[Docs] [txt|pdf]



Network Working Group                                   ANSI X3S3.3 86-80
Request for Comments: 994                             ISO TC97/SC6/N 3998
                                                               March 1986





                                 I S O
             INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION
              ORGANISATION INTERNATIONALE DE NORMALISATION

     ______________________________________________________________________
    |                                                                     |
    |                            ISO/TC 97/SC 6                           |
    |                TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION                   |
    |                     EXCHANGE BETWEEN SYSTEMS                        |
    |                       Secretariat: USA (ANSI)                       |
    |                                                                     |
    |                                                                     |
    |_____________________________________________________________________|




Title:  Final Text of DIS 8473, Protocol for Providing the Connectionless-
        mode Network Service

Source:  DIS 8473 Editor

























ISO 8473                                                        [Page 1]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


Contents

1   Scope and Field of Application                                         6

2   References                                                             7


SECTION ONE. GENERAL                                                       9

3   Definitions                                                            9
    3.1   Reference Model Definitions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
    3.2   Service Conventions Definitions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
    3.3   Network Layer Architecture Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
    3.4   Network Layer Addressing Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
    3.5   Additional Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10

4   Symbols and Abbreviations                                             11
    4.1   Data Units   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
    4.2   Protocol Data Units  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
    4.3   Protocol Data Unit Fields  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
    4.4   Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
    4.5   Miscellaneous  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11

5   Overview of the Protocol                                              12
    5.1   Internal Organization of the Network Layer . . . . . . . . . .  12
    5.2   Subsets of the Protocol  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
    5.3   Addresses and Titles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
          5.3.1   Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
          5.3.2   Network-entity Titles  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
    5.4   Service Provided by the Network Layer  . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
    5.5   Underlying Service Assumed by the Protocol . . . . . . . . . .  14
          5.5.1   Subnetwork Points of Attachment  . . . . . . . . . . .  15
          5.5.2   Subnetwork Quality of Service  . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
          5.5.3   Subnetwork User Data   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
          5.5.4   Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Functions . . . . . .  16
    5.6   Service Assumed from Local Environment . . . . . . . . . . . .  16


SECTION  TWO.  SPECIFICATION  OF  THE  PROTOCOL                           18

6   Protocol Functions                                                    18
    6.1   PDU Composition Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
    6.2   PDU Decomposition Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
    6.3   Header Format Analysis Function  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19










ISO 8473                                                        [Page 2]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


    6.4   PDU Lifetime Control Function  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
    6.5   Route PDU Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
    6.6   Forward PDU Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
    6.7   Segmentation Function  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
    6.8   Reassembly Function  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
    6.9   Discard PDU Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
    6.10  Error Reporting Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
          6.10.1  Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
          6.10.2  Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
          6.10.3  Processing of Error Reports  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
          6.10.4  Relationship of Data PDU Options to Error Reports  . .  26
    6.11  PDU Header Error Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
    6.12  Padding Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
    6.13  Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
    6.14  Source Routing Function  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
    6.15  Record Route Function  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
    6.16  Quality of Service Maintenance Function  . . . . . . . . . . .  30
    6.17  Priority Function  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
    6.18  Congestion Notification Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
    6.19  Classification of Functions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31

7   Structure and Encoding of PDUs                                        33
    7.1   Structure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
    7.2   Fixed Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
          7.2.1   General  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
          7.2.2   Network Layer Protocol Identifier  . . . . . . . . . .  34
          7.2.3   Length Indicator   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
          7.2.4   Version/Protocol Identifier Extension  . . . . . . . .  35
          7.2.5   PDU Lifetime   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
          7.2.6   Flags  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
                  7.2.6.1   Segmentation Permitted . . . . . . . . . . .  35
                  7.2.6.2   More Segments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
                  7.2.6.3   Error Report   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
          7.2.7   Type Code  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
          7.2.8   PDU Segment Length   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
          7.2.9   PDU Checksum   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
    7.3   Address Part   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
          7.3.1   General  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
                  7.3.1.1   Destination and Source Addresses . . . . . .  37
    7.4   Segmentation Part  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
          7.4.1   Data Unit Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
          7.4.2   Segment Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
          7.4.3   PDU Total Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
    7.5   Options Part   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
          7.5.1   General  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
          7.5.2   Padding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
          7.5.3   Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
                  7.5.3.1   Source Address Specific  . . . . . . . . . .  41
                  7.5.3.2   Destination Address Specific . . . . . . . .  41
                  7.5.3.3   Globally Unique Security . . . . . . . . . .  41
          7.5.4   Source Routing   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  41



ISO 8473                                                        [Page 3]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


          7.5.5   Recording of Route . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
          7.5.6   Quality of Service Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
                  7.5.6.1   Source Address Specific  . . . . . . . . . .  43
                  7.5.6.2   Destination Address Specific . . . . . . . .  43
                  7.5.6.3   Globally Unique QoS  . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
          7.5.7   Priority   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
    7.6   Data Part  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  45
    7.7   Data (DT) PDU  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
          7.7.1   Structure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
          7.7.1.1   Fixed Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
          7.7.1.2   Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
          7.7.1.3   Segmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
          7.7.1.4   Options  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
          7.7.1.5   Data   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
    7.8   Inactive Network Layer Protocol  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
          7.8.1   Network Layer Protocol Id  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
          7.8.2   Data Field   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
    7.9   Error Report PDU (ER)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  48
          7.9.1   Structure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  48
                  7.9.1.1   Fixed Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  49
                  7.9.1.2   Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  49
                  7.9.1.3   Options  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  49
                  7.9.1.4   Reason for Discard . . . . . . . . . . . . .  50
                  7.9.1.5   Error Report Data Field  . . . . . . . . . .  51

8   Conformance                                                           51
    8.1   Provision of Functions for Conformance . . . . . . . . . . . .  51


List of Tables

1     Service Primitives for Underlying Service  . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
2     Service Primitives for Underlying Service  . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
3     Timer Primitives   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
4     Categorization of Protocol Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
5     Valid PDU Types  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
6     Encoding of Option Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
7     Reason for Discard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  50
8     Categorization of Functions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  52


List of Figures

1     Interrelationship of Standards   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
2     PDU Structure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
3     PDU Header -- Fixed Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
4     PDU Header -- Address Part   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
5     Address Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
6     PDU Header -- Segmentation Part  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
7     PDU Header -- Options Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
8     PDU Header -- Data Field   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  45



ISO 8473                                                        [Page 4]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


9     DT PDU   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
10    Inactive Network Layer Protocol  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47
11    Error Report PDU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  48



















































ISO 8473                                                        [Page 5]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


0     Introduction

   This Protocol Standard is one of a set of International Standards
   produced to facilitate the interconnection of open systems. The set
   of standards covers the services and protocols required to achieve
   such interconnection.

   This Protocol Standard is positioned with respect to other related
   standards by the layers defined in the Reference Model for Open Sys-
   tems Interconnection (ISO 7498).  In particular, it is a protocol of
   the Network Layer. This Protocol may be used between network-entities
   in end systems or in Network Layer relay systems (or both).  It pro-
   vides the Connectionless-mode Network Service as defined in Addendum
   1 to the Network Service Definition Covering Connectionless-mode
   Transmission (ISO 8348/AD1).

   The interrelationship of these standards is illustrated in Figure 1
   below:


   --------------------+--- ISO NETWORK SERVICE PROVIDER -----^-----------------
                       |                                      |
                       |                                      |
                       |                                      |
           PROTOCOL    |  REFERENCE TO AIMS  -----------------+
                       |
        SPECIFICATION  |  REFERENCE TO ASSUMPTIONS -----------+
                       |                                      |
                       |                                      |
                       |                                      |
   --------------------+---SUBNETWORK SERVICE DEFINITION(S)---v-----------------

                 Figure 1: Interrelationship of Standards


1     Scope and Field of Application

   This International Standard specifies a protocol which is used to
   provide the Connectionless-mode Network Service as described in Ad-
   dendum 1 to the Network Service Definition Covering Connectionless-
   mode Transmission.  The protocol relies upon the provision of an
   underlying connectionless-mode service by real subnetworks and/or
   data links. The underlying connectionless-mode service assumed by the
   protocol may be obtained either directly, from a connectionless-mode
   real subnetwork, or indirectly, through the operation of an appropri-
   ate Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Function (SNDCF) or Protocol
   (SNDCP) over a connection-mode real subnetwork as described in ISO
   8648, Internal Organization of the Network Layer.






ISO 8473                                                        [Page 6]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


      This Standard specifies:

      a)  procedures for the connectionless transmission of data and
          control information from one network-entity to a peer
          network-entity;

      b)  the encoding of the protocol data units (PDUs) used for the
          transmission of data and control information, comprising a
          variable-length protocol header format;

      c)  procedures for the correct interpretation of protocol control
          information; and

      d)  the functional requirements for implementations claiming
          conformance to the Standard.

      The procedures are defined in terms of:

      a)  the interactions among peer network-entities through the
          exchange of protocol data units;

      b)  the interactions between a network-entity and a Network Service
          user through the exchange of Network Service primitives; and

      c)  the interactions between a network-entity and an underlying
          service provider through the exchange of service primitives.

2     References

   ISO 7498, Information Processing Systems --- Open Systems Intercon-
   nection --- Basic Reference Model

   DIS 7498/AD1, Information Processing Systems --- Open Systems In-
   terconnection --- Addendum to ISO 7498 Covering Connectionless-mode
   Transmission

   ISO 8348, Information Processing Systems --- Telecommunications and
   Information Exchange between Systems --- Network Service Definition

   ISO 8348/AD1, Information Processing Systems --- Telecommunications
   and Information Exchange between Systems --- Addendum to the Net-
   work Service Definition Covering Connectionless-mode Transmission

   ISO 8348/AD2, Information Processing Systems --- Telecommunications
   and Information Exchange between Systems --- Addendum to the Net-
   work Service Definition Covering Network Layer Addressing*

   DIS 8648, Information Processing Systems --- Telecommunications and
   Information Exchange between Systems --- Internal Organization of the
   Network Layer




ISO 8473                                                        [Page 7]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


   ISO 8509, Technical Report --- OSI Service Conventions

   ISO 9074, A Formal Description Technique based on an Extended State
   Transition Model
________________________________
     *At present, at the stage of Draft; publication anticipated in
      due course.















































ISO 8473                                                        [Page 8]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


                          SECTION  ONE.  GENERAL

3     Definitions

3.1   Reference Model Definitions

   This document makes use of the following concepts defined in ISO 7498:

     (a)  End system

     (b)  Network entity

     (c)  Network layer

     (d)  Network protocol

     (e)  Network protocol data unit

     (f)  Network relay

     (g)  Network service

     (h)  Network service access point

     (i)  Network service access point address

     (j)  Routing

     (k)  Service

     (l)  Service data unit

3.2   Service Conventions Definitions

   This Protocol Standard makes use of the following terms from the OSI
   Service Conventions Technical Report (ISO TR 8509):

     (a)  Service provider

     (b)  Service user

3.3   Network Layer Architecture Definitions

   This Protocol Standard makes use of the following terms from the
   Internal Organization of the Network Layer (ISO 8648):

     (a)  Intermediate system

     (b)  Relay system

     (c)  Subnetwork



ISO 8473                                                        [Page 9]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


3.4   Network Layer Addressing Definitions

   This Protocol Standard makes use of the following terms from ISO 8348/AD2,
   Addendum to the Network Service Definition Covering Network Layer
   addressing:

     (a)  Network addressing domain

     (b)  Network protocol address information

     (c)  Subnetwork point of attachment

3.5   Additional Definitions

   For the purposes of this Protocol Standard, the following definitions
   apply:

     (a)  derived PDU --- a protocol data unit whose fields are identical
          to those of an initial PDU, except that it carries only a segment
          of the user data from an N-UNITDATA request.

     (b)  initial PDU --- a protocol data unit carrying the whole of the
          userq data from an N-UNITDATA request.

     (c)  local matter --- a decision made by a system concerning its
          behavior in the Network Layer that is not prescribed or
          constrained by this Protocol Standard.

     (d)  network-entity title --- an identifier for a network-entity
          which has the same abstract syntax as an NSAP address, and which
          can be used to unambiguously identify a network-entity in an end
          or intermediate system.

     (e)  reassembly --- the act of regenerating an initial PDU from two
          or more derived PDUs.

     (f)  segment --- a distinct unit of data consisting of part or all
          of the user data provided in the N-UNITDATA request and delivered
          in the N-UNITDATA indication.

     (g)  segmentation --- the act of generating two or more derived PDUs
          from an initial or derived PDU. The derived PDUs together carry
          the entire user data of the initial or derived PDU from which they
          were generated.

                                       Note:
          It is possible that such an initial PDU will never actually be
          generated for a particular N-UNITDATA request, owing to the
          immediate application of segmentation.





ISO 8473                                                       [Page 10]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


4     Symbols and Abbreviations

4.1   Data Units

     NSDU      Network Service Data Unit
     PDU       Protocol Data Unit
     SNSDU     Subnetwork Service Data Unit

4.2     Protocol Data Units
     DT PDU    Data Protocol Data Unit
     ER PDU    Error Report Protocol Data Unit

4.3     Protocol Data Unit Fields

     CS        Checksum
     DA        Destination Address
     DAL       Destination Address Length
     DUID      Data Unit Identifier
     E/R       Error Report Flag
     LI        Length Indicator
     LT        Lifetime
     MS        More Segments Flag
     NLPID     Network Layer Protocol Identifier
     SA        Source Address
     SAL       Source Address Length
     SL        Segment Length
     SO        Segment Offset
     SP        Segmentation Permitted Flag
     TL        Total Lengt
     TP        Type
     V/P       Version/Protocol Identifier Extension

4.4     Parameters

     DA      Destination Address
     QOS     Quality of Service
     SA      Source Address

4.5     Miscellaneous

     CLNP       Connectionless-mode Network Protocol
     NS         Network Service
     NPAI       Network Protocol Address Information
     NSAP       Network Service Access Point
     SDU        Service Data Uni
     SN         Subnetwork
     SNDCF      Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Function
     SNDCP      Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol
     SNICP      Subnetwork Independent Convergence Protocol
     SNPA       Subnetwork Point of Attachment




ISO 8473                                                       [Page 11]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


5     Overview of the Protocol

5.1   Internal Organization of the Network Layer

   The architectural organization of the Network Layer is described in a
   separate document, Internal Organization of the Network Layer (ISO
   8648). ISO 8648 identifies and categorizes the way in which functions
   can be performed within the Network Layer by Network Layer protocols,
   thus providing a uniform framework for describing how protocols
   operating either individually or cooperatively in the Network Layer
   can be used to provide the OSI Network Service. This protocol is
   designed to be used in the context of the internetworking protocol
   approach to the provision of the Connectionless-mode Network Service
   defined in that Standard.

   This protocol is intended for use in the Subnetwork Independent Con-
   vergence Protocol (SNICP) role.  A protocol which fulfills the SNICP
   role operates to construct the OSI Network Service over a defined set
   of underlying services, performing functions which are necessary to
   support the uniform appearance of the OSI Connectionless-mode Network
   Service over a homogeneous or heterogeneous set of interconnected
   subnetworks.  This protocol is defined to accommodate variability
   where Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocols and/or Subnetwork
   Access Protocols do not provide all of the functions necessary to
   support the Connectionless-mode Network Service over all or part of
   the path from one NSAP to another.

   As described in ISO 8648, a protocol at the Network Layer may fulfill
   different roles in different configurations.  Although this protocol
   is designed particularly to be suitable for a SNICP role in the con-
   text of the internetworking protocol approach to the provision of the
   Connectionless-mode Network Service, it may also be used to fulfill
   other roles and may therefore be used in the context of other ap-
   proaches to subnetwork interconnection.

   The specification of this protocol begins with a definition of the
   underlying service which it assumes. This service is made available
   by the operation of other Network Layer protocols or through provi-
   sion of the Data Link Service. The underlying service assumed by this
   protocol is described in Clause 5.5.

5.2     Subsets of the Protocol

   Two proper subsets of the full protocol are defined which permit the
   use of known subnetwork characteristics and are therefore not subnet-
   work independent.

   The Inactive Network Layer protocol subset is a null-function subset
   which can be used when it is known that the source and destination
   end-systems are connected by a single subnetwork, and when none of
   the functions performed by the full protocol is required to provide



ISO 8473                                                       [Page 12]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


   the Connectionless-mode Network Service between any pair of end-
   systems.

   The Non-segmenting protocol subset permits simplification of the
   header where it is known that the source and destination end-systems
   are connected by subnetworks whose service data unit sizes are
   greater than or equal to a known bound which is large enough so that
   segmentation is not required. This subset is selected by setting the
   Segmentation Permitted flag to zero.

5.3     Addresses and Titles

   The following Clauses describe the addresses and titles used by this
   Protocol.

5.3.1    Addresses

   The Source Address and Destination Address parameters referred to in
   Clause 7.3 of this International Standard are OSI Network Service Ac-
   cess Point Addresses.  The syntax and semantics of an OSI Network
   Service Access Point Address are described in a separate document,
   ISO 8348/AD2, Addendum to the Network Service Definition Covering
   Network Layer Addressing.

   The encoding used by this protocol to convey NSAP Addresses shall be
   the preferred binary encoding specified in ISO 8348/AD2; the entire
   NSAP address, taken as a whole, is represented explicitly as a string
   of binary octets.  This string is conveyed in its entirety in the ad-
   dress fields described in Clause 7.3. The rules governing the genera-
   tion of the preferred binary encoding are described in ISO 8348/AD2.

5.3.2    Network-entity Titles

   A network-entity title is an identifier for a network-entity in an
   endsystem or intermediate-system. Network-entity titles are allocated
   from the same name space as NSAP addresses, and the determination of
   whether an address is an NSAP address or a network-entity title
   depends on the context in which the address is interpreted. The en-
   tries in the Source Routing and Recording of Route parameters defined
   in Clauses 7.5.4 and 7.5.5 are network-entity titles. The Source Ad-
   dress and Destination Address parameters in the Error Report PDU de-
   fined in Clause 7.9.1.2 are also network-entity titles.

   The encoding used by this protocol to convey network-entity titles
   shall also be the preferred binary encoding; again, the entire
   network-entity title, taken as a whole, is represented explicitly as
   a string of binary octets.  This string is conveyed in its entirety
   in the fields described in Clauses 7.5.4, 7.5.5, and 7.9.1.2.






ISO 8473                                                       [Page 13]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


5.4     Service Provided by the Network Layer

   The service provided by this protocol is the Connectionless-mode Net-
   work Service described in ISO 8348/AD1, Addendum to the Network Ser-
   vice Definition Covering Connectionless-mode Transmission.  The Net-
   work Service primitives provided are summarized in Table 1:

           _____________________________________________________________
          |             PRIMITIVES                    PARAMETERS        |
          |____________________________________________________________ |
          |  N_UNITDATA         .Request    |  N_Source_Address,        |
          |                     .Indication |  N_Destination_Address,   |
          |                                 |  N_Quality_of_Service,    |
          |                                 |  N_Userdata               |
          |_________________________________|___________________________|

               Table 1: Service Primitives for Underlying Service


   The Addendum to the Network Service Definition Covering
   Connectionless-mode Transmission (ISO 8348/AD1) states that the max-
   imum size of a connectionless-mode Network-service-data-unit (NSDU)
   is limited to 64512 octets.

5.5     Underlying Service Assumed by the Protocol

   The underlying service required to support this protocol is defined
   by the following primitives:

           _____________________________________________________________
          |             PRIMITIVES                    PARAMETERS        |
          |____________________________________________________________ |
          |  SN_UNITDATA        .Request    | SN_Source_Address,        |
          |                     .Indication | SN_Destination_Address,   |
          |                                 | SN_Quality_of_Service,    |
          |                                 | SN_Userdata               |
          |_________________________________|___________________________|

               Table 2: Service Primitives for Underlying Service


                                   Note:
   These service primitives are used to describe the abstract interface
   which exists between the ISO 8473 protocol machine and an underlying
   real subnetwork or a Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Function which
   operates over a real subnetwork or real data link to provide the
   required underlying service.







ISO 8473                                                       [Page 14]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


5.5.1    Subnetwork Points of Attachment

   The source and destination addresses specify the points of attachment
   to a public or private subnetwork(s) involved in the transmission.
   Subnetwork Point of Attachment addresses (SNPAs) are defined by each
   individual subnetwork authority.

   The syntax and semantics of SNPAs are not defined in this Standard.

5.5.2    Subnetwork Quality of Service

   Subnetwork Quality of Service describes aspects of an underlying
   connectionless-mode service which are attributable solely to the
   underlying service.

   Associated with each connectionless-mode transmission, certain meas-
   ures of Quality of Service are requested when the primitive action is
   initiated.  These requested measures (or parameter values and op-
   tions) are based on a priori knowledge of the service(s) made avail-
   able to it by the subnetwork. Knowledge of the nature and type of
   service available is typically obtained prior to an invocation of the
   underlying connectionless-mode service.

   The Quality of Service parameters identified for the underlying
   connectionless-mode service may in some circumstances be directly
   derivable from or mappable onto those identified in the
   Connectionless-mode Network Service.  The following parameters as de-
   fined in ISO 8348/AD1, Addendum to the Network Service Definition
   Covering Connectionlessmode Transmission, may be employed:

     (a)  transit delay;

     (b)  protection against unauthorized access;

     (c)  cost determinants;

     (d)  priority; and

     (e)  residual error probability.


                                    Note:
        For those subnetworks which do not inherently provide Quality of
        Service as a parameter when the primitive action is initiated, it
        is a local matter as to how the semantics of the service requested
        might be preserved. In particular, there may be instances in which
        the Quality of Service requested cannot be maintained.  In such
        circumstances, an attempt shall be made to deliver the protocol
        data unit at whatever Quality of Service is available.





ISO 8473                                                       [Page 15]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


5.5.3    Subnetwork User Data

   The SN-Userdata is an ordered multiple of octets, and is transferred
   transparently between the specified subnetwork points of attachment.

   The underlying service assumed by the CLNP is required to support a
   service data unit size of at least 512 octets.

   If the minimum service data unit sizes supported by all of the sub-
   networks involved in the transmission of a particular PDU are known
   to be large enough that segmentation is not required, then the Non-
   segmenting protocol subset may be used.


5.5.4    Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Functions

   Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Functions may be performed to pro-
   vide an underlying connectionless-mode service in the case where a
   real subnetwork does not inherently provide the connectionless-mode
   service assumed by the protocol.  If a subnetwork inherently provides
   a connection-mode service, a Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Func-
   tion provides a mapping into the required underlying service.  Sub-
   network Dependent Convergence Functions may also be required in those
   cases where functions assumed from the underlying service are not
   performed.  In some cases, this may require the operation of an ex-
   plicit protocol (i.e., a protocol involving explicit exchanges of
   protocol control information between peer network-entities) in the
   Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol (SNDCP) role. However,
   there may also be cases where the functionality required to fulfill
   the SNDCP role consists simply of a set of rules for manipulating the
   underlying service.

5.6     Service Assumed from Local Environment

   A timer service must be provided to allow the protocol entity to
   schedule events.

   There are three primitives associated with the S-TIMER service:

      1.  the S--TIMER Request,
      2.  the S--TIMER Response, and
      3.  the S--TIMER Cancel.

   The S--TIMER Request primitive indicates to the local environment
   that it should initiate a timer of the specified name and subscript
   and maintain it for the duration specified by the time parameter.

   The S--TIMER Response primitive is initiated by the local environment
   to indicate that the delay requested by the corresponding S-TIMER Re-
   quest primitive has elapsed.




ISO 8473                                                       [Page 16]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


   The S--TIMER Cancel primitive is an indication to the local environ-
   ment that the specified timer(s) should be canceled. If the subscript
   parameter is not specified, then all timers with the specified name
   are canceled; otherwise, the timer of the given name and subscript is
   cancelled.  If no timers correspond to the parameters specified, the
   local environment takes no action.

   The parameters of the S--TIMER service primitives are specified in
   Table 3.

               __________________________________________________
              |        PRIMITIVES               PARAMETERS      |
              |_________________________________________________|
              |    S--TIMER     .Request  |  S-Time,            |
              |                           |  S-Name,            |
              |                           |  S-Subscript        |
              |                           |                     |
              |                 .Response |  S-Name,            |
              |                           |  S-Subscript        |
              |___________________________|_____________________|

                        Table 3: Timer Primitives


   The time parameter indicates the time duration of the specified ti-
   mer.  An identifiying label is associated with a timer by means of
   the name parameter. The subscript parameter specifies a value to dis-
   tinguish timers with the same name. The name and subscript taken to-
   gether constitute a unique reference to the timer.

   Timers used in association with a specific protocol funtion are de-
   fined under that protocol function.


                                   Note:
       This International Standard does not define specific values for
       the timers. Any derivations described in this Standard are not
       mandatory. Timer values should be chosen so that the requested
       Quality of Service can be provided, given the known characteristics
       of the underlying service.














ISO 8473                                                       [Page 17]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


              SECTION  TWO.  SPECIFICATION OF THE PROTOCOL


6     Protocol Functions

   This Clause describes the functions performed as part of the Proto-
   col.

   Not all of the functions must be performed by every implementation.
   Clause 6.17 specifies which functions may be omitted, and the correct
   behavior when requested functions are not implemented.

6.1     PDU Composition Function

   This function is responsible for the construction of a protocol data
   unit according to the rules governing the encoding of PDUs given in
   Clause 7.  Protocol Control Information required for delivering the
   data unit to its destination is determined from current state and lo-
   cal information and from the parameters associated with the N-
   UNITDATA Request.

   Network Protocol Address Information (NPAI) for the Source Address
   and Destination Address fields of the PDU header is derived from the
   NS-Source-Address and NS-Destination-Address parameters. The NS-
   Destination-Address and NS-Quality-of-Service parameters, together
   with current state and local information, are used to determine which
   optional functions are to be selected. User data passed from the Net-
   work Service User (NS-Userdata) forms the Data field of the protocol
   data unit.

   During the composition of the protocol data unit, a Data Unit Iden-
   tifier is assigned to distinguish this request to transmit NS-
   Userdata to a particular destination NS User from other such re-
   quests. The originator of the PDU must choose the Data Unit Identif-
   ier so that it remains unique (for this Source and Destination ad-
   dress pair) for the maximum lifetime of the Initial PDU in the net-
   work; this rule applies for any PDUs derived from the Initial PDU as
   a result of the application of the Segmentation Function (see Clause
   6.7).  Derived PDUs are considered to correspond to the same Initial
   PDU, and hence the same N-UNITDATA Request, if they have the same
   Source Address, Destination Address, and Data Unit Identifier.

   The Data Unit Identifier is also available for ancillary functions
   such as error reporting (see Clause 6.10).

   The total length of the PDU in octets is determined by the originator
   and placed in the Total Length field of the PDU header. This field is
   not changed in any Derived PDU for the lifetime of the protocol data
   unit.





ISO 8473                                                       [Page 18]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


   When the Non-segmenting protocol subset is employed, neither the To-
   tal Length field nor the Data Unit Identifier field is present.  The
   rules governing the PDU composition function are modified in this
   case as follows. During the composition of the protocol data unit,
   the total length of the PDU in octets is determined by the originator
   and placed in the Segment Length field of the PDU header. This field
   is not changed for the lifetime of the PDU. No Data Unit Identifica-
   tion is provided.

6.2     PDU Decomposition Function

   This function is responsible for removing the Protocol Control Infor-
   mation from the protocol data unit.  During this process, information
   pertinent to the generation of the N-UNITDATA Indication is deter-
   mined as follows. The NS-Source-Address and NS-Destination-Address
   parameters of the N-UNITDATA Indication are recovered from the NPAI
   in the Source and Destination Address fields of the PDU header. The
   data field of the PDU received is reserved until all segments of the
   original service data unit have been received; collectively, these
   form the NS-Userdata parameter of the N-UNITDATA Indication.  Infor-
   mation relating to the Quality of Service provided during the
   transmission of the PDU is determined from the Quality of Service and
   other information contained in the Options Part of the PDU header.
   This information constitutes the NS-Quality-of-Service parameter of
   the N-UNITDATA Indication.

6.3     Header Format Analysis Function

   This function determines whether the full protocol described in this
   Standard is employed, or one of the defined proper subsets thereof.
   If the protocol data unit has a Network Layer Protocol Identifier in-
   dicating that this is a standard version of the Protocol, this func-
   tion determines whether a received PDU has reached its destination,
   using the Destination Address provided in the PDU. If the Destination
   Address provided in the PDU identifies an NSAP served by this
   network-entity, then the PDU has reached its destination; if not, it
   must be forwarded.

   If the protocol data unit has a Network Layer Protocol Identifier in-
   dicating that the Inactive Network Layer Protocol subset is in use,
   then no further analysis of the PDU header is required. The network-
   entity in this case determines that either the Subnetwork Point of
   Attachment address encoded as network protocol address information in
   the supporting subnetwork protocol corresponds directly to an NSAP
   address serviced by this network-entity or that an error has oc-
   curred. If the subnetwork protocol data unit has been delivered
   correctly, then the PDU may be decomposed according to the procedures
   described for that particular subnetwork protocol.






ISO 8473                                                       [Page 19]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


6.4     PDU Lifetime Control Function

   This function is used to enforce the maximum PDU lifetime. It is
   closely associated with the Header Format Analysis function.  This
   function determines whether a PDU received may be forwarded or wheth-
   er its assigned lifetime has expired, in which case it must be dis-
   carded.

   The operation of the PDU Lifetime Control function depends upon the
   Lifetime field in the PDU header.  This field contains, at any time,
   the remaining lifetime of the PDU (represented in units of 500 mil-
   liseconds). The Lifetime of the Initial PDU is determined by the ori-
   ginating network-entity, and placed in the Lifetime field of the PDU.
   When the Segmentation function is applied to a PDU, the value of the
   Lifetime field of the Initial PDU is copied into all of the Derived
   PDUs.

   The Lifetime of the PDU is decremented by every network-entity which
   processes the PDU. When a network-entity processes a PDU, it decre-
   ments the PDU Lifetime by at least one.  The value of the PDU Life-
   time field shall be decremented by more than one if the sum of:

      1.  the transit delay in the underlying service from which the PDU
          was received; and

      2.  the delay within the system processing the PDU

   exceeds or is estimated to exceed 500 milliseconds.  In this case,
   the lifetime field should be decremented by one for each additional
   500 milliseconds of delay. The determination of delay need not be
   precise, but where a precise value cannot be ascertained, the value
   used shall be an overestimate, not an underestimate.

   If the Lifetime field reaches a value of zero before the PDU is
   delivered to the destination, the PDU must be discarded.  The Error
   Reporting function shall be invoked as described in Clause 6.10, Er-
   ror Reporting Function, and may result in the generation of an Error
   Report PDU.  It is a local matter whether the destination network-
   entity performs the Lifetime Control function.

6.5     Route PDU Function

   This function determines the network-entity to which a protocol data
   unit should be forwarded and the underlying service that must be used
   to reach that network-entity, using the Destination Address and the
   total length of the PDU. Where segmentation is required, the Route
   PDU function further determines over which underlying service Derived
   PDUs/segments must be sent in order to reach that network-entity. The
   results of the Route PDU function are passed to the Forward PDU func-
   tion (along with the PDU itself) for further processing.  Selection
   of the underlying service that must be used to reach the "next" sys-



ISO 8473                                                       [Page 20]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


   tem in the route is initially influenced by the NS-Quality-of- Ser-
   vice parameter of the N-UNITDATA Request, which specifies the QoS re-
   quested by the sending NS User. Whether this QoS is to be provided
   directly by the CLNP, through the selection of the Quality of Service
   Maintenance parameter and other optional parameters, or through the
   QoS facilities offered by each of the underlying services is deter-
   mined prior to invocation of the Forward PDU function.  Route selec-
   tion by intermediate systems may subsequently be influenced by the
   values of the Quality of Service Maintenance parameter (if present),
   and other optional parameters (if present).

6.6     Forward PDU Function

   This function issues an SN-UNITDATA Request primitive (see Clause
   5.5), supplying the subnetwork or SNDCF identified by the Route PDU
   function with the protocol data unit as user data to be transmitted,
   the address information required by that subnetwork or SNDCF to iden-
   tify the "next" system within the subnetwork-specific addressing
   domain (this may be an intermediate-system or the destination end-
   system), and Quality of Service constraints (if any) to be considered
   in the processing of the user data.

   When the PDU to be forwarded is longer than the maximum service data
   user size provided by the underlying service, the Segmentation func-
   tion is applied (See Clause 6.7, which follows).

6.7     Segmentation Function

   Segmentation is performed when the size of the protocol data unit is
   greater than the maximum service data unit size supported by the
   underlying service to be used to transmit the PDU.

   Segmentation consists of composing two or more new PDUs (Derived
   PDUs) from the PDU received. The PDU received may be the Initial PDU,
   or it may be a Derived PDU. All of the header information from the
   PDU to be segmented, with the exception of the segment length and
   checksum fields of the fixed part, and the segment offset of the seg-
   mentation part, is duplicated in each Derived PDU, including all of
   the address part, the data unit identifier and total length of the
   segmentation part, and the options part (if present).

                                   Note:
       The rules for forwarding and segmentation guarantee that the
       header length is the same for all segments (Derived PDUs) of
       the Initial PDU, and is the same as the header length of the
       Initial PDU.  The size of a PDU header will not change due to
       operation of any protocol function.

   The user data encapsulated within the PDU received are divided such
   that the Derived PDUs satisfy the size requirements of the user data
   parameter field of the primitive used to access the underlying ser-



ISO 8473                                                       [Page 21]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


   vice.

   Derived PDUs are identified as being from the same Initial PDU by
   means of

     (a)  the source address,

     (b)  the destination address, and

     (c)  the data unit identifier.

   Segmentation shall not result in the generation of a Derived PDU con-
   taining less than eight (8) octets of user data.

   The following fields of the PDU header are used in conjunction with
   the Segmentation function:

      (a)  Segment Offset --- identifies, with respect to the start
           of the Initial PDU, the octet at which the segment begins;

      (b)  Segment Length --- specifies the number of octets in the
           Derived PDU, including both header and data;

      (c)  More Segments Flag --- is set to one if this Derived PDU
           does not contain, as its final octet of user data, the final
           octet of the Initial PDU; and

      (d)  Total Length --- specifies the entire length of the Initial
           PDU, including both header and data.


   Derived PDUs may be further segmented without constraining the rout-
   ing of the individual Derived PDUs.  The Segmentation Permitted flag
   is set to one to indicate that segmentation is permitted. If the Ini-
   tial PDU is not to be segmented at any point during its lifetime in
   the network, the flag is set to zero by the source network-entity.
   The setting of the Segmentation Permitted flag cannot be changed by
   any other network-entity for the lifetime of the Initial PDU and any
   Derived PDUs.

6.8     Reassembly Function

   The Reassembly function reconstructs the Initial PDU from the Derived
   PDUs generated by the operation of the Segmentation Function on the
   Initial PDU (and, recursively, on subsequent Derived PDUs).  A bound
   on the time during which segments (Derived PDUs) of an Initial PDU
   will be held at a reassembly point before being discarded is provid-
   ed, so that reassembly resources may be released when it is no longer
   expected that any outstanding segments of the Initial PDU will arrive
   at the reassembly point. Upon reception of a Derived PDU, a reassem-
   bly timer is initiated with a value which indicates the amount of



ISO 8473                                                       [Page 22]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


   time which must elapse before any outstanding segments of the Initial
   PDU shall be assumed to be lost.  When this timer expires, all seg-
   ments (Derived PDUs) of the Initial PDU held at the reassembly point
   are discarded, the resources allocated for those segments are freed,
   and if selected, an Error Report is generated (see Clause 6.10).
   While the exact relationship between reassembly lifetime and PDU
   lifetime is a local matter, the Reassembly Function must preserve the
   intent of the PDU lifetime. Consequently, the reassembly function
   must discard PDUs whose lifetime would otherwise have expired had
   they not been under the control of the reassembly function.

                                   Note:

         1. Methods of bounding reassembly lifetime are discussed in
            Annex B.

         2. The Segmentation and Reassembly functions are intended to
            be used in such a way that the fewest possible segments are
            generated at each segmentation point and reassembly takes
            place at the final destination of a PDU. However, other
            schemes which

             (a) interact with the routing algorithm to favor paths on
                 which fewer segments are generated;

             (b) generate more segments than absolutely required in
                 order to avoid additional segmentation at some subsequent
                 point; or

             (c) allow partial or full reassembly at some intermediate
                 point along the route

            are not precluded. The information necessary to enable the
            use of one of these alternative strategies may be made
            available through the operation of a Network Layer Management
            function or by other means.

         3. The originator of the Initial PDU determines the value of the
            Segmentation Permitted flag in the Initial PDU and all Derived
            PDUs (if any).  Partial or full reassembly in an intermediate
            system (Note 2 (c) above) cannot change this value in the
            Initial PDU or any PDU derived from it, and cannot therefore
            add or remove the segmentation part of the header.

6.9     Discard PDU Function

   This function performs all of the actions necessary to free the
   resources reserved by the network-entity when any of the following
   situations is encountered (Note: the list is not exhaustive):

     (a)  A violation of protocol procedure has occurred.



ISO 8473                                                       [Page 23]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


     (b)  A PDU is received whose checksum is inconsistent with its
          contents.

     (c)  A PDU is received, but due to local congestion, it cannot be
          processed.

     (d)  A PDU is received whose header cannot be analyzed.

     (e)  A PDU is received which cannot be segmented and cannot be
          forwarded because its length exceeds the maximum service data
          unit size supported by any underlying service available for
          transmission of the PDU to the next network-entity on the
          chosen route.

     (f)  A PDU is received whose destination address is unreachable or
          unknown.

     (g)  Incorrect or invalid source routing was specified. This may
          include a syntax error in the source routing field, an unknown
          or unreachable address in the source routing field, or a path
          which is not acceptable for other reasons.

     (h)  A PDU is received whose PDU lifetime has expired or whose
          lifetime expires during reassembly.

     (i)  A PDU is received which contains an unsupported option.

6.10     Error Reporting Function

6.10.1     Overview

   This function causes an attempt to return an Error Report PDU to the
   source network-entity when a protocol data unit is discarded in ac-
   cordance with Clause 6.9.

   The Error Report PDU identifies the discarded PDU, specifies the type
   of error detected, and identifies the location in the header of the
   discarded PDU at which the error was detected.  At least the entire
   header of the Discarded PDU (and, at the discretion of the originator
   of the Error Report PDU none, all, or part of the data field) is
   placed in the data field of the Error Report PDU.

   The originator of a Data PDU may control the generation of Error Re-
   port PDUs.  An Error Report flag in the original PDU is set by the
   source network-entity to indicate that an Error Report PDU is to be
   returned if the Initial PDU or any PDUs derived from it are discard-
   ed; if the flag is not set, Error Reports are to be suppressed.

                                    Note:

         1. The suppression of Error Report PDUs is controlled by the



ISO 8473                                                       [Page 24]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


            originating network-entity and not by the NS User.  Care
            should be exercised by the originator with regard to
            suppressing ER PDUs so that error reporting is not suppressed
            for every PDU generated.

         2. Non-receipt of an Error Report PDU does not imply correct
            delivery of a PDU issued by a source network-entity.

6.10.2     Requirements

   An Error Report PDU shall not be generated to report the discard of
   an Error Report PDU.

   An Error Report PDU shall not be generated to report the discard of a
   Data PDU unless that PDU has the Error Report flag set to allow Error
   Reports.

   If a Data PDU is discarded, and the Error Report flag has been set to
   allow Error Reports, an Error Report PDU shall be generated if the
   reason for discard is one of the reasons for discard enumerated in
   Clause 6.9, subject to the conditions described in Clause 6.10.4.

                                   Note:
       If a Data PDU with the E/R flag set to allow Error Reports is
       discarded for any other reason, an ER PDU may be generated (as
       an implementation option).

6.10.3     Processing of Error Reports

   An Error Report PDU is composed from information contained in the
   header of the discarded Data PDU to which the Error Report refers.
   The contents of the Source Address field of the discarded Data PDU
   are used as the Destination Address of the Error Report PDU. This
   value, which in the context of the Data PDU was used as an NSAP Ad-
   dress, is used in the context of the Error Report PDU as the
   network-entity title of the network-entity that originated the Data
   PDU. The network- entity title of the originator of the Error Report
   PDU is conveyed in the Source Address field of the header of the Er-
   ror Report PDU. The value of the Lifetime field is determined in ac-
   cordance with Clause 6.4. Optional parameters are selected in accor-
   dance with Clause 6.10.4.

   Segmentation of Error Report PDUs is not permitted; hence, no Segmen-
   tation Part is present.  The total length of the ER PDU in octets is
   placed in the Segment Length field of the ER PDU header. This field
   is not changed during the lifetime of the ER PDU. If the originator
   of the ER PDU determines that the size of the ER PDU exceeds the max-
   imum service data unit size of the underlying service, the ER PDU
   shall be truncated to the maximum service data unit size (see Clause
   5.5.3) and forwarded with no other change. Error Report PDUs are
   routed and forwarded by intermediate-system network-entities in the



ISO 8473                                                       [Page 25]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


   same way as Data PDUs.

                                    Note:
       The requirement that the underlying service assumed by the CLNP
       must be capable of supporting a service data unit size of at least
       512 octets guarantees that the entire header of the discarded Data
       PDU can be conveyed in the data field of any ER PDU.

   When an ER PDU is decomposed upon reaching its destination, informa-
   tion that may be used to interpret and act upon the Error Report is
   obtained as follows. The network-entity title recovered from the NPAI
   in the Source Address field of the ER PDU header is used to identify
   the network-entity which generated the Error Report.  The reason for
   generating the Error Report is extracted from the Options Part of the
   PDU header. The entire header of the discarded Data PDU (and part or
   all of the original user data) is extracted from the data field of
   the ER PDU to assist in determining the nature of the error.

6.10.4     Relationship of Data PDU Options to Error Reports

   The generation of an Error Report is affected by options that are
   present in the corresponding Data PDU. The presence of options in the
   original Data PDU that are not supported by the system which has dis-
   carded that PDU may cause the suppression of an Error Report even if
   the original Data PDU indicated that an Error Report should be gen-
   erated in the event of a discard.

   The processing of an Error Report is also affected by options which
   are present in the corresponding Data PDU. In particular, options
   selected for the original Data PDU affect which options are included
   in the corresponding Error Report PDU. The selection of options for
   an Error Report PDU is governed by the following requirements:

     (a)  If the Priority Option or the QoS Maintenance Option is selected
          in the original Data PDU, and the system generating the Error
          Report PDU supports the option, then the Error Report PDU shall
          specify the option.

     (b)  If the Security Option is selected in the Data PDU, and the system
          generating the Error Report supports this option, then the Error
          Report PDU shall specify the option using the value that was
          specified in the original Data PDU. If the system does not support
          the Security Option, an Error Report must not be generated for
          a Data PDU that selects the Security Option.

     (c)  If the Complete Source Route Option is selected in the original
          Data PDU, and the system generating the Error Report PDU supports
          this option, then the error Report shall specify the Complete Source
          Route option.  The Source Route parameter value is obtained by
          extracting from the original Data PDU that portion of the complete
          source route that has already been traversed, and reversing the



ISO 8473                                                       [Page 26]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


          order of network-entity titles which comprise the list.
          If the system does not support the Complete Source Route Option,
          an Error Report must not be generated for a Data PDU that selects
          the Complete Source Route option.

     (d)  The Padding, Partial Source Routing, and Record Route Options,
          if supported, may be specified in the Error Report PDU.

                                    Note:
            The values of the optional parameters in (d) above may be
            derived as a local matter, or they may be based upon the
            corresponding values in the original Data PDU.

6.11     PDU Header Error Detection

   The PDU Header Error Detection function protects against failure of
   intermediate or end-system network-entities due to the processing of
   erroneous information in the PDU header.  The function is realized by
   a checksum computed on the entire PDU header. The checksum is veri-
   fied at each point at which the PDU header is processed.  If the
   checksum calculation fails, the PDU must be discarded.  If PDU header
   fields are modified (for example, due to operation of the lifetime
   function), then the checksum is modified so that the checksum remains
   valid.

   The use of the Header Error Detection function is optional, and is
   selected by the originating network-entity.  If the function is not
   used, the checksum field of the PDU header is set to zero.

   If the function is selected by the originating network-entity, the
   value of the checksum field causes the following formulae to be sa-
   tisfied:

        (The Sum from i=1 to L of a(i)) (mod  255) = 0

        (The Sum from i=1 to L of (L - i + 1) * a(i)) (mod  255) = 0


   where L = the number of octets in the PDU header, and a(i) = the
   value of the octet at position i. The first octet in the PDU header
   is considered to occupy position i = 0.

   When the function is in use, neither octet of the checksum field may
   be set to zero.

                                   Note:

       1. To ensure that inadvertent modification of a header while a
          PDU is being processed by an intermediate system (for
          example, due to a memory fault) may still be detected by the
          PDU Header Error function, an intermediate system network-



ISO 8473                                                       [Page 27]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


          entity must not recompute the checksum for the entire header,
          even if fields are modified.

       2. Annex C contains descriptions of algorithms which may be
          used to calculate the correct value of the checksum field
          when the PDU is created, and to update the value of the
          checksum field when the header is modified.

6.12     Padding Function

   The padding function is provided to allow space to be reserved in the
   PDU header which is not used to support any other function.  Octet
   alignment must be maintained.

                                   Note:
       An example of the use of this function is to cause the data field
       of a PDU to begin on a convenient boundary for the originating
       network-entity, such as a computer word boundary.

6.13     Security

   The provision of protection services (e.g., data origin authentica-
   tion, data confidentiality, and data integrity of a single
   connectionless-mode NSDU) is performed by the Security Function.

   The Security Function is related to the Protection from Unauthorized
   Access Quality of Service parameter described in ISO 8348/AD1, Adden-
   dum to the Network Service Definition Covering Connectionless-mode
   Transmission. The function is realized through selection of the secu-
   rity parameter in the options part of the PDU header.

   This Standard does not specify the way in which protection services
   are to be provided; it only provides for the encoding of security in-
   formation in the PDU header. To facilitate interoperation between
   end-systems and network relay-systems by avoiding different interpre-
   tations of the same encoding, a means to distinguish user-defined
   security encodings from standardized security encodings is described
   in Clause 7.5.3.


                                   Note:
       As an implementation consideration, data origin authentication
       may be provided through the use of a cryptographically generated
       or enciphered checksum (unique from the PDU Header Error Detection
       mechanism); data confidentiality and data integrity may be
       provided via route control mechanisms.

6.14     Source Routing Function

   The Source Routing function allows the originator to specify the path
   a generated PDU must take. Source routing may only be selected by the



ISO 8473                                                       [Page 28]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


   originator of a PDU. Source Routing is accomplished using a list of
   network-entity titles held in a parameter within the options part of
   the PDU header.  The length of this parameter is determined by the
   originating network-entity, and does not change as the PDU traverses
   the network.

   The Source Route parameter includes information used by the originat-
   ing end-system when determining the initial route of the PDU. Only
   the titles of intermediate system network-entities are included in
   the list; the network-entity title of the destination of the PDU is
   not included in the list.

   Associated with the list of network-entity titles is an indicator
   which identifies the next entry in the list to be used; this indica-
   tor is advanced by the receiver of the PDU when the next title in the
   list matches its own. The indicator is updated as the PDU is forward-
   ed so as to identify the appropriate entry at each stage of relaying.

   Two forms of the Source Routing function are provided.  The first
   form, referred to as Complete Source Routing, requires that the
   specified path must be taken; that is, only those systems identified
   in the list may be visited by the PDU while en route to the destina-
   tion, and each system must be visited in the order specified. If the
   specified path cannot be taken, the PDU must be discarded. Clause
   6.10 describes the circumstances in which an attempt shall be made to
   inform the originator of the discard using the Error Reporting func-
   tion.

   The second form is referred to as Partial Source Routing. Again, each
   system identified in the list must be visited in the order specified
   while en route to the destination.  However, with this form of source
   routing the PDU may take any path necessary to arrive at the next in-
   termediate system in the list, which may include visiting intermedi-
   ate systems that are not identified in the list. The PDU will not be
   discarded (for source routing related reasons) unless one of the sys-
   tems specified cannot be reached by any available route.

6.15     Record Route Function

   The Record Route function records the path(s) taken by a PDU as it
   traverses a series of intermediate systems. A recorded route consists
   of a list of network-entity titles held in a parameter within the op-
   tions part of the PDU header. The length of this parameter is deter-
   mined by the originating network-entity, and does not change as the
   PDU traverses the network.

   The list is constructed as the PDU is forwarded along a path towards
   its destination.  Only the titles of intermediate system network-
   entities are included in the recorded route. The network-entity title
   of the originator of the PDU is not recorded in the list.




ISO 8473                                                       [Page 29]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


   When an intermediate system network-entity processes a PDU containing
   the Record Route parameter, the system adds its own networkentity ti-
   tle at the end of the list of recorded network-entity titles.  An in-
   dicator is maintained to identify the next available octet to be used
   for recording of route. This indicator is updated as entries are ad-
   ded to the list as follows. The length of the entry to be added to
   the list is added to the value of the next available octet indicator,
   and this sum is compared with the length of the Record Route parame-
   ter.  If the addition of the entry to the list would exceed the size
   of the parameter, the next available octet indicator is set to indi-
   cate that route recording has been terminated. The network-entity ti-
   tle is not added to the list. The PDU may still be forwarded to its
   final destination, without further addition of network-entity titles.

   If the addition of the entry would not exceed the size of the Record
   Route parameter, the next available octet indicator is updated with
   the new value, and the network-entity title is added to the head of
   the list after the other entries have been moved.

   Two forms of the Record Route function are provided.  The first form
   is referred to as Complete Route Recording.  It requires that the
   list of network-entity titles be a complete and accurate record of
   all intermediate systems visited by a PDU (including Derived PDUs),
   except when a shortage of space in the record route option field
   causes termination of recording of route, as described above. When
   Complete Route Recording is selected, PDU reassembly at intermediate
   systems is performed only when the Derived PDUs that are reassembled
   all took the same route; otherwise, the PDU is discarded, and if
   selected, an Error Report is generated (see Clause 6.10).

   The second form is referred to as Partial Route Recording. It also
   requires a record of intermediate systems visited by a PDU. When Par-
   tial Route Recording is selected, PDU reassembly at intermediate sys-
   tems is always permitted.  When reassembly is performed at an inter-
   mediate system, the route recorded in any of the Derived PDUs may be
   placed in the PDU resulting from the reassembly.

                                   Note:
       The Record Route function is intended to be used in the diagnosis
       of subnetwork problems and/or to provide a return path that could
       be used as a source route in a subsequent PDU.

6.16     Quality of Service Maintenance Function

   The Quality of Service Maintenance function provides information to
   network-entities in intermediate systems which may be used to make
   routing decisions where such decisions affect the overall QoS provid-
   ed to NS users. This information is conveyed to intermediate system
   network- entities in a parameter in the options part of the PDU
   header.




ISO 8473                                                       [Page 30]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


   In those instances where the QoS requested cannot be maintained, in-
   termediate system network-entities shall attempt to deliver the PDU
   at a QoS different from the QoS requested. Intermediate system
   network-entities do not necessarily provide a notification of failure
   to meet the requested Quality of Service.


6.17     Priority Function

   The Priority function allows a PDU with a numerically higher priority
   value to be processed preferentially with respect to other PDUs with
   numerically lower priority values. The function is realized through
   selection of a parameter in the options part of the PDU header.

   The lowest priority value is zero; a source network-entity that does
   not support the Priority function must set the Priority value to
   zero.  The Priority function provides a means whereby the resources
   of end and intermediate system network-entities, such as outgoing
   transmission queues and buffers, can be used preferentially to pro-
   cess higher-priority PDUs ahead of lower-priority PDUs. The specific
   action taken by an individual network-entity to support the Priority
   function is a local matter.

6.18     Congestion Notification Function

   To allow NS Users to take appropriate action when congestion is ex-
   perienced within the NS provider, intermediate systems may inform the
   destination network-entity of congestion through the use of a flag in
   the QoS Maintenance parameter in the options part of the PDU header.
   The value of this flag is initially set to zero (0) by the originator
   of the PDU and may be set to one (1) by any intermediate system which
   processes the PDU to indicate that it is experiencing congestion. The
   criteria for determining when this action is to be taken are a local
   matter.

                                    Note:
     Congestion typically corresponds to inavailability of buffer space
     to maintain output queues. An appropriate policy for indicating
     congestion may be based upon the depth of the output queue selected
     for a PDU (according to its destination address or other routing
     information). When the depth of a particular output queue exceeds
     a certain proportion of the depth of that queue, an intermediate
     system will start to discard PDUs. The intermediate system will set
     the Congestion Experienced flag in the next PDU to be forwarded
     and may continue to do so until the condition is alleviated.

6.19     Classification of Functions

   Implementations are not required to support all of the functions
   described in Clauses 6.1 through 6.18. Functions are divided into
   three categories:



ISO 8473                                                       [Page 31]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


   Type 1: These functions must be supported.

   Type 2: These functions may or may not be supported.
           If an implementation does not support a Type 2 function, and the
           function is selected in a PDU, then that PDU must be discarded,
           and an Error Report PDU must be generated and forwarded to the
           originating network-entity, providing that the Error Report flag is
           set and the conditions of Clause 6.10.4 are satisfied.

   Type 3: These functions may or may not be supported.
           If an implementation does not support a Type 3 function, and the
           function is selected in a PDU, then the function is not performed,
           and the PDU is processed exactly as though the function had not
           been selected.  The protocol data unit shall not be discarded for
           this reason.

   Table 4 shows how the functions are divided into these three categories:

 _____________________________________________________________________________
|                                |    FULL     |       NON       |  INACTIVE  |
| FUNCTION                       |  PROTOCOL   |    SEGMENTING   |   SUBSET   |
|                                |             |      SUBSET     |            |
|________________________________|_____________|_________________|____________|
|PDU Composition                 |     1       |        1        |     1      |
|PDU Composition                 |     1       |        1        |     1      |
|Header Format Analysis          |     1       |        1        |     1      |
|PDU Lifetime Control            |     1       |        1        |    N/A     |
|Route PDU                       |     1       |        1        |    N/A     |
|Forward PDU                     |     1       |        1        |    N/A     |
|Segment PDU                     |     1       |       N/A       |    N/A     |
|Reassemble PDU                  |     1       |       N/A       |    N/A     |
|Discard PDU                     |     1       |        1        |    N/A     |
|Error Reporting (Note 1)        |     1       |        1        |    N/A     |
|Header Error Detection (Note 1) |     1       |        1        |    N/A     |
|Security                        |     1       |        2        |    N/A     |
|Complete Source Routing         |     1       |        2        |    N/A     |
|Complete Route Recording        |     2       |        2        |    N/A     |
|Partial Source Routing          |     3       |        3        |    N/A     |
|Partial Route Recording         |     3       |        3        |    N/A     |
|Priority                        |     3       |        3        |    N/A     |
|QoS Maintenance                 |     3       |        3        |    N/A     |
|Congestion Notification         |     3       |        3        |    N/A     |
|Padding                         |     3       |        3        |    N/A     |
|________________________________|_____________|_________________|____________|

           Table 4: Categorization of Protocol Functions








ISO 8473                                                       [Page 32]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


                                Note:

     1. While the Error Reporting and Header Error Detection functions
        must be provided, they are provided only when selected
        by the sending Network Service user.

     2. The rationale for the inclusion of type 3 functions is that in
        the case of some functions it is more important to forward
        the PDUs between intermediate systems or deliver them to
        an end-system than it is to support the functions.  Type 3
        functions should be used in those cases where they are of an
        advisory nature; they cannot cause a PDU to be discarded
        when they are not supported.

7     Structure and Encoding of PDUs

7.1     Structure

   All Protocol Data Units shall contain an integral number of octets.
   The octets in a PDU are numbered starting from one (1) and increasing
   in the order in which they are submitted to the underlying service.
   The bits in an octet are numbered from one (1) to eight (8), where
   bit one (1) is the low-order (least significant) bit.

   When consecutive octets are used to represent a binary number, the
   lower octet number has the most significant value.

   Any implementation supporting this protocol is required to state in
   its specification the way in which octets are transferred, using the
   terms "most significant bit" and "least significant bit". The PDUs of
   this protocol are defined using the terms "most significant bit" and
   "least significant bit".

                                       Note:
       When the encoding of a PDU is represented using a diagram in this
       Clause the following representation is used:

         a) octets are shown with the lowest numbered octet to the left,
            higher number octets being further to the right;
         b) within an octet, bits are shown with bit eight (8) to the left
            and bit one (1) to the right.

       PDUs shall contain, in the following order:

       1.  the fixed part;
       2.  the address part;
       3.  the segmentation part, if present;
       4.  the Options part, if present;

   and the data field, if present. This structure is illustrated in Figure 2:




ISO 8473                                                       [Page 33]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


7.2     Fixed Part

7.2.1    General

   The fixed part of the PDU header contains frequently occurring param-
   eters including the type code (DT or ER) of the protocol data unit.
   The length and the structure of the fixed part are defined by the PDU
   code.

   The fixed part has the following format:

                           Part                      Described in
             ___________________________________
             |          Fixed Part             |      Section 7.2
             |_________________________________|
             |          Address Part           |      Section 7.3
             |_________________________________|
             |       Segmentation Part         |      Section 7.4
             |_________________________________|
             |          Options Part           |      Section 7.5
             |_________________________________|
             |              Data               |      Section 7.6
             |_________________________________|

                   Figure 2: PDU Structure


                                                        Octet
             ________________________________________
             |   Network Layer Protocol Identifier  |    1
             |______________________________________|
             |          Length Indicator            |    2
             |______________________________________|
             |     Version/Protocol Id Extension    |    3
             |______________________________________|
             |              Lifetime                |    4
             |______________________________________|
             |    SP  vline M S vline e/R | Type    |    5
             |______________________________________|
             |            Segment Length            |   6,7
             |______________________________________|
             |               Checksum               |   8,9
             |______________________________________|

                 Figure 3: PDU Header -- Fixed Part

7.2.2    Network Layer Protocol Identifier

   The value of this field is set to binary 1000 0001 to identify this
   Network Layer protocol as ISO 8473, Protocol for Providing the
   Connectionless- mode Network Service. The value of this field is set



ISO 8473                                                       [Page 34]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


   to binary 0000 0000 to identify the Inactive Network Layer protocol
   subset.

7.2.3    Length Indicator

   The length is indicated by a binary number, with a maximum value of
   254 (1111 1110).  The length indicated is the length in octets of the
   header, as described in Clause 7.1. The value 255 (1111 1111) is
   reserved for possible future extensions.

                                   Note:
     The rules for forwarding and segmentation guarantee that the header
     length is the same for all segments (Derived PDUs) of the Initial
     PDU, and is the same as the header length of the Initial PDU.
     The size of a PDU header will not change due to operation of any
     protocol function.

7.2.4    Version/Protocol Identifier Extension

   The value of this field is binary 0000 0001, which identifies the
   standard Version 1 of ISO 8473, Protocol for Providing the
   Connectionless-mode Network Service.

7.2.5    PDU Lifetime

   The PDU Lifetime field is encoded as a binary number representing the
   remaining lifetime of the PDU, in units of 500 milliseconds.

7.2.6    Flags

7.2.6.1    Segmentation Permitted

   The Segmentation Permitted flag indicates whether segmentation is
   permitted. Its value is determined by the originator of the PDU and
   cannot be changed by any other network-entity for the lifetime of the
   Initial PDU and any Derived PDUs.

   A value of one (1) indicates that segmentation is permitted. A value
   of zero (0) indicates that the non-segmenting protocol subset is em-
   ployed.  When the value of zero is selected, the segmentation part of
   the PDU header is not present, and the Segment Length field serves as
   the Total Length field (see Clause 7.2.8).

7.2.6.2    More Segments

   The More Segments flag indicates whether the data segment in this PDU
   contains (as its last octet) the last octet of the User Data in the
   NSDU.  When the More Segments flag is set to one (1), segmentation
   has taken place and the last octet of the NSDU is not contained in
   this PDU. The More Segments flag cannot be set to one (1) if the Seg-
   mentation Permitted flag is not set to one (1).



ISO 8473                                                       [Page 35]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


   When the More Segments flag is set to zero (0), the last octet of the
   Data Part of the PDU is the last octet of the NSDU.

7.2.6.3    Error Report

   When the Error Report flag is set to one, the rules in Clause 6.10
   are used to determine whether to generate an Error Report PDU if it
   is necessary to discard this Data PDU.

   When the Error Report flag is set to zero, discard of the Data PDU
   will not cause the generation of an Error Report PDU.

7.2.7    Type Code

   The Type code field identifies the type of the protocol data unit.
   Allowed values are given in Table 5:

              __________________________________________________
              |         | Bits               5   4   3   2   1 |
              |_________|______________________________________|
              | DT PDU  |                    1   1   1   0   0 |
              |_________|______________________________________|
              | ER PDU  |                    0   0   0   0   1 |
              |_________|______________________________________|

                         Table 5: Valid PDU Types

7.2.8    PDU Segment Length

   The Segment Length field specifies the entire length, in octets, of
   the Derived PDU, including both header and data (if present).  When
   the full protocol is employed and a PDU is not segmented, the value
   of this field is identical to the value of the Total Length field lo-
   cated in the Segmentation Part of the header.

   When the non-segmenting protocol subset is employed, no segmentation
   part is present in the header. In this subset, the Segment Length
   field specifies the entire length of the Initial PDU, including both
   header and data (if present). The Segment Length field is not changed
   for the lifetime of the PDU.

7.2.9    PDU Checksum

   The checksum is computed on the entire PDU header.  For the Data PDU,
   this includes the segmentation and options parts (if present). For
   the Error Report PDU, this includes the reason for discard field as
   well.

   A checksum value of zero is reserved to indicate that the checksum is
   to be ignored.  The operation of the PDU Header Error Detection func-
   tion (Clause 6.11) ensures that the value zero does not represent a



ISO 8473                                                       [Page 36]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


   valid checksum. A non-zero value indicates that the checksum must be
   processed. If the checksum calculation fails, the PDU must be dis-
   carded.

7.3     Address Part

7.3.1    General

   Address parameters are distinguished by their location, immediately
   following the fixed part of the PDU header. The address part is il-
   lustrated Figure 4:


                                                              Octet
                ____________________________________________
               |    Destination Address Length Indicator   |   10
               |___________________________________________|
               |                                           |   11
               :              Destination Address          :
               |                                           |  m - 1
               |___________________________________________|
               |     Source Address Length Indicator       |    m
               |___________________________________________|
               |                                           |  m + 1
               :               Source Address              :
               |                                           |  n - 1
               |___________________________________________|

                 Figure 4: PDU Header -- Address Part

7.3.1.1    Destination and Source Addresses

   The Destination and Source addresses used by this protocol are Net-
   work Service Access Point addresses as defined in ISO 8348/AD2, Ad-
   dendum to the Network Service Definition Covering Network Layer Ad-
   dressing.

   The Destination and Source Addresses are variable length. The Desti-
   nation and Source Address fields are encoded as Network Protocol Ad-
   dress Information using the Preferred Binary Encoding defined in
   Clause 8.3.1 of ISO 8348/AD2.

   The Destination Address Length Indicator field specifies the length
   of the Destination Address in octets. The Destination Address field
   follows the Destination Address Length Indicator field.

   The Source Address Length Indicator field specifies the length of the
   Source Address in octets.  The Source Address Length Indicator field
   follows the Destination Address field. The Source Address field fol-
   lows the Source Address Length Indicator field.




ISO 8473                                                       [Page 37]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


   Each address parameter is encoded as illustrated in Table 5:

                ______________________________________________
                | Octet  | Address parameter Length Indicator |
                |   n    |                (e.g., 'm')         |
                |________|____________________________________|
                | Octets |                                    |
                |  n + 1 |       Address Parameter Value      |
                |  thru  |                                    |
                |  n + m |                                    |
                |________|____________________________________|

                          Figure 5:  Address Parameters

7.4     Segmentation Part

   If the Segmentation Permitted Flag in the Fixed Part of the PDU
   Header (Octet 4, Bit 8) is set to one, the segmentation part of the
   header, illustrated in Figure 6, must be present:

   If the Segmentation Permitted flag is set to zero, the non-segmenting
   protocol subset is in use.

                                                  Octet
                    ________________________
                    | Data Unit Identifier |       n, n + 1
                    |______________________|
                    |    Segment Offset    |   n + 2, n + 3
                    |______________________|
                    |     Total Length     |   n + 4, n + 5
                    |______________________|

             Figure 6: PDU Header -- Segmentation Part

7.4.1    Data Unit Identifier

   The Data Unit Identifier identifies an Initial PDU (and hence, its
   Derived PDUs) so that a segmented data unit may be correctly reassem-
   bled. The Data Unit Identifier size is two octets.

7.4.2    Segment Offset

   For each Derived PDU, the Segment Offset field specifies the relative
   position of the segment contained in the data field of the Derived
   PDU with respect to the start of the data field of the Initial PDU.
   The offset is measured in units of octets. The offset of the first
   segment (and hence, the Initial PDU) is zero; an unsegmented (Initial
   PDU) has a segment offset value of zero (0). The value of this field
   shall be a multiple of eight 8).





ISO 8473                                                       [Page 38]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


7.4.3    PDU Total Length

   The Total Length field specifies the entire length of the Initial
   PDU, including both the header and data.  This field is not changed
   for the lifetime of the Initial PDU (and hence, its Derived PDUs).

7.5     Options Part

7.5.1    General

   The options part is used to convey optional parameters.  The options
   part of the PDU header is illustrated below:

                                                             Octet
        ___________________________________________________
        |                                                  | n + 6
        :                    Options                       :
        |                                                  |   p
        |__________________________________________________|

                  Figure 7: PDU Header -- Options Part

   If the options part is present, it may contain one or more parame-
   ters.  The number of parameters that may be contained in the options
   part is constrained by the length of the options part, which is
   determined by the following formula:

   PDU Header Length -(length of fixed part+length of address
   part+length of segmentation part)

   and by the length of the individual optional parameters.

   Parameters defined in the options part may appear in any order.  Du-
   plication of options is not permitted. Receipt of a Protocol Data
   Unit with an option duplicated should be treated as a protocol error.
   The rules governing the treatment of protocol errors are described in
   Clause 6.10, Error Reporting Function.

   The encoding of parameters contained within the options part of the
   PDU header is illustrated in Table 6:

                Octets
                ___________________________________________
                |     n      |       Parameter Code       |
                |____________|____________________________|
                |   n + 1    |  Parameter Length (e.g.m)  |
                |____________|____________________________|
                |   n + 2    |                            |
                |     to     |     Parameter Value        |
                | n + m + 1  |                            |
                |____________|____________________________|



ISO 8473                                                       [Page 39]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


                    Table 6: Encoding of Parameters

   The parameter code field is coded in binary and, without extensions,
   provides a maximum of 255 different parameters.  No parameter codes
   use bits 8 and 7 with the value 00, so the actual maximum number of
   parameters is lower.  A parameter code of 255 (binary 1111 1111) is
   reserved for possible future extensions.

   The parameter length field indicates the length, in octets, of the
   parameter value field. The length is indicated by a positive binary
   number, m, with a theoretical maximum value of 254.  The practical
   maximum value of m is lower. For example, in the case of a single
   parameter contained within the options part, two octets are required
   for the parameter code and the parameter length indicators. Thus, the
   value of m is limited to:

   m = 252-(length of fixed part +length of address part +length of seg-
   mentation part)

   For each succeeding parameter the maximum value of m decreases.  The
   parameter value field contains the value of the parameter identified
   in the parameter code field.

   The following parameters are permitted in the options part.

7.5.2    Padding

   The padding parameter is used to lengthen the PDU header to a con-
   venient size (See Clause 6.12).

   Parameter Code:        1100 1100

   Parameter Length:      variable

   Parameter Value:       any value is allowed

7.5.3    Security

   This parameter allows a unique and unambiguous security level to be
   assigned to a protocol data unit.

   Parameter Code:        1100 0101

   Parameter Length:      variable

   Parameter Value:       The high order two bits of the first octet
                          specify the Security Format Code, where:

            Security      Type of Security Field:
           Format Code




ISO 8473                                                       [Page 40]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


               00         Reserved
               01         Source Address Specific
               10         Destination Address Specific
               11         Globally Unique

          The rest of the first octet is reserved and must be zero.  The
          remainder of the Parameter Value field specifies the security
          level as described in the following Clauses.
7.5.3.1    Source Address Specific

   The Security Format Code value of binary "01" indicates that the
   remaining octets of the parameter value field specify a security lev-
   el which is unique and unambiguous in the context of the security
   classification system employed by the authority responsible for as-
   signing the source NSAP Address.

7.5.3.2    Destination Address Specific

   The Security Format Code value of binary "10" indicates that the
   remaining octets of the parameter value field specify a security lev-
   el which is unique and unambiguous in the context of the security
   classification system employed by the authority responsible for as-
   signing the destination NSAP Address.

7.5.3.3    Globally Unique Security

   The Security Format Code value of binary "11" indicates that the
   remaining octets of the parameter value field specify a globally
   unique and unambiguous security level.  This security classification
   system is not specified in this Standard.

7.5.4    Source Routing

   The source routing parameter specifies, either completely or partial-
   ly, the route to be taken from Source Network Address to Destination
   Network Address.

   Parameter Code:        1100 0101

   Parameter Length:      variable

   Parameter Value:       2 octets of control information succeeded by a
          concatenation of ordered network-entity title entries (ordered
          from source to destination)

   The first octet of the parameter value is the type code, and has the
   following significance:

          0000 0000    partial source routing
          0000 0001    complete source routing
                       <all other values reserved>



ISO 8473                                                       [Page 41]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


   The second octet indicates the octet offset of the next network-
   entity title entry to be processed in the list.  It is relative to
   the start of the parameter, such that a value of three (3) indicates
   that the next network-entity title entry begins immediately after
   this control octet. Successive octets are indicated by corresponding-
   ly larger values of this indicator.

   The third octet begins the network-entity title list. The list con-
   sists of variable length network-entity title entries.  The first oc-
   tet of entry identifies the length of the network-entity title which
   comprises the re- mainder of the entry.

7.5.5    Recording of Route

   The recording of route parameter identifies the route of intermediate
   systems traversed by the PDU.

   Parameter Code:        1100 1011

   Parameter Length:      variable

   Parameter Value:       2 octets of control information succeeded by a
          con catenation of ordered network-entity title entries (ordered
          from destination to source)

   The first octet of the parameter value is the type code, and has the
   following significance:

         0000 0000    Partial Recording of Route in progress
         0000 0001    Complete Recording of Route in progress
                      <all other values reserved>

   The second octet identifies the first octet not currently used for a
   recorded network-entity title, and therefore also the end of the
   list. It is encoded relative to the start of the parameter value,
   such that a value of three (3) indicates that no network-entity ti-
   tles have yet been recorded.  A value of all ones is used to indicate
   that route recording has been terminated.

   The third octet begins the network-entity title list. The list con-
   sists of variable length network-entity title entries.  The first oc-
   tet of each entry specifies the length of the network-entity title
   comprising the remainder of the entry.  Network-entity title entries
   are always added to the beginning of the list; that is, the most re-
   cently added entry will begin in the third octet of the parameter
   value.

                                     Note:
        The length of the Record Route parameter is determined by the
        originator of the PDU and is not changed during the lifetime of
        the PDU; hence, the operation of the Record Route function does



ISO 8473                                                       [Page 42]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


        not affect the length of the header.

7.5.6    Quality of Service Maintenance

   The Quality of Service parameter conveys information about the quali-
   ty of service requested by the originating Network Service user.
   Network-entities in intermediate systems may (but are not required
   to) make use of this information as an aid in selecting a route when
   more than one route satisfying other routing criteria is available
   and the available routes are known to differ with respect to Quality
   of Service see Clause 6.16).

     Parameter Code:        1100 0011
     Parameter Length:      variable
     Parameter Value:       The high order two bits of the first octet
           specify the  QoS Format Code, where:

        QoS Format      Type of QoS
            Code        Field
             00         Reserved
             01         Source Address Specific
             10         Destination Address Specific
             11         Globally Unique

   The rest of the first octet is reserved and must be zero. The
   remainder of the Parameter Value field specifies the QoS as described
   in the following Clauses.

7.5.6.1    Source Address Specific

   The QoS Format Code value of binary "01" indicates that the remaining
   octets of the parameter value field specify a QoS which is unique and
   unambiguous in the context of the QoS Maintenance system employed by
   the authority responsible for assigning the source NSAP Address.

7.5.6.2    Destination Address Specific

   The QoS Format Code value of binary "10" indicates that the remaining
   octets of the parameter value field specify a QoS which is unique and
   unambiguous in the context of the QoS Maintenance system employed by
   the authority responsible for assigning the destination NSAP Address.

7.5.6.3    Globally Unique QoS

   The QoS Format Code value of binary "11" indicates that the remainder
   of the parameter value field specifies a globally unique QoS Mainte-
   nance field. When the globally unique QoS Maintenance function is em-
   ployed, the parameter value field must have a total length of one oc-
   tet, which is assigned the following values:

         Bits 8 and 7:   QoS Format Code of binary "11"



ISO 8473                                                       [Page 43]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


         Bit 6:          Reserved
         Bit 5:          sequencing vs. transit delay
         Bit 4:          congestion experienced
         Bit 3:          transit delay vs. cost
         Bit 2:          residual error probability vs. transit delay
         Bit 1:          residual error probability vs. cost

   Bit 5 is set to one to indicate that, where possible, routing deci-
   sions should favor sending all PDUs to the specified destination NSAP
   address over a single path (in order to maintain sequence) over
   minimizing transit delay. A value of zero (0) indicates that, where
   possible, routing decisions should favor low transit delay over se-
   quence preservation.

   Bit 4 is set to zero by the network-entity which originates the pro-
   tocol data unit. It is set to one by an intermiediate system to indi-
   cate that this PDU has visited a congested intermediate system, and
   appropriate action should be taken by the destination network-entity.
   Once the congestion experienced bit is set by an intermediate system,
   it may not be reset by any intermediate system traversed by the PDU
   further along the path towards the destination.

   Bit 3 is set to one to indicate that, where possible, routing deci-
   sions should favor low transit delay over low cost. A value of 0 in-
   dicates that routing decisions should favor low cost over low transit
   delay.

   Bit 2 set to one to indicate that, where possible, routing decisions
   should favor low residual error probability over low transit delay.
   A value of zero indicates that routing decisions should favor low
   transit delay over low residual error probability.

   Bit 1 is set to one to indicate that, where possible, routing deci-
   sions should favor low residual error probability over low cost.  A
   value of 0 indicates that routing decisions should favor low cost
   over low residual error probability.

7.5.7    Priority

   The value of the Priority parameter indicates the relative priority
   of the protocol data unit.  Intermediate systems that support this
   option shall make use of this information in routing and in ordering
   PDUs for transmission.

   Parameter Code:        1100 1101

   Parameter Length:      one octet

   Parameter Value:       0000 0000 - Normal (Default) through
          0000 1110 - Highest
          <all other values reserved>



ISO 8473                                                       [Page 44]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


   The values 0000 0001 through 0000 1110 are to be used for higher
   priority protocol data units. If an intermediate system does not sup-
   port this option, all PDUs shall be treated as if the field had the
   value 0000 0000.

7.6     Data Part

   The Data part of the PDU is structured as an ordered multiple of oc-
   tets, which is identical to the same ordered multiple of octets
   specified for the NS-Userdata parameter of the N-UNITDATA Request and
   Indication primitives. The data field is illustrated in Figure 8:


                                                                 Octet
            ___________________________________________________
            |                                                  | p + 1
            :                      Data                        :
            |                                                  |   z
            |__________________________________________________|

                       Figure 8: PDU Header -- Data Field

































ISO 8473                                                       [Page 45]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


7.7     Data (DT) PDU

7.7.1    Structure

   The DT PDU has the following format:

             __________________________________________
             |   Network Layer Protocol Identifier    |       1
             |________________________________________|
             |            Length Indicator            |       2
             |________________________________________|
             |      Version/Protocol Id Extension     |       3
             |________________________________________|
             |                Lifetime                |       4
             |________________________________________|
             |  S P  vline  M S vline e/R |  Type     |       5
             |____________________________|___________|
             |             Segment Length             |      6,7
             |________________________________________|
             |                Checksum                |      8,9
             |________________________________________|
             |  Destination Address Length Indicator  |      10
             |________________________________________|
             |                                        |      11
             :          Destination Address           :
             |________________________________________|     m - 1
             |    Source Address Length Indicator     |       m
             |________________________________________|
             |                                        |     m + 1
             :             Source Address             :
             |                                        |     n - 1
             |________________________________________|
             |          Data Unit Identifier          |    n, n + 1
             |________________________________________|
             |             Segment Offset             |  n + 2, n + 3
             |________________________________________|
             |              Total Length              |  n + 4, n + 5
             |________________________________________|
             |                                        |    n + 6
             |                 Options                |
             |                                        |      p
             |________________________________________|
             |                                        |    p + 1
             |                  Data                  |
             |                                        |      z
             |________________________________________|

                         Figure 9: DT PDU






ISO 8473                                                       [Page 46]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


7.7.1.1    Fixed Part

   1)   Network Layer Protocol Identifier      See Clause 7.2.2
   2)   Length Indicator                       See Clause 7.2.3
   3)   Version/Protocol Id Extension          See Clause 7.2.4
   4)   Lifetime                               See Clause 7.2.5
   5)   SP, MS, E/R                            See Clause 7.2.6
   6)   Type Code                              See Clause 7.2.7
   7)   Segment Length                         See Clause 7.2.8
   8)   Checksum                               See Clause 7.2.9

7.7.1.2    Addresses

   See Clause 7.3.

7.7.1.3    Segmentation

   See Clause 7.4.

7.7.1.4    Options

   See Clause 7.5.

7.7.1.5    Data

   See Clause 7.7.

7.8     Inactive Network Layer Protocol

                                                      Octet
                  ____________________________________
                  |Network Layer Protocol Identifier |  1
                  |__________________________________|
                  |                                  |  2
                  |                Data              |
                  |                                  |  2 - n
                  |__________________________________|

                Figure 10: Inactive Network Layer Protocol


7.8.1    Network Layer Protocol Id

   The value of the Network Layer Protocol Identifier field is binary
   zero (0000 0000).

7.8.2    Data Field

   The length of the NS-Userdata parameter is constrained to be less
   than or equal to the value of the length of the SN-Userdata parameter
   minus one (see Clause 7.7).



ISO 8473                                                       [Page 47]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


7.9     Error Report PDU (ER)

7.9.1    Structure

   The ER PDU has the following format:

                                                             Octet
              ______________________________________________
              |     Network Layer Protocol Identifier      |   1
              |____________________________________________|
              |              Length Indicator              |   2
              |____________________________________________|
              |        Version/Protocol Id Extension       |   3
              |____________________________________________|
              |                   Lifetime                 |   4
              |____________________________________________|
              |   SP= 0  vline MS= 0 vline Reserved | Type |   5
              |_____________________________________|______|
              |               Segment Length               |  6,7
              |____________________________________________|
              |                 Checksum                   |  8,9
              |____________________________________________|
              |    Destination Address Length Indicator    |  10
              |____________________________________________|
              |                                            |  11
              :            Destination Address             :
              |                                            | m - 1
              |____________________________________________|
              |     Source Address Length Indicator        |   m
              |____________________________________________|
              |                                            | m + 1
              :               Source Address               :
              |                                            | n - 1
              |____________________________________________|
              |                                            |   n
              |                   Options                  |
              |                                            | p - 1
              |____________________________________________|
              |                                            |   p
              |             Reason for Discard             |
              |                                            | q - 1
              |____________________________________________|
              |                                            |   q
              |          Error Report Data Field           |
              |                                            |   z
              |____________________________________________|

                       Figure 11: Error Report PDU






ISO 8473                                                       [Page 48]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


7.9.1.1    Fixed Part

   The fixed part of the Error Report Protocol Data Unit is composed in
   the same way as a new (Initial) Data PDU. References are provided to
   previous Clauses describing the encoding of the fields comprising the
   fixed part:

         1)   Network Layer Protocol Identifier      See Clause 7.2.2
         2)   Length Indicator                       See Clause 7.2.3
         3)   Version/Protocol Id Extension          See Clause 7.2.4
         4)   Lifetime                               See Clause 7.2.5
         5)   SP, MS, E/R                            Always set to zero,
                                                     (See Clause 6.10)
         6)   Type Code                              See Clause 7.2.7
         7)   Segment Length                         See Clause 7.2.8
         8)   Checksum                               See Clause 7.2.9


7.9.1.2    Addresses

   See Clause 7.3.

   The Destination Address specifies the network-entity title of the origi-
   nator of the discarded PDU. The Source Address specifies the title of the
   intermediate-system or end-system network-entity initiating the Error
   Report PDU.

7.9.1.3    Options

   See Clause 7.5.
























ISO 8473                                                       [Page 49]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


7.9.1.4    Reason for Discard

   This parameter is valid only for the Error Report PDU.


   Parameter Code:      1100 0001
   Parameter Length:    two octets
   Parameter Value:     type of error encoded in binary.  Values are listed
                        in Table 7:
_______________________________________________________________________________
| Parameter Value  |   Class of  |  Meaning                                    |
| Octet 1   Octet 2|    Error    |                                             |
|__________________|_____________|_____________________________________________|
| 0000      0000   |             | Reason not specified                        |
|           0001   |             | Protocol Procedure Error                    |
|           0010   |             | Incorrect Checksum                          |
|           0011   |  General    | PDU Discarded due to Congestion             |
|           0100   |             | Header Syntax Error (cannot be parsed)      |
|           0101   |             | Segmentation needed but not permitted       |
|           0110   |             | Incomplete PDU Received                     |
|           0111   |             | Duplicate Option                            |
|__________________|_____________|_____________________________________________|
| 1000      0000   |  Address    | Destination Address Unreachable             |
|           0001   |             | Destination Address Unknown                 |
|__________________|_____________|_____________________________________________|
| 1001      0000   |             | Unspecified Source Routing Error            |
|           0001   |   Source    | Syntax Error in Source Routing Field        |
|           0010   |  Routing    | Unknown Address in Source Routing Field     |
|           0011   |             | Path not Acceptable                         |
|__________________|_____________|_____________________________________________|
| 1010      0000   |  Lifetime   | Lifetime Expired while Data Unit in Transit |
|           0001   |             | Lifetime Expired during Reassembly          |
|__________________|_____________|_____________________________________________|
| 1011      0000   |             | Unsupported Option not Specified            |
|           0001   |     PDU     | Unsupported Protocol Version                |
|           0010   |  Discarded  | Unsupported Security Option                 |
|           0011   |             | Unsupported Source Routing Option           |
|           0100   |             | Unsupported Recording of Route Option       |
|__________________|_____________|_____________________________________________|
| 1100      0000   | Reassembly  | Reassembly interference                     |
|__________________|_____________|_____________________________________________|

                      Table 7: Reasons for Discard

   The first octet of the parameter value contains an error type code.
   If the error in the discarded Data PDU can be localized to a particu-
   lar field, the number of the first octet of that field is stored in
   the second octet of the reason for discard parameter field. If the
   error cannot be localized to a particular field, or if the error is a
   checksum error, then the value zero is stored in the second octet of
   the reason for discard parameter field.



ISO 8473                                                       [Page 50]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


7.9.1.5    Error Report Data Field

   This field contains the entire header of the discarded Data PDU, and
   may contain some or all of the data field of the discarded PDU.

8     Conformance

   For conformance to this International Standard, the ability to ori-
   ginate, manipulate, and receive PDUs in accordance with the full pro-
   tocol (as opposed to the non-segmenting or Inactive Network Layer
   Protocol subsets) is required.

   Additionally, conformance to the Standard requires provision of the
   protocol functions described in Clause 6. Provision of the optional
   functions described in Clause 6.18 and enumerated in Table 9-1 must
   meet the requirements described therein. Exceptions to this require-
   ment are described in Clause 8.1 below.

   Additionally, conformance to the Standard requires adherence to the
   structure and encoding of PDUs of Clause 7.

   If and only if the above requirements are met is there conformance to
   this International Standard.

8.1     Provision of Functions for Conformance

   The following table categorizes the functions in Clause 6 with
   respect to the type of system providing the function:

                                    Note:

       1. The support of the PDU Composition and Forward PDU functions
          is necessary for the generation of Error Report PDUs.

       2. The Segment PDU function is in general mandatory for an
          intermediate system. However, a system which is to be
          connected only to subnetworks all offering the same maximum
          SDU size (such as identical Local Area Networks) will not
          need to perform this function and therefore does not need to
          implement it.

          If this function is not implemented, this shall be stated
          as part of the specification of the implementation.

       3. The correct treatment of the padding function requires no
          processing. A conforming implementation shall support the
          function, to the extent of ignoring this parameter wherever
          it may appear.

       4. This function may or may not be supported.  If an
          implementation does not support this function, and the



ISO 8473                                                       [Page 51]

RFC 994                                                    December 1986


          function is selected in a PDU, then the PDU shall be discarded,
          and an ER PDU shall be generated and forwarded to the
          originating network-entity if the Error Report flag is set
          and the conditions of Clause 6.10.4 are satisfied.

       5. This function may or may not be supported.  If an implementation
          does not support this function, and the function is selected
          in a PDU, then the function is not performed and the PDU is
          processed exactly as though the function had not been
          selected. The PDU shall not be discarded for this reason.

    ___________________________________________________________________
    | Function                   |     Send   |   Forward |   Receive |
    |____________________________|____________|___________|___________|
    | PDU Composition            |      M     |  (Note 1) |  (Note 1) |
    | PDU Decomposition          |      M     |     -     |     M     |
    | Header Format Analysis     |      -     |     M     |     M     |
    | PDU Lifetime Control       |            |     M     |     I     |
    | Route PDU                  |      -     |     M     |     -     |
    | Forward PDU                |      M     |     M     |  (Note 1) |
    | Segment PDU                |      M     |  (Note 2) |     -     |
    | Reassemble PDU             |      -     |     I     |     M     |
    | Discard PDU                |      -     |     M     |     M     |
    | Error Reporting            |      M     |     M     |     M     |
    | Header Error Detection     |   (Note 3) |     M     |     M     |
    |                            |            |           |           |
    | Security                   |      -     |  (Note 3) | (Note 4)  |
    | Complete Source Routing    |      -     |  (Note 4) |     -     |
    | Complete Route Recording   |      -     |  (Note 4) |     -     |
    | Partial Source Routing     |      -     |  (Note 5) |     -     |
    | Partial Route Recording    |      -     |  (Note 5) |     -     |
    | Priority                   |      -     |  (Note 5) |     -     |
    | QoS Maintenance            |      -     |  (Note 5) |     -     |
    | Congestion Notification    |      -     |  (Note 5) |     -     |
    | Padding                    |      -     |  (Note 5) | (Note 3)  |
    |____________________________|____________|___________|___________|


                    Table 8: Categorization of Functions
                                     Key:

   M: Mandatory Function; this function must be implemented.

   -: Not applicable.

   I: Implementation option, as described in the text.

   NOTE:  See notes above






ISO 8473                                                       [Page 52]


Html markup produced by rfcmarkup 1.109, available from https://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcmarkup/