes MUST NOT request that
     allocation be made from the standard space.  That space is under
     allocation pressure, and the extended space is more suitable for
     large allocations.  As a guideline, we suggest that one
     specification allocating twenty percent (20%) or more of the
     standard space would meet the above criteria.

   * Specifications that allocate many related attributes SHOULD define
     one or more TLVs to contain related attributes.







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   * Specifications SHOULD request allocation from a specific space.
     The IANA considerations given in Section 10, below, give
     instructions to IANA, but authors should assist IANA where
     possible.

   * Specifications of an attribute that encodes 252 octets or less of
     data MAY request allocation from the short extended space.

   * Specifications of an attribute that always encode less than
     253 octets of data MUST NOT request allocation from the long
     extended space.  The standard space or the short extended space
     MUST be used instead.

   * Specifications of an attribute that encodes 253 octets or more of
     data MUST request allocation from the long extended space.

   * When the extended space is nearing exhaustion, a new specification
     will have to be written that requests allocation of one or more
     RADIUS attributes from the "Reserved" portion of the standard
     space, values 247-255, using an appropriate format ("Short Extended
     Type", or "Long Extended Type").

   An allocation request made in a specification SHOULD use one of the
   following formats when allocating an attribute type code:

   * TBDn - request allocation of an attribute from the standard space.
     The value "n" should be 1 or more, to track individual attributes
     that are to be allocated.

   * SHORT-TBDn - request allocation of an attribute from the short
     extended space.  The value "n" should be 1 or more, to track
     individual attributes that are to be allocated.

   * LONG-TBDn - request allocation of an attribute from the long
     extended space.  The value "n" should be 1 or more, to track
     individual attributes that are to be allocated.

   These guidelines should help specification authors and IANA
   communicate effectively and clearly.

6.7.  Allocation Request Guidelines for TLVs

   Specifications may allocate a new attribute of type TLV and at the
   same time allocate sub-Attributes within that TLV.  These
   specifications SHOULD request allocation of specific values for the
   sub-TLV.  The "dotted number" notation MUST be used.





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   For example, a specification may request allocation of a TLV as
   SHORT-TBD1.  Within that attribute, it could request allocation of
   three sub-TLVs, as SHORT-TBD1.1, SHORT-TBD1.2, and SHORT-TBD1.3.

   Specifications may request allocation of additional sub-TLVs within
   an existing attribute of type TLV.  Those specifications SHOULD use
   the "TBDn" format for every entry in the "dotted number" notation.

   For example, a specification may request allocation within an
   existing TLV, with "dotted number" notation MM.NN.  Within that
   attribute, the specification could request allocation of three
   sub-TLVs, as MM.NN.TBD1, MM.NN.TBD2, and MM.NN.TBD3.

6.8.  Implementation Guidelines

   * RADIUS client implementations SHOULD support this specification in
     order to permit the easy deployment of specifications using the
     changes defined herein.

   * RADIUS server implementations SHOULD support this specification in
     order to permit the easy deployment of specifications using the
     changes defined herein.

   * RADIUS proxy servers MUST follow the specifications in Section 5.2.

6.9.  Vendor Guidelines

   * Vendors SHOULD use the existing Vendor-Specific Attribute Type
     space in preference to the new Extended-Vendor-Specific Attributes,
     as this specification may take time to become widely deployed.

   * Vendors SHOULD implement this specification.  The changes to RADIUS
     are relatively small and are likely to quickly be used in new
     specifications.

7.  Rationale for This Design

   The path to extending the RADIUS protocol has been long and arduous.
   A number of proposals have been made and discarded by the RADEXT
   working group.  These proposals have been judged to be either too
   bulky, too complex, too simple, or unworkable in practice.  We do not
   otherwise explain here why earlier proposals did not obtain working
   group consensus.








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   The changes outlined here have the benefit of being simple, as the
   "Extended Type" format requires only a one-octet change to the
   Attribute format.  The downside is that the "Long Extended Type"
   format is awkward, and the 7 Reserved bits will likely never be used
   for anything.

7.1.  Attribute Audit

   An audit of almost five thousand publicly available attributes [ATTR]
   (2010) shows the statistics summarized below.  The Attributes include
   over 100 Vendor dictionaries, along with the IANA-assigned
   attributes:

      Count    Data Type
      -----    ---------
      2257     integer
      1762     text
      273      IPv4 Address
      225      string
      96       other data types
      35       IPv6 Address
      18       date
      10       integer64
      4        Interface Id
      3        IPv6 Prefix

      4683     Total

   The entries in the "Data Type" column are data types recommended by
   [RFC6158], along with "integer64".  The "other data types" row
   encompasses all other data types, including complex data types and
   data types transporting opaque data.

   We see that over half of the Attributes encode less than 16 octets of
   data.  It is therefore important to have an extension mechanism that
   adds as little as possible to the size of these attributes.  Another
   result is that the overwhelming majority of attributes use simple
   data types.

