[Docs] [txt|pdf] [draft-ietf-jose-j...] [Diff1] [Diff2] [IPR]

PROPOSED STANDARD

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                          M. Jones
Request for Comments: 7518                                     Microsoft
Category: Standards Track                                       May 2015
ISSN: 2070-1721


                       JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)

Abstract

   This specification registers cryptographic algorithms and identifiers
   to be used with the JSON Web Signature (JWS), JSON Web Encryption
   (JWE), and JSON Web Key (JWK) specifications.  It defines several
   IANA registries for these identifiers.

Status of This Memo

   This is an Internet Standards Track document.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
   Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 5741.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7518.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.








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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     1.1.  Notational Conventions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   3.  Cryptographic Algorithms for Digital Signatures and MACs  . .   6
     3.1.  "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWS . . . .   6
     3.2.  HMAC with SHA-2 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.3.  Digital Signature with RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5  . . . . . . . .   8
     3.4.  Digital Signature with ECDSA  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     3.5.  Digital Signature with RSASSA-PSS . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     3.6.  Using the Algorithm "none"  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   4.  Cryptographic Algorithms for Key Management . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.1.  "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWE . . . .  12
     4.2.  Key Encryption with RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5  . . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.3.  Key Encryption with RSAES OAEP  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     4.4.  Key Wrapping with AES Key Wrap  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     4.5.  Direct Encryption with a Shared Symmetric Key . . . . . .  15
     4.6.  Key Agreement with Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman
           Ephemeral Static (ECDH-ES)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       4.6.1.  Header Parameters Used for ECDH Key Agreement . . . .  16
         4.6.1.1.  "epk" (Ephemeral Public Key) Header Parameter . .  16
         4.6.1.2.  "apu" (Agreement PartyUInfo) Header Parameter . .  17
         4.6.1.3.  "apv" (Agreement PartyVInfo) Header Parameter . .  17
       4.6.2.  Key Derivation for ECDH Key Agreement . . . . . . . .  17
     4.7.  Key Encryption with AES GCM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
       4.7.1.  Header Parameters Used for AES GCM Key Encryption . .  19
         4.7.1.1.  "iv" (Initialization Vector) Header Parameter . .  19
         4.7.1.2.  "tag" (Authentication Tag) Header Parameter . . .  19
     4.8.  Key Encryption with PBES2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
       4.8.1.  Header Parameters Used for PBES2 Key Encryption . . .  20
         4.8.1.1.  "p2s" (PBES2 Salt Input) Header Parameter . . . .  21
         4.8.1.2.  "p2c" (PBES2 Count) Header Parameter  . . . . . .  21
   5.  Cryptographic Algorithms for Content Encryption . . . . . . .  21
     5.1.  "enc" (Encryption Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for
           JWE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
     5.2.  AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Algorithms  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
       5.2.1.  Conventions Used in Defining AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2  . . .  23
       5.2.2.  Generic AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Algorithm . . . . . . . . .  23
         5.2.2.1.  AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Encryption  . . . . . . . . . .  23
         5.2.2.2.  AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Decryption  . . . . . . . . . .  25
       5.2.3.  AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
       5.2.4.  AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
       5.2.5.  AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
       5.2.6.  Content Encryption with AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 . . . . . .  26
     5.3.  Content Encryption with AES GCM . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
   6.  Cryptographic Algorithms for Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
     6.1.  "kty" (Key Type) Parameter Values . . . . . . . . . . . .  28



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     6.2.  Parameters for Elliptic Curve Keys  . . . . . . . . . . .  28
       6.2.1.  Parameters for Elliptic Curve Public Keys . . . . . .  28
         6.2.1.1.  "crv" (Curve) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
         6.2.1.2.  "x" (X Coordinate) Parameter  . . . . . . . . . .  29
         6.2.1.3.  "y" (Y Coordinate) Parameter  . . . . . . . . . .  29
       6.2.2.  Parameters for Elliptic Curve Private Keys  . . . . .  29
         6.2.2.1.  "d" (ECC Private Key) Parameter . . . . . . . . .  29
     6.3.  Parameters for RSA Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
       6.3.1.  Parameters for RSA Public Keys  . . . . . . . . . . .  30
         6.3.1.1.  "n" (Modulus) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
         6.3.1.2.  "e" (Exponent) Parameter  . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
       6.3.2.  Parameters for RSA Private Keys . . . . . . . . . . .  30
         6.3.2.1.  "d" (Private Exponent) Parameter  . . . . . . . .  30
         6.3.2.2.  "p" (First Prime Factor) Parameter  . . . . . . .  31
         6.3.2.3.  "q" (Second Prime Factor) Parameter . . . . . . .  31
         6.3.2.4.  "dp" (First Factor CRT Exponent) Parameter  . . .  31
         6.3.2.5.  "dq" (Second Factor CRT Exponent) Parameter . . .  31
         6.3.2.6.  "qi" (First CRT Coefficient) Parameter  . . . . .  31
         6.3.2.7.  "oth" (Other Primes Info) Parameter . . . . . . .  31
     6.4.  Parameters for Symmetric Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
       6.4.1.  "k" (Key Value) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     7.1.  JSON Web Signature and Encryption Algorithms Registry . .  33
       7.1.1.  Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
       7.1.2.  Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
     7.2.  Header Parameter Names Registration . . . . . . . . . . .  42
       7.2.1.  Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
     7.3.  JSON Web Encryption Compression Algorithms Registry . . .  43
       7.3.1.  Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
       7.3.2.  Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
     7.4.  JSON Web Key Types Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
       7.4.1.  Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
       7.4.2.  Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  45
     7.5.  JSON Web Key Parameters Registration  . . . . . . . . . .  45
       7.5.1.  Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
     7.6.  JSON Web Key Elliptic Curve Registry  . . . . . . . . . .  48
       7.6.1.  Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  48
       7.6.2.  Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  49
   8.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  49
     8.1.  Cryptographic Agility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  50
     8.2.  Key Lifetimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  50
     8.3.  RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5 Security Considerations  . . . . . . . .  50
     8.4.  AES GCM Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . .  50
     8.5.  Unsecured JWS Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . .  51
     8.6.  Denial-of-Service Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  51
     8.7.  Reusing Key Material when Encrypting Keys . . . . . . . .  51
     8.8.  Password Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  52
     8.9.  Key Entropy and Random Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  52



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     8.10. Differences between Digital Signatures and MACs . . . . .  52
     8.11. Using Matching Algorithm Strengths  . . . . . . . . . . .  53
     8.12. Adaptive Chosen-Ciphertext Attacks  . . . . . . . . . . .  53
     8.13. Timing Attacks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53
     8.14. RSA Private Key Representations and Blinding  . . . . . .  53
   9.  Internationalization Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53
   10. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53
     10.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53
     10.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  56
   Appendix A.  Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference . . . . . . . .  59
     A.1.  Digital Signature/MAC Algorithm Identifier Cross-
           Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  60
     A.2.  Key Management Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference . . .  61
     A.3.  Content Encryption Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference .  62
   Appendix B.  Test Cases for AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Algorithms  . . . .  62
     B.1.  Test Cases for AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256 . . . . . . . . .  63
     B.2.  Test Cases for AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384 . . . . . . . . .  64
     B.3.  Test Cases for AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512 . . . . . . . . .  65
   Appendix C.  Example ECDH-ES Key Agreement Computation  . . . . .  66
   Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  69
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  69

1.  Introduction

   This specification registers cryptographic algorithms and identifiers
   to be used with the JSON Web Signature (JWS) [JWS], JSON Web
   Encryption (JWE) [JWE], and JSON Web Key (JWK) [JWK] specifications.
   It defines several IANA registries for these identifiers.  All these
   specifications utilize JSON-based [RFC7159] data structures.  This
   specification also describes the semantics and operations that are
   specific to these algorithms and key types.

   Registering the algorithms and identifiers here, rather than in the
   JWS, JWE, and JWK specifications, is intended to allow them to remain
   unchanged in the face of changes in the set of Required, Recommended,
   Optional, and Deprecated algorithms over time.  This also allows
   changes to the JWS, JWE, and JWK specifications without changing this
   document.

   Names defined by this specification are short because a core goal is
   for the resulting representations to be compact.

1.1.  Notational Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels" [RFC2119].



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   The interpretation should only be applied when the terms appear in
   all capital letters.

   BASE64URL(OCTETS) denotes the base64url encoding of OCTETS, per
   Section 2 of [JWS].

   UTF8(STRING) denotes the octets of the UTF-8 [RFC3629] representation
   of STRING, where STRING is a sequence of zero or more Unicode
   [UNICODE] characters.

   ASCII(STRING) denotes the octets of the ASCII [RFC20] representation
   of STRING, where STRING is a sequence of zero or more ASCII
   characters.

   The concatenation of two values A and B is denoted as A || B.

2.  Terminology

   The terms "JSON Web Signature (JWS)", "Base64url Encoding", "Header
   Parameter", "JOSE Header", "JWS Payload", "JWS Protected Header",
   "JWS Signature", "JWS Signing Input", and "Unsecured JWS" are defined
   by the JWS specification [JWS].

   The terms "JSON Web Encryption (JWE)", "Additional Authenticated Data
   (AAD)", "Authentication Tag", "Content Encryption Key (CEK)", "Direct
   Encryption", "Direct Key Agreement", "JWE Authentication Tag", "JWE
   Ciphertext", "JWE Encrypted Key", "JWE Initialization Vector", "JWE
   Protected Header", "Key Agreement with Key Wrapping", "Key
   Encryption", "Key Management Mode", and "Key Wrapping" are defined by
   the JWE specification [JWE].

   The terms "JSON Web Key (JWK)" and "JWK Set" are defined by the JWK
   specification [JWK].

   The terms "Ciphertext", "Digital Signature", "Initialization Vector",
   "Message Authentication Code (MAC)", and "Plaintext" are defined by
   the "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2" [RFC4949].

   This term is defined by this specification:

   Base64urlUInt
      The representation of a positive or zero integer value as the
      base64url encoding of the value's unsigned big-endian
      representation as an octet sequence.  The octet sequence MUST
      utilize the minimum number of octets needed to represent the
      value.  Zero is represented as BASE64URL(single zero-valued
      octet), which is "AA".




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3.  Cryptographic Algorithms for Digital Signatures and MACs

   JWS uses cryptographic algorithms to digitally sign or create a MAC
   of the contents of the JWS Protected Header and the JWS Payload.

3.1.  "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWS

   The table below is the set of "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter
   values defined by this specification for use with JWS, each of which
   is explained in more detail in the following sections:

   +--------------+-------------------------------+--------------------+
   | "alg" Param  | Digital Signature or MAC      | Implementation     |
   | Value        | Algorithm                     | Requirements       |
   +--------------+-------------------------------+--------------------+
   | HS256        | HMAC using SHA-256            | Required           |
   | HS384        | HMAC using SHA-384            | Optional           |
   | HS512        | HMAC using SHA-512            | Optional           |
   | RS256        | RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 using       | Recommended        |
   |              | SHA-256                       |                    |
   | RS384        | RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 using       | Optional           |
   |              | SHA-384                       |                    |
   | RS512        | RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 using       | Optional           |
   |              | SHA-512                       |                    |
   | ES256        | ECDSA using P-256 and SHA-256 | Recommended+       |
   | ES384        | ECDSA using P-384 and SHA-384 | Optional           |
   | ES512        | ECDSA using P-521 and SHA-512 | Optional           |
   | PS256        | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-256 and  | Optional           |
   |              | MGF1 with SHA-256             |                    |
   | PS384        | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-384 and  | Optional           |
   |              | MGF1 with SHA-384             |                    |
   | PS512        | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-512 and  | Optional           |
   |              | MGF1 with SHA-512             |                    |
   | none         | No digital signature or MAC   | Optional           |
   |              | performed                     |                    |
   +--------------+-------------------------------+--------------------+

   The use of "+" in the Implementation Requirements column indicates
   that the requirement strength is likely to be increased in a future
   version of the specification.

   See Appendix A.1 for a table cross-referencing the JWS digital
   signature and MAC "alg" (algorithm) values defined in this
   specification with the equivalent identifiers used by other standards
   and software packages.






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3.2.  HMAC with SHA-2 Functions

   Hash-based Message Authentication Codes (HMACs) enable one to use a
   secret plus a cryptographic hash function to generate a MAC.  This
   can be used to demonstrate that whoever generated the MAC was in
   possession of the MAC key.  The algorithm for implementing and
   validating HMACs is provided in RFC 2104 [RFC2104].

   A key of the same size as the hash output (for instance, 256 bits for
   "HS256") or larger MUST be used with this algorithm.  (This
   requirement is based on Section 5.3.4 (Security Effect of the HMAC
   Key) of NIST SP 800-117 [NIST.800-107], which states that the
   effective security strength is the minimum of the security strength
   of the key and two times the size of the internal hash value.)

   The HMAC SHA-256 MAC is generated per RFC 2104, using SHA-256 as the
   hash algorithm "H", using the JWS Signing Input as the "text" value,
   and using the shared key.  The HMAC output value is the JWS
   Signature.

   The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to
   indicate that the JWS Signature is an HMAC value computed using the
   corresponding algorithm:

                +-------------------+--------------------+
                | "alg" Param Value | MAC Algorithm      |
                +-------------------+--------------------+
                | HS256             | HMAC using SHA-256 |
                | HS384             | HMAC using SHA-384 |
                | HS512             | HMAC using SHA-512 |
                +-------------------+--------------------+

   The HMAC SHA-256 MAC for a JWS is validated by computing an HMAC
   value per RFC 2104, using SHA-256 as the hash algorithm "H", using
   the received JWS Signing Input as the "text" value, and using the
   shared key.  This computed HMAC value is then compared to the result
   of base64url decoding the received encoded JWS Signature value.  The
   comparison of the computed HMAC value to the JWS Signature value MUST
   be done in a constant-time manner to thwart timing attacks.
   Alternatively, the computed HMAC value can be base64url encoded and
   compared to the received encoded JWS Signature value (also in a
   constant-time manner), as this comparison produces the same result as
   comparing the unencoded values.  In either case, if the values match,
   the HMAC has been validated.







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   Securing content and validation with the HMAC SHA-384 and HMAC
   SHA-512 algorithms is performed identically to the procedure for HMAC
   SHA-256 -- just using the corresponding hash algorithms with
   correspondingly larger minimum key sizes and result values: 384 bits
   each for HMAC SHA-384 and 512 bits each for HMAC SHA-512.

   An example using this algorithm is shown in Appendix A.1 of [JWS].

3.3.  Digital Signature with RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5

   This section defines the use of the RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 digital
   signature algorithm as defined in Section 8.2 of RFC 3447 [RFC3447]
   (commonly known as PKCS #1), using SHA-2 [SHS] hash functions.

   A key of size 2048 bits or larger MUST be used with these algorithms.

   The RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 SHA-256 digital signature is generated as
   follows: generate a digital signature of the JWS Signing Input using
   RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5-SIGN and the SHA-256 hash function with the desired
   private key.  This is the JWS Signature value.

   The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to
   indicate that the JWS Signature is a digital signature value computed
   using the corresponding algorithm:

          +-------------------+---------------------------------+
          | "alg" Param Value | Digital Signature Algorithm     |
          +-------------------+---------------------------------+
          | RS256             | RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 using SHA-256 |
          | RS384             | RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 using SHA-384 |
          | RS512             | RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 using SHA-512 |
          +-------------------+---------------------------------+

   The RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 SHA-256 digital signature for a JWS is
   validated as follows: submit the JWS Signing Input, the JWS
   Signature, and the public key corresponding to the private key used
   by the signer to the RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5-VERIFY algorithm using SHA-256
   as the hash function.

   Signing and validation with the RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 SHA-384 and RSASSA-
   PKCS1-v1_5 SHA-512 algorithms is performed identically to the
   procedure for RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 SHA-256 -- just using the
   corresponding hash algorithms instead of SHA-256.

   An example using this algorithm is shown in Appendix A.2 of [JWS].






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3.4.  Digital Signature with ECDSA

   The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) [DSS] provides
   for the use of Elliptic Curve Cryptography, which is able to provide
   equivalent security to RSA cryptography but using shorter key sizes
   and with greater processing speed for many operations.  This means
   that ECDSA digital signatures will be substantially smaller in terms
   of length than equivalently strong RSA digital signatures.

   This specification defines the use of ECDSA with the P-256 curve and
   the SHA-256 cryptographic hash function, ECDSA with the P-384 curve
   and the SHA-384 hash function, and ECDSA with the P-521 curve and the
   SHA-512 hash function.  The P-256, P-384, and P-521 curves are
   defined in [DSS].

   The ECDSA P-256 SHA-256 digital signature is generated as follows:

   1.  Generate a digital signature of the JWS Signing Input using ECDSA
       P-256 SHA-256 with the desired private key.  The output will be
       the pair (R, S), where R and S are 256-bit unsigned integers.

   2.  Turn R and S into octet sequences in big-endian order, with each
       array being be 32 octets long.  The octet sequence
       representations MUST NOT be shortened to omit any leading zero
       octets contained in the values.

   3.  Concatenate the two octet sequences in the order R and then S.
       (Note that many ECDSA implementations will directly produce this
       concatenation as their output.)

   4.  The resulting 64-octet sequence is the JWS Signature value.

   The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to
   indicate that the JWS Signature is a digital signature value computed
   using the corresponding algorithm:

           +-------------------+-------------------------------+
           | "alg" Param Value | Digital Signature Algorithm   |
           +-------------------+-------------------------------+
           | ES256             | ECDSA using P-256 and SHA-256 |
           | ES384             | ECDSA using P-384 and SHA-384 |
           | ES512             | ECDSA using P-521 and SHA-512 |
           +-------------------+-------------------------------+








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   The ECDSA P-256 SHA-256 digital signature for a JWS is validated as
   follows:

   1.  The JWS Signature value MUST be a 64-octet sequence.  If it is
       not a 64-octet sequence, the validation has failed.

   2.  Split the 64-octet sequence into two 32-octet sequences.  The
       first octet sequence represents R and the second S.  The values R
       and S are represented as octet sequences using the Integer-to-
       OctetString Conversion defined in Section 2.3.7 of SEC1 [SEC1]
       (in big-endian octet order).

   3.  Submit the JWS Signing Input, R, S, and the public key (x, y) to
       the ECDSA P-256 SHA-256 validator.

   Signing and validation with the ECDSA P-384 SHA-384 and ECDSA P-521
   SHA-512 algorithms is performed identically to the procedure for
   ECDSA P-256 SHA-256 -- just using the corresponding hash algorithms
   with correspondingly larger result values.  For ECDSA P-384 SHA-384,
   R and S will be 384 bits each, resulting in a 96-octet sequence.  For
   ECDSA P-521 SHA-512, R and S will be 521 bits each, resulting in a
   132-octet sequence.  (Note that the Integer-to-OctetString Conversion
   defined in Section 2.3.7 of SEC1 [SEC1] used to represent R and S as
   octet sequences adds zero-valued high-order padding bits when needed
   to round the size up to a multiple of 8 bits; thus, each 521-bit
   integer is represented using 528 bits in 66 octets.)

   Examples using these algorithms are shown in Appendices A.3 and A.4
   of [JWS].

3.5.  Digital Signature with RSASSA-PSS

   This section defines the use of the RSASSA-PSS digital signature
   algorithm as defined in Section 8.1 of RFC 3447 [RFC3447] with the
   MGF1 mask generation function and SHA-2 hash functions, always using
   the same hash function for both the RSASSA-PSS hash function and the
   MGF1 hash function.  The size of the salt value is the same size as
   the hash function output.  All other algorithm parameters use the
   defaults specified in Appendix A.2.3 of RFC 3447.

   A key of size 2048 bits or larger MUST be used with this algorithm.

   The RSASSA-PSS SHA-256 digital signature is generated as follows:
   generate a digital signature of the JWS Signing Input using RSASSA-
   PSS-SIGN, the SHA-256 hash function, and the MGF1 mask generation
   function with SHA-256 with the desired private key.  This is the JWS
   Signature value.




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   The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to
   indicate that the JWS Signature is a digital signature value computed
   using the corresponding algorithm:

   +-------------------+-----------------------------------------------+
   | "alg" Param Value | Digital Signature Algorithm                   |
   +-------------------+-----------------------------------------------+
   | PS256             | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-256 and MGF1 with        |
   |                   | SHA-256                                       |
   | PS384             | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-384 and MGF1 with        |
   |                   | SHA-384                                       |
   | PS512             | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-512 and MGF1 with        |
   |                   | SHA-512                                       |
   +-------------------+-----------------------------------------------+

   The RSASSA-PSS SHA-256 digital signature for a JWS is validated as
   follows: submit the JWS Signing Input, the JWS Signature, and the
   public key corresponding to the private key used by the signer to the
   RSASSA-PSS-VERIFY algorithm using SHA-256 as the hash function and
   using MGF1 as the mask generation function with SHA-256.

   Signing and validation with the RSASSA-PSS SHA-384 and RSASSA-PSS
   SHA-512 algorithms is performed identically to the procedure for
   RSASSA-PSS SHA-256 -- just using the alternative hash algorithm in
   both roles.

3.6.  Using the Algorithm "none"

   JWSs MAY also be created that do not provide integrity protection.
   Such a JWS is called an Unsecured JWS.  An Unsecured JWS uses the
   "alg" value "none" and is formatted identically to other JWSs, but
   MUST use the empty octet sequence as its JWS Signature value.
   Recipients MUST verify that the JWS Signature value is the empty
   octet sequence.

   Implementations that support Unsecured JWSs MUST NOT accept such
   objects as valid unless the application specifies that it is
   acceptable for a specific object to not be integrity protected.
   Implementations MUST NOT accept Unsecured JWSs by default.  In order
   to mitigate downgrade attacks, applications MUST NOT signal
   acceptance of Unsecured JWSs at a global level, and SHOULD signal
   acceptance on a per-object basis.  See Section 8.5 for security
   considerations associated with using this algorithm.

4.  Cryptographic Algorithms for Key Management

   JWE uses cryptographic algorithms to encrypt or determine the Content
   Encryption Key (CEK).



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4.1.  "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWE

   The table below is the set of "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter
   values that are defined by this specification for use with JWE.
   These algorithms are used to encrypt the CEK, producing the JWE
   Encrypted Key, or to use key agreement to agree upon the CEK.

   +--------------------+--------------------+--------+----------------+
   | "alg" Param Value  | Key Management     | More   | Implementation |
   |                    | Algorithm          | Header | Requirements   |
   |                    |                    | Params |                |
   +--------------------+--------------------+--------+----------------+
   | RSA1_5             | RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5   | (none) | Recommended-   |
   | RSA-OAEP           | RSAES OAEP using   | (none) | Recommended+   |
   |                    | default parameters |        |                |
   | RSA-OAEP-256       | RSAES OAEP using   | (none) | Optional       |
   |                    | SHA-256 and MGF1   |        |                |
   |                    | with SHA-256       |        |                |
   | A128KW             | AES Key Wrap with  | (none) | Recommended    |
   |                    | default initial    |        |                |
   |                    | value using        |        |                |
   |                    | 128-bit key        |        |                |
   | A192KW             | AES Key Wrap with  | (none) | Optional       |
   |                    | default initial    |        |                |
   |                    | value using        |        |                |
   |                    | 192-bit key        |        |                |
   | A256KW             | AES Key Wrap with  | (none) | Recommended    |
   |                    | default initial    |        |                |
   |                    | value using        |        |                |
   |                    | 256-bit key        |        |                |
   | dir                | Direct use of a    | (none) | Recommended    |
   |                    | shared symmetric   |        |                |
   |                    | key as the CEK     |        |                |
   | ECDH-ES            | Elliptic Curve     | "epk", | Recommended+   |
   |                    | Diffie-Hellman     | "apu", |                |
   |                    | Ephemeral Static   | "apv"  |                |
   |                    | key agreement      |        |                |
   |                    | using Concat KDF   |        |                |
   | ECDH-ES+A128KW     | ECDH-ES using      | "epk", | Recommended    |
   |                    | Concat KDF and CEK | "apu", |                |
   |                    | wrapped with       | "apv"  |                |
   |                    | "A128KW"           |        |                |
   | ECDH-ES+A192KW     | ECDH-ES using      | "epk", | Optional       |
   |                    | Concat KDF and CEK | "apu", |                |
   |                    | wrapped with       | "apv"  |                |
   |                    | "A192KW"           |        |                |





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   | ECDH-ES+A256KW     | ECDH-ES using      | "epk", | Recommended    |
   |                    | Concat KDF and CEK | "apu", |                |
   |                    | wrapped with       | "apv"  |                |
   |                    | "A256KW"           |        |                |
   | A128GCMKW          | Key wrapping with  | "iv",  | Optional       |
   |                    | AES GCM using      | "tag"  |                |
   |                    | 128-bit key        |        |                |
   | A192GCMKW          | Key wrapping with  | "iv",  | Optional       |
   |                    | AES GCM using      | "tag"  |                |
   |                    | 192-bit key        |        |                |
   | A256GCMKW          | Key wrapping with  | "iv",  | Optional       |
   |                    | AES GCM using      | "tag"  |                |
   |                    | 256-bit key        |        |                |
   | PBES2-HS256+A128KW | PBES2 with HMAC    | "p2s", | Optional       |
   |                    | SHA-256 and        | "p2c"  |                |
   |                    | "A128KW" wrapping  |        |                |
   | PBES2-HS384+A192KW | PBES2 with HMAC    | "p2s", | Optional       |
   |                    | SHA-384 and        | "p2c"  |                |
   |                    | "A192KW" wrapping  |        |                |
   | PBES2-HS512+A256KW | PBES2 with HMAC    | "p2s", | Optional       |
   |                    | SHA-512 and        | "p2c"  |                |
   |                    | "A256KW" wrapping  |        |                |
   +--------------------+--------------------+--------+----------------+

   The More Header Params column indicates what additional Header
   Parameters are used by the algorithm, beyond "alg", which all use.
   All but "dir" and "ECDH-ES" also produce a JWE Encrypted Key value.

   The use of "+" in the Implementation Requirements column indicates
   that the requirement strength is likely to be increased in a future
   version of the specification.  The use of "-" indicates that the
   requirement strength is likely to be decreased in a future version of
   the specification.

   See Appendix A.2 for a table cross-referencing the JWE "alg"
   (algorithm) values defined in this specification with the equivalent
   identifiers used by other standards and software packages.

4.2.  Key Encryption with RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5

   This section defines the specifics of encrypting a JWE CEK with
   RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5 [RFC3447].  The "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter
   value "RSA1_5" is used for this algorithm.

   A key of size 2048 bits or larger MUST be used with this algorithm.

   An example using this algorithm is shown in Appendix A.2 of [JWE].




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4.3.  Key Encryption with RSAES OAEP

   This section defines the specifics of encrypting a JWE CEK with RSAES
   using Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding (OAEP) [RFC3447].  Two
   sets of parameters for using OAEP are defined, which use different
   hash functions.  In the first case, the default parameters specified
   in Appendix A.2.1 of RFC 3447 are used.  (Those default parameters
   are the SHA-1 hash function and the MGF1 with SHA-1 mask generation
   function.)  In the second case, the SHA-256 hash function and the
   MGF1 with SHA-256 mask generation function are used.

   The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to
   indicate that the JWE Encrypted Key is the result of encrypting the
   CEK using the corresponding algorithm:

   +-------------------+-----------------------------------------------+
   | "alg" Param Value | Key Management Algorithm                      |
   +-------------------+-----------------------------------------------+
   | RSA-OAEP          | RSAES OAEP using default parameters           |
   | RSA-OAEP-256      | RSAES OAEP using SHA-256 and MGF1 with        |
   |                   | SHA-256                                       |
   +-------------------+-----------------------------------------------+

   A key of size 2048 bits or larger MUST be used with these algorithms.
   (This requirement is based on Table 4 (Security-strength time frames)
   of NIST SP 800-57 [NIST.800-57], which requires 112 bits of security
   for new uses, and Table 2 (Comparable strengths) of the same, which
   states that 2048-bit RSA keys provide 112 bits of security.)

   An example using RSAES OAEP with the default parameters is shown in
   Appendix A.1 of [JWE].

4.4.  Key Wrapping with AES Key Wrap

   This section defines the specifics of encrypting a JWE CEK with the
   Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Key Wrap Algorithm [RFC3394] using
   the default initial value specified in Section 2.2.3.1 of that
   document.













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   The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to
   indicate that the JWE Encrypted Key is the result of encrypting the
   CEK using the corresponding algorithm and key size:

   +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
   | "alg" Param     | Key Management Algorithm                        |
   | Value           |                                                 |
   +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
   | A128KW          | AES Key Wrap with default initial value using   |
   |                 | 128-bit key                                     |
   | A192KW          | AES Key Wrap with default initial value using   |
   |                 | 192-bit key                                     |
   | A256KW          | AES Key Wrap with default initial value using   |
   |                 | 256-bit key                                     |
   +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+

   An example using this algorithm is shown in Appendix A.3 of [JWE].

4.5.  Direct Encryption with a Shared Symmetric Key

   This section defines the specifics of directly performing symmetric
   key encryption without performing a key wrapping step.  In this case,
   the shared symmetric key is used directly as the Content Encryption
   Key (CEK) value for the "enc" algorithm.  An empty octet sequence is
   used as the JWE Encrypted Key value.  The "alg" (algorithm) Header
   Parameter value "dir" is used in this case.

   Refer to the security considerations on key lifetimes in Section 8.2
   and AES GCM in Section 8.4 when considering utilizing direct
   encryption.

4.6.  Key Agreement with Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral Static
      (ECDH-ES)

   This section defines the specifics of key agreement with Elliptic
   Curve Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral Static [RFC6090], in combination with
   the Concat KDF, as defined in Section 5.8.1 of [NIST.800-56A].  The
   key agreement result can be used in one of two ways:

   1.  directly as the Content Encryption Key (CEK) for the "enc"
       algorithm, in the Direct Key Agreement mode, or

   2.  as a symmetric key used to wrap the CEK with the "A128KW",
       "A192KW", or "A256KW" algorithms, in the Key Agreement with Key
       Wrapping mode.

   A new ephemeral public key value MUST be generated for each key
   agreement operation.



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   In Direct Key Agreement mode, the output of the Concat KDF MUST be a
   key of the same length as that used by the "enc" algorithm.  In this
   case, the empty octet sequence is used as the JWE Encrypted Key
   value.  The "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter value "ECDH-ES" is
   used in the Direct Key Agreement mode.

   In Key Agreement with Key Wrapping mode, the output of the Concat KDF
   MUST be a key of the length needed for the specified key wrapping
   algorithm.  In this case, the JWE Encrypted Key is the CEK wrapped
   with the agreed-upon key.

   The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to
   indicate that the JWE Encrypted Key is the result of encrypting the
   CEK using the result of the key agreement algorithm as the key
   encryption key for the corresponding key wrapping algorithm:

   +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
   | "alg" Param     | Key Management Algorithm                        |
   | Value           |                                                 |
   +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
   | ECDH-ES+A128KW  | ECDH-ES using Concat KDF and CEK wrapped with   |
   |                 | "A128KW"                                        |
   | ECDH-ES+A192KW  | ECDH-ES using Concat KDF and CEK wrapped with   |
   |                 | "A192KW"                                        |
   | ECDH-ES+A256KW  | ECDH-ES using Concat KDF and CEK wrapped with   |
   |                 | "A256KW"                                        |
   +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+

4.6.1.  Header Parameters Used for ECDH Key Agreement

   The following Header Parameter names are used for key agreement as
   defined below.

4.6.1.1.  "epk" (Ephemeral Public Key) Header Parameter

   The "epk" (ephemeral public key) value created by the originator for
   the use in key agreement algorithms.  This key is represented as a
   JSON Web Key [JWK] public key value.  It MUST contain only public key
   parameters and SHOULD contain only the minimum JWK parameters
   necessary to represent the key; other JWK parameters included can be
   checked for consistency and honored, or they can be ignored.  This
   Header Parameter MUST be present and MUST be understood and processed
   by implementations when these algorithms are used.








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4.6.1.2.  "apu" (Agreement PartyUInfo) Header Parameter

   The "apu" (agreement PartyUInfo) value for key agreement algorithms
   using it (such as "ECDH-ES"), represented as a base64url-encoded
   string.  When used, the PartyUInfo value contains information about
   the producer.  Use of this Header Parameter is OPTIONAL.  This Header
   Parameter MUST be understood and processed by implementations when
   these algorithms are used.

4.6.1.3.  "apv" (Agreement PartyVInfo) Header Parameter

   The "apv" (agreement PartyVInfo) value for key agreement algorithms
   using it (such as "ECDH-ES"), represented as a base64url encoded
   string.  When used, the PartyVInfo value contains information about
   the recipient.  Use of this Header Parameter is OPTIONAL.  This
   Header Parameter MUST be understood and processed by implementations
   when these algorithms are used.

4.6.2.  Key Derivation for ECDH Key Agreement

   The key derivation process derives the agreed-upon key from the
   shared secret Z established through the ECDH algorithm, per
   Section 6.2.2.2 of [NIST.800-56A].

   Key derivation is performed using the Concat KDF, as defined in
   Section 5.8.1 of [NIST.800-56A], where the Digest Method is SHA-256.
   The Concat KDF parameters are set as follows:

   Z
      This is set to the representation of the shared secret Z as an
      octet sequence.

   keydatalen
      This is set to the number of bits in the desired output key.  For
      "ECDH-ES", this is length of the key used by the "enc" algorithm.
      For "ECDH-ES+A128KW", "ECDH-ES+A192KW", and "ECDH-ES+A256KW", this
      is 128, 192, and 256, respectively.

   AlgorithmID
      The AlgorithmID value is of the form Datalen || Data, where Data
      is a variable-length string of zero or more octets, and Datalen is
      a fixed-length, big-endian 32-bit counter that indicates the
      length (in octets) of Data.  In the Direct Key Agreement case,
      Data is set to the octets of the ASCII representation of the "enc"
      Header Parameter value.  In the Key Agreement with Key Wrapping
      case, Data is set to the octets of the ASCII representation of the
      "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter value.




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   PartyUInfo
      The PartyUInfo value is of the form Datalen || Data, where Data is
      a variable-length string of zero or more octets, and Datalen is a
      fixed-length, big-endian 32-bit counter that indicates the length
      (in octets) of Data.  If an "apu" (agreement PartyUInfo) Header
      Parameter is present, Data is set to the result of base64url
      decoding the "apu" value and Datalen is set to the number of
      octets in Data.  Otherwise, Datalen is set to 0 and Data is set to
      the empty octet sequence.

   PartyVInfo
      The PartyVInfo value is of the form Datalen || Data, where Data is
      a variable-length string of zero or more octets, and Datalen is a
      fixed-length, big-endian 32-bit counter that indicates the length
      (in octets) of Data.  If an "apv" (agreement PartyVInfo) Header
      Parameter is present, Data is set to the result of base64url
      decoding the "apv" value and Datalen is set to the number of
      octets in Data.  Otherwise, Datalen is set to 0 and Data is set to
      the empty octet sequence.

   SuppPubInfo
      This is set to the keydatalen represented as a 32-bit big-endian
      integer.

   SuppPrivInfo
      This is set to the empty octet sequence.

   Applications need to specify how the "apu" and "apv" Header
   Parameters are used for that application.  The "apu" and "apv" values
   MUST be distinct, when used.  Applications wishing to conform to
   [NIST.800-56A] need to provide values that meet the requirements of
   that document, e.g., by using values that identify the producer and
   consumer.  Alternatively, applications MAY conduct key derivation in
   a manner similar to "Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement Method" [RFC2631]:
   in that case, the "apu" parameter MAY either be omitted or represent
   a random 512-bit value (analogous to PartyAInfo in Ephemeral-Static
   mode in RFC 2631) and the "apv" parameter SHOULD NOT be present.

   See Appendix C for an example key agreement computation using this
   method.

4.7.  Key Encryption with AES GCM

   This section defines the specifics of encrypting a JWE Content
   Encryption Key (CEK) with Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in
   Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) ([AES] and [NIST.800-38D]).





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   Use of an Initialization Vector (IV) of size 96 bits is REQUIRED with
   this algorithm.  The IV is represented in base64url-encoded form as
   the "iv" (initialization vector) Header Parameter value.

   The Additional Authenticated Data value used is the empty octet
   string.

   The requested size of the Authentication Tag output MUST be 128 bits,
   regardless of the key size.

   The JWE Encrypted Key value is the ciphertext output.

   The Authentication Tag output is represented in base64url-encoded
   form as the "tag" (authentication tag) Header Parameter value.

   The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to
   indicate that the JWE Encrypted Key is the result of encrypting the
   CEK using the corresponding algorithm and key size:

    +-------------------+---------------------------------------------+
    | "alg" Param Value | Key Management Algorithm                    |
    +-------------------+---------------------------------------------+
    | A128GCMKW         | Key wrapping with AES GCM using 128-bit key |
    | A192GCMKW         | Key wrapping with AES GCM using 192-bit key |
    | A256GCMKW         | Key wrapping with AES GCM using 256-bit key |
    +-------------------+---------------------------------------------+

4.7.1.  Header Parameters Used for AES GCM Key Encryption

   The following Header Parameters are used for AES GCM key encryption.

4.7.1.1.  "iv" (Initialization Vector) Header Parameter

   The "iv" (initialization vector) Header Parameter value is the
   base64url-encoded representation of the 96-bit IV value used for the
   key encryption operation.  This Header Parameter MUST be present and
   MUST be understood and processed by implementations when these
   algorithms are used.

4.7.1.2.  "tag" (Authentication Tag) Header Parameter

   The "tag" (authentication tag) Header Parameter value is the
   base64url-encoded representation of the 128-bit Authentication Tag
   value resulting from the key encryption operation.  This Header
   Parameter MUST be present and MUST be understood and processed by
   implementations when these algorithms are used.





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4.8.  Key Encryption with PBES2

   This section defines the specifics of performing password-based
   encryption of a JWE CEK, by first deriving a key encryption key from
   a user-supplied password using PBES2 schemes as specified in
   Section 6.2 of [RFC2898], then by encrypting the JWE CEK using the
   derived key.

   These algorithms use HMAC SHA-2 algorithms as the Pseudorandom
   Function (PRF) for the PBKDF2 key derivation and AES Key Wrap
   [RFC3394] for the encryption scheme.  The PBES2 password input is an
   octet sequence; if the password to be used is represented as a text
   string rather than an octet sequence, the UTF-8 encoding of the text
   string MUST be used as the octet sequence.  The salt parameter MUST
   be computed from the "p2s" (PBES2 salt input) Header Parameter value
   and the "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter value as specified in the
   "p2s" definition below.  The iteration count parameter MUST be
   provided as the "p2c" (PBES2 count) Header Parameter value.  The
   algorithms respectively use HMAC SHA-256, HMAC SHA-384, and HMAC
   SHA-512 as the PRF and use 128-, 192-, and 256-bit AES Key Wrap keys.
   Their derived-key lengths respectively are 16, 24, and 32 octets.

   The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to
   indicate that the JWE Encrypted Key is the result of encrypting the
   CEK using the result of the corresponding password-based encryption
   algorithm as the key encryption key for the corresponding key
   wrapping algorithm:

   +--------------------+----------------------------------------------+
   | "alg" Param Value  | Key Management Algorithm                     |
   +--------------------+----------------------------------------------+
   | PBES2-HS256+A128KW | PBES2 with HMAC SHA-256 and "A128KW"         |
   |                    | wrapping                                     |
   | PBES2-HS384+A192KW | PBES2 with HMAC SHA-384 and "A192KW"         |
   |                    | wrapping                                     |
   | PBES2-HS512+A256KW | PBES2 with HMAC SHA-512 and "A256KW"         |
   |                    | wrapping                                     |
   +--------------------+----------------------------------------------+

   See Appendix C of the JWK specification [JWK] for an example key
   encryption computation using "PBES2-HS256+A128KW".

4.8.1.  Header Parameters Used for PBES2 Key Encryption

   The following Header Parameters are used for Key Encryption with
   PBES2.





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4.8.1.1.  "p2s" (PBES2 Salt Input) Header Parameter

   The "p2s" (PBES2 salt input) Header Parameter encodes a Salt Input
   value, which is used as part of the PBKDF2 salt value.  The "p2s"
   value is BASE64URL(Salt Input).  This Header Parameter MUST be
   present and MUST be understood and processed by implementations when
   these algorithms are used.

   The salt expands the possible keys that can be derived from a given
   password.  A Salt Input value containing 8 or more octets MUST be
   used.  A new Salt Input value MUST be generated randomly for every
   encryption operation; see RFC 4086 [RFC4086] for considerations on
   generating random values.  The salt value used is (UTF8(Alg) || 0x00
   || Salt Input), where Alg is the "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter
   value.

4.8.1.2.  "p2c" (PBES2 Count) Header Parameter

   The "p2c" (PBES2 count) Header Parameter contains the PBKDF2
   iteration count, represented as a positive JSON integer.  This Header
   Parameter MUST be present and MUST be understood and processed by
   implementations when these algorithms are used.

   The iteration count adds computational expense, ideally compounded by
   the possible range of keys introduced by the salt.  A minimum
   iteration count of 1000 is RECOMMENDED.

5.  Cryptographic Algorithms for Content Encryption

   JWE uses cryptographic algorithms to encrypt and integrity-protect
   the plaintext and to integrity-protect the Additional Authenticated
   Data.



















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5.1.  "enc" (Encryption Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWE

   The table below is the set of "enc" (encryption algorithm) Header
   Parameter values that are defined by this specification for use with
   JWE.

   +---------------+----------------------------------+----------------+
   | "enc" Param   | Content Encryption Algorithm     | Implementation |
   | Value         |                                  | Requirements   |
   +---------------+----------------------------------+----------------+
   | A128CBC-HS256 | AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256         | Required       |
   |               | authenticated encryption         |                |
   |               | algorithm, as defined in Section |                |
   |               | 5.2.3                            |                |
   | A192CBC-HS384 | AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384         | Optional       |
   |               | authenticated encryption         |                |
   |               | algorithm, as defined in Section |                |
   |               | 5.2.4                            |                |
   | A256CBC-HS512 | AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512         | Required       |
   |               | authenticated encryption         |                |
   |               | algorithm, as defined in Section |                |
   |               | 5.2.5                            |                |
   | A128GCM       | AES GCM using 128-bit key        | Recommended    |
   | A192GCM       | AES GCM using 192-bit key        | Optional       |
   | A256GCM       | AES GCM using 256-bit key        | Recommended    |
   +---------------+----------------------------------+----------------+

   All also use a JWE Initialization Vector value and produce JWE
   Ciphertext and JWE Authentication Tag values.

   See Appendix A.3 for a table cross-referencing the JWE "enc"
   (encryption algorithm) values defined in this specification with the
   equivalent identifiers used by other standards and software packages.

5.2.  AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Algorithms

   This section defines a family of authenticated encryption algorithms
   built using a composition of AES [AES] in Cipher Block Chaining (CBC)
   mode [NIST.800-38A] with PKCS #7 padding operations per Section 6.3
   of [RFC5652] and HMAC ([RFC2104] and [SHS]) operations.  This
   algorithm family is called AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2.  It also defines three
   instances of this family: the first using 128-bit CBC keys and HMAC
   SHA-256, the second using 192-bit CBC keys and HMAC SHA-384, and the
   third using 256-bit CBC keys and HMAC SHA-512.  Test cases for these
   algorithms can be found in Appendix B.






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   These algorithms are based upon "Authenticated Encryption with AES-
   CBC and HMAC-SHA" [AEAD-CBC-SHA], performing the same cryptographic
   computations, but with the Initialization Vector (IV) and
   Authentication Tag values remaining separate, rather than being
   concatenated with the ciphertext value in the output representation.
   This option is discussed in Appendix B of that specification.  This
   algorithm family is a generalization of the algorithm family in
   [AEAD-CBC-SHA] and can be used to implement those algorithms.

5.2.1.  Conventions Used in Defining AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2

   We use the following notational conventions.

      CBC-PKCS7-ENC(X, P) denotes the AES-CBC encryption of P using PKCS
      #7 padding utilizing the cipher with the key X.
      MAC(Y, M) denotes the application of the MAC to the message M
      using the key Y.

5.2.2.  Generic AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Algorithm

   This section defines AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 in a manner that is
   independent of the AES-CBC key size or hash function to be used.
   Sections 5.2.2.1 and 5.2.2.2 define the generic encryption and
   decryption algorithms.  Sections 5.2.3 through 5.2.5 define instances
   of AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 that specify those details.

5.2.2.1.  AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Encryption

   The authenticated encryption algorithm takes as input four octet
   strings: a secret key K, a plaintext P, Additional Authenticated Data
   A, and an Initialization Vector IV.  The authenticated ciphertext
   value E and the Authentication Tag value T are provided as outputs.
   The data in the plaintext are encrypted and authenticated, and the
   Additional Authenticated Data are authenticated, but not encrypted.

   The encryption process is as follows, or uses an equivalent set of
   steps:

   1.  The secondary keys MAC_KEY and ENC_KEY are generated from the
       input key K as follows.  Each of these two keys is an octet
       string.

          MAC_KEY consists of the initial MAC_KEY_LEN octets of K, in
          order.
          ENC_KEY consists of the final ENC_KEY_LEN octets of K, in
          order.





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       The number of octets in the input key K MUST be the sum of
       MAC_KEY_LEN and ENC_KEY_LEN.  The values of these parameters are
       specified by the Authenticated Encryption algorithms in Sections
       5.2.3 through 5.2.5.  Note that the MAC key comes before the
       encryption key in the input key K; this is in the opposite order
       of the algorithm names in the identifier "AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2".

   2.  The IV used is a 128-bit value generated randomly or
       pseudorandomly for use in the cipher.

   3.  The plaintext is CBC encrypted using PKCS #7 padding using
       ENC_KEY as the key and the IV.  We denote the ciphertext output
       from this step as E.

   4.  The octet string AL is equal to the number of bits in the
       Additional Authenticated Data A expressed as a 64-bit unsigned
       big-endian integer.

   5.  A message Authentication Tag T is computed by applying HMAC
       [RFC2104] to the following data, in order:

          the Additional Authenticated Data A,
          the Initialization Vector IV,
          the ciphertext E computed in the previous step, and
          the octet string AL defined above.

       The string MAC_KEY is used as the MAC key.  We denote the output
       of the MAC computed in this step as M.  The first T_LEN octets of
       M are used as T.

   6.  The ciphertext E and the Authentication Tag T are returned as the
       outputs of the authenticated encryption.

   The encryption process can be illustrated as follows.  Here K, P, A,
   IV, and E denote the key, plaintext, Additional Authenticated Data,
   Initialization Vector, and ciphertext, respectively.

      MAC_KEY = initial MAC_KEY_LEN octets of K,
      ENC_KEY = final ENC_KEY_LEN octets of K,
      E = CBC-PKCS7-ENC(ENC_KEY, P),
      M = MAC(MAC_KEY, A || IV || E || AL),
      T = initial T_LEN octets of M.









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5.2.2.2.  AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Decryption

   The authenticated decryption operation has five inputs: K, A, IV, E,
   and T as defined above.  It has only a single output: either a
   plaintext value P or a special symbol FAIL that indicates that the
   inputs are not authentic.  The authenticated decryption algorithm is
   as follows, or uses an equivalent set of steps:

   1.  The secondary keys MAC_KEY and ENC_KEY are generated from the
       input key K as in Step 1 of Section 5.2.2.1.

   2.  The integrity and authenticity of A and E are checked by
       computing an HMAC with the inputs as in Step 5 of
       Section 5.2.2.1.  The value T, from the previous step, is
       compared to the first MAC_KEY length bits of the HMAC output.  If
       those values are identical, then A and E are considered valid,
       and processing is continued.  Otherwise, all of the data used in
       the MAC validation are discarded, and the authenticated
       decryption operation returns an indication that it failed, and
       the operation halts.  (But see Section 11.5 of [JWE] for security
       considerations on thwarting timing attacks.)

   3.  The value E is decrypted and the PKCS #7 padding is checked and
       removed.  The value IV is used as the Initialization Vector.  The
       value ENC_KEY is used as the decryption key.

   4.  The plaintext value is returned.

5.2.3.  AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256

   This algorithm is a concrete instantiation of the generic
   AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 algorithm above.  It uses the HMAC message
   authentication code [RFC2104] with the SHA-256 hash function [SHS] to
   provide message authentication, with the HMAC output truncated to 128
   bits, corresponding to the HMAC-SHA-256-128 algorithm defined in
   [RFC4868].  For encryption, it uses AES in the CBC mode of operation
   as defined in Section 6.2 of [NIST.800-38A], with PKCS #7 padding and
   a 128-bit IV value.

   The AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 parameters specific to AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256
   are:

      The input key K is 32 octets long.
      ENC_KEY_LEN is 16 octets.
      MAC_KEY_LEN is 16 octets.
      The SHA-256 hash algorithm is used for the HMAC.
      The HMAC-SHA-256 output is truncated to T_LEN=16 octets, by
      stripping off the final 16 octets.



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5.2.4.  AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384

   AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384 is based on AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256, but
   with the following differences:

      The input key K is 48 octets long instead of 32.
      ENC_KEY_LEN is 24 octets instead of 16.
      MAC_KEY_LEN is 24 octets instead of 16.
      SHA-384 is used for the HMAC instead of SHA-256.
      The HMAC SHA-384 value is truncated to T_LEN=24 octets instead of
      16.

5.2.5.  AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512

   AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512 is based on AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256, but
   with the following differences:

      The input key K is 64 octets long instead of 32.
      ENC_KEY_LEN is 32 octets instead of 16.
      MAC_KEY_LEN is 32 octets instead of 16.
      SHA-512 is used for the HMAC instead of SHA-256.
      The HMAC SHA-512 value is truncated to T_LEN=32 octets instead of
      16.

5.2.6.  Content Encryption with AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2

   This section defines the specifics of performing authenticated
   encryption with the AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 algorithms.

   The CEK is used as the secret key K.

   The following "enc" (encryption algorithm) Header Parameter values
   are used to indicate that the JWE Ciphertext and JWE Authentication
   Tag values have been computed using the corresponding algorithm:

   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | "enc" Param   | Content Encryption Algorithm                      |
   | Value         |                                                   |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | A128CBC-HS256 | AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256 authenticated encryption |
   |               | algorithm, as defined in Section 5.2.3            |
   | A192CBC-HS384 | AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384 authenticated encryption |
   |               | algorithm, as defined in Section 5.2.4            |
   | A256CBC-HS512 | AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512 authenticated encryption |
   |               | algorithm, as defined in Section 5.2.5            |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+





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5.3.  Content Encryption with AES GCM

   This section defines the specifics of performing authenticated
   encryption with AES in Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) ([AES] and
   [NIST.800-38D]).

   The CEK is used as the encryption key.

   Use of an IV of size 96 bits is REQUIRED with this algorithm.

   The requested size of the Authentication Tag output MUST be 128 bits,
   regardless of the key size.

   The following "enc" (encryption algorithm) Header Parameter values
   are used to indicate that the JWE Ciphertext and JWE Authentication
   Tag values have been computed using the corresponding algorithm and
   key size:

           +-------------------+------------------------------+
           | "enc" Param Value | Content Encryption Algorithm |
           +-------------------+------------------------------+
           | A128GCM           | AES GCM using 128-bit key    |
           | A192GCM           | AES GCM using 192-bit key    |
           | A256GCM           | AES GCM using 256-bit key    |
           +-------------------+------------------------------+

   An example using this algorithm is shown in Appendix A.1 of [JWE].

6.  Cryptographic Algorithms for Keys

   A JSON Web Key (JWK) [JWK] is a JSON data structure that represents a
   cryptographic key.  These keys can be either asymmetric or symmetric.
   They can hold both public and private information about the key.
   This section defines the parameters for keys using the algorithms
   specified by this document.
















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6.1.  "kty" (Key Type) Parameter Values

   The table below is the set of "kty" (key type) parameter values that
   are defined by this specification for use in JWKs.

   +-------------+--------------------------------+--------------------+
   | "kty" Param | Key Type                       | Implementation     |
   | Value       |                                | Requirements       |
   +-------------+--------------------------------+--------------------+
   | EC          | Elliptic Curve [DSS]           | Recommended+       |
   | RSA         | RSA [RFC3447]                  | Required           |
   | oct         | Octet sequence (used to        | Required           |
   |             | represent symmetric keys)      |                    |
   +-------------+--------------------------------+--------------------+

   The use of "+" in the Implementation Requirements column indicates
   that the requirement strength is likely to be increased in a future
   version of the specification.

6.2.  Parameters for Elliptic Curve Keys

   JWKs can represent Elliptic Curve [DSS] keys.  In this case, the
   "kty" member value is "EC".

6.2.1.  Parameters for Elliptic Curve Public Keys

   An Elliptic Curve public key is represented by a pair of coordinates
   drawn from a finite field, which together define a point on an
   Elliptic Curve.  The following members MUST be present for all
   Elliptic Curve public keys:

   o  "crv"
   o  "x"

   The following member MUST also be present for Elliptic Curve public
   keys for the three curves defined in the following section:

   o  "y"

6.2.1.1.  "crv" (Curve) Parameter

   The "crv" (curve) parameter identifies the cryptographic curve used
   with the key.  Curve values from [DSS] used by this specification
   are:

   o  "P-256"
   o  "P-384"
   o  "P-521"



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   These values are registered in the IANA "JSON Web Key Elliptic Curve"
   registry defined in Section 7.6.  Additional "crv" values can be
   registered by other specifications.  Specifications registering
   additional curves must define what parameters are used to represent
   keys for the curves registered.  The "crv" value is a case-sensitive
   string.

   SEC1 [SEC1] point compression is not supported for any of these three
   curves.

6.2.1.2.  "x" (X Coordinate) Parameter

   The "x" (x coordinate) parameter contains the x coordinate for the
   Elliptic Curve point.  It is represented as the base64url encoding of
   the octet string representation of the coordinate, as defined in
   Section 2.3.5 of SEC1 [SEC1].  The length of this octet string MUST
   be the full size of a coordinate for the curve specified in the "crv"
   parameter.  For example, if the value of "crv" is "P-521", the octet
   string must be 66 octets long.

6.2.1.3.  "y" (Y Coordinate) Parameter

   The "y" (y coordinate) parameter contains the y coordinate for the
   Elliptic Curve point.  It is represented as the base64url encoding of
   the octet string representation of the coordinate, as defined in
   Section 2.3.5 of SEC1 [SEC1].  The length of this octet string MUST
   be the full size of a coordinate for the curve specified in the "crv"
   parameter.  For example, if the value of "crv" is "P-521", the octet
   string must be 66 octets long.

6.2.2.  Parameters for Elliptic Curve Private Keys

   In addition to the members used to represent Elliptic Curve public
   keys, the following member MUST be present to represent Elliptic
   Curve private keys.

6.2.2.1.  "d" (ECC Private Key) Parameter

   The "d" (ECC private key) parameter contains the Elliptic Curve
   private key value.  It is represented as the base64url encoding of
   the octet string representation of the private key value, as defined
   in Section 2.3.7 of SEC1 [SEC1].  The length of this octet string
   MUST be ceiling(log-base-2(n)/8) octets (where n is the order of the
   curve).







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6.3.  Parameters for RSA Keys

   JWKs can represent RSA [RFC3447] keys.  In this case, the "kty"
   member value is "RSA".  The semantics of the parameters defined below
   are the same as those defined in Sections 3.1 and 3.2 of RFC 3447.

6.3.1.  Parameters for RSA Public Keys

   The following members MUST be present for RSA public keys.

6.3.1.1.  "n" (Modulus) Parameter

   The "n" (modulus) parameter contains the modulus value for the RSA
   public key.  It is represented as a Base64urlUInt-encoded value.

   Note that implementers have found that some cryptographic libraries
   prefix an extra zero-valued octet to the modulus representations they
   return, for instance, returning 257 octets for a 2048-bit key, rather
   than 256.  Implementations using such libraries will need to take
   care to omit the extra octet from the base64url-encoded
   representation.

6.3.1.2.  "e" (Exponent) Parameter

   The "e" (exponent) parameter contains the exponent value for the RSA
   public key.  It is represented as a Base64urlUInt-encoded value.

   For instance, when representing the value 65537, the octet sequence
   to be base64url-encoded MUST consist of the three octets [1, 0, 1];
   the resulting representation for this value is "AQAB".

6.3.2.  Parameters for RSA Private Keys

   In addition to the members used to represent RSA public keys, the
   following members are used to represent RSA private keys.  The
   parameter "d" is REQUIRED for RSA private keys.  The others enable
   optimizations and SHOULD be included by producers of JWKs
   representing RSA private keys.  If the producer includes any of the
   other private key parameters, then all of the others MUST be present,
   with the exception of "oth", which MUST only be present when more
   than two prime factors were used.

6.3.2.1.  "d" (Private Exponent) Parameter

   The "d" (private exponent) parameter contains the private exponent
   value for the RSA private key.  It is represented as a Base64urlUInt-
   encoded value.




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6.3.2.2.  "p" (First Prime Factor) Parameter

   The "p" (first prime factor) parameter contains the first prime
   factor.  It is represented as a Base64urlUInt-encoded value.

6.3.2.3.  "q" (Second Prime Factor) Parameter

   The "q" (second prime factor) parameter contains the second prime
   factor.  It is represented as a Base64urlUInt-encoded value.

6.3.2.4.  "dp" (First Factor CRT Exponent) Parameter

   The "dp" (first factor CRT exponent) parameter contains the Chinese
   Remainder Theorem (CRT) exponent of the first factor.  It is
   represented as a Base64urlUInt-encoded value.

6.3.2.5.  "dq" (Second Factor CRT Exponent) Parameter

   The "dq" (second factor CRT exponent) parameter contains the CRT
   exponent of the second factor.  It is represented as a Base64urlUInt-
   encoded value.

6.3.2.6.  "qi" (First CRT Coefficient) Parameter

   The "qi" (first CRT coefficient) parameter contains the CRT
   coefficient of the second factor.  It is represented as a
   Base64urlUInt-encoded value.

6.3.2.7.  "oth" (Other Primes Info) Parameter

   The "oth" (other primes info) parameter contains an array of
   information about any third and subsequent primes, should they exist.
   When only two primes have been used (the normal case), this parameter
   MUST be omitted.  When three or more primes have been used, the
   number of array elements MUST be the number of primes used minus two.
   For more information on this case, see the description of the
   OtherPrimeInfo parameters in Appendix A.1.2 of RFC 3447 [RFC3447],
   upon which the following parameters are modeled.  If the consumer of
   a JWK does not support private keys with more than two primes and it
   encounters a private key that includes the "oth" parameter, then it
   MUST NOT use the key.  Each array element MUST be an object with the
   following members.

6.3.2.7.1.  "r" (Prime Factor)

   The "r" (prime factor) parameter within an "oth" array member
   represents the value of a subsequent prime factor.  It is represented
   as a Base64urlUInt-encoded value.



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6.3.2.7.2.  "d" (Factor CRT Exponent)

   The "d" (factor CRT exponent) parameter within an "oth" array member
   represents the CRT exponent of the corresponding prime factor.  It is
   represented as a Base64urlUInt-encoded value.

6.3.2.7.3.  "t" (Factor CRT Coefficient)

   The "t" (factor CRT coefficient) parameter within an "oth" array
   member represents the CRT coefficient of the corresponding prime
   factor.  It is represented as a Base64urlUInt-encoded value.

6.4.  Parameters for Symmetric Keys

   When the JWK "kty" member value is "oct" (octet sequence), the member
   "k" (see Section 6.4.1) is used to represent a symmetric key (or
   another key whose value is a single octet sequence).  An "alg" member
   SHOULD also be present to identify the algorithm intended to be used
   with the key, unless the application uses another means or convention
   to determine the algorithm used.

6.4.1.  "k" (Key Value) Parameter

   The "k" (key value) parameter contains the value of the symmetric (or
   other single-valued) key.  It is represented as the base64url
   encoding of the octet sequence containing the key value.

7.  IANA Considerations

   The following registration procedure is used for all the registries
   established by this specification.

   The registration procedure for values is Specification Required
   [RFC5226] after a three-week review period on the
   jose-reg-review@ietf.org mailing list, on the advice of one or more
   Designated Experts.  However, to allow for the allocation of values
   prior to publication, the Designated Experts may approve registration
   once they are satisfied that such a specification will be published.

   Registration requests sent to the mailing list for review should use
   an appropriate subject (e.g., "Request to register algorithm:
   example").

   Within the review period, the Designated Experts will either approve
   or deny the registration request, communicating this decision to the
   review list and IANA.  Denials should include an explanation and, if
   applicable, suggestions as to how to make the request successful.




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   Registration requests that are undetermined for a period longer than
   21 days can be brought to the IESG's attention (using the
   iesg@ietf.org mailing list) for resolution.

   Criteria that should be applied by the Designated Experts include
   determining whether the proposed registration duplicates existing
   functionality, whether it is likely to be of general applicability or
   useful only for a single application, and whether the registration
   description is clear.

   IANA must only accept registry updates from the Designated Experts
   and should direct all requests for registration to the review mailing
   list.

   It is suggested that multiple Designated Experts be appointed who are
   able to represent the perspectives of different applications using
   this specification, in order to enable broadly informed review of
   registration decisions.  In cases where a registration decision could
   be perceived as creating a conflict of interest for a particular
   Expert, that Expert should defer to the judgment of the other
   Experts.

7.1.  JSON Web Signature and Encryption Algorithms Registry

   This specification establishes the IANA "JSON Web Signature and
   Encryption Algorithms" registry for values of the JWS and JWE "alg"
   (algorithm) and "enc" (encryption algorithm) Header Parameters.  The
   registry records the algorithm name, the algorithm description, the
   algorithm usage locations, the implementation requirements, the
   change controller, and a reference to the specification that defines
   it.  The same algorithm name can be registered multiple times,
   provided that the sets of usage locations are disjoint.

   It is suggested that the length of the key be included in the
   algorithm name when multiple variations of algorithms are being
   registered that use keys of different lengths and the key lengths for
   each need to be fixed (for instance, because they will be created by
   key derivation functions).  This allows readers of the JSON text to
   more easily make security decisions.

   The Designated Experts should perform reasonable due diligence that
   algorithms being registered either are currently considered
   cryptographically credible or are being registered as Deprecated or
   Prohibited.







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   The implementation requirements of an algorithm may be changed over
   time as the cryptographic landscape evolves, for instance, to change
   the status of an algorithm to Deprecated or to change the status of
   an algorithm from Optional to Recommended+ or Required.  Changes of
   implementation requirements are only permitted on a Specification
   Required basis after review by the Designated Experts, with the new
   specification defining the revised implementation requirements level.

7.1.1.  Registration Template

   Algorithm Name:
      The name requested (e.g., "HS256").  This name is a case-sensitive
      ASCII string.  Names may not match other registered names in a
      case-insensitive manner unless the Designated Experts state that
      there is a compelling reason to allow an exception.

   Algorithm Description:
      Brief description of the algorithm (e.g., "HMAC using SHA-256").

   Algorithm Usage Location(s):
      The algorithm usage locations.  This must be one or more of the
      values "alg" or "enc" if the algorithm is to be used with JWS or
      JWE.  The value "JWK" is used if the algorithm identifier will be
      used as a JWK "alg" member value, but will not be used with JWS or
      JWE; this could be the case, for instance, for non-authenticated
      encryption algorithms.  Other values may be used with the approval
      of a Designated Expert.

   JOSE Implementation Requirements:
      The algorithm implementation requirements for JWS and JWE, which
      must be one the words Required, Recommended, Optional, Deprecated,
      or Prohibited.  Optionally, the word can be followed by a "+" or
      "-".  The use of "+" indicates that the requirement strength is
      likely to be increased in a future version of the specification.
      The use of "-" indicates that the requirement strength is likely
      to be decreased in a future version of the specification.  Any
      identifiers registered for non-authenticated encryption algorithms
      or other algorithms that are otherwise unsuitable for direct use
      as JWS or JWE algorithms must be registered as "Prohibited".

   Change Controller:
      For Standards Track RFCs, list the "IESG".  For others, give the
      name of the responsible party.  Other details (e.g., postal
      address, email address, home page URI) may also be included.







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   Specification Document(s):
      Reference to the document or documents that specify the parameter,
      preferably including URIs that can be used to retrieve copies of
      the documents.  An indication of the relevant sections may also be
      included but is not required.

   Algorithm Analysis Documents(s):
      References to a publication or publications in well-known
      cryptographic conferences, by national standards bodies, or by
      other authoritative sources analyzing the cryptographic soundness
      of the algorithm to be registered.  The Designated Experts may
      require convincing evidence of the cryptographic soundness of a
      new algorithm to be provided with the registration request unless
      the algorithm is being registered as Deprecated or Prohibited.
      Having gone through working group and IETF review, the initial
      registrations made by this document are exempt from the need to
      provide this information.

7.1.2.  Initial Registry Contents

   o  Algorithm Name: "HS256"
   o  Algorithm Description: HMAC using SHA-256
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Required
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 3.2 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a

   o  Algorithm Name: "HS384"
   o  Algorithm Description: HMAC using SHA-384
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 3.2 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a

   o  Algorithm Name: "HS512"
   o  Algorithm Description: HMAC using SHA-512
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 3.2 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a








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   o  Algorithm Name: "RS256"
   o  Algorithm Description: RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 using SHA-256
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 3.3 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a

   o  Algorithm Name: "RS384"
   o  Algorithm Description: RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 using SHA-384
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 3.3 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a

   o  Algorithm Name: "RS512"
   o  Algorithm Description: RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 using SHA-512
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 3.3 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a

   o  Algorithm Name: "ES256"
   o  Algorithm Description: ECDSA using P-256 and SHA-256
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended+
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 3.4 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a

   o  Algorithm Name: "ES384"
   o  Algorithm Description: ECDSA using P-384 and SHA-384
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 3.4 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a

   o  Algorithm Name: "ES512"
   o  Algorithm Description: ECDSA using P-521 and SHA-512
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 3.4 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a




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   o  Algorithm Name: "PS256"
   o  Algorithm Description: RSASSA-PSS using SHA-256 and MGF1 with
      SHA-256
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 3.5 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a

   o  Algorithm Name: "PS384"
   o  Algorithm Description: RSASSA-PSS using SHA-384 and MGF1 with
      SHA-384
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 3.5 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a

   o  Algorithm Name: "PS512"
   o  Algorithm Description: RSASSA-PSS using SHA-512 and MGF1 with
      SHA-512
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 3.5 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a

   o  Algorithm Name: "none"
   o  Algorithm Description: No digital signature or MAC performed
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 3.6 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a

   o  Algorithm Name: "RSA1_5"
   o  Algorithm Description: RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended-
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 4.2 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a









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   o  Algorithm Name: "RSA-OAEP"
   o  Algorithm Description: RSAES OAEP using default parameters
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended+
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 4.3 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a

   o  Algorithm Name: "RSA-OAEP-256"
   o  Algorithm Description: RSAES OAEP using SHA-256 and MGF1 with
      SHA-256
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 4.3 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a

   o  Algorithm Name: "A128KW"
   o  Algorithm Description: AES Key Wrap using 128-bit key
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 4.4 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a

   o  Algorithm Name: "A192KW"
   o  Algorithm Description: AES Key Wrap using 192-bit key
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 4.4 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a

   o  Algorithm Name: "A256KW"
   o  Algorithm Description: AES Key Wrap using 256-bit key
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 4.4 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a

   o  Algorithm Name: "dir"
   o  Algorithm Description: Direct use of a shared symmetric key
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 4.5 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a



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   o  Algorithm Name: "ECDH-ES"
   o  Algorithm Description: ECDH-ES using Concat KDF
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended+
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 4.6 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a

   o  Algorithm Name: "ECDH-ES+A128KW"
   o  Algorithm Description: ECDH-ES using Concat KDF and "A128KW"
      wrapping
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 4.6 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a

   o  Algorithm Name: "ECDH-ES+A192KW"
   o  Algorithm Description: ECDH-ES using Concat KDF and "A192KW"
      wrapping
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 4.6 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a

   o  Algorithm Name: "ECDH-ES+A256KW"
   o  Algorithm Description: ECDH-ES using Concat KDF and "A256KW"
      wrapping
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 4.6 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a

   o  Algorithm Name: "A128GCMKW"
   o  Algorithm Description: Key wrapping with AES GCM using 128-bit key
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 4.7 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a









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   o  Algorithm Name: "A192GCMKW"
   o  Algorithm Description: Key wrapping with AES GCM using 192-bit key
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 4.7 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a

   o  Algorithm Name: "A256GCMKW"
   o  Algorithm Description: Key wrapping with AES GCM using 256-bit key
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 4.7 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a

   o  Algorithm Name: "PBES2-HS256+A128KW"
   o  Algorithm Description: PBES2 with HMAC SHA-256 and "A128KW"
      wrapping
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 4.8 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a

   o  Algorithm Name: "PBES2-HS384+A192KW"
   o  Algorithm Description: PBES2 with HMAC SHA-384 and "A192KW"
      wrapping
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 4.8 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a

   o  Algorithm Name: "PBES2-HS512+A256KW"
   o  Algorithm Description: PBES2 with HMAC SHA-512 and "A256KW"
      wrapping
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 4.8 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a









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   o  Algorithm Name: "A128CBC-HS256"
   o  Algorithm Description: AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256 authenticated
      encryption algorithm
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "enc"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Required
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 5.2.3 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a

   o  Algorithm Name: "A192CBC-HS384"
   o  Algorithm Description: AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384 authenticated
      encryption algorithm
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "enc"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 5.2.4 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a

   o  Algorithm Name: "A256CBC-HS512"
   o  Algorithm Description: AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512 authenticated
      encryption algorithm
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "enc"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Required
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 5.2.5 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a

   o  Algorithm Name: "A128GCM"
   o  Algorithm Description: AES GCM using 128-bit key
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "enc"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 5.3 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a

   o  Algorithm Name: "A192GCM"
   o  Algorithm Description: AES GCM using 192-bit key
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "enc"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 5.3 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a









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   o  Algorithm Name: "A256GCM"
   o  Algorithm Description: AES GCM using 256-bit key
   o  Algorithm Usage Location(s): "enc"
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 5.3 of RFC 7518
   o  Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a

7.2.  Header Parameter Names Registration

   This section registers the Header Parameter names defined in Sections
   4.6.1, 4.7.1, and 4.8.1 of this specification in the IANA "JSON Web
   Signature and Encryption Header Parameters" registry established by
   [JWS].

7.2.1.  Registry Contents

   o  Header Parameter Name: "epk"
   o  Header Parameter Description: Ephemeral Public Key
   o  Header Parameter Usage Location(s): JWE
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 4.6.1.1 of RFC 7518

   o  Header Parameter Name: "apu"
   o  Header Parameter Description: Agreement PartyUInfo
   o  Header Parameter Usage Location(s): JWE
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 4.6.1.2 of RFC 7518

   o  Header Parameter Name: "apv"
   o  Header Parameter Description: Agreement PartyVInfo
   o  Header Parameter Usage Location(s): JWE
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 4.6.1.3 of RFC 7518

   o  Header Parameter Name: "iv"
   o  Header Parameter Description: Initialization Vector
   o  Header Parameter Usage Location(s): JWE
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 4.7.1.1 of RFC 7518

   o  Header Parameter Name: "tag"
   o  Header Parameter Description: Authentication Tag
   o  Header Parameter Usage Location(s): JWE
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 4.7.1.2 of RFC 7518





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   o  Header Parameter Name: "p2s"
   o  Header Parameter Description: PBES2 Salt Input
   o  Header Parameter Usage Location(s): JWE
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 4.8.1.1 of RFC 7518

   o  Header Parameter Name: "p2c"
   o  Header Parameter Description: PBES2 Count
   o  Header Parameter Usage Location(s): JWE
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 4.8.1.2 of RFC 7518

7.3.  JSON Web Encryption Compression Algorithms Registry

   This specification establishes the IANA "JSON Web Encryption
   Compression Algorithms" registry for JWE "zip" member values.  The
   registry records the compression algorithm value and a reference to
   the specification that defines it.

7.3.1.  Registration Template

   Compression Algorithm Value:
      The name requested (e.g., "DEF").  Because a core goal of this
      specification is for the resulting representations to be compact,
      it is RECOMMENDED that the name be short -- not to exceed 8
      characters without a compelling reason to do so.  This name is
      case sensitive.  Names may not match other registered names in a
      case-insensitive manner unless the Designated Experts state that
      there is a compelling reason to allow an exception.

   Compression Algorithm Description:
      Brief description of the compression algorithm (e.g., "DEFLATE").

   Change Controller:
      For Standards Track RFCs, list "IESG".  For others, give the name
      of the responsible party.  Other details (e.g., postal address,
      email address, home page URI) may also be included.

   Specification Document(s):
      Reference to the document or documents that specify the parameter,
      preferably including URIs that can be used to retrieve copies of
      the documents.  An indication of the relevant sections may also be
      included but is not required.








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7.3.2.  Initial Registry Contents

   o  Compression Algorithm Value: "DEF"
   o  Compression Algorithm Description: DEFLATE
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): JSON Web Encryption (JWE) [JWE]

7.4.  JSON Web Key Types Registry

   This specification establishes the IANA "JSON Web Key Types" registry
   for values of the JWK "kty" (key type) parameter.  The registry
   records the "kty" value, implementation requirements, and a reference
   to the specification that defines it.

   The implementation requirements of a key type may be changed over
   time as the cryptographic landscape evolves, for instance, to change
   the status of a key type to Deprecated or to change the status of a
   key type from Optional to Recommended+ or Required.  Changes of
   implementation requirements are only permitted on a Specification
   Required basis after review by the Designated Experts, with the new
   specification defining the revised implementation requirements level.

7.4.1.  Registration Template

   "kty" Parameter Value:
      The name requested (e.g., "EC").  Because a core goal of this
      specification is for the resulting representations to be compact,
      it is RECOMMENDED that the name be short -- not to exceed 8
      characters without a compelling reason to do so.  This name is
      case sensitive.  Names may not match other registered names in a
      case-insensitive manner unless the Designated Experts state that
      there is a compelling reason to allow an exception.

   Key Type Description:
      Brief description of the Key Type (e.g., "Elliptic Curve").

   Change Controller:
      For Standards Track RFCs, list "IESG".  For others, give the name
      of the responsible party.  Other details (e.g., postal address,
      email address, home page URI) may also be included.











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   JOSE Implementation Requirements:
      The key type implementation requirements for JWS and JWE, which
      must be one the words Required, Recommended, Optional, Deprecated,
      or Prohibited.  Optionally, the word can be followed by a "+" or
      "-".  The use of "+" indicates that the requirement strength is
      likely to be increased in a future version of the specification.
      The use of "-" indicates that the requirement strength is likely
      to be decreased in a future version of the specification.

   Specification Document(s):
      Reference to the document or documents that specify the parameter,
      preferably including URIs that can be used to retrieve copies of
      the documents.  An indication of the relevant sections may also be
      included but is not required.

7.4.2.  Initial Registry Contents

   This section registers the values defined in Section 6.1.

   o  "kty" Parameter Value: "EC"
   o  Key Type Description: Elliptic Curve
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended+
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 6.2 of RFC 7518

   o  "kty" Parameter Value: "RSA"
   o  Key Type Description: RSA
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Required
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 6.3 of RFC 7518

   o  "kty" Parameter Value: "oct"
   o  Key Type Description: Octet Sequence
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Required
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 6.4 of RFC 7518

7.5.  JSON Web Key Parameters Registration

   This section registers the parameter names defined in Sections 6.2,
   6.3, and 6.4 of this specification in the IANA "JSON Web Key
   Parameters" registry established by [JWK].









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7.5.1.  Registry Contents

   o  Parameter Name: "crv"
   o  Parameter Description: Curve
   o  Used with "kty" Value(s): "EC"
   o  Parameter Information Class: Public
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 6.2.1.1 of RFC 7518

   o  Parameter Name: "x"
   o  Parameter Description: X Coordinate
   o  Used with "kty" Value(s): "EC"
   o  Parameter Information Class: Public
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 6.2.1.2 of RFC 7518

   o  Parameter Name: "y"
   o  Parameter Description: Y Coordinate
   o  Used with "kty" Value(s): "EC"
   o  Parameter Information Class: Public
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 6.2.1.3 of RFC 7518

   o  Parameter Name: "d"
   o  Parameter Description: ECC Private Key
   o  Used with "kty" Value(s): "EC"
   o  Parameter Information Class: Private
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 6.2.2.1 of RFC 7518

   o  Parameter Name: "n"
   o  Parameter Description: Modulus
   o  Used with "kty" Value(s): "RSA"
   o  Parameter Information Class: Public
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 6.3.1.1 of RFC 7518

   o  Parameter Name: "e"
   o  Parameter Description: Exponent
   o  Used with "kty" Value(s): "RSA"
   o  Parameter Information Class: Public
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 6.3.1.2 of RFC 7518








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   o  Parameter Name: "d"
   o  Parameter Description: Private Exponent
   o  Used with "kty" Value(s): "RSA"
   o  Parameter Information Class: Private
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 6.3.2.1 of RFC 7518

   o  Parameter Name: "p"
   o  Parameter Description: First Prime Factor
   o  Used with "kty" Value(s): "RSA"
   o  Parameter Information Class: Private
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 6.3.2.2 of RFC 7518

   o  Parameter Name: "q"
   o  Parameter Description: Second Prime Factor
   o  Used with "kty" Value(s): "RSA"
   o  Parameter Information Class: Private
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 6.3.2.3 of RFC 7518

   o  Parameter Name: "dp"
   o  Parameter Description: First Factor CRT Exponent
   o  Used with "kty" Value(s): "RSA"
   o  Parameter Information Class: Private
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 6.3.2.4 of RFC 7518

   o  Parameter Name: "dq"
   o  Parameter Description: Second Factor CRT Exponent
   o  Used with "kty" Value(s): "RSA"
   o  Parameter Information Class: Private
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 6.3.2.5 of RFC 7518

   o  Parameter Name: "qi"
   o  Parameter Description: First CRT Coefficient
   o  Used with "kty" Value(s): "RSA"
   o  Parameter Information Class: Private
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 6.3.2.6 of RFC 7518










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   o  Parameter Name: "oth"
   o  Parameter Description: Other Primes Info
   o  Used with "kty" Value(s): "RSA"
   o  Parameter Information Class: Private
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 6.3.2.7 of RFC 7518

   o  Parameter Name: "k"
   o  Parameter Description: Key Value
   o  Used with "kty" Value(s): "oct"
   o  Parameter Information Class: Private
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 6.4.1 of RFC 7518

7.6.  JSON Web Key Elliptic Curve Registry

   This section establishes the IANA "JSON Web Key Elliptic Curve"
   registry for JWK "crv" member values.  The registry records the curve
   name, implementation requirements, and a reference to the
   specification that defines it.  This specification registers the
   parameter names defined in Section 6.2.1.1.

   The implementation requirements of a curve may be changed over time
   as the cryptographic landscape evolves, for instance, to change the
   status of a curve to Deprecated or to change the status of a curve
   from Optional to Recommended+ or Required.  Changes of implementation
   requirements are only permitted on a Specification Required basis
   after review by the Designated Experts, with the new specification
   defining the revised implementation requirements level.

7.6.1.  Registration Template

   Curve Name:
      The name requested (e.g., "P-256").  Because a core goal of this
      specification is for the resulting representations to be compact,
      it is RECOMMENDED that the name be short -- not to exceed 8
      characters without a compelling reason to do so.  This name is
      case sensitive.  Names may not match other registered names in a
      case-insensitive manner unless the Designated Experts state that
      there is a compelling reason to allow an exception.

   Curve Description:
      Brief description of the curve (e.g., "P-256 Curve").

   JOSE Implementation Requirements:
      The curve implementation requirements for JWS and JWE, which must
      be one the words Required, Recommended, Optional, Deprecated, or
      Prohibited.  Optionally, the word can be followed by a "+" or "-".



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      The use of "+" indicates that the requirement strength is likely
      to be increased in a future version of the specification.  The use
      of "-" indicates that the requirement strength is likely to be
      decreased in a future version of the specification.

   Change Controller:
      For Standards Track RFCs, list "IESG".  For others, give the name
      of the responsible party.  Other details (e.g., postal address,
      email address, home page URI) may also be included.

   Specification Document(s):
      Reference to the document or documents that specify the parameter,
      preferably including URIs that can be used to retrieve copies of
      the documents.  An indication of the relevant sections may also be
      included but is not required.

7.6.2.  Initial Registry Contents

   o  Curve Name: "P-256"
   o  Curve Description: P-256 Curve
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended+
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 6.2.1.1 of RFC 7518

   o  Curve Name: "P-384"
   o  Curve Description: P-384 Curve
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 6.2.1.1 of RFC 7518

   o  Curve Name: "P-521"
   o  Curve Description: P-521 Curve
   o  JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
   o  Change Controller: IESG
   o  Specification Document(s): Section 6.2.1.1 of RFC 7518

8.  Security Considerations

   All of the security issues that are pertinent to any cryptographic
   application must be addressed by JWS/JWE/JWK agents.  Among these
   issues are protecting the user's asymmetric private and symmetric
   secret keys and employing countermeasures to various attacks.

   The security considerations in [AES], [DSS], [JWE], [JWK], [JWS],
   [NIST.800-38D], [NIST.800-56A], [NIST.800-107], [RFC2104], [RFC3394],
   [RFC3447], [RFC5116], [RFC6090], and [SHS] apply to this
   specification.




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8.1.  Cryptographic Agility

   Implementers should be aware that cryptographic algorithms become
   weaker with time.  As new cryptanalysis techniques are developed and
   computing performance improves, the work factor to break a particular
   cryptographic algorithm will be reduced.  Therefore, implementers and
   deployments must be prepared for the set of algorithms that are
   supported and used to change over time.  Thus, cryptographic
   algorithm implementations should be modular, allowing new algorithms
   to be readily inserted.

8.2.  Key Lifetimes

   Many algorithms have associated security considerations related to
   key lifetimes and/or the number of times that a key may be used.
   Those security considerations continue to apply when using those
   algorithms with JOSE data structures.  See NIST SP 800-57
   [NIST.800-57] for specific guidance on key lifetimes.

8.3.  RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5 Security Considerations

   While Section 8 of RFC 3447 [RFC3447] explicitly calls for people not
   to adopt RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 for new applications and instead requests
   that people transition to RSASSA-PSS, this specification does include
   RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5, for interoperability reasons, because it is
   commonly implemented.

   Keys used with RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5 must follow the constraints in
   Section 7.2 of RFC 3447.  Also, keys with a low public key exponent
   value, as described in Section 3 of "Twenty Years of Attacks on the
   RSA Cryptosystem" [Boneh99], must not be used.

8.4.  AES GCM Security Considerations

   Keys used with AES GCM must follow the constraints in Section 8.3 of
   [NIST.800-38D], which states: "The total number of invocations of the
   authenticated encryption function shall not exceed 2^32, including
   all IV lengths and all instances of the authenticated encryption
   function with the given key".  In accordance with this rule, AES GCM
   MUST NOT be used with the same key value more than 2^32 times.

   An IV value MUST NOT ever be used multiple times with the same AES
   GCM key.  One way to prevent this is to store a counter with the key
   and increment it with every use.  The counter can also be used to
   prevent exceeding the 2^32 limit above.

   This security consideration does not apply to the composite AES-CBC
   HMAC SHA-2 or AES Key Wrap algorithms.



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8.5.  Unsecured JWS Security Considerations

   Unsecured JWSs (JWSs that use the "alg" value "none") provide no
   integrity protection.  Thus, they must only be used in contexts in
   which the payload is secured by means other than a digital signature
   or MAC value, or they need not be secured.

   An example means of preventing accepting Unsecured JWSs by default is
   for the "verify" method of a hypothetical JWS software library to
   have a Boolean "acceptUnsecured" parameter that indicates "none" is
   an acceptable "alg" value.  As another example, the "verify" method
   might take a list of algorithms that are acceptable to the
   application as a parameter and would reject Unsecured JWS values if
   "none" is not in that list.

   The following example illustrates the reasons for not accepting
   Unsecured JWSs at a global level.  Suppose an application accepts
   JWSs over two channels, (1) HTTP and (2) HTTPS with client
   authentication.  It requires a JWS Signature on objects received over
   HTTP, but accepts Unsecured JWSs over HTTPS.  If the application were
   to globally indicate that "none" is acceptable, then an attacker
   could provide it with an Unsecured JWS over HTTP and still have that
   object successfully validate.  Instead, the application needs to
   indicate acceptance of "none" for each object received over HTTPS
   (e.g., by setting "acceptUnsecured" to "true" for the first
   hypothetical JWS software library above), but not for each object
   received over HTTP.

8.6.  Denial-of-Service Attacks

   Receiving agents that validate signatures and sending agents that
   encrypt messages need to be cautious of cryptographic processing
   usage when validating signatures and encrypting messages using keys
   larger than those mandated in this specification.  An attacker could
   supply content using keys that would result in excessive
   cryptographic processing, for example, keys larger than those
   mandated in this specification.  Implementations should set and
   enforce upper limits on the key sizes they accept.  Section 5.6.1
   (Comparable Algorithm Strengths) of NIST SP 800-57 [NIST.800-57]
   contains statements on largest approved key sizes that may be
   applicable.

8.7.  Reusing Key Material when Encrypting Keys

   It is NOT RECOMMENDED to reuse the same entire set of key material
   (Key Encryption Key, Content Encryption Key, Initialization Vector,
   etc.) to encrypt multiple JWK or JWK Set objects, or to encrypt the
   same JWK or JWK Set object multiple times.  One suggestion for



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   preventing reuse is to always generate at least one new piece of key
   material for each encryption operation (e.g., a new Content
   Encryption Key, a new IV, and/or a new PBES2 Salt), based on the
   considerations noted in this document as well as from RFC 4086
   [RFC4086].

8.8.  Password Considerations

   Passwords are vulnerable to a number of attacks.  To help mitigate
   some of these limitations, this document applies principles from RFC
   2898 [RFC2898] to derive cryptographic keys from user-supplied
   passwords.

   However, the strength of the password still has a significant impact.
   A high-entropy password has greater resistance to dictionary attacks.
   [NIST.800-63-2] contains guidelines for estimating password entropy,
   which can help applications and users generate stronger passwords.

   An ideal password is one that is as large as (or larger than) the
   derived key length.  However, passwords larger than a certain
   algorithm-specific size are first hashed, which reduces an attacker's
   effective search space to the length of the hash algorithm.  It is
   RECOMMENDED that a password used for "PBES2-HS256+A128KW" be no
   shorter than 16 octets and no longer than 128 octets and a password
   used for "PBES2-HS512+A256KW" be no shorter than 32 octets and no
   longer than 128 octets long.

   Still, care needs to be taken in where and how password-based
   encryption is used.  These algorithms can still be susceptible to
   dictionary-based attacks if the iteration count is too small; this is
   of particular concern if these algorithms are used to protect data
   that an attacker can have indefinite number of attempts to circumvent
   the protection, such as protected data stored on a file system.

8.9.  Key Entropy and Random Values

   See Section 10.1 of [JWS] for security considerations on key entropy
   and random values.

8.10.  Differences between Digital Signatures and MACs

   See Section 10.5 of [JWS] for security considerations on differences
   between digital signatures and MACs.








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8.11.  Using Matching Algorithm Strengths

   See Section 11.3 of [JWE] for security considerations on using
   matching algorithm strengths.

8.12.  Adaptive Chosen-Ciphertext Attacks

   See Section 11.4 of [JWE] for security considerations on adaptive
   chosen-ciphertext attacks.

8.13.  Timing Attacks

   See Section 10.9 of [JWS] and Section 11.5 of [JWE] for security
   considerations on timing attacks.

8.14.  RSA Private Key Representations and Blinding

   See Section 9.3 of [JWK] for security considerations on RSA private
   key representations and blinding.

9.  Internationalization Considerations

   Passwords obtained from users are likely to require preparation and
   normalization to account for differences of octet sequences generated
   by different input devices, locales, etc.  It is RECOMMENDED that
   applications perform the steps outlined in [PRECIS] to prepare a
   password supplied directly by a user before performing key derivation
   and encryption.

10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [AES]      National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
              "Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)", FIPS PUB 197,
              November 2001, <http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/
              fips/fips197/fips-197.pdf>.

   [Boneh99]  "Twenty Years of Attacks on the RSA Cryptosystem", Notices
              of the American Mathematical Society (AMS), Vol. 46,
              No. 2, pp. 203-213, 1999, <http://crypto.stanford.edu/
              ~dabo/pubs/papers/RSA-survey.pdf>.









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   [DSS]      National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
              "Digital Signature Standard (DSS)", FIPS PUB 186-4, July
              2013, <http://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/FIPS/
              NIST.FIPS.186-4.pdf>.

   [JWE]      Jones, M. and J. Hildebrand, "JSON Web Encryption (JWE)",
              RFC 7516, DOI 10.17487/RFC7516, May 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7516>.

   [JWK]      Jones, M., "JSON Web Key (JWK)", RFC 7517,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7517, May 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7517>.

   [JWS]      Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web
              Signature (JWS)", RFC 7515, DOI 10.17487/RFC7515, May
              2015, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7515>.

   [NIST.800-38A]
              National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
              "Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation", NIST
              Special Publication 800-38A, December 2001,
              <http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-38a/
              sp800-38a.pdf>.

   [NIST.800-38D]
              National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
              "Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation:
              Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) and GMAC", NIST Special
              Publication 800-38D, December 2001,
              <http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-38D/
              SP-800-38D.pdf>.

   [NIST.800-56A]
              National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
              "Recommendation for Pair-Wise Key Establishment Schemes
              Using Discrete Logarithm Cryptography", NIST Special
              Publication 800-56A, Revision 2, May 2013,
              <http://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/
              NIST.SP.800-56Ar2.pdf>.

   [NIST.800-57]
              National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
              "Recommendation for Key Management - Part 1: General
              (Revision 3)", NIST Special Publication 800-57, Part 1,
              Revision 3, July 2012, <http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/
              nistpubs/800-57/sp800-57_part1_rev3_general.pdf>.





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   [RFC20]    Cerf, V., "ASCII format for Network Interchange", STD 80,
              RFC 20, DOI 10.17487/RFC0020, October 1969,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc20>.

   [RFC2104]  Krawczyk, H., Bellare, M., and R. Canetti, "HMAC:
              Keyed-Hashing for Message Authentication", RFC 2104,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2104, February 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2104>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC2898]  Kaliski, B., "PKCS #5: Password-Based Cryptography
              Specification Version 2.0", RFC 2898,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2898, September 2000,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2898>.

   [RFC3394]  Schaad, J. and R. Housley, "Advanced Encryption Standard
              (AES) Key Wrap Algorithm", RFC 3394, DOI 10.17487/RFC3394,
              September 2002, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3394>.

   [RFC3447]  Jonsson, J. and B. Kaliski, "Public-Key Cryptography
              Standards (PKCS) #1: RSA Cryptography Specifications
              Version 2.1", RFC 3447, DOI 10.17487/RFC3447, February
              2003, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3447>.

   [RFC3629]  Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
              10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, DOI 10.17487/RFC3629, November
              2003, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3629>.

   [RFC4868]  Kelly, S. and S. Frankel, "Using HMAC-SHA-256,
              HMAC-SHA-384, and HMAC-SHA-512 with IPsec", RFC 4868,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4868, May 2007,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4868>.

   [RFC4949]  Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2",
              FYI 36, RFC 4949, DOI 10.17487/RFC4949, August 2007,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4949>.

   [RFC5652]  Housley, R., "Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)", STD 70,
              RFC 5652, DOI 10.17487/RFC5652, September 2009,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5652>.







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   [RFC6090]  McGrew, D., Igoe, K., and M. Salter, "Fundamental Elliptic
              Curve Cryptography Algorithms", RFC 6090,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6090, February 2011,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6090>.

   [RFC7159]  Bray, T., Ed., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
              Interchange Format", RFC 7159, DOI 10.17487/RFC7159, March
              2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7159>.

   [SEC1]     Standards for Efficient Cryptography Group, "SEC 1:
              Elliptic Curve Cryptography", Version 2.0, May 2009,
              <http://www.secg.org/sec1-v2.pdf>.

   [SHS]      National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
              "Secure Hash Standard (SHS)", FIPS PUB 180-4, March 2012,
              <http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips/fips180-4/
              fips-180-4.pdf>.

   [UNICODE]  The Unicode Consortium, "The Unicode Standard",
              <http://www.unicode.org/versions/latest/>.

10.2.  Informative References

   [AEAD-CBC-SHA]
              McGrew, D., Foley, J., and K. Paterson, "Authenticated
              Encryption with AES-CBC and HMAC-SHA", Work in Progress,
              draft-mcgrew-aead-aes-cbc-hmac-sha2-05, July 2014.

   [CanvasApp]
              Facebook, "Canvas Applications", 2010,
              <http://developers.facebook.com/docs/authentication/
              canvas>.

   [JCA]      Oracle, "Java Cryptography Architecture (JCA) Reference
              Guide", 2014, <http://docs.oracle.com/javase/8/docs/techno
              tes/guides/security/crypto/CryptoSpec.html>.

   [JSE]      Bradley, J. and N. Sakimura (editor), "JSON Simple
              Encryption", September 2010,
              <http://jsonenc.info/enc/1.0/>.

   [JSMS]     Rescorla, E. and J. Hildebrand, "JavaScript Message
              Security Format", Work in Progress,
              draft-rescorla-jsms-00, March 2011.

   [JSS]      Bradley, J. and N. Sakimura, Ed., "JSON Simple Sign 1.0",
              Draft 01, September 2010, <http://jsonenc.info/jss/1.0/>.




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   [JWE-JWK]  Miller, M., "Using JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Web
              Encryption (JWE) for Protecting JSON Web Key (JWK)
              Objects", Work in Progress,
              draft-miller-jose-jwe-protected-jwk-02, June 2013.

   [MagicSignatures]
              Panzer, J., Ed., Laurie, B., and D. Balfanz, "Magic
              Signatures", January 2011,
              <http://salmon-protocol.googlecode.com/svn/trunk/
              draft-panzer-magicsig-01.html>.

   [NIST.800-107]
              National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
              "Recommendation for Applications Using Approved Hash
              Algorithms", NIST Special Publication 800-107, Revision 1,
              August 2012, <http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/
              nistpubs/800-107-rev1/sp800-107-rev1.pdf>.

   [NIST.800-63-2]
              National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
              "Electronic Authentication Guideline", NIST Special
              Publication 800-63-2, August 2013,
              <http://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/
              NIST.SP.800-63-2.pdf>.

   [PRECIS]   Saint-Andre, P. and A. Melnikov, "Preparation,
              Enforcement, and Comparison of Internationalized Strings
              Representing Usernames and Passwords", Work in Progress,
              draft-ietf-precis-saslprepbis-16, April 2015.

   [RFC2631]  Rescorla, E., "Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement Method",
              RFC 2631, DOI 10.17487/RFC2631, June 1999,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2631>.

   [RFC3275]  Eastlake 3rd, D., Reagle, J., and D. Solo, "(Extensible
              Markup Language) XML-Signature Syntax and Processing",
              RFC 3275, DOI 10.17487/RFC3275, March 2002,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3275>.

   [RFC4086]  Eastlake 3rd, D., Schiller, J., and S. Crocker,
              "Randomness Requirements for Security", BCP 106, RFC 4086,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4086, June 2005,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4086>.

   [RFC5116]  McGrew, D., "An Interface and Algorithms for Authenticated
              Encryption", RFC 5116, DOI 10.17487/RFC5116, January 2008,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5116>.




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   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5226, May 2008,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5226>.

   [W3C.NOTE-xmldsig-core2-20130411]
              Eastlake, D., Reagle, J., Solo, D., Hirsch, F., Roessler,
              T., Yiu, K., Datta, P., and S. Cantor, "XML Signature
              Syntax and Processing Version 2.0", World Wide Web
              Consortium Note NOTE-xmldsig-core2-20130411, April 2013,
              <http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-xmldsig-core2-20130411/>.

   [W3C.REC-xmlenc-core-20021210]
              Eastlake, D. and J. Reagle, "XML Encryption Syntax and
              Processing", World Wide Web Consortium Recommendation REC-
              xmlenc-core-20021210, December 2002,
              <http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/REC-xmlenc-core-20021210>.

   [W3C.REC-xmlenc-core1-20130411]
              Eastlake, D., Reagle, J., Hirsch, F., and T. Roessler,
              "XML Encryption Syntax and Processing Version 1.1", World
              Wide Web Consortium Recommendation REC-xmlenc-
              core1-20130411, April 2013,
              <http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-xmlenc-core1-20130411/>.



























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Appendix A.  Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference

   This appendix contains tables cross-referencing the cryptographic
   algorithm identifier values defined in this specification with the
   equivalent identifiers used by other standards and software packages.
   See XML DSIG [RFC3275], XML DSIG 2.0
   [W3C.NOTE-xmldsig-core2-20130411], XML Encryption
   [W3C.REC-xmlenc-core-20021210], XML Encryption 1.1
   [W3C.REC-xmlenc-core1-20130411], and Java Cryptography Architecture
   [JCA] for more information about the names defined by those
   documents.








































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A.1.  Digital Signature/MAC Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference

   This section contains a table cross-referencing the JWS digital
   signature and MAC "alg" (algorithm) values defined in this
   specification with the equivalent identifiers used by other standards
   and software packages.

   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | JWS      | XML DSIG                                               |
   | | JCA                                   | OID                     |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | HS256    | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmldsig-more#hmac-sha256     |
   | | HmacSHA256                            | 1.2.840.113549.2.9      |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | HS384    | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmldsig-more#hmac-sha384     |
   | | HmacSHA384                            | 1.2.840.113549.2.10     |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | HS512    | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmldsig-more#hmac-sha512     |
   | | HmacSHA512                            | 1.2.840.113549.2.11     |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | RS256    | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmldsig-more#rsa-sha256      |
   | | SHA256withRSA                         | 1.2.840.113549.1.1.11   |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | RS384    | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmldsig-more#rsa-sha384      |
   | | SHA384withRSA                         | 1.2.840.113549.1.1.12   |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | RS512    | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmldsig-more#rsa-sha512      |
   | | SHA512withRSA                         | 1.2.840.113549.1.1.13   |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | ES256    | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmldsig-more#ecdsa-sha256    |
   | | SHA256withECDSA                       | 1.2.840.10045.4.3.2     |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | ES384    | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmldsig-more#ecdsa-sha384    |
   | | SHA384withECDSA                       | 1.2.840.10045.4.3.3     |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | ES512    | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmldsig-more#ecdsa-sha512    |
   | | SHA512withECDSA                       | 1.2.840.10045.4.3.4     |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | PS256    | http://www.w3.org/2007/05/xmldsig-more#sha256-rsa-MGF1 |
   | | SHA256withRSAandMGF1                  | 1.2.840.113549.1.1.10   |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | PS384    | http://www.w3.org/2007/05/xmldsig-more#sha384-rsa-MGF1 |
   | | SHA384withRSAandMGF1                  | 1.2.840.113549.1.1.10   |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | PS512    | http://www.w3.org/2007/05/xmldsig-more#sha512-rsa-MGF1 |
   | | SHA512withRSAandMGF1                  | 1.2.840.113549.1.1.10   |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+




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A.2.  Key Management Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference

   This section contains a table cross-referencing the JWE "alg"
   (algorithm) values defined in this specification with the equivalent
   identifiers used by other standards and software packages.

   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | JWE           | XML ENC                                           |
   | | JCA                                   | OID                     |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | RSA1_5        | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#rsa-1_5          |
   | | RSA/ECB/PKCS1Padding                  | 1.2.840.113549.1.1.1    |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | RSA-OAEP      | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#rsa-oaep-mgf1p   |
   | | RSA/ECB/OAEPWithSHA-1AndMGF1Padding   | 1.2.840.113549.1.1.7    |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | RSA-OAEP-256  | http://www.w3.org/2009/xmlenc11#rsa-oaep          |
   |               | & http://www.w3.org/2009/xmlenc11#mgf1sha256      |
   | | RSA/ECB/OAEPWithSHA-256AndMGF1Padding |                         |
   | | & MGF1ParameterSpec.SHA256            | 1.2.840.113549.1.1.7    |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | ECDH-ES       | http://www.w3.org/2009/xmlenc11#ECDH-ES           |
   | | ECDH                                  | 1.3.132.1.12            |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | A128KW        | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#kw-aes128        |
   | | AESWrap                               | 2.16.840.1.101.3.4.1.5  |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | A192KW        | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#kw-aes192        |
   | | AESWrap                               | 2.16.840.1.101.3.4.1.25 |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | A256KW        | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#kw-aes256        |
   | | AESWrap                               | 2.16.840.1.101.3.4.1.45 |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+


















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A.3.  Content Encryption Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference

   This section contains a table cross-referencing the JWE "enc"
   (encryption algorithm) values defined in this specification with the
   equivalent identifiers used by other standards and software packages.

   For the composite algorithms "A128CBC-HS256", "A192CBC-HS384", and
   "A256CBC-HS512", the corresponding AES-CBC algorithm identifiers are
   listed.

   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | JWE           | XML ENC                                           |
   | | JCA                                   | OID                     |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | A128CBC-HS256 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#aes128-cbc       |
   | | AES/CBC/PKCS5Padding                  | 2.16.840.1.101.3.4.1.2  |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | A192CBC-HS384 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#aes192-cbc       |
   | | AES/CBC/PKCS5Padding                  | 2.16.840.1.101.3.4.1.22 |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | A256CBC-HS512 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#aes256-cbc       |
   | | AES/CBC/PKCS5Padding                  | 2.16.840.1.101.3.4.1.42 |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | A128GCM       | http://www.w3.org/2009/xmlenc11#aes128-gcm        |
   | | AES/GCM/NoPadding                     | 2.16.840.1.101.3.4.1.6  |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | A192GCM       | http://www.w3.org/2009/xmlenc11#aes192-gcm        |
   | | AES/GCM/NoPadding                     | 2.16.840.1.101.3.4.1.26 |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   | A256GCM       | http://www.w3.org/2009/xmlenc11#aes256-gcm        |
   | | AES/GCM/NoPadding                     | 2.16.840.1.101.3.4.1.46 |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+

Appendix B.  Test Cases for AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Algorithms

   The following test cases can be used to validate implementations of
   the AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 algorithms defined in Section 5.2.  They are
   also intended to correspond to test cases that may appear in a future
   version of [AEAD-CBC-SHA], demonstrating that the cryptographic
   computations performed are the same.

   The variable names are those defined in Section 5.2.  All values are
   hexadecimal.








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RFC 7518                JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)               May 2015


B.1.  Test Cases for AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256

   AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256

     K =       00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0a 0b 0c 0d 0e 0f
               10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f

     MAC_KEY = 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0a 0b 0c 0d 0e 0f

     ENC_KEY = 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f

     P =       41 20 63 69 70 68 65 72 20 73 79 73 74 65 6d 20
               6d 75 73 74 20 6e 6f 74 20 62 65 20 72 65 71 75
               69 72 65 64 20 74 6f 20 62 65 20 73 65 63 72 65
               74 2c 20 61 6e 64 20 69 74 20 6d 75 73 74 20 62
               65 20 61 62 6c 65 20 74 6f 20 66 61 6c 6c 20 69
               6e 74 6f 20 74 68 65 20 68 61 6e 64 73 20 6f 66
               20 74 68 65 20 65 6e 65 6d 79 20 77 69 74 68 6f
               75 74 20 69 6e 63 6f 6e 76 65 6e 69 65 6e 63 65

     IV =      1a f3 8c 2d c2 b9 6f fd d8 66 94 09 23 41 bc 04

     A =       54 68 65 20 73 65 63 6f 6e 64 20 70 72 69 6e 63
               69 70 6c 65 20 6f 66 20 41 75 67 75 73 74 65 20
               4b 65 72 63 6b 68 6f 66 66 73

     AL =      00 00 00 00 00 00 01 50

     E =       c8 0e df a3 2d df 39 d5 ef 00 c0 b4 68 83 42 79
               a2 e4 6a 1b 80 49 f7 92 f7 6b fe 54 b9 03 a9 c9
               a9 4a c9 b4 7a d2 65 5c 5f 10 f9 ae f7 14 27 e2
               fc 6f 9b 3f 39 9a 22 14 89 f1 63 62 c7 03 23 36
               09 d4 5a c6 98 64 e3 32 1c f8 29 35 ac 40 96 c8
               6e 13 33 14 c5 40 19 e8 ca 79 80 df a4 b9 cf 1b
               38 4c 48 6f 3a 54 c5 10 78 15 8e e5 d7 9d e5 9f
               bd 34 d8 48 b3 d6 95 50 a6 76 46 34 44 27 ad e5
               4b 88 51 ff b5 98 f7 f8 00 74 b9 47 3c 82 e2 db

     M =       65 2c 3f a3 6b 0a 7c 5b 32 19 fa b3 a3 0b c1 c4
               e6 e5 45 82 47 65 15 f0 ad 9f 75 a2 b7 1c 73 ef

     T =       65 2c 3f a3 6b 0a 7c 5b 32 19 fa b3 a3 0b c1 c4









Jones                        Standards Track                   [Page 63]


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B.2.  Test Cases for AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384

     K =       00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0a 0b 0c 0d 0e 0f
               10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f
               20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 2a 2b 2c 2d 2e 2f

     MAC_KEY = 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0a 0b 0c 0d 0e 0f
               10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

     ENC_KEY = 18 19 1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
               28 29 2a 2b 2c 2d 2e 2f

     P =       41 20 63 69 70 68 65 72 20 73 79 73 74 65 6d 20
               6d 75 73 74 20 6e 6f 74 20 62 65 20 72 65 71 75
               69 72 65 64 20 74 6f 20 62 65 20 73 65 63 72 65
               74 2c 20 61 6e 64 20 69 74 20 6d 75 73 74 20 62
               65 20 61 62 6c 65 20 74 6f 20 66 61 6c 6c 20 69
               6e 74 6f 20 74 68 65 20 68 61 6e 64 73 20 6f 66
               20 74 68 65 20 65 6e 65 6d 79 20 77 69 74 68 6f
               75 74 20 69 6e 63 6f 6e 76 65 6e 69 65 6e 63 65

     IV =      1a f3 8c 2d c2 b9 6f fd d8 66 94 09 23 41 bc 04

     A =       54 68 65 20 73 65 63 6f 6e 64 20 70 72 69 6e 63
               69 70 6c 65 20 6f 66 20 41 75 67 75 73 74 65 20
               4b 65 72 63 6b 68 6f 66 66 73

     AL =      00 00 00 00 00 00 01 50

     E =       ea 65 da 6b 59 e6 1e db 41 9b e6 2d 19 71 2a e5
               d3 03 ee b5 00 52 d0 df d6 69 7f 77 22 4c 8e db
               00 0d 27 9b dc 14 c1 07 26 54 bd 30 94 42 30 c6
               57 be d4 ca 0c 9f 4a 84 66 f2 2b 22 6d 17 46 21
               4b f8 cf c2 40 0a dd 9f 51 26 e4 79 66 3f c9 0b
               3b ed 78 7a 2f 0f fc bf 39 04 be 2a 64 1d 5c 21
               05 bf e5 91 ba e2 3b 1d 74 49 e5 32 ee f6 0a 9a
               c8 bb 6c 6b 01 d3 5d 49 78 7b cd 57 ef 48 49 27
               f2 80 ad c9 1a c0 c4 e7 9c 7b 11 ef c6 00 54 e3

     M =       84 90 ac 0e 58 94 9b fe 51 87 5d 73 3f 93 ac 20
               75 16 80 39 cc c7 33 d7 45 94 f8 86 b3 fa af d4
               86 f2 5c 71 31 e3 28 1e 36 c7 a2 d1 30 af de 57

     T =       84 90 ac 0e 58 94 9b fe 51 87 5d 73 3f 93 ac 20
               75 16 80 39 cc c7 33 d7






Jones                        Standards Track                   [Page 64]


RFC 7518                JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)               May 2015


B.3.  Test Cases for AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512

     K =       00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0a 0b 0c 0d 0e 0f
               10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f
               20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 2a 2b 2c 2d 2e 2f
               30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 3f

     MAC_KEY = 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0a 0b 0c 0d 0e 0f
               10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f

     ENC_KEY = 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 2a 2b 2c 2d 2e 2f
               30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 3f

     P =       41 20 63 69 70 68 65 72 20 73 79 73 74 65 6d 20
               6d 75 73 74 20 6e 6f 74 20 62 65 20 72 65 71 75
               69 72 65 64 20 74 6f 20 62 65 20 73 65 63 72 65
               74 2c 20 61 6e 64 20 69 74 20 6d 75 73 74 20 62
               65 20 61 62 6c 65 20 74 6f 20 66 61 6c 6c 20 69
               6e 74 6f 20 74 68 65 20 68 61 6e 64 73 20 6f 66
               20 74 68 65 20 65 6e 65 6d 79 20 77 69 74 68 6f
               75 74 20 69 6e 63 6f 6e 76 65 6e 69 65 6e 63 65

     IV =      1a f3 8c 2d c2 b9 6f fd d8 66 94 09 23 41 bc 04

     A =       54 68 65 20 73 65 63 6f 6e 64 20 70 72 69 6e 63
               69 70 6c 65 20 6f 66 20 41 75 67 75 73 74 65 20
               4b 65 72 63 6b 68 6f 66 66 73

     AL =      00 00 00 00 00 00 01 50

     E =       4a ff aa ad b7 8c 31 c5 da 4b 1b 59 0d 10 ff bd
               3d d8 d5 d3 02 42 35 26 91 2d a0 37 ec bc c7 bd
               82 2c 30 1d d6 7c 37 3b cc b5 84 ad 3e 92 79 c2
               e6 d1 2a 13 74 b7 7f 07 75 53 df 82 94 10 44 6b
               36 eb d9 70 66 29 6a e6 42 7e a7 5c 2e 08 46 a1
               1a 09 cc f5 37 0d c8 0b fe cb ad 28 c7 3f 09 b3
               a3 b7 5e 66 2a 25 94 41 0a e4 96 b2 e2 e6 60 9e
               31 e6 e0 2c c8 37 f0 53 d2 1f 37 ff 4f 51 95 0b
               be 26 38 d0 9d d7 a4 93 09 30 80 6d 07 03 b1 f6

     M =       4d d3 b4 c0 88 a7 f4 5c 21 68 39 64 5b 20 12 bf
               2e 62 69 a8 c5 6a 81 6d bc 1b 26 77 61 95 5b c5
               fd 30 a5 65 c6 16 ff b2 f3 64 ba ec e6 8f c4 07
               53 bc fc 02 5d de 36 93 75 4a a1 f5 c3 37 3b 9c

     T =       4d d3 b4 c0 88 a7 f4 5c 21 68 39 64 5b 20 12 bf
               2e 62 69 a8 c5 6a 81 6d bc 1b 26 77 61 95 5b c5




Jones                        Standards Track                   [Page 65]


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Appendix C.  Example ECDH-ES Key Agreement Computation

   This example uses ECDH-ES Key Agreement and the Concat KDF to derive
   the CEK in the manner described in Section 4.6.  In this example, the
   ECDH-ES Direct Key Agreement mode ("alg" value "ECDH-ES") is used to
   produce an agreed-upon key for AES GCM with a 128-bit key ("enc"
   value "A128GCM").

   In this example, a producer Alice is encrypting content to a consumer
   Bob.  The producer (Alice) generates an ephemeral key for the key
   agreement computation.  Alice's ephemeral key (in JWK format) used
   for the key agreement computation in this example (including the
   private part) is:

     {"kty":"EC",
      "crv":"P-256",
      "x":"gI0GAILBdu7T53akrFmMyGcsF3n5dO7MmwNBHKW5SV0",
      "y":"SLW_xSffzlPWrHEVI30DHM_4egVwt3NQqeUD7nMFpps",
      "d":"0_NxaRPUMQoAJt50Gz8YiTr8gRTwyEaCumd-MToTmIo"
     }

   The consumer's (Bob's) key (in JWK format) used for the key agreement
   computation in this example (including the private part) is:

     {"kty":"EC",
      "crv":"P-256",
      "x":"weNJy2HscCSM6AEDTDg04biOvhFhyyWvOHQfeF_PxMQ",
      "y":"e8lnCO-AlStT-NJVX-crhB7QRYhiix03illJOVAOyck",
      "d":"VEmDZpDXXK8p8N0Cndsxs924q6nS1RXFASRl6BfUqdw"
     }

   Header Parameter values used in this example are as follows.  The
   "apu" (agreement PartyUInfo) Header Parameter value is the base64url
   encoding of the UTF-8 string "Alice" and the "apv" (agreement
   PartyVInfo) Header Parameter value is the base64url encoding of the
   UTF-8 string "Bob".  The "epk" (ephemeral public key) Header
   Parameter is used to communicate the producer's (Alice's) ephemeral
   public key value to the consumer (Bob).













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RFC 7518                JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)               May 2015


     {"alg":"ECDH-ES",
      "enc":"A128GCM",
      "apu":"QWxpY2U",
      "apv":"Qm9i",
      "epk":
       {"kty":"EC",
        "crv":"P-256",
        "x":"gI0GAILBdu7T53akrFmMyGcsF3n5dO7MmwNBHKW5SV0",
        "y":"SLW_xSffzlPWrHEVI30DHM_4egVwt3NQqeUD7nMFpps"
       }
     }

   The resulting Concat KDF [NIST.800-56A] parameter values are:

   Z
      This is set to the ECDH-ES key agreement output.  (This value is
      often not directly exposed by libraries, due to NIST security
      requirements, and only serves as an input to a KDF.)  In this
      example, Z is following the octet sequence (using JSON array
      notation):
      [158, 86, 217, 29, 129, 113, 53, 211, 114, 131, 66, 131, 191, 132,
      38, 156, 251, 49, 110, 163, 218, 128, 106, 72, 246, 218, 167, 121,
      140, 254, 144, 196].

   keydatalen
      This value is 128 - the number of bits in the desired output key
      (because "A128GCM" uses a 128-bit key).

   AlgorithmID
      This is set to the octets representing the 32-bit big-endian value
      7 - [0, 0, 0, 7] - the number of octets in the AlgorithmID content
      "A128GCM", followed, by the octets representing the ASCII string
      "A128GCM" - [65, 49, 50, 56, 71, 67, 77].

   PartyUInfo
      This is set to the octets representing the 32-bit big-endian value
      5 - [0, 0, 0, 5] - the number of octets in the PartyUInfo content
      "Alice", followed, by the octets representing the UTF-8 string
      "Alice" - [65, 108, 105, 99, 101].

   PartyVInfo
      This is set to the octets representing the 32-bit big-endian value
      3 - [0, 0, 0, 3] - the number of octets in the PartyUInfo content
      "Bob", followed, by the octets representing the UTF-8 string "Bob"
      - [66, 111, 98].






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RFC 7518                JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)               May 2015


   SuppPubInfo
      This is set to the octets representing the 32-bit big-endian value
      128 - [0, 0, 0, 128] - the keydatalen value.

   SuppPrivInfo
      This is set to the empty octet sequence.

   Concatenating the parameters AlgorithmID through SuppPubInfo results
   in an OtherInfo value of:
   [0, 0, 0, 7, 65, 49, 50, 56, 71, 67, 77, 0, 0, 0, 5, 65, 108, 105,
   99, 101, 0, 0, 0, 3, 66, 111, 98, 0, 0, 0, 128]

   Concatenating the round number 1 ([0, 0, 0, 1]), Z, and the OtherInfo
   value results in the Concat KDF round 1 hash input of:
   [0, 0, 0, 1,
   158, 86, 217, 29, 129, 113, 53, 211, 114, 131, 66, 131, 191, 132, 38,
   156, 251, 49, 110, 163, 218, 128, 106, 72, 246, 218, 167, 121, 140,
   254, 144, 196,
   0, 0, 0, 7, 65, 49, 50, 56, 71, 67, 77, 0, 0, 0, 5, 65, 108, 105, 99,
   101, 0, 0, 0, 3, 66, 111, 98, 0, 0, 0, 128]

   The resulting derived key, which is the first 128 bits of the round 1
   hash output is:
   [86, 170, 141, 234, 248, 35, 109, 32, 92, 34, 40, 205, 113, 167, 16,
   26]

   The base64url-encoded representation of this derived key is:

     VqqN6vgjbSBcIijNcacQGg






















Jones                        Standards Track                   [Page 68]


RFC 7518                JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)               May 2015


Acknowledgements

   Solutions for signing and encrypting JSON content were previously
   explored by "Magic Signatures" [MagicSignatures], "JSON Simple Sign
   1.0" [JSS], "Canvas Applications" [CanvasApp], "JSON Simple
   Encryption" [JSE], and "JavaScript Message Security Format" [JSMS],
   all of which influenced this document.

   The "Authenticated Encryption with AES-CBC and HMAC-SHA"
   [AEAD-CBC-SHA] specification, upon which the AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2
   algorithms are based, was written by David A. McGrew and Kenny
   Paterson.  The test cases for AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 are based upon those
   for [AEAD-CBC-SHA] by John Foley.

   Matt Miller wrote "Using JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Web
   Encryption (JWE) for Protecting JSON Web Key (JWK) Objects"
   [JWE-JWK], upon which the password-based encryption content of this
   document is based.

   This specification is the work of the JOSE working group, which
   includes dozens of active and dedicated participants.  In particular,
   the following individuals contributed ideas, feedback, and wording
   that influenced this specification:

   Dirk Balfanz, Richard Barnes, Carsten Bormann, John Bradley, Brian
   Campbell, Alissa Cooper, Breno de Medeiros, Vladimir Dzhuvinov, Roni
   Even, Stephen Farrell, Yaron Y. Goland, Dick Hardt, Joe Hildebrand,
   Jeff Hodges, Edmund Jay, Charlie Kaufman, Barry Leiba, James Manger,
   Matt Miller, Kathleen Moriarty, Tony Nadalin, Axel Nennker, John
   Panzer, Emmanuel Raviart, Eric Rescorla, Pete Resnick, Nat Sakimura,
   Jim Schaad, Hannes Tschofenig, and Sean Turner.

   Jim Schaad and Karen O'Donoghue chaired the JOSE working group and
   Sean Turner, Stephen Farrell, and Kathleen Moriarty served as
   Security Area Directors during the creation of this specification.

Author's Address

   Michael B. Jones
   Microsoft

   EMail: mbj@microsoft.com
   URI:   http://self-issued.info/








Jones                        Standards Track                   [Page 69]


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