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   Network Working Group                              F. Adrangi, Intel
   INTERNET DRAFT                 P. Congdon, C. Black, Hewlett Packard
   Category: Informational                 A. Lior, Bridgewater Systems
   Expires: Dec 2004                             F. Bari, AT&T Wireless
                                                          July 16, 2004

                          Network Bandwidth Parameters
                draft-adrangi-radius-bandwidth-capability-01.txt


   Status of this Memo

        This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance
        with all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

        Internet-Drafts  are  working  documents  of  the  Internet
        Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working
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        Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as "work
        in progress."

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        http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

        The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
        http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.


   Abstract

      This  document  describes  bandwidth  profile  parameters  and  a
      protocol framework that enables an AAA server to specify the
      parameters that should be allocated by the access network for
      duration of an authorized user session.
















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   Table of Contents

   1. Introduction....................................................2
   1.2 Requirements language..........................................3
   2. Overview........................................................3
   2.1 Bandwidth Parameters...........................................3
   2.1.1 Minimum Bandwidth for ingress and egress.....................3
   2.1.2 Maximum Bandwidth for ingress and egress.....................3
   2.2 Protocol.......................................................3
   2.2.1 Static Bandwidth Allocation..................................5
   2.2.2 Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation.................................6
   2.2.2.1 Push Method................................................6
   2.2.2.2 Pull Method................................................8
   2.3 Diameter RADIUS Interoperability...............................9
   3. Attribute Format/Syntax.........................................9
   4. Table of Attribute(s)..........................................11
   5. IANA Considerations............................................12
   6. Security Considerations........................................12
   7. Acknowledgements...............................................13
   8. References.....................................................13
   AuthorsÆ Addresses................................................13



   1. Introduction

     The bandwidth that a user is authorized within an access network
     can be a result of the access network capabilities based on its
     architecture and access technology, and the type of user
     subscription to the home network (e.g., gold, silver, bronze user
     types).

     This document describes a simple protocol framework that enables
     an access network to advertise its network bandwidth capabilities
     that it can allocate for a given client connection.  And, it
     enables the home network to indicate the desired network bandwidth
     capabilities for the user connection within the access network.

     User bandwidth can be determined during initial authentication
     authorization of the session.  It is also desirable to change the
     bandwidth mid-session.  For example, the user may want to purchase
     additional bandwidth to download a large file.  This document
     enables operators to dynamically modify the bandwidth allocation
     for a session.

     This document defines new AAA attributes that can optionally be
     used for the following;

       . Conveying bandwidth parameters to the home network that an
          access network can allocate for a given user session



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       . Conveying the desired bandwidth parameters from the home
          network that should be allocated by the access network for
          the duration of the user session.

     These attributes are also used for reporting the allocated
     bandwidth in accounting records.  The attributes are described for
     RADIUS [1], but works as is also in Diameter [RFC 3588], and
     through the translation rules defined in [Diameter NASREQ].

   1.2 Requirements language

      In this document, several words are used to signify the
      requirements of the specification.  These words are often
      capitalized.  The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED",
      "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",
      "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as
      described in [RFC2119].


   2. Overview

     This section describes the bandwidth parameters and the protocol
     by which these parameters can be exchanged between a NAS and the
     AAA server to help the access network determine the bandwidth
     parameters that should be allocated for the userÆs connection by
     the access.

   2.1 Bandwidth Parameters

      Bandwidth Profile parameters consists of four parameters: minimum
      bandwidth, and maximum bandwidth specified both for ingress and
      egress.  The following subsections describe these parameters.


   2.1.1 Minimum Bandwidth for ingress and egress

        It indicates the minimum peak ingress/egress data rate that the
        authorized user should get within the access network.  This
        value is a target, rather than a guarantee.

   2.1.2 Maximum Bandwidth for ingress and egress

        It indicates the average maximum ingress/egress data rate that
        an access network can allow to an authorized user.


   2.2 Protocol

      Two protocols are described.  One protocol is used to allocate
      bandwidth when a service is initiated (referred to as Static
      Bandwidth Allocation); the other protocol describes how to change

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      bandwidth attribute dynamically that is, mid-session (also
      referred to as Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation).

      Both protocols exchange bandwidth parameters using the various
      AAA messages, and they are comprised of three phases:  bandwidth
      Advertisement, Selection, and Confirmation.

      Bandwidth Advertisement:

         MAY be sent in Access-Request packet in RADIUS, and  the AAR
         and DER commands in Diameter [Diameter NASREQ, Diameter EAP],
         from the NAS to the home AAA server. The attributes convey
         possible/available bandwidth parameters that can be allocated
         for the access network client connection to the AAA server by
         the NAS.

      Bandwidth Selection:

         MAY be sent in Access-Accept packet and Change of
         Authorization (COA) messages in RADIUS. MAY also be sent in
         RAR command in Diameter [4]. Selection conveys the desired
         bandwidth parameters for an access network client connection
         to the NAS by the home AAA server.

      Bandwidth Confirmation:

         If Bandwidth Selection is received and enforced, the
         attributes MUST be sent in Accounting-Request packets in
         RADIUS and in ACR command in Diameter. Confirmation indicates
         that the desired bandwidth parameters specified by a home
         network are being enforced by the access network.


      The Bandwidth Attributes, defined in section 3, are used to carry
      the Bandwidth Advertisement, Selection, Confirmation in various
      RADIUS packets and Diameter commands.

      An Advertisement, Selection, Confirmation is said to be valid if
      it contains the four aforementioned bandwidth parameters.  For a
      valid Advertisement, Selection or Confirmation, the minimum
      bandwidth rate values for ingress and egress traffic MUST be
      equal or less than their corresponding maximum bandwidth rate
      values.

      If a Selection is sent in response to an Advertisement, for the
      Selection to be considered valid, the bandwidth parameters in the
      Selection MUST NOT exceed the corresponding bandwidth parameters
      in the Advertisement.  A bandwidth rate value of zero in
      Selection should be interpreted as a ödonÆt careö value.




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      The following subsections describe static and dynamic bandwidth
      allocation.

   2.2.1 Static Bandwidth Allocation

        Static bandwidth allocation is performed during the initial
        session authentication / authorization.

        The following diagram shows the protocol interaction between
        the NAS and the home RADIUS server for determining network
        bandwidth rates that an access network needs to allocate for a
        client connection within the access network.


        Client              NAS                  home RADIUS server

          |                  |                              |
          |                  |                              |
          | Authentication   |                              |
          | Phase Begin      |                              |
          |----------------->|        Access-Request        |
          |                  |            +                 |
          |                  |    BA for Advertisement      |
          |                  |----------------------------->|
          |                  |                              |
          |<<More Authentication/Authorization Exchanges>>  |
          |                  |                              |
          |                  |                              |
          |                  |<-----------------------------|
          |                  |        Access-Accept         |
          | Authentication   |            +                 |
          |    Accept        |      BA for Selection        |
          |<-----------------|                              |
          |                  |                              |
          |                  |                              |
          |                  |       Accounting Request     |
          |                  |             +                |
          |                  |     BA for Confirmation      |
          |                  |----------------------------->|
          |                  |                              |



        The NAS MAY send an Advertisement in an Access-Request message.
        If the home RADIUS server receives an invalid Advertisement,
        then the RADIUS server MUST silently discard the Access-
        Request.

        A home RADIUS server MAY send the Selection after receiving a
        valid Advertisement.  It MAY also send the Selection in the
        absence of an Advertisement, based on local policies such as

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        the clientÆs subscription profile.  When the NAS receives an
        invalid Selection, it MUST treat the Access-Accept message as
        an Access Reject.

        If the NAS receives a valid Selection in response to an Access-
        Request that did not contain an Advertisement, then the NAS MAY
        honor the Selection.

        If the NAS receives a valid Selection in response to an Access-
        Request that contained a valid Advertisement, then the NAS MUST
        honor the Selection.


        In the absence of a Selection after sending a valid
        Advertisement, in accordance with local policy, the access
        network MAY enforce its default bandwidth rate values or it MAY
        use öbest effortö bandwidth for that client connection.

   2.2.2 Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation

        Dynamic bandwidth allocation uses the Change of Authorization
        (COA) RADIUS message as defined in [3], and the Diameter RAR
        message as defined in [4]. These messages are referred to as
        the re-authorization messages in this specification.

        In accordance with [3] there are two methods for dynamically
        changing authorization attributes of a session.  These two
        methods are described in this section.

        At anytime during the session the home AAA server may send the
        NAS a re-authorization message containing session
        identification attributes (see [3] for the possible options).
        The re-authorization message may include authorization
        attributes in which case it is "pushing" the bandwidth
        attributes to the NAS. Or, it may instruct the NAS to generate
        an authorize-only AAA exchange to "pull" the bandwidth
        attributes. In RADIUS this exchange is an Access-Request with
        Service-Type set to "Authorize-Only". In Diameter it is the AAR
        command with the Auth-Request-Type AVP set to AUTHORIZE_ONLY.

        In either "push" or "pull" method, upon successful acceptance
        of the new bandwidth parameters for the session, the NAS MUST
        generate an Accouting-Stop record that contains the old
        bandwidth attributes followed by an Accounting-Start message
        that contains the new bandwidth attributes.

        In order to allow for downstream correlation of the accounting
        records, an NAS that supports dynamic bandwidth allocation MUST
        include Acct-Multi-Session-Id when writing accounting records.

   2.2.2.1 Push Method

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          In the Push Method, to effect a dynamic bandwidth change the
          home RADIUS server sends a re-authorization message and
          includes a valid Selection.  The RADIUS server MAY also
          include other attributes in the re-authorization message.



             NAS                                     Home RADIUS Server
              |                                              |
              |                                              |
              |re-authorization + BAs for Selection          |
              |<---------------------------------------------|
              |                                              |
              |                                              |
              |  re-authorization ACK                        |
              |--------------------------------------------->|
              |                                              |
              |                                              |
              | Accounting-Stop + old BAs for Confirmation   |
              |--------------------------------------------->|
              |                                              |
              | Accounting-Start + new bandwidth             |
              |--------------------------------------------->|
              |                                              |
              |                                              |


          Upon the successful reception of the re-authorization message
          (see [3] for details) by the NAS, if the re-authorization
          message contains an invalid Selection, the NAS MUST respond
          with a re-authorization NAK with Error Cause (101) set to
          öInvalid Requestö (404).

          If the NAS is able to offer the requested bandwidth to the
          specified session, the NAS MUST reply with a re-authorization
          ACK and it MUST generate an Accounting-Stop record containing
          the old bandwidth attributes followed by an Accounting-Start
          record containing the new bandwidth attributes.  If the NAS
          can not comply with the request for new bandwidth it MUST
          reply with re-authorization NAK with Error Cause (101) set to
          "Resources Unavailable"(506).

          If the NAS receives a re-authorization message that does not
          include Bandwidth attributes then the NAS must not alter the
          bandwidth already allocated to the session.






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   2.2.2.2 Pull Method

          Alternatively, in the pull method, to effect a dynamic
          bandwidth change, as per [3], the home network sends a re-
          authorization message to instruct the AN to generate an
          Authorize-Only request (Access-Request with Service-Type set
          to Authorize-Only).


    NAS                                             Home RADIUS server
        |                                                      |
        | re-authorization + Service-Type = öAuthorize Onlyö   |
        |<-----------------------------------------------------|
        |                                                      |
        |re-authorization NAK + Service-Type = öAuthorize Onlyö|
        |          + Error-Cause  "Request Initiated"          |
        |----------------------------------------------------->|
        |                                                      |
        | Access-Request + Service-Type öAuthorize Onlyö       |
        |                + BAs for Advertisement               |
        |----------------------------------------------------->|
        |                                                      |
        | Access-Accept + BAs for Selection                    |
        |<-----------------------------------------------------|
        |                                                      |
        | Accounting-Stop + old BAs for Confirmation           |
        |----------------------------------------------------->|
        |                                                      |
        | Accounting-Start + new BAs for Confirmation          |
        |----------------------------------------------------->|
        |                                                      |
        |                                                      |


          As with the static bandwidth allocation (described earlier),
          the AN MAY Advertise the currently available bandwidth in the
          Authorize-Only message.

          Upon receiving the Authorize-Only message from the AN, the
          RADIUS server MUST respond with either an Access-Accept
          message or an Access-Reject message.

          When responding with an Access-Accept message, the RADIUS
          server MAY include the BAs for Selection.  If the Authorize-
          Only message included an Advertisement, the bandwidth
          parameters in Selection MUST be within the bounds of
          bandwidth parameters in the Advertisement received in the
          Authorize-Only message.





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          Upon receiving an Access-Reject in response to the Authorize-
          Only, the AN will terminate the session and send an
          Accounting-Stop record.

          Upon receiving an Access-Accept in response to an Authorize-
          Only request that does not contain bandwidth Selection, the
          access network MUST allocate its default bandwidth rate
          values, and then the NAS MUST generate an Accouting-Stop
          record that contains the old bandwidth attributes followed by
          an Accounting-Start message that contains the new bandwidth
          attributes.

          Upon receiving an Access-Accept packet that contains an
          invalid Bandwidth Selection, the AN MUST treat the response
          as an Access-Reject and immediately terminate the session.

          Upon receiving an Access-Accept message in response to an
          Authorize-Only message that contained the Bandwidth
          Advertisement, then providing the bandwidth selections are
          within the bounds of the Advertisement, then AN MUST honor
          the requested bandwidth and generate an Accounting-Stop
          message that contains the old bandwidth attributes followed
          by an Account-Start message that contains the new bandwidth
          attributes.  If the bandwidth Selection were outside the
          bounds of the Advertisement, then the AN MUST treat the
          Access-Accept as an Access-Reject and immediately terminate
          the session.

          Upon receiving an Access-Accept message that contains a valid
          Selection in response to an Authorize-Only that did not
          contain the Advertisement, the AN MAY honor the Selection or
          it MAY continue to honor the previously agreed to bandwidth.
          In the former case, the AN must generate an Accounting Stop
          message containing the old bandwidth attributes followed by
          an Accounting-Start message containing the current bandwidth
          attributes.

   2.3 Diameter RADIUS Interoperability

      In deployments where both RADIUS clients talking with Diameter
      Servers or Diameter Client talking with RADIUS server then a
      translation agent will be deployed and operate in accordance to
      the NASREQ specification.

   3. Attribute Format/Syntax

     This section describes format and syntax for the attributes that
     carry the network bandwidth parameters. The attributes are used
     for bandwidth parameters Advertisement, Selection, and
     Confirmation.


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     A summary of the AN Bandwidth Parameter Attributes is shown below.



       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |     Type      |    Length     |     Value                     |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |             Value             |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


        Type

            TBD - Ingress Average Minimum Bandwidth Rate


        Length

           6

        Value

        An integer value representing the ingress average minimum
        bandwidth rate in bytes per second.


       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |     Type      |    Length     |     Value                     |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |             Value             |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


        Type

            TBD - Ingress Average Maximum Bandwidth Rate


        Length

           6


        Value

        An  integer  value  representing  the  egress  average  minimum
        bandwidth rate in bytes per second


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       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |     Type      |    Length     |     Value                     |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |             Value             |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


        Type

            TBD Egress Average Minimum Bandwidth Rate


        Length

           6


        Value

        An integer value representing the ingress average maximum
        bandwidth rate in bytes per second


       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |     Type      |    Length     |     Value                     |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |             Value             |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


        Type

            TBD Egress Average Maximum Bandwidth Rate


        Length

           6

        Value

        An  integer  value  representing  the  egress  average  maximum
        bandwidth Rate in bytes per second



   4. Table of Attribute(s)

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     The following table provides a guide to which attribute(s) may be
     found in which kinds of packets, and in what quantity.


   Request Accept Reject Challenge Accounting  #  Attribute
                                   Request
   0-1      0-1   0      0         0-1        TBD Ingress Minimum Band.

   0-1      0-1   0      0         0-1        TBD Ingress Maximum Band.

   0-1      0-1   0      0         0-1        TBD Egress Minimum Band.

   0-1      0-1   0      0         0-1        TBD Egress Minimum Band.


   For Change-of-Authorization Messages

      Request  ACK    NAK      #   Attribute

       0-1      0      0      TBD      Ingress Minimum Bandwidth
       0-1      0      0      TBD      Ingress Maximum Bandwidth
       0-1      0      0      TBD      Egress Minimum Bandwidth
       0-1      0      0      TBD      Egress Maximum Bandwidth



   Note 1 : if the Change-of-Authorization message contains any
   bandwidth attributes then all the bandwidth attributes received for
   this session are overwritten.  If the Change-of-Authorization
   message does not contain any bandwidth attributes then, the
   previously received bandwidth attributes remain in effect.

   Note 2: if one of the attribute is included in a qualified RADIUS
   packet, then all the three attributes MUST be included.

   5. IANA Considerations

     This document requires the assignment of four new RADIUS attribute
     numbers for the following attribute(s):

        1) Ingress Average Minimum Bandwidth Rate
        2) Ingress Average Maximum Bandwidth Rate
        3) Egress Average Minimum Bandwidth Rate
        4) Egress Average Maximum Bandwidth Rate

     Please See section 3 for the registered list of numbers.


   6. Security Considerations


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     The attributes in this document have no additional security
     considerations beyond those already identified in [1].


   7. Acknowledgements

     The authors would specially like to thank Jari Arkko (of Ericsson)
     for his through review of the draft, providing feedback/comments
     and proposing text.

     The authors would like to thank Bernard Aboba (of Microsoft),
     Parviz Yegani (of Cisco), Stefan De_cnodder (of alcatel) for their
     feedback and guidance.

   8. References

     [1] Rigney, C., Rubens, A., Simpson, W. and S. Willens, "Remote
         Authentication Dial In User Server (RADIUS)", RFC 2865, June
         2000.

     [2] Rigney, C., "RADIUS Accounting", RFC 2866, June 2000.

     [3] Chiba, M., Dommety, G., Eklud, M., Mitton, D., Aboba, B.,
         öDynamic Authorization Extensions to Remote Authentication
         Dial In User Service (RADIUS)ö, RFC 3576, July 2003.

     [4] Calhoun, et al., ö Diameter Base Protocolö, RFC 3588,
         September 2003.


   AuthorsÆ Addresses

      Farid Adrangi
      Intel Corporation
      2111 N.E. 25th Avenue
      Hillsboro  OR
      USA

      Chuck Black
      ProCurve Networking Business
      Hewlett-Packard Company
      8000 Foothills Blvd
      Roseville, CA 95747

      Phone:  +1 916 785 9713
      Fax:    +1 916 785 1199
      Email:  chuck.black@hp.com


      Paul Congdon
      ProCurve Networking Business

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      Hewlett-Packard Company
      8000 Foothills Blvd - MS 5662
      Roseville, CA 95747

      Phone:  +1 916 785 5753
      Fax:    +1 916 785 8478
      Email:  paul.congdon@hp.com

      Avi Lior
      Bridgewater Systems Corporation
      303 Terry Fox Drive
      Suite 100
      Ottawa, Ontario  K2K 3J1
      Canada

      Farooq Bari
      AT&T Wireless
      7277 164th Avenue N.E.
      Redmond  WA
      USA

      Phone: +1 425-580-5526
      EMail: farooq.bari@attws.com




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