   Of the Attributes defined above, 177 were declared as being inside of
   a TLV.  This is approximately 4% of the total.  We did not
   investigate whether additional attributes were defined in a flat
   namespace but could have been defined as being inside of a TLV.  We
   expect that the number could be as high as 10% of attributes.







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   Manual inspection of the dictionaries shows that approximately 20 (or
   0.5%) attributes have the ability to transport more than 253 octets
   of data.  These attributes are divided between VSAs and a small
   number of standard Attributes such as EAP-Message.

   The results of this audit and analysis are reflected in the design of
   the extended attributes.  The extended format has minimal overhead,
   permits TLVs, and has support for "long" attributes.

8.  Diameter Considerations

   The Attribute formats defined in this specification need to be
   transported in Diameter.  While Diameter supports attributes longer
   than 253 octets and grouped attributes, we do not use that
   functionality here.  Instead, we define the simplest possible
   encapsulation method.

   The new formats MUST be treated the same as traditional RADIUS
   attributes when converting from RADIUS to Diameter, or vice versa.
   That is, the new attribute space is not converted to any "extended"
   Diameter attribute space.  Fragmented attributes are not converted to
   a single long Diameter attribute.  The new EVS data types are not
   converted to Diameter attributes with the "V" bit set.

   In short, this document mandates no changes for existing RADIUS-to-
   Diameter or Diameter-to-RADIUS gateways.

9.  Examples

   A few examples are presented here in order to illustrate the encoding
   of the new Attribute formats.  These examples are not intended to be
   exhaustive, as many others are possible.  For simplicity, we do not
   show complete packets, but only attributes.


















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   The examples are given using a domain-specific language implemented
   by the program given in Appendix A of this document.  The language is
   line oriented and composed of a sequence of lines matching the ABNF
   grammar ([RFC5234]) given below:

      Identifier = 1*DIGIT *( "." 1*DIGIT )

      HEXCHAR = HEXDIG HEXDIG

      STRING = DQUOTE 1*CHAR DQUOTE

      TLV = "{" SP 1*DIGIT SP DATA SP "}"

      DATA = (HEXCHAR *(SP HEXCHAR)) / (TLV *(SP TLV)) / STRING

      LINE = Identifier SP DATA

   The program has additional restrictions on its input that are not
   reflected in the above grammar.  For example, the portions of the
   identifier that refer to Type and Extended-Type are limited to values
   between 1 and 255.  We trust that the source code in Appendix A is
   clear and that these restrictions do not negatively affect the
   comprehensibility of the examples.

   The program reads the input text and interprets it as a set of
   instructions to create RADIUS attributes.  It then prints the hex
   encoding of those attributes.  It implements the minimum set of
   functionality that achieves that goal.  This minimalism means that it
   does not use attribute dictionaries; it does not implement support
   for RADIUS data types; it can be used to encode attributes with
   invalid data fields; and there is no requirement for consistency from
   one example to the next.  For example, it can be used to encode a
   User-Name attribute that contains non-UTF8 data or a
   Framed-IP-Address that contains 253 octets of ASCII data.  As a
   result, it MUST NOT be used to create RADIUS attributes for transport
   in a RADIUS message.

   However, the program correctly encodes the RADIUS attribute fields of
   "Type", "Length", "Extended-Type", "More", "Reserved", "Vendor-Id",
   "Vendor-Type", and "Vendor-Length".  It encodes RADIUS attribute data
   types "evs" and "tlv".  It can therefore be used to encode example
   attributes from inputs that are human readable.

   We do not give examples of "invalid attributes".  We also note that
   the examples show format, rather than consistent meaning.  A
   particular Attribute Type code may be used to demonstrate two
   different formats.  In real specifications, attributes have a static
   definitions based on their type code.



DeKok & Lior                 Standards Track                   [Page 45]

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   The examples given below are strictly for demonstration purposes only
   and do not provide a standard of any kind.

9.1.  Extended Type

   The following is a series of examples of the "Extended Type" format.

   Attribute encapsulating textual data:

     241.1 "bob"
       -> f1 06 01 62 6f 62

   Attribute encapsulating a TLV with TLV-Type of one (1):

     241.2 { 1 23 45 }
       -> f1 07 02 01 04 23 45

   Attribute encapsulating two TLVs, one after the other:

     241.2 { 1 23 45 } { 2 67 89 }
       -> f1 0b 02 01 04 23 45 02 04 67 89

   Attribute encapsulating two TLVs, where the second TLV is itself
   encapsulating a TLV:

     241.2 { 1 23 45 } { 3 { 1 ab cd } }
       -> f1 0d 02 01 04 23 45 03 06 01 04 ab cd

   Attribute encapsulating two TLVs, where the second TLV is itself
   encapsulating two TLVs:

     241.2 { 1 23 45 } { 3 { 1 ab cd } { 2 "foo" } }
       -> f1 12 02 01 04 23 45 03 0b 01 04 ab cd 02 05 66 6f 6f

   Attribute encapsulating a TLV, which in turn encapsulates a TLV, to a
   depth of 5 nestings:

     241.1 { 1 { 2 { 3 { 4 { 5 cd ef } } } } }
       -> f1 0f 01 01 0c 02 0a 03 08 04 06 05 04 cd ef

   Attribute encapsulating an Extended-Vendor-Specific Attribute, with
   Vendor-Id of 1 and Vendor-Type of 4, which in turn encapsulates
   textual data:

     241.26.1.4 "test"
       -> f1 0c 1a 00 00 00 01 04 74 65 73 74





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   Attribute encapsulating an Extended-Vendor-Specific Attribute, with
   Vendor-Id of 1 and Vendor-Type of 5, which in turn encapsulates a TLV
   with TLV-Type of 3, which encapsulates textual data:

     241.26.1.5 { 3 "test" }
       -> f1 0e 1a 00 00 00 01 05 03 06 74 65 73 74

9.2.  Long Extended Type

   The following is a series of examples of the "Long Extended Type"
   format.

   Attribute encapsulating textual data:

     245.1 "bob"
       -> f5 07 01 00 62 6f 62

   Attribute encapsulating a TLV with TLV-Type of one (1):

     245.2 { 1 23 45 }
       -> f5 08 02 00 01 04 23 45

   Attribute encapsulating two TLVs, one after the other:

     245.2 { 1 23 45 } { 2 67 89 }
       -> f5 0c 02 00 01 04 23 45 02 04 67 89

   Attribute encapsulating two TLVs, where the second TLV is itself
   encapsulating a TLV:

     245.2 { 1 23 45 } { 3 { 1 ab cd } }
       -> f5 0e 02 00 01 04 23 45 03 06 01 04 ab cd

   Attribute encapsulating two TLVs, where the second TLV is itself
   encapsulating two TLVs:

     245.2 { 1 23 45 } { 3 { 1 ab cd } { 2 "foo" } }
       -> f5 13 02 00 01 04 23 45 03 0b 01 04 ab cd 02 05 66 6f 6f

   Attribute encapsulating a TLV, which in turn encapsulates a TLV, to a
   depth of 5 nestings:

     245.1 { 1 { 2 { 3 { 4 { 5 cd ef } } } } }
       -> f5 10 01 00 01 0c 02 0a 03 08 04 06 05 04 cd ef







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   Attribute encapsulating an Extended-Vendor-Specific Attribute, with
   Vendor-Id of 1 and Vendor-Type of 4, which in turn encapsulates
   textual data:

     245.26.1.4 "test"
       -> f5 0d 1a 00 00 00 00 01 04 74 65 73 74

   Attribute encapsulating an Extended-Vendor-Specific Attribute, with
   Vendor-Id of 1 and Vendor-Type of 5, which in turn encapsulates a TLV
   with TLV-Type of 3, which encapsulates textual data:

     245.26.1.5 { 3 "test" }
       -> f5 0f 1a 00 00 00 00 01 05 03 06 74 65 73 74

   Attribute encapsulating more than 251 octets of data.  The "Data"
   portions are indented for readability:

     245.4 "aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
           aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
           aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
           aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
           aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaabbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb
           bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb
           bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb
           bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb
           bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbcccccccccccccccccccc
           ccccccccccc"
       -> f5 ff 04 80 aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa
          aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa
          aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa
          aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa
          aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa
          aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa
          aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa ab bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb
          bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb
          bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb
          bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb
          bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb
          bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb
          bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb f5 13 04 00 cc
          cc cc cc cc cc cc cc cc cc cc cc cc cc cc










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   Below is an example of an attribute encapsulating an Extended-Vendor-
   Specific Attribute, with Vendor-Id of 1 and Vendor-Type of 6, which
   in turn encapsulates more than 251 octets of data.

   As the VSA encapsulates more than 251 octets of data, it is split
   into two RADIUS attributes.  The first attribute has the More field
   set, and it carries the Vendor-Id and Vendor-Type.  The second
   attribute has the More field clear and carries the rest of the data
   portion of the VSA.  Note that the second attribute does not include
   the Vendor-Id ad Vendor-Type fields.

   The "Data" portions are indented for readability:

     245.26.1.6  "aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
           aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
           aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
           aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
           aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaabbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb
           bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb
           bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb
           bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb
           bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbccccccccccccc
           ccccccccccccccccc"
       -> f5 ff 1a 80 00 00 00 01 06 aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa
          aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa
          aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa
          aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa
          aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa
          aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa
          aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa ab bb bb bb bb bb
          bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb
          bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb
          bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb
          bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb
          bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb
          bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb bb f5 18 1a 00 bb
          bb bb bb bb cc cc cc cc cc cc cc cc cc cc cc cc cc cc cc














DeKok & Lior                 Standards Track                   [Page 49]

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10.  IANA Considerations

   This document updates [RFC3575] in that it adds new IANA
   considerations for RADIUS attributes.  These considerations modify
   and extend the IANA considerations for RADIUS, rather than replacing
   them.

   The IANA considerations of this document are limited to the "RADIUS
   Attribute Types" registry.  Some Attribute Type values that were
   previously marked "Reserved" are now allocated, and the registry is
   extended from a simple 8-bit array to a tree-like structure, up to a
   maximum depth of 125 nodes.  Detailed instructions are given below.

10.1.  Attribute Allocations

   IANA has moved the following Attribute Type values from "Reserved" to
   "Allocated" with the corresponding names:

      * 241 Extended-Type-1
      * 242 Extended-Type-2
      * 243 Extended-Type-3
      * 244 Extended-Type-4
      * 245 Long-Extended-Type-1
      * 246 Long-Extended-Type-2

   These values serve as an encapsulation layer for the new RADIUS
   Attribute Type tree.

10.2.  RADIUS Attribute Type Tree

   Each of the Attribute Type values allocated above extends the "RADIUS
   Attribute Types" to an N-ary tree, via a "dotted number" notation.
   Allocation of an Attribute Type value "TYPE" using the new "Extended
   Type" format results in allocation of 255 new Attribute Type values
   of format "TYPE.1" through "TYPE.255".  Value twenty-six (26) is
   assigned as "Extended-Vendor-Specific-*".  Values "TYPE.241" through
   "TYPE.255" are marked "Reserved".  All other values are "Unassigned".














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   The initial set of Attribute Type values and names assigned by this
   document is given below.

      * 241           Extended-Attribute-1
      * 241.{1-25}    Unassigned
      * 241.26        Extended-Vendor-Specific-1
      * 241.{27-240}  Unassigned
      * 241.{241-255} Reserved
      * 242           Extended-Attribute-2
      * 242.{1-25}    Unassigned
      * 242.26        Extended-Vendor-Specific-2
      * 242.{27-240}  Unassigned
      * 242.{241-255} Reserved
      * 243           Extended-Attribute-3
      * 243.{1-25}    Unassigned
      * 243.26        Extended-Vendor-Specific-3
      * 243.{27-240}  Unassigned
      * 243.{241-255} Reserved
      * 244           Extended-Attribute-4
      * 244.{1-25}    Unassigned
      * 244.26        Extended-Vendor-Specific-4
      * 244.{27-240}  Unassigned
      * 244.{241-255} Reserved
      * 245           Extended-Attribute-5
      * 245.{1-25}    Unassigned
      * 245.26        Extended-Vendor-Specific-5
      * 245.{27-240}  Unassigned
      * 245.{241-255} Reserved
      * 246           Extended-Attribute-6
      * 246.{1-25}    Unassigned
      * 246.26        Extended-Vendor-Specific-6
      * 246.{27-240}  Unassigned
      * 246.{241-255} Reserved

   As per [RFC5226], the values marked "Unassigned" above are available
   for assignment by IANA in future RADIUS specifications.  The values
   marked "Reserved" are reserved for future use.

   The Extended-Vendor-Specific spaces (TYPE.26) are for Private Use,
   and allocations are not managed by IANA.

   Allocation of Reserved entries in the extended space requires
   Standards Action.

   All other allocations in the extended space require IETF Review.






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10.3.  Allocation Instructions

   This section defines what actions IANA needs to take when allocating
   new attributes.  Different actions are required when allocating
   attributes from the standard space, attributes of the "Extended Type"
   format, attributes of the "Long Extended Type" format, preferential
   allocations, attributes of data type TLV, attributes within a TLV,
   and attributes of other data types.

10.3.1.  Requested Allocation from the Standard Space

   Specifications can request allocation of an Attribute from within the
   standard space (e.g., Attribute Type Codes 1 through 255), subject to
   the considerations of [RFC3575] and this document.

10.3.2.  Requested Allocation from the Short Extended Space

   Specifications can request allocation of an Attribute that requires
   the format "Extended Type", by specifying the short extended space.
   In that case, IANA should assign the lowest Unassigned number from
   the Attribute Type space with the relevant format.

10.3.3.  Requested Allocation from the Long Extended Space

   Specifications can request allocation of an Attribute that requires
   the format "Long Extended Type", by specifying the extended space
   (long).  In that case, IANA should assign the lowest Unassigned
   number from the Attribute Type space with the relevant format.

10.3.4.  Allocation Preferences

   Specifications that make no request for allocation from a specific
   type space should have Attributes allocated using the following
   criteria:

   * When the standard space has no more Unassigned attributes, all
     allocations should be performed from the extended space.

   * Specifications that allocate a small number of attributes (i.e.,
     less than ten) should have all allocations made from the standard
     space.

   * Specifications that would allocate more than twenty percent of the
     remaining standard space attributes should have all allocations
     made from the extended space.

   * Specifications that request allocation of an attribute of data type
     TLV should have that attribute allocated from the extended space.



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   * Specifications that request allocation of an attribute that can
     transport 253 or more octets of data should have that attribute
     allocated from within the long extended space.  We note that
     Section 6.5 above makes recommendations related to this allocation.

   There is otherwise no requirement that all attributes within a
   specification be allocated from one type space or another.
   Specifications can simultaneously allocate attributes from both the
   standard space and the extended space.

10.3.5.  Extending the Type Space via the TLV Data Type

   When specifications request allocation of an attribute of data type
   TLV, that allocation extends the Attribute Type tree by one more
   level.  Allocation of an Attribute Type value "TYPE.TLV", with data
   type TLV, results in allocation of 255 new Attribute Type values, of
   format "TYPE.TLV.1" through "TYPE.TLV.255".  Values 254-255 are
   marked "Reserved".  All other values are "Unassigned".  Value 26 has
   no special meaning.

   For example, if a new attribute "Example-TLV" of data type TLV is
   assigned the identifier "245.1", then the extended tree will be
   allocated as below:

      * 245.1           Example-TLV
      * 245.1.{1-253}   Unassigned
      * 245.1.{254-255} Reserved

   Note that this example does not define an "Example-TLV" attribute.

   The Attribute Type tree can be extended multiple levels in one
   specification when the specification requests allocation of nested
   TLVs, as discussed below.

10.3.6.  Allocation within a TLV

   Specifications can request allocation of Attribute Type values within
   an Attribute of data type TLV.  The encapsulating TLV can be
   allocated in the same specification, or it can have been previously
   allocated.

   Specifications need to request allocation within a specific Attribute
   Type value (e.g., "TYPE.TLV.*").  Allocations are performed from the
   smallest Unassigned value, proceeding to the largest Unassigned
   value.






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   Where the Attribute being allocated is of data type TLV, the
   Attribute Type tree is extended by one level, as given in the
   previous section.  Allocations can then be made within that level.

10.3.7.  Allocation of Other Data Types

   Attribute Type value allocations are otherwise allocated from the
   smallest Unassigned value, proceeding to the largest Unassigned
   value, e.g., starting from 241.1, proceeding through 241.255, then to
   242.1, through 242.255, etc.

11.  Security Considerations

   This document defines new formats for data carried inside of RADIUS
   but otherwise makes no changes to the security of the RADIUS
   protocol.

   Attacks on cryptographic hashes are well known and are getting better
   with time, as discussed in [RFC4270].  The security of the RADIUS
   protocol is dependent on MD5 [RFC1321], which has security issues as
   discussed in [RFC6151].  It is not known if the issues described in
   [RFC6151] apply to RADIUS.  For other issues, we incorporate by
   reference the security considerations of [RFC6158] Section 5.

   As with any protocol change, code changes are required in order to
   implement the new features.  These code changes have the potential to
   introduce new vulnerabilities in the software.  Since the RADIUS
   server performs network authentication, it is an inviting target for
   attackers.  We RECOMMEND that access to RADIUS servers be kept to a
   minimum.

12.  References

12.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2865]  Rigney, C., Willens, S., Rubens, A., and W. Simpson,
              "Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)",
              RFC 2865, June 2000.

   [RFC2866]  Rigney, C., "RADIUS Accounting", RFC 2866, June 2000.

   [RFC3575]  Aboba, B., "IANA Considerations for RADIUS (Remote
              Authentication Dial In User Service)", RFC 3575,
              July 2003.




DeKok & Lior                 Standards Track                   [Page 54]

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   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              May 2008.

   [RFC6158]  DeKok, A., Ed., and G. Weber, "RADIUS Design Guidelines",
              BCP 158, RFC 6158, March 2011.

   [PEN]      IANA, "PRIVATE ENTERPRISE NUMBERS",
              <http://www.iana.org/assignments/enterprise-numbers>.

12.2.  Informative References

   [RFC1321]  Rivest, R., "The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm", RFC 1321,
              April 1992.

   [RFC2868]  Zorn, G., Leifer, D., Rubens, A., Shriver, J., Holdrege,
              M., and I. Goyret, "RADIUS Attributes for Tunnel Protocol
              Support", RFC 2868, June 2000.

   [RFC4270]  Hoffman, P. and B. Schneier, "Attacks on Cryptographic
              Hashes in Internet Protocols", RFC 4270, November 2005.

   [RFC5234]  Crocker, D., Ed., and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for
              Syntax Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234,
              January 2008.

   [RFC6151]  Turner, S. and L. Chen, "Updated Security Considerations
              for the MD5 Message-Digest and the HMAC-MD5 Algorithms",
              RFC 6151, March 2011.

   [ATTR]     "alandekok/freeradius-server", available from GitHub, data
              retrieved September 2010, <http://github.com/alandekok/
              freeradius-server/tree/master/share/>.

13.  Acknowledgments

   This document is the result of long discussions in the IETF RADEXT
   working group.  The authors would like to thank all of the
   participants who contributed various ideas over the years.  Their
   feedback has been invaluable and has helped to make this
   specification better.










DeKok & Lior                 Standards Track                   [Page 55]

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Appendix A.  Extended Attribute Generator Program

   This section contains "C" program source code that can be used for
   testing.  It reads a line-oriented text file, parses it to create
   RADIUS formatted attributes, and prints the hex version of those
   attributes to standard output.

   The input accepts grammar similar to that given in Section 9, with
   some modifications for usability.  For example, blank lines are
   allowed, lines beginning with a '#' character are interpreted as
   comments, numbers (RADIUS Types, etc.) are checked for minimum/
   maximum values, and RADIUS attribute lengths are enforced.

   The program is included here for demonstration purposes only, and
   does not define a standard of any kind.

   ------------------------------------------------------------
   /*
    * Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as
    * authors of the code.  All rights reserved.
    *
    * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
    * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
    * are met:
    *
    * - Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
    *   notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
    *
    * - Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above
    *   copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
    *   disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided
    *   with the distribution.
    *
    * - Neither the name of Internet Society, IETF or IETF Trust, nor
    *   the names of specific contributors, may be used to endorse or
    *   promote products derived from this software without specific
    *   prior written permission.
    *
    * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND
    * CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES,
    * INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
    * MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
    * DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS
    * BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
    * EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
    * TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE,
    * DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON
    * ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY,



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    * OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT
    * OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
    * SUCH DAMAGE.
    *
    *  Author:  Alan DeKok <aland@networkradius.com>
    */
   #include <stdlib.h>
   #include <stdio.h>
   #include <stdint.h>
   #include <string.h>
   #include <errno.h>
   #include <ctype.h>

   static int encode_tlv(char *buffer, uint8_t *output, size_t outlen);

   static const char *hextab = "0123456789abcdef";

   static int encode_data_string(char *buffer,
                        uint8_t *output, size_t outlen)
   {
        int length = 0;
        char *p;

        p = buffer + 1;

        while (*p && (outlen > 0)) {
             if (*p == '"') {
                  return length;
             }

             if (*p != '\\') {
                  *(output++) = *(p++);
                  outlen--;
                  length++;
                  continue;
             }

             switch (p[1]) {
             default:
                  *(output++) = p[1];
                  break;

             case 'n':
                  *(output++) = '\n';
                  break;






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             case 'r':
                  *(output++) = '\r';
                  break;

             case 't':
                  *(output++) = '\t';
                  break;
             }

             outlen--;
             length++;
        }

        fprintf(stderr, "String is not terminated\n");
        return 0;
   }

   static int encode_data_tlv(char *buffer, char **endptr,
                     uint8_t *output, size_t outlen)
   {
        int depth = 0;
        int length;
        char *p;

        for (p = buffer; *p != '\0'; p++) {
             if (*p == '{') depth++;
             if (*p == '}') {
                  depth--;
                  if (depth == 0) break;
             }
        }

        if (*p != '}') {
             fprintf(stderr, "No trailing '}' in string starting "
                  "with \"%s\"\n",
                  buffer);
             return 0;
        }

        *endptr = p + 1;
        *p = '\0';

        p = buffer + 1;
        while (isspace((int) *p)) p++;







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        length = encode_tlv(p, output, outlen);
        if (length == 0) return 0;

        return length;
   }

   static int encode_data(char *p, uint8_t *output, size_t outlen)
   {
        int length;

        if (!isspace((int) *p)) {
             fprintf(stderr, "Invalid character following attribute "
                  "definition\n");
             return 0;
        }

        while (isspace((int) *p)) p++;

        if (*p == '{') {
             int sublen;
             char *q;

             length = 0;

             do {
                  while (isspace((int) *p)) p++;
                  if (!*p) {
                       if (length == 0) {
                            fprintf(stderr, "No data\n");
                            return 0;
                       }

                       break;
                  }

                  sublen = encode_data_tlv(p, &q, output, outlen);
                  if (sublen == 0) return 0;

                  length += sublen;
                  output += sublen;
                  outlen -= sublen;
                  p = q;
             } while (*q);

             return length;
        }





DeKok & Lior                 Standards Track                   [Page 59]

RFC 6929                    RADIUS Extensions                 April 2013


        if (*p == '"') {
             length = encode_data_string(p, output, outlen);
             return length;
        }

        length = 0;
        while (*p) {

             char *c1, *c2;

             while (isspace((int) *p)) p++;

             if (!*p) break;

             if(!(c1 = memchr(hextab, tolower((int) p[0]), 16)) ||
                !(c2 = memchr(hextab, tolower((int)  p[1]), 16))) {
                  fprintf(stderr, "Invalid data starting at "
                       "\"%s\"\n", p);
                  return 0;
             }

             *output = ((c1 - hextab) << 4) + (c2 - hextab);
             output++;
             length++;
             p += 2;

             outlen--;
             if (outlen == 0) {
                  fprintf(stderr, "Too much data\n");
                  return 0;
             }
        }

        if (length == 0) {
             fprintf(stderr, "Empty string\n");
             return 0;
        }

        return length;
   }











DeKok & Lior                 Standards Track                   [Page 60]

RFC 6929                    RADIUS Extensions                 April 2013


   static int decode_attr(char *buffer, char **endptr)
   {
        long attr;

        attr = strtol(buffer, endptr, 10);
        if (*endptr == buffer) {
             fprintf(stderr, "No valid number found in string "
                  "starting with \"%s\"\n", buffer);
             return 0;
        }

        if (!**endptr) {
             fprintf(stderr, "Nothing follows attribute number\n");
             return 0;
        }

        if ((attr <= 0) || (attr > 256)) {
             fprintf(stderr, "Attribute number is out of valid "
                  "range\n");
             return 0;
        }

        return (int) attr;
   }

   static int decode_vendor(char *buffer, char **endptr)
   {
        long vendor;

        if (*buffer != '.') {
             fprintf(stderr, "Invalid separator before vendor id\n");
             return 0;
        }

        vendor = strtol(buffer + 1, endptr, 10);
        if (*endptr == (buffer + 1)) {
             fprintf(stderr, "No valid vendor number found\n");
             return 0;
        }

        if (!**endptr) {
             fprintf(stderr, "Nothing follows vendor number\n");
             return 0;
        }







DeKok & Lior                 Standards Track                   [Page 61]

RFC 6929                    RADIUS Extensions                 April 2013


        if ((vendor <= 0) || (vendor > (1 << 24))) {
             fprintf(stderr, "Vendor number is out of valid range\n");
             return 0;
        }

        if (**endptr != '.') {
             fprintf(stderr, "Invalid data following vendor number\n");
             return 0;
        }
        (*endptr)++;

        return (int) vendor;
   }

   static int encode_tlv(char *buffer, uint8_t *output, size_t outlen)
   {
        int attr;
        int length;
        char *p;

        attr = decode_attr(buffer, &p);
        if (attr == 0) return 0;

        output[0] = attr;
        output[1] = 2;

        if (*p == '.') {
             p++;
             length = encode_tlv(p, output + 2, outlen - 2);

        } else {
             length = encode_data(p, output + 2, outlen - 2);
        }

        if (length == 0) return 0;
        if (length > (255 - 2)) {
             fprintf(stderr, "TLV data is too long\n");
             return 0;
        }

        output[1] += length;

        return length + 2;
   }







DeKok & Lior                 Standards Track                   [Page 62]

RFC 6929                    RADIUS Extensions                 April 2013


   static int encode_vsa(char *buffer, uint8_t *output, size_t outlen)
   {
        int vendor;
        int attr;
        int length;
        char *p;

        vendor = decode_vendor(buffer, &p);
        if (vendor == 0) return 0;

        output[0] = 0;
        output[1] = (vendor >> 16) & 0xff;
        output[2] = (vendor >> 8) & 0xff;
        output[3] = vendor & 0xff;

        length = encode_tlv(p, output + 4, outlen - 4);
        if (length == 0) return 0;
        if (length > (255 - 6)) {
             fprintf(stderr, "VSA data is too long\n");
             return 0;
        }

        return length + 4;
   }

   static int encode_evs(char *buffer, uint8_t *output, size_t outlen)
   {
        int vendor;
        int attr;
        int length;
        char *p;

        vendor = decode_vendor(buffer, &p);
        if (vendor == 0) return 0;

        attr = decode_attr(p, &p);
        if (attr == 0) return 0;

        output[0] = 0;
        output[1] = (vendor >> 16) & 0xff;
        output[2] = (vendor >> 8) & 0xff;
        output[3] = vendor & 0xff;
        output[4] = attr;

        length = encode_data(p, output + 5, outlen - 5);
        if (length == 0) return 0;





DeKok & Lior                 Standards Track                   [Page 63]

RFC 6929                    RADIUS Extensions                 April 2013


        return length + 5;
   }

   static int encode_extended(char *buffer,
                     uint8_t *output, size_t outlen)
   {
        int attr;
        int length;
        char *p;

        attr = decode_attr(buffer, &p);
        if (attr == 0) return 0;

        output[0] = attr;

        if (attr == 26) {
             length = encode_evs(p, output + 1, outlen - 1);
        } else {
             length = encode_data(p, output + 1, outlen - 1);
        }
        if (length == 0) return 0;
        if (length > (255 - 3)) {
             fprintf(stderr, "Extended Attr data is too long\n");

             return 0;
        }

        return length + 1;
   }

   static int encode_extended_flags(char *buffer,
                        uint8_t *output, size_t outlen)
   {
        int attr;
        int length, total;
        char *p;

        attr = decode_attr(buffer, &p);
        if (attr == 0) return 0;

        /* output[0] is the extended attribute */
        output[1] = 4;
        output[2] = attr;
        output[3] = 0;







DeKok & Lior                 Standards Track                   [Page 64]

RFC 6929                    RADIUS Extensions                 April 2013


        if (attr == 26) {
             length = encode_evs(p, output + 4, outlen - 4);
             if (length == 0) return 0;

             output[1] += 5;
             length -= 5;
        } else {
             length = encode_data(p, output + 4, outlen - 4);
        }
        if (length == 0) return 0;

        total = 0;
        while (1) {
             int sublen = 255 - output[1];

             if (length <= sublen) {
                  output[1] += length;
                  total += output[1];
                  break;
             }

             length -= sublen;

             memmove(output + 255 + 4, output + 255, length);
             memcpy(output + 255, output, 4);

             output[1] = 255;

             output[3] |= 0x80;

             output += 255;
             output[1] = 4;
             total += 255;
        }

        return total;
   }

   static int encode_rfc(char *buffer, uint8_t *output, size_t outlen)
   {
        int attr;
        int length, sublen;
        char *p;

        attr = decode_attr(buffer, &p);
        if (attr == 0) return 0;





DeKok & Lior                 Standards Track                   [Page 65]

RFC 6929                    RADIUS Extensions                 April 2013


        length = 2;
        output[0] = attr;
        output[1] = 2;

        if (attr == 26) {
             sublen = encode_vsa(p, output + 2, outlen - 2);

        } else if ((*p == ' ') || ((attr < 241) || (attr > 246))) {
             sublen = encode_data(p, output + 2, outlen - 2);

        } else {
             if (*p != '.') {
                  fprintf(stderr, "Invalid data following "
                       "attribute number\n");
                  return 0;
             }

             if (attr < 245) {
                  sublen = encode_extended(p + 1,
                                  output + 2, outlen - 2);
             } else {

                  /*
                   *   Not like the others!
                   */
                  return encode_extended_flags(p + 1, output, outlen);
             }
        }
        if (sublen == 0) return 0;

        if (sublen > (255 -2)) {
             fprintf(stderr, "RFC Data is too long\n");
             return 0;
        }

        output[1] += sublen;
        return length + sublen;
   }

   int main(int argc, char *argv[])
   {
        int lineno;
        size_t i, outlen;
        FILE *fp;
        char input[8192], buffer[8192];
        uint8_t output[4096];





DeKok & Lior                 Standards Track                   [Page 66]

RFC 6929                    RADIUS Extensions                 April 2013


        if ((argc < 2) || (strcmp(argv[1], "-") == 0)) {
             fp = stdin;
        } else {
             fp = fopen(argv[1], "r");
             if (!fp) {
                  fprintf(stderr, "Error opening %s: %s\n",
                       argv[1], strerror(errno));
                  exit(1);
             }
        }

        lineno = 0;
        while (fgets(buffer, sizeof(buffer), fp) != NULL) {
             char *p = strchr(buffer, '\n');

             lineno++;

             if (!p) {
                  if (!feof(fp)) {
                       fprintf(stderr, "Line %d too long in %s\n",
                            lineno, argv[1]);
                       exit(1);
                  }
             } else {
                  *p = '\0';
             }

             p = strchr(buffer, '#');
             if (p) *p = '\0';

             p = buffer;

             while (isspace((int) *p)) p++;
             if (!*p) continue;

             strcpy(input, p);
             outlen = encode_rfc(input, output, sizeof(output));
             if (outlen == 0) {
                  fprintf(stderr, "Parse error in line %d of %s\n",
                       lineno, input);
                  exit(1);
             }

             printf("%s -> ", buffer);
             for (i = 0; i < outlen; i++) {
                  printf("%02x ", output[i]);
             }




DeKok & Lior                 Standards Track                   [Page 67]

RFC 6929                    RADIUS Extensions                 April 2013


             printf("\n");
        }

        if (fp != stdin) fclose(fp);

        return 0;
   }
   ------------------------------------------------------------

Authors' Addresses

   Alan DeKok
   Network RADIUS SARL
   57bis blvd des Alpes
   38240 Meylan
   France

   EMail: aland@networkradius.com
   URI: http://networkradius.com


   Avi Lior

   EMail: avi.ietf@lior.org



























DeKok & Lior                 Standards Track                   [Page 68]


